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  • 201.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cervin, Anton
    Dept. of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden.
    Control-Quality Driven Design of Cyber-Physical Systems with Robustness Guarantees2013In: Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE 2013), IEEE , 2013, p. 1093-1098Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cyber-physical systems comprise several control applications sharing communication and computation resources. The design of such systems requires special attention due to the complex timing behavior that can lead to poor control quality or even instability. The two main requirements of control applications are: (1) robustness and, in particular, stability and (2) high control quality. Although it is essential to guarantee stability and provide a certain degree of robustness even in the worst-case scenario, a design procedure which merely takes the worst-case scenario into consideration can lead to a poor expected (average-case) control quality, since the design is solely tuned to a scenario that occurs very rarely. On the other hand, considering only the expected quality of control does not necessarily provide robustness and stability in the worst-case. Therefore, both the robustness and the expected control quality should be taken into account in the design process. This paper presents an efficient and integrated approach for designing high-quality cyber-physical systems with robustness guarantees.

  • 202.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cervin, Anton
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stability-Aware Analysis and Design of Embedded Control Systems2013In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT), 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded systems comprise several controllers sharing available resources. It is well known that such resource sharing leads to complex timing behavior that can jeopardize stability of control applications, if it is not properly taken into account in the design process, e.g., mapping and scheduling. As opposed to hard real-time systems where meeting the deadline is a critical requirement, control applications do not enforce hard deadlines. Therefore, the traditional real-time analysis approaches are not readily applicable to control applications. Rather, in the context of control applications, stability is often the main requirement to be guaranteed, and can be expressed as the amount of delay and jitter a control application can tolerate. The nominal delay and response-time jitter can be regarded as the two main factors which relate the real-time aspects of a system to control performance and stability. Therefore, it is important to analyze the impact of variations in scheduling parameters, i.e., period and priority, on the nominal delay and response-time jitter and, ultimately, on stability. Based on such an analysis, we address, in this paper, priority assignment and sensitivity analysis problems for control applications considering stability as the main requirement.

  • 203.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Embedded Systems Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland..
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cervin, Anton
    Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden.
    Årzén, Karl-Erik
    Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden.
    Control-Quality Driven Design of Embedded Control Systems with Stability Guarantees2018In: IEEE design & test, ISSN 2168-2356, E-ISSN 2168-2364, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 38-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the majority of control applications in embedded systems, e.g., in the automotive domain, are implemented as software tasks on shared platforms. Ignoring implementation impacts during the design of embedded control systems results in complex timing behaviors that may lead to poor performance and, in the worst case, instability of control applications. This article presents a methodology for implementation-aware design of high-quality and stable embedded control systems on shared platforms with complex timing behaviors.

  • 204.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samii, Soheil
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Control-Quality Driven Task Mapping for Distributed Embedded Control Systems2011In: Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), 2011 IEEE 17th International Conference on, IEEE, 2011, p. 133-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded control systems are implemented on execution platforms with several computation nodes and communication components. Distributed embedded control systems typically comprise multiple control loops that share the available computation and communication resources of the platform. It is well known that such resource sharing leads to complex delay characteristics that degrade the control quality if not properly taken into account at design time. Scheduling in computation nodes and communication infrastructure, as well as execution periods of the controllers impact the delay characteristics and, consequently, the control quality. In addition, mapping of tasks on computation nodes affect both scheduling of tasks and messages, and the assignment of periods of the control applications. Therefore, control synthesis must be considered during mapping, scheduling, and period assignment in order to achieve high control quality. This paper presents a control-quality optimization approach for integrated mapping, scheduling, period selection, and control synthesis for distributed embedded control systems.

  • 205.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samii, Soheil
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cervin, Anton
    Dept. of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden.
    Designing High-Quality Embedded Control Systems with Guaranteed Stability2012In: 33rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded systems comprise several controllers sharing available resources. It is well known that such resource sharing leads to complex timing behavior that degrades the quality of control, and more importantly, can jeopardize stability in the worst-case, if not properly taken into account during design. Although stability of the control applications is absolutely essential, a design flow driven by the worst-case scenario often leads to poor control quality due to the significant amount of pessimism involved and the fact that the worst-case scenario occurs very rarely. On the other hand, designing the system merely based on control quality, determined by the expected (average-case) behavior, does not guarantee the stability of control applications in the worst-case. Therefore, both control quality and worst-case stability have to be considered during the design process, i.e., period assignment, task scheduling, and control-synthesis. In this paper, we present an integrated approach for designing high-quality embedded control systems, while guaranteeing their stability.

  • 206.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tabuada, Paulo
    University of California at Los Angeles, USA.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-Triggered Controllers and Hard Real-Time Guarantees2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 636-641Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that event-triggered and self-triggered controllers implemented on dedicated platforms can provide the same performance as the traditional periodic controllers, while consuming considerably less bandwidth. However, since the majority of controllers are implemented by software tasks on shared platforms, on one hand, it might no longer be possible to grant access to the event-triggered controller upon request. On the other hand, due to the seemingly irregular requests from self-triggered controllers, other applications, while in reality schedulable, may be declared unschedulable, if not carefully analyzed. The schedulability and response-time analysis in the presence of self-triggered controllers is still an open problem and the topic of this paper.

  • 207.
    Aminoff, Hedvig
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Coordination in Emergency Management from a Joint Cognitive Systems Perspective2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency management (EM) can benefit from new information and communication technology (ICT). However, the complexity of the field poses high demands upon prospective system developers. The design of technological support in a field where roles and actions are entwined and never completely predetermined, requires an understanding of interactions in the socio-technical system as a whole.

    In this thesis, an attempt is made to work from a Cognitive Systems Engineering stance to identify important characteristics of coordination in intermunicipal EM. Applying perspectives from distributed cognition, joint activity and common ground, Hollnagel’s COCOM and ECOM models have been applied to identify points of entry into work practices. Working with data from a simulated forest-fire in a role-playing exercise, an analysis of dialogues uncovered ambiguity in how functions are handled in a large event, indicating vulnerabilities in face of larger crises. In addition, it became evident that functions moved across roles during the evolving event, and it was possible to uncover recognizable phases of a response. The results underline characteristics that should be supported by future ICT, and occurrences that can be explored in future studies.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 208.
    Aminoff, Hedviq
    et al.
    Infocentret Ankaret.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Understanding Coordination in Emergency Response2007In: European Annual Conference on Human Decision-Making and Manual Control,2007, Lyngby, Denmark: Technical University of Denmark , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses analysis of an emergency management exercise. In the exercise scenario, different emergency management organizations jointly try to cope with a forest fire and related incidents. The Extended Control Model is utilized for examination of the establishment of en emergent emergency response organization. Ambiguity in how functions are to be handled in a large event, indicating vulnerabilities in face of larger crises; functions moving across roles during the evolving event; and recognizable phases of a response are uncovered. This is assessed by utilizing episodic analysis of the communication between different functions and roles in the participating emergency management organizations. The results indicate requirements for future information and communication technologies, and occurrences that can be explored in future studies.

  • 209. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    QoS Control of Real-Time Data Services under Uncertain Workload2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time systems comprise computers that must generate correct results in a timely manner. This involves a wide spectrum of computing systems found in our everyday life ranging from computers in rockets to our mobile phones. The criticality of producing timely results defines the different types of realtime systems. On one hand, we have the so-called hard real-time systems, where failing to meet deadlines may result in a catastrophe. In this thesis we are, however, concerned with firm and soft real-time systems, where missing deadlines is acceptable at the expense of degraded system performance. The usage of firm and soft real-time systems has increased rapidly during the last years, mainly due to the advent of applications in multimedia, telecommunication, and e-commerce. These systems are typically data-intensive, with the data normally spanning from low-level control data, typically acquired from sensors, to high-level management and business data. In contrast to hard real-time systems, the environments in which firm and soft real-time systems operate in are typically open and highly unpredictable. For example, the workload applied on a web server or base station in telecommunication systems varies according to the needs of the users, which is hard to foresee. In this thesis we are concerned with quality of service (QoS) management of data services for firm and soft real-time systems. The approaches and solutions presented aim at providing a general understanding of how the QoS can be guaranteed according to a given specification, even if the workload varies unpredictably. The QoS specification determines the desired QoS during normal system operation, and the worst-case system performance and convergence rate toward the desired setting in the face of transient overloads. Feedback control theory is used to control QoS since little is known about the workload applied on the system. Using feedback control the difference between the measured QoS and the desired QoS is formed and fed into a controller, which computes a change to the operation of the real-time system. Experimental evaluation shows that using feedback control is highly effective in managing QoS such that a given QoS specification is satisfied. This is a key step toward automatic management of intricate systems providing real-time data services.

    List of papers
    1. Specification and Management of QoS in Real-Time Databases Supporting Imprecise Computations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Specification and Management of QoS in Real-Time Databases Supporting Imprecise Computations
    2006 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Computers, ISSN 0018-9340, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 304 - 319Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time applications such as e-commerce, flight control, chemical and nuclear control, and telecommunication are becoming increasingly sophisticated in their data needs, resulting in greater demands for real-time data services that are provided by real-time databases. Since the workload of real-time databases cannot be precisely predicted, they can become overloaded and thereby cause temporal violations, resulting in damage or even a catastrophe. Imprecise computation techniques address this problem and allow graceful degradation during overloads. In this paper, we present a framework for QoS specification and management consisting of a model for expressing QoS requirements, an architecture based on feedback control scheduling, and a set of algorithms implementing different policies and behaviors. Our approach gives a robust and controlled behavior of real-time databases, even for transient overloads and with inaccurate runtime estimates of the transactions. Further, performance experiments show that the proposed algorithms outperform a set of baseline algorithms that uses feedback control.

    Keywords
    Real-time and embedded systems, real-time data services, imprecise computation, feedback control, modeling techniques
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12635 (URN)10.1109/TC.2006.45 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-17 Created: 2007-10-17 Last updated: 2009-02-10
    2. Experimental Evaluation of Linear Time-Invariant Models for Feedback Performance Control in Real-Time Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Evaluation of Linear Time-Invariant Models for Feedback Performance Control in Real-Time Systems
    2007 (English)In: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 209-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years a new class of soft real-time applications operating in unpredictable environments has emerged. Typical for these applications is that neither the resource requirements nor the arrival rates of service requests are known or available a priori. It has been shown that feedback control is very effective to support the specified performance of dynamic systems that are both resource insufficient and exhibit unpredictable workloads. To efficiently use feedback control scheduling it is necessary to have a model that adequately describes the behavior of the system. In this paper we experimentally evaluate the accuracy of four linear time-invariant models used in the design of feedback controllers. We introduce a model (DYN) that captures additional system dynamics, which a previously published model (STA) fails to include. The accuracy of the models are evaluated by validating the models with regard to measured data from the controlled system and through a set of experiments where we evaluate the performance of a set of feedback control schedulers tuned using these models. From our evaluations we conclude that second order models (e.g., DYN) are more accurate than first order models (e.g. STA). Further we show that controllers tuned using second order models perform better than controllers tuned using first order models.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2007
    Keywords
    Feedback control scheduling, Modeling, Model validation, System identification
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12636 (URN)10.1007/s11241-006-9008-8 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-17 Created: 2007-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14
    3. Robust Quality Management for Differentiated Imprecise Data Services
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robust Quality Management for Differentiated Imprecise Data Services
    2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the 25th IEEE International Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2004, p. 265-275Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several applications, such as Web services and e-commerce, are operating in open environments where the workload characteristics, such as the load applied on the system and the worst-case execution times, are inaccurate or even not known in advance. This implies that transactions submitted to a real-time database cannot be subject to exact schedulability analysis given the lack of a priori knowledge of the workload. In this paper we propose an approach, based on feedback control, for managing the quality of service of real-time databases that provide imprecise and differentiated services, given inaccurate workload characteristics. For each service class, the database operator specifies the quality of service requirements by explicitly declaring the precision requirements of the data and the results of the transactions. The performance evaluation shows that our approach provides reliable quality of service even in the face of varying load and inaccurate execution time estimates.

    Keywords
    Real-time systems, Real-time databases, Control theory, Realtidssystem, Realtidsdatabaser, Reglerteknik, CUGS
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12637 (URN)10.1109/REAL.2004.49 (DOI)0-7695-2247-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    25th IEEE International Real-Time Systems Symposium, Lisbon, Portugal, December 5-8, 2004
    Available from: 2007-10-17 Created: 2007-10-17 Last updated: 2018-08-30
    4. Generalized performance management of multi-class real-time imprecise data services
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generalized performance management of multi-class real-time imprecise data services
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2005. RTSS 2005. 26th IEEE International, 2005, p. 12-49Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The intricacy of real-time data service management increases mainly due to the emergence of applications operating in open and unpredictable environments, increases in software complexity, and need for performance guarantees. In this paper we propose an approach for managing the quality of service of real-time databases that provide imprecise and differentiated services, and that operate in unpredictable environments. Transactions are classified into service classes according to their level of importance. Transactions within each service class are further classified into subclasses based on their quality of service requirements. In this way transactions are explicitly differentiated according to their importance and quality of service requests. The performance evaluation shows that during overloads the most important transactions are guaranteed to meet their deadlines and that reliable quality of service is provided even in the face of varying load and execution time estimation errors.

    Keywords
    real-time system, database, QoS, feedback control
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12638 (URN)10.1109/RTSS.2005.23 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-17 Created: 2007-10-17 Last updated: 2009-04-22
    5. Quantifying and Suppressing the Measurement Disturbance in Feedback Controlled Real-Time Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying and Suppressing the Measurement Disturbance in Feedback Controlled Real-Time Systems
    2008 (English)In: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 44-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the control of continuous and physical systems, the controlled system is sampled sufficiently fast to capture the dynamics of the system. In general, this property cannot be applied to the control of computer systems as the measured variables are often computed over a data set, e.g., deadline miss ratio. In this paper we quantify the disturbance present in the measured variable as a function of the data set size and the sampling period, and we propose a feedback control structure that suppresses the measurement disturbance. The experiments we have carried out show that a controller using the proposed control structure outperforms a traditional control structure with regard to performance reliability.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2008
    Keywords
    Adaptive scheduling, Feedback control, Measurement disturbance, System disturbance
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12639 (URN)10.1007/s11241-008-9048-3 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-17 Created: 2007-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
    Download (pdf)
    COVER01
  • 210.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Brännström, Per
    Institutionen för datavetenskap Linköpings universitet.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Son, Sang
    Department of Computer Science University of Virginia.
    Toward Adaptive Control of QoS-Importance Decoupled Real-Time Systems2007In: IEEE International Workshop on Feedback Control Implementation and Design in Computing Systems and Networks,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with differentiated services in real-time systems. Tasks submitted to a real-time system are differentiated with respect to importance and QoS requirements. We use feedback control to enforce the requirements in QoS and ensure a hierarchical admission policy based on the importance of the tasks. The results show that the requirements are met during steady state when the workload is constant. The feedback control approach does not satisfactorily manage QoS when there is a sudden and significant workload change (transient state) due to the time-variant nature of the system. To address this, we present preliminary and promising results using adaptive control, and report on some challenges we are facing when applying the theory.

  • 211.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chaufette, Nicolas
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Son, Sang H.
    Dept. of Computer Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Generalized performance management of multi-class real-time imprecise data services2005In: Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2005. RTSS 2005. 26th IEEE International, 2005, p. 12-49Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The intricacy of real-time data service management increases mainly due to the emergence of applications operating in open and unpredictable environments, increases in software complexity, and need for performance guarantees. In this paper we propose an approach for managing the quality of service of real-time databases that provide imprecise and differentiated services, and that operate in unpredictable environments. Transactions are classified into service classes according to their level of importance. Transactions within each service class are further classified into subclasses based on their quality of service requirements. In this way transactions are explicitly differentiated according to their importance and quality of service requests. The performance evaluation shows that during overloads the most important transactions are guaranteed to meet their deadlines and that reliable quality of service is provided even in the face of varying load and execution time estimation errors.

  • 212.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Son, Sang H.
    University of Virginia, USA.
    Quantifying and Suppressing the Measurement Disturbance in Feedback Controlled Real-Time Systems2008In: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 44-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the control of continuous and physical systems, the controlled system is sampled sufficiently fast to capture the dynamics of the system. In general, this property cannot be applied to the control of computer systems as the measured variables are often computed over a data set, e.g., deadline miss ratio. In this paper we quantify the disturbance present in the measured variable as a function of the data set size and the sampling period, and we propose a feedback control structure that suppresses the measurement disturbance. The experiments we have carried out show that a controller using the proposed control structure outperforms a traditional control structure with regard to performance reliability.

  • 213.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Sang H.
    University of Virginia, VA, USA.
    Enhancing Feedback Control Scheduling Performance by On-line Quantification and Suppression of Measurement Disturbance2005In: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, 2005, p. 2-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the control of continuous and physical systems, the controlled system is sampled sufficiently fast to capture the system dynamics. In general, this property cannot be applied to the control of computer systems as the measured variables are often computed over a data set, e.g., deadline miss ratio. In this paper we quantize the disturbance present in the measured variable as a function of the sampling period and we propose a measurement disturbance suppressive control structure. The experiments we have carried out show that a controller using the proposed control structure outperforms a traditional control structure with regard to performance reliability and adaptation.

  • 214.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, S. H.
    University of Virginia.
    Algorithms for Managing QoS for Real-Time Data Services Using Imprecise Computation2003In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Real-Time and Embedded Computing Systems and Application (RTCSA 2003), Springer Verlag , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Sang H
    University of Virginia.
    Algorithms for managing QoS for real-time data services using imprecise computation2004In: Real-Time and Embedded Computing Systems and Applications 9th International Conference, RTCSA 2003, Tainan City, Taiwan, February 18-20, 2003. Revised Papers / [ed] Jing Chen and Seongsoo Hong, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2004, Vol. 2968, p. 136-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately the demand for real-time data services has increased in applications where it is desirable to process user requests within their deadlines using fresh data. The real-time data services are usually provided by a real-time database (RTDB). Here, since the workload of the RTDBs cannot be precisely predicted, RTDBs can become overloaded. As a result, deadline misses and freshness violations may occur. To address this problem we propose a QoS-sensitive approach to guarantee a set of requirements on the behavior of RTDBs. Our approach is based on imprecise computation, applied on both data and transactions. We propose two algorithms to dynamically balance the workload and the quality of the data and transactions. Performance evaluations show that our algorithms give a robust and controlled behavior of RTDBs, in terms of transaction and data quality, even for transient overloads and with inaccurate run-time estimates of the transactions.

  • 216.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Son, Sang H
    Dept. of Computer Science University of Virginia.
    Error-Driven QoS Management in Imprecise Real-Time Databases2003In: Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems,2003, Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society , 2003, p. 63-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In applications such as web-applications, e-commerce, and engine control, the demand for real-time data services has increased. In these applications, requests have to be processed within their deadlines using fresh data. Since the workload of these systems cannot be precisely predicted, they can become overloaded and as a result, deadline and freshness violations may occur. To address this problem we propose a QoS-sensitive approach based on imprecise computation, applied on transactions and data objects. We propose two algorithms FCS-HEF and FCS-HEDF that give a robust and controlled behavior of RTDBs in terms of transaction and data preciseness, even for transient overloads and with inaccurate run-time estimates of the transactions. Further, performance experiments show that the proposed algorithms outperform a set of baseline algorithms including FCS-EDF, which schedules the transactions using EDF.

  • 217.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Son, Sang H
    Dept. of Computer Science University of Virginia.
    Specification and Management of QoS in Imprecise Real-Time Databases2003In: International Database Engineering and Applications Symposium,2003, Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society , 2003, p. 192-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time applications such as e-commerce, flight control, chemical and nuclear control, and telecommunication are becoming increasingly sophisticated in their data needs, resulting in greater demands for real-time data services. Since the workload of real-time databases RTDBs, providing real-time data services, cannot be precisely predicted, they can become overloaded and thereby cause temporal violations, resulting in a damage or even a catastrophe. Imprecise computation techniques address this problem and allow graceful degradation during overloads. In this paper, we present a framework consisting of a model for expressing QoS requirements in terms of data and transaction preciseness, an architecture based on feedback control scheduling, and a set of algorithms implementing different policies and behaviors. Our approach gives a robust and controlled behavior of RTDBs, even for transient overloads and with inaccurate run-time estimates of the transactions. Further, performance experiments show that the proposed algorithms outperform a set of baseline algorithms, including FCS-EDF that schedules the transactions using EDF and feedback control.

  • 218.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Sang H.
    Dept. of Computer Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA.
    Specification and Management of QoS in Real-Time Databases Supporting Imprecise Computations2006In: IEEE Transactions on Computers, ISSN 0018-9340, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 304 - 319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time applications such as e-commerce, flight control, chemical and nuclear control, and telecommunication are becoming increasingly sophisticated in their data needs, resulting in greater demands for real-time data services that are provided by real-time databases. Since the workload of real-time databases cannot be precisely predicted, they can become overloaded and thereby cause temporal violations, resulting in damage or even a catastrophe. Imprecise computation techniques address this problem and allow graceful degradation during overloads. In this paper, we present a framework for QoS specification and management consisting of a model for expressing QoS requirements, an architecture based on feedback control scheduling, and a set of algorithms implementing different policies and behaviors. Our approach gives a robust and controlled behavior of real-time databases, even for transient overloads and with inaccurate runtime estimates of the transactions. Further, performance experiments show that the proposed algorithms outperform a set of baseline algorithms that uses feedback control.

  • 219.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Sang H.
    University of Virginia, USA.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Experimental Evaluation of Linear Time-Invariant Models for Feedback Performance Control in Real-Time Systems2007In: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 209-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years a new class of soft real-time applications operating in unpredictable environments has emerged. Typical for these applications is that neither the resource requirements nor the arrival rates of service requests are known or available a priori. It has been shown that feedback control is very effective to support the specified performance of dynamic systems that are both resource insufficient and exhibit unpredictable workloads. To efficiently use feedback control scheduling it is necessary to have a model that adequately describes the behavior of the system. In this paper we experimentally evaluate the accuracy of four linear time-invariant models used in the design of feedback controllers. We introduce a model (DYN) that captures additional system dynamics, which a previously published model (STA) fails to include. The accuracy of the models are evaluated by validating the models with regard to measured data from the controlled system and through a set of experiments where we evaluate the performance of a set of feedback control schedulers tuned using these models. From our evaluations we conclude that second order models (e.g., DYN) are more accurate than first order models (e.g. STA). Further we show that controllers tuned using second order models perform better than controllers tuned using first order models.

  • 220.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Son, Sang H.
    Department of Computer Science University of Virgina.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    QoD Adaptation for Achieving Lifetime Predictability of WSN Nodes Communicating over Satellite Links2007In: International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems INSS,2007, IEEE , 2007, p. 19-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose an architecture consisting of a particular type of node, namely a communication server that collects and aggregates data, and establishes a link between the users and the sensor nodes through satellite communication. A key challenge with satisfying a lifetime requirement of the communication server is the unpredictability of the sensor data volume arriving at the communication server and the transmission power of the satellite terminal. To provide lifetime predictability we propose an approach that automatically adjusts the quality of the data such that the specified lifetime if achieved. We have shown through an extensive evaluation that the approach manages to provide an actual lifetime within 2% of the specified lifetime despite variations in workload and communication link quality.

  • 221.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Tesanovic, Aleksandra
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Andersson, Torgny
    Enea Epact.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Son, Sang H.
    Department of Computer Science University of Virginia, USA.
    Finite Horizon QoS Prediction of Reconfigurable Firm Real-Time Systems2006In: IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications,2006, Los Alamitos, California, USA: IEEE Computer Society , 2006, p. 233-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Updating real-time system software is often needed in response to errors and added requirements to the software. Stopping a running application, updating the software, and then restarting the application is not suitable for systems with high availability requirements. On the other hand, dynamically updating a system may increase the execution time of the tasks, thus, degrading the performance of the system. Degradation is not acceptable for performance-critical real-time systems as there are strict requirements on the performance. In this paper we present an approach that enables dynamic reconfiguration of a real-time system, where the performance of the system during a reconfiguration satisfies a given worst-case performance specification. Evaluation shows that the presented method is efficient in guaranteeing the worst-case performance of dynamically reconfigurable firm real-time systems. 

  • 222.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Tesanovic, Aleksandra
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Raising Motivation in Real-time Laboratories: The Soccer Scenario2004In: Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, SIGCSE,2004, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2004, p. 265-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time systems is a topic that one cannot overlook in an engineer's education. However, teaching real-time systems in an undergraduate syllabus is a challenging experience due to conflicting constraints placed on such a course. In this paper we present a new setup for laboratories in the real-time systems course that successfully meets the constraints of mass education, stable environment management, short time span for the labs, and still enables deep involvement of students in the central topic of resource allocation with high motivation.

  • 223.
    Amlinger, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Evaluation of Clustering and Classification Algorithms in Life-Logging Devices2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using life-logging devices and wearables is a growing trend in today’s society. These yield vast amounts of information, data that is not directly overseeable or graspable at a glance due to its size. Gathering a qualitative, comprehensible overview over this quantitative information is essential for life-logging services to serve its purpose.

    This thesis provides an overview comparison of CLARANS, DBSCAN and SLINK, representing different branches of clustering algorithm types, as tools for activity detection in geo-spatial data sets. These activities are then classified using a simple model with model parameters learned via Bayesian inference, as a demonstration of a different branch of clustering.

    Results are provided using Silhouettes as evaluation for geo-spatial clustering and a user study for the end classification. The results are promising as an outline for a framework of classification and activity detection, and shed lights on various pitfalls that might be encountered during implementation of such service.

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  • 224.
    An, Ping
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    An investigation of the use of software development environments in the industry2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering tools are being used in the industry in order to improve the productivity and the quality of the software development process. The properties of those tools are being perceived to be unsatisfactory. For example, researchers have found that some problems are due to deficient integration among the tools. Furthermore, a continuing problem is that there is a gap between the IT education and real demand of tool-skills form IT industry. Consequently, knowledge is needed of the properties of software development tools as well an understanding of demanded tool-skill from the industry.

    The purpose of this study is to survey commercial software development environment (SDEs) that are used today in professional software engineering and discuss their advantages adn disadvantages. A secondary goal of the study is to identify the actual requirements from the industry on the IT-education.

    A questionnaire was sent out to 90 software developers and IT managers of 30 IT companies in Sweden. The results of the survey show that IT companies, for most part, use SDEs from commercial software vendors. Respondents report that common problems of the SDEs are the following: bad integration among the tools, problems to trace software artifacts in the different phases of the programming cycle, and deficient support for version control and system configuration. Furthermore, some tools are difficult to use which results in a time-consuming development process.

    We conclude that future software development environments need to provide better support for integration, automation, and configuration management. Regarding the required tool-skills, we believe that the IT education would gain from including commercial tools that cover the whole software product lifecycle in the curriculum.

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  • 225.
    Ana, Kustrak Korper
    et al.
    University of Porto, Faculty of Engineering, INESC-TEC.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lia, Patrício
    University of Porto, Faculty of Engineering, INESC-TEC.
    Bridging design-driven and service innovation: Consonance and dissonance of meaning and value2018In: ServDes2018. Service Design Proof of Concept / [ed] Anna Meroni: Department of Design, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy Ana María Ospina Medina: Department of Design, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Beatrice Villari: Politecnico di Milano, Italy, Linköping, 2018, article id 150:092Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptualization of meaning in design-driven innovation and value in service innovation, seem to be sharing some core characteristics that are essential but have not yet been integrated. Thus, this paper explores design-driven innovation and its conceptual relevance for service innovation within the framework of service-dominant logic (S-D logic) by examining interrelation between meaning and value. Design-driven innovation is defined as a strategic framework that enables radical innovation through change in meaning relying on Krippendorff’s (1989) notion that people interact with artifacts because they make sense to them. On the other hand, S-D logic’s core concepts evolve around resource integration for value co-creation among multiple stakeholders addressing important complexities of service innovation. Both meaning and value share some conceptual commonalities. By exploring and interrelating them within their conceptual frameworks, this paper aims to open new ways for understanding and operationalizing service innovation and the role of service design within it.

  • 226.
    Ana, Kustrak Korper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lia, Patrício
    University of Porto, Faculty of Engineering, INESC-Tec.
    Change in meaning and service innovation: a design research contribution to the S-D logic2019In: The 10 years Naples Forum on Service / [ed] Evert Gummesson, Cristina Mele, Francesco Polese, Lecce: Youcanprint , 2019, p. 73-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The S-D logic enabled the phenomenological understanding of value cocreation in a service ecosystem which positioned the new forms of value cocreation and resource integration in the center of service innovation process. However, the underlying phenomenological aspects of service innovation needs further exploration to understand how changes in resource integration and value cocreation occur. On the other hand, innovation driven by design focuses on change in meaning, a concept well explored in design research, as a main driver of change arising in use and interaction, dependent on the context and institutional arrangements, and dynamically emerging. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore the conceptual relevance of change in meaning for service innovation grounded in the S-D logic. Integrating the design-related conceptualization of meaning as a concept that contributes to new interpretation of rescues and value cocreation can bring a more nuanced perspective to the cocreative aspect of service innovation. The concept of change in meaning can make valuable multidisciplinary connections to S-D logic and set the common ground in adopting a more phenomenological perspective of service innovation. Design/methodology/approach – This paper builds a conceptual framework for understanding main building blocks of service innovation informed by change in meaning. The framework is based on the conceptual exploration of the the S-D logic literature on service innovation and design research literature on meaning, uncovering similarities, differences and mutual dynamics. The framework provides the explanation of the relationships between the main building blocks relevant for service innovation facilitated through change in meaning. Findings – The findings indicate shared characteristics between meaning and value that set the ground for understanding change in meaning as a complementary perspective in understanding service innovation. The concept of meaning brings insights into phenomenological aspect of value co-creation by emphasizing its interpretative quality. Examination of the relationship between meaning and value cocreation reveals that meaning and value cocreation are similar but have distinct roles in the cocreation process where meaning facilitates resource interpretation as an important step underlying service innovation. Originality/value – This paper expands the S-D logic and service innovation literature with multidisciplinary contributions on meaning from design research. The concept of meaning in this paper combines research streams relying on similar concepts and integrates them in comprehensive framework that can be used as a starting point for future research in service innovation. The framework shows service innovation as a dynamic process where value cocreation and change in meaning coexist and are mutually dependent thus contributing to the richer understanding of the phenomenological quality of service innovation.

  • 227.
    Ana, Kustrak Korper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maren, Purrmann
    University of Paderborn.
    Kristina, Heinonen
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Werner, Kunz
    University of Massachusetts Boston.
    Towards a Better Understanding of Smart Services - A Cross-Disciplinary Investigation2020In: Exploring Service Science: 10th International Conference, IESS 2020 Porto, Portugal, February 5–7, 2020 Proceedings / [ed] Henriqueta Nóvoa, Monica Dragoicea, Niklas Kühl, Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature, 2020, p. 164-173Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leveraging new technology to advance smart service is a key service research priority. Such technologies enable smart interactions that address customers’ needs in a more meaningful way. Thus, they have a profound effect not only on customer experience but also on streamlining future service offer- ings, business models and service ecosystems. However, while research is emerging, the concept of smart service is still vague, complicating its successful integration in business practice. This paper aims to characterize smart service through a comprehensive analysis of its theoretical and conceptual building blocks. A systematic literature review is conducted to reconcile the existing understanding of diverse disciplines. A comprehensive keyword-based search approach across 33 academic and three practitioner-oriented journals yielded 157 relevant articles (out of 13.022 articles). The contribution of this investi- gation is the cross-disciplinary overview of smart service with implications to a broader understanding of the role of smart service in individuals’ everyday lives.

  • 228.
    Ananthakrishnan, Gopal
    et al.
    Centre for Speech Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peters, Gustav
    Forschungsinstitut Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Mabiza, Evans
    Antelope Park, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
    An acoustic analysis of lion roars. II: Vocal tract characteristics2011In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2011, Quarterly Progress and Status Report TMH-QPSR, Volume 51, 2011, 2011, p. 5-8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes the first attempt to perform an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion of a lion (Panthera leo) roar. The main problems that one encounters in attempting this, is the fact that little is known about the dimensions of the vocal tract, other than a general range of vocal tract lengths. Precious little is also known about the articulation strategies that are adopted by the lion while roaring. The approach used here is to iterate between possible values of vocal tract lengths and vocal tract configurations. Since there seems to be a distinct articulatory changes during the process of a roar, we find a smooth path that minimizes the error function between a recorded roar and the simulated roar using a variable length articulatory model.

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  • 229.
    Andell, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Cole, Nigel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Karlsson, Wiktor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lilja, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Rezaie, Diba
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Thimren, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Zeijlon, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    CI/CD i molnapplikationer som Google Cloud, Azure och AWS2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under VT 2019 ägde projektet rum varav denna rapport är ett av resultaten. Projektets mål var att skapa en CI/CD pipeline vars syfte var tänkt att frekvent kunna leverera färdigtestad kod till olika molntjänster som Google Cloud Platform, Amazon Web Services och Azure. Projektspecifikationerna gavs av företaget Skira för att skapa en snabbare integrationsprocess för nya utvecklare. Detta så en ny utvecklare skulle kunna lägga mer tid på att koda istället för att gräva ner sig i leverans-/testningsprocessen. Slutprodukten ger företag möjligheten att koda direkt på sitt utvecklingskluster.

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  • 230.
    Andell, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Andersson, Albin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Slow rate denial of service attacks on dedicated- versus cloud based server solutions2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Denial of Service (DoS) attacks remain a serious threat to internet stability. A specific kind of low bandwidth DoS attack, called a slow rate attack can with very limited resources potentially cause major interruptions to the availability of the attacked web servers. This thesis examines the impact of slow rate application layer DoS attacks against three different server solutions. The server solutions are a static cloud solution and a load-balancing cloud solution running on AmazonWeb Services (AWS) as well as a dedicated server. To identify the impact in terms of responsiveness and service availability a number of experiments were conducted on the web servers using publicly available DoS tools. The response times of the requests were measured. The results show that the dedicated and static cloud based server solutions are severely impacted by the attacks while the AWS load-balancing cloud solution is not impacted nearly as much. We concluded that all solutions were impacted by the attacks and that the readily available DoS tools are sufficient for creating a denial of service state on certain web servers.

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  • 231.
    Anderberg, Pierre
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Analyzing and Re-designing Legacy Systems for Enhanced Usability: A Case Study on the CATS TCT2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The CATS TCT is a military wargaming simulator used by the Swedish Armed Forces for education of position holders within battalion or company staffs. The CATS TCT was developed during the nineties and one of the challenges today is how the system can be modernized in order to meet the increased demands on usability. This master thesis is part of the work with modernizing the CATS TCT and a usability study has been conducted in order to identify issues and problems of the current system related to usability.

    This thesis is conducted at BAE Systems C-ITS in Linköping and the main focus of this study has been how to analyze and re-design the CATS TCT in order to enhance the usability of the system. Empirical data in this study has been collected through six semi-structured interviews, one observation and two focus group interviews and the result of this study has elicit several problem areas related to any of following usability aspects: effectiveness, efficiency or satisfaction.

    The conclusions from this investigation is that the CATS TCT simulator is an valuable and appreciated educational tool – especially from an effectiveness point of view. When it comes to efficiency, however, several problems areas has been identified and these areas are: information architecture, interface interaction, how orders are issued to units and how the simulation rules are implemented. When it comes to the users satisfaction of the system no unequivocal conclusion has been possible to present.

    As a complement to the identified issues and problems of the simulator this study has also presented examples on how prototypes could be used to solve some of the identified problems. More specifically, in this report re-design solutions related to how the users interact with the map, how orders are issued and how status overview is displayed has been presented.

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  • 232.
    Anderljung, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    An approach for using personas and scenarios to procure user-requirements within a procuring organization2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this master thesis is to investigate how a procuring organization can use personas and scenarios to gather user-requirements in the procurement of software. To reach this understanding a case study is carried out to answer the questions of research; which is a definition that suits IKEA Components, which tools and how to use them; and what are the obstacles and enablers for working with personas and scenarios in procurement of software. The thesis consists of a theoretical study in the usability area followed by an empirical investigation with semi-structured interviews and observations. The study resulted in 4 personas and 8 connected scenarios that are based on user requirements. The first finding due to the question of research includes a usability definition applied to a real context. The second reveals examples of how personas and scenarios can make the development team understand the user requirements and thus contribute to procurement. The last finding is that the main obstacles and enablers for IKEA Components is the complexity of the main system, lack of resources and the management support.

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  • 233.
    Anders, Söderholm
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Justus, Sörman
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    GPU-accelleration of image rendering and sorting algorithms with the OpenCL framework2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's computer systems often contains several different processing units aside from the CPU. Among these the GPU is a very common processing unit with an immense compute power that is available in almost all computer systems. How do we make use of this processing power that lies within our machines? One answer is the OpenCL framework that is designed for just this, to open up the possibilities of using all the different types of processing units in a computer system. This thesis will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the integrated GPU available in a basic workstation computer for computation of image processing and sorting algorithms. These tasks are computationally intensive and the authors will analyze if an integrated GPU is up to the task of accelerating the processing of these algorithms. The OpenCL framework makes it possible to run one implementation on different processing units, to provide perspective we will benchmark our implementations on both the GPU and the CPU and compare the results. A heterogeneous approach that combines the two above mentioned processing units will also be tested and discussed. The OpenCL framework is analyzed from a development perspective and what advantages and disadvantages it brings to the development process will be presented.

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  • 234.
    Anderskär, Erika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning.
    Thomasson, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning.
    Inkrementell responsanalys av Scandnavian Airlines medlemmar: Vilka kunder ska väljas vid riktad marknadsföring?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scandinavian Airlines has a large database containing their Eurobonus members. In order to analyze which customers they should target with direct marketing, such as emails, uplift models have been used. With a binary response variable that indicates whether the customer has bought or not, and a binary dummy variable that indicates if the customer has received the campaign or not conclusions can be drawn about which customers are persuadable. That means that the customers that buy when they receive a campaign and not if they don't are spotted. Analysis have been done with one campaign for Sweden and Scandinavia. The methods that have been used are logistic regression with Lasso and logistic regression with Penalized Net Information Value. The best method for predicting purchases is Lasso regression when comparing with a confusion matrix. The variable that best describes persuadable customers in logistic regression with PNIV is Flown (customers that have own with SAS within the last six months). In Lassoregression the variable that describes a persuadable customer in Sweden is membership level1 (the rst level of membership) and in Scandinavia customers that receive campaigns with delivery code 13 are persuadable, which is a form of dispatch.

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  • 235.
    Anderson, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Visualisation of data from IoT systems: A case study of a prototyping tool for data visualisations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The client in this study, Attentec, has seen an increase in the demand for services connected to Internet of things systems. This study is therefore examining if there is a tool that can be a used to build fast prototype visualisations of data from IoT systems to use as a tool in their daily work.

    The study started with an initial phase with two parts. The first part was to get better knowledge of Attentec and derive requirements for the tool and the second part was a comparison of prototyping tools for aiding in development of data visualisations. Apache Zeppelin was chosen as the most versatile and suitable tool matching the criteria defined together with Attentec. Following the initial phase a pre-study containing interviews to collect empirical data on how visualisations and IoT projects had been implemented previously at Attentec were performed. This lead to the conclusion that geospatial data and NoSQL databases were common for IoT projects. A technical investigation was conducted on Apache Zeppelin to answer if there were any limits in using the tool for characteristics common in IoT system. This investigation lead to the conclusion that there was no support for plotting data on a map.

    The first implementation phase implemented support for geospatial data by adding a visualisation plug-in that plotted data on a map. The implementation phase was followed by an evaluation phase in which 5 participants performed tasks with Apache Zeppelin to evaluate the perceived usability of the tool. The evaluation was performed using a System Usability Scale and a Summed Usability Metric as well as interviews with the participants to find where improvements could be made. From the evaluation three main problems were discovered, the import and mapping of data, more feature on the map visualisation plug-in and the creation of database queries. The first two were chosen for the second iteration where a script for generating the code to import data was developed as well as improvements to the geospatial visualisation plug-in. A second evaluation was performed after the changes were made using similar tasks as in the first to see if the usability was improved between the two evaluations. The results of the Summed Usability Metric improved on all tasks and the System Usability Scale showed no significant change. In the interviews with the participants they all responded that the perceived usability had improved between the two evaluations suggesting some improvement.

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  • 236.
    Anderson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björch, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Boman, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    van Dijk, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Harrius, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Albin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östman, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    BookShark – En praktisk studie i webbutveckling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportens syfte är att beskriva det tekniska och teoretiska framtagandet av e-boktjänsten BookShark. Den innehåller bland annat styrkanden rörande tjänstens hållbarhet på marknaden samt hur teamet har förhållit sig till arbetsmetoden Scrum. Målgruppen för BookShark är kunder som vill ha möjligheten att handla böcker online på ett smidigt sätt till ett förmånligt pris. Utifrån detta har teamet arbetat enligt visionen Vår vision är att revolutionera sättet människor konsumerar böcker på genom att göra böcker billigare och mer lättillgängliga för alla.

    Den tekniska utvecklingen har delats upp i fyra lager: Databas, Databasinterface, Serverskript och Front-end. Teammedlemmarna har delat upp ansvarområden inom dessa fyra lager, men samtidigt haft en kontinuerlig uppdatering om varandras arbete för att på så sätt ha koll på respektive teammedlems arbete.

    BookShark har uppnått den kravspecifikation som sattes av teamet i projektets början, och även om viss utveckling fortfarande skulle krävas för en kommersiell lansering har önskad funktionalitet uppnåtts.

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    fulltext
  • 237. Andersson, A
    et al.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, FHVC - Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum.
    Management perspective on Information and Communication Technology - Requirement specification for process-oriented healthcare2001In: JAMIA Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, ISSN 1067-5027, E-ISSN 1527-974X, p. 854-854Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Andersson, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Byrsten, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hvass, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lindström, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Persson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Sjöbergsson, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Utterborn, Tor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Schemaläggningsstöd för kirurgi2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är resultatet av kandidatprojektkursen TDDD96 som ges vid Linköpings Universitet. Rapporten omfattas av sju studenter som har utvecklat ett schemaläggnings-stöd för kirurgin till Region Östergötland. I rapporten behandlas de tekniska val som har gjorts, hur utvecklingsarbetet har fortgått och hur resultat blev. Varje student har också bidragit med en individuell studie, dessa finns i slutet av dokumentet.

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  • 239. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Andersson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI), Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS, Linköping, Sweden.
    Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators: Technology, Performance, and Requirements2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of new functionality and smart systems for different types of vehicles is accelerating with the advent of new emerging technologies such as connected and autonomous vehicles. To ensure that these new systems and functions work as intended, flexible and credible evaluation tools are necessary. One example of this type of tool is a driving simulator, which can be used for testing new and existing vehicle concepts and driver support systems. When a driver in a driving simulator operates it in the same way as they would in actual traffic, you get a realistic evaluation of what you want to investigate. Two advantages of a driving simulator are (1.) that you can repeat the same situation several times over a short period of time, and (2.) you can study driver reactions during dangerous situations that could result in serious injuries if they occurred in the real world. An important component of a driving simulator is the vehicle model, i.e., the model that describes how the vehicle reacts to its surroundings and driver inputs. To increase the simulator realism or the computational performance, it is possible to divide the vehicle model into subsystems that run on different computers that are connected in a network. A subsystem can also be replaced with hardware using so-called hardware-in-the-loop simulation, and can then be connected to the rest of the vehicle model using a specified interface. The technique of dividing a model into smaller subsystems running on separate nodes that communicate through a network is called distributed simulation.

    This thesis investigates if and how a distributed simulator design might facilitate the maintenance and new development required for a driving simulator to be able to keep up with the increasing pace of vehicle development. For this purpose, three different distributed simulator solutions have been designed, built, and analyzed with the aim of constructing distributed simulators, including external hardware, where the simulation achieves the same degree of realism as with a traditional driving simulator. One of these simulator solutions has been used to create a parameterized powertrain model that can be configured to represent any of a number of different vehicles. Furthermore, the driver's driving task is combined with the powertrain model to monitor deviations. After the powertrain model was created, subsystems from a simulator solution and the powertrain model have been transferred to a Modelica environment. The goal is to create a framework for requirement testing that guarantees sufficient realism, also for a distributed driving simulation.

    The results show that the distributed simulators we have developed work well overall with satisfactory performance. It is important to manage the vehicle model and how it is connected to a distributed system. In the distributed driveline simulator setup, the network delays were so small that they could be ignored, i.e., they did not affect the driving experience. However, if one gradually increases the delays, a driver in the distributed simulator will change his/her behavior. The impact of communication latency on a distributed simulator also depends on the simulator application, where different usages of the simulator, i.e., different simulator studies, will have different demands. We believe that many simulator studies could be performed using a distributed setup. One issue is how modifications to the system affect the vehicle model and the desired behavior. This leads to the need for methodology for managing model requirements. In order to detect model deviations in the simulator environment, a monitoring aid has been implemented to help notify test managers when a model behaves strangely or is driven outside of its validated region. Since the availability of distributed laboratory equipment can be limited, the possibility of using Modelica (which is an equation-based and object-oriented programming language) for simulating subsystems is also examined. Implementation of the model in Modelica has also been extended with requirements management, and in this work a framework is proposed for automatically evaluating the model in a tool.

    List of papers
    1. Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
    2013 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, ISSN 1946-4614, E-ISSN 1946-4622, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate driver perception of a vehicle powertrain a moving base simulator is a well-established technique. We are connecting the moving base simulator Sim III, at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute with a newly built chassis dynamometer at Vehicular Systems, Linköping University. The purpose of the effort is to enhance fidelity of moving base simulators by letting drivers experience an actual powertrain. At the same time technicians are given a new tool for evaluating powertrain solutions in a controlled environment. As a first step the vehicle model from the chassis dynamometer system has been implemented in Sim III. Interfacing software was developed and an optical fiber covering the physical distance of 500 m between the facilities is used to connect the systems. Further, a pedal robot has been developed that uses two linear actuators pressing the accelerator and brake pedals. The pedal robot uses feedback loops on accelerator position or brake cylinder pressure and is controlled via an UDP interface. Results from running the complete setup showed expected functionality and we are successful in performing a driving mission based on real road topography data. Vehicle acceleration and general driving feel was perceived as realistic by the test subjects while braking still needs improvements. The pedal robot construction enables use of a large set of cars available on the market and except for mounting the brake pressure sensor the time to switch vehicle is approximately 30 minutes.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92215 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-0410 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-05-08 Created: 2013-05-08 Last updated: 2019-04-28Bibliographically approved
    2. A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition / [ed] Heinrich Bülthoff, Andras Kemeny and Paolo Pretto, 2015, p. 123-130Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

    As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

    Keywords
    Test, Vehicle, Engine, Performance, Simulator (driving), Computer
    National Category
    Computer Systems
    Research subject
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136153 (URN)9783981309935 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Driving Simulation Conference 2015. 16-18 september 2015, Tübingen, Germany
    Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2017-03-31 Last updated: 2019-04-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 65, p. 206-216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation is often used as a technique to test and evaluate systems, as it provides a cost-efficient and safe alternative for testing and evaluation. A combination of simulators can be used to create high-fidelity and realistic test scenarios, especially when the systems-under-test are complex. An example of such complex systems is Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which include many actors that are connected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact and cooperate. The majority of the actors in the systems are vehicles equipped with wireless communication modules, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles to manually driven vehicles. In order to test and evaluate C-ITS, this paper presents a distributed simulation framework that consists of (a) a moving base driving simulator; (b) a real-time vehicle simulator; and (c) network and traffic simulators. We present our approach for connecting and co-simulating the simulators. We report on limitation and performance that this simulation framework can achieve. Lastly, we discuss potential benefits and feasibility of using the simulation framework for testing of C-ITS.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Cooperative intelligent transportation systems, Hardware-in-the-loop, Network simulator, Traffic simulator, Moving base driving simulator
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering Computer Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159824 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2019.07.020 (DOI)
    Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
    4. Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator
    2016 (English)In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulators. In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors.

    Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non- invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Aracne editrice, 2016
    Keywords
    Motor, Test, Characteristics, Simulation
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Research subject
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156538 (URN)10.4399/978885489179109 (DOI)2-s2.0-84982994768 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-03Bibliographically approved
    5. Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example
    2018 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, E-ISSN 1745-6444, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Moving base driving simulators, with an enclosed human driver, are often used to study driver-vehicle interaction or driver behaviour. Reliable results from such a driving simulator study strongly depend on the perceived realism by the driver in the performed driving task. Assuring sufficient fidelity for a vehicle dynamics model during a driving task is currently to a large degree a manual task. Focus here is to automate this process by employing a framework using collected driving data for detection of model quality for different driving tasks. Using this framework, a powertrain model credibility is predicted and assessed. Results show that chosen powertrain model is accurate enough for a driving scenario on rural roads/motorway, but need improvements for city driving. This was expected, considering the complexity of the vehicle dynamics model, and it was accurately captured by the proposed framework which includes real-time information to the simulator operator.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    InderScience Publishers, 2018
    Keywords
    vehicle dynamics model, driving simulator, driving task, quality framework, domain of validity, domain of operation, powertrain model
    National Category
    Computer Systems Vehicle Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156544 (URN)10.1504/IJVSMT.2018.098330 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063100727 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-03Bibliographically approved
    6. Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools; April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, Vol. 84, p. 131-139Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation; estimating parameters for the powertrain model; the choice of numeric solver; and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
    Series
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 84
    Keywords
    Modelica; real-time; distributed; communications link
    National Category
    Computer Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118994 (URN)978-91-7519-621-3 (ISBN)978-91-7519-617-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    The 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools, April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham; UK
    Available from: 2015-06-05 Created: 2015-06-05 Last updated: 2019-04-28Bibliographically approved
    7. Powertrain Model Assessment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Powertrain Model Assessment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification
    2018 (English)In: The 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelica and Simulation, 2018, p. 721-727Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For assessing whether a system model is a good candidate for a particular simulation scenario or choosing the best system model between multiple design alternatives it is important to be able to evaluate the suitability of the system model. In this paper we present a methodology based on finite state machine requirements verifying system behaviour in a Modelica environment where the intended system model usage is within a moving base driving simulator. A use case illustrate the methodology with a Modelica powertrain system model using replaceable components and measured data from a Golf V. The achieved results show the importance of context of requirements and how users are assisted in finding system model issues. 

    Series
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 142
    Keywords
    system model assessment, requirement modelling, Modelica, finite state machine, powertrain validations
    National Category
    Computer Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156540 (URN)10.3384/ecp17142721 (DOI)978-91-7685-399-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    EUROSIM 2016
    Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-13
    Download full text (pdf)
    Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators: Technology, Performance, and Requirements
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  • 240. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Andersson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Extensions for Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles are complex systems. Different design stages for such a complex system include evaluation using models and submodels, hardware-in-the-loop systems and complete vehicles. Once a vehicle is delivered to the market evaluation continues by the public. One kind of tool that can be used during many stages of a vehicle lifecycle is driving simulators.

    The use of driving simulators with a human driver is commonly focused on driver behavior. In a high fidelity moving base driving simulator it is possible to provide realistic and repetitive driving situations using distinctive features such as: physical modelling of driven vehicle, a moving base, a physical cabin interface and an audio and visual representation of the driving environment. A desired but difficult goal to achieve using a moving base driving simulator is to have behavioral validity. In other words, \A driver in a moving base driving simulator should have the same driving behavior as he or she would have during the same driving task in a real vehicle.".

    In this thesis the focus is on high fidelity moving base driving simulators. The main target is to improve the behavior validity or to maintain behavior validity while adding complexity to the simulator. One main assumption in this thesis is that systems closer to the final product provide better accuracy and are perceived better if properly integrated. Thus, the approach in this thesis is to try to ease incorporation of such systems using combinations of the methods hardware-in-the-loop and distributed simulation. Hardware-in-the-loop is a method where hardware is interfaced into a software controlled environment/simulation. Distributed simulation is a method where parts of a simulation at physically different locations are connected together. For some simulator laboratories distributed simulation is the only feasible option since some hardware cannot be moved in an easy way.

    Results presented in this thesis show that a complete vehicle or hardware-in-the-loop test laboratory can successfully be connected to a moving base driving simulator. Further, it is demonstrated that using a framework for distributed simulation eases communication and integration due to standardized interfaces. One identified potential problem is complexity in interface wrappers when integrating hardware-in-the-loop in a distributed simulation framework. From this aspect, it is important to consider the model design and the intersections between software and hardware models. Another important issue discussed is the increased delay in overhead time when using a framework for distributed simulation.

    List of papers
    1. Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
    2013 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, ISSN 1946-4614, E-ISSN 1946-4622, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate driver perception of a vehicle powertrain a moving base simulator is a well-established technique. We are connecting the moving base simulator Sim III, at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute with a newly built chassis dynamometer at Vehicular Systems, Linköping University. The purpose of the effort is to enhance fidelity of moving base simulators by letting drivers experience an actual powertrain. At the same time technicians are given a new tool for evaluating powertrain solutions in a controlled environment. As a first step the vehicle model from the chassis dynamometer system has been implemented in Sim III. Interfacing software was developed and an optical fiber covering the physical distance of 500 m between the facilities is used to connect the systems. Further, a pedal robot has been developed that uses two linear actuators pressing the accelerator and brake pedals. The pedal robot uses feedback loops on accelerator position or brake cylinder pressure and is controlled via an UDP interface. Results from running the complete setup showed expected functionality and we are successful in performing a driving mission based on real road topography data. Vehicle acceleration and general driving feel was perceived as realistic by the test subjects while braking still needs improvements. The pedal robot construction enables use of a large set of cars available on the market and except for mounting the brake pressure sensor the time to switch vehicle is approximately 30 minutes.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92215 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-0410 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-05-08 Created: 2013-05-08 Last updated: 2019-04-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools; April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, Vol. 84, p. 131-139Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation; estimating parameters for the powertrain model; the choice of numeric solver; and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
    Series
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 84
    Keywords
    Modelica; real-time; distributed; communications link
    National Category
    Computer Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118994 (URN)978-91-7519-621-3 (ISBN)978-91-7519-617-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    The 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools, April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham; UK
    Available from: 2015-06-05 Created: 2015-06-05 Last updated: 2019-04-28Bibliographically approved
    3. A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition / [ed] Heinrich Bülthoff, Andras Kemeny and Paolo Pretto, 2015, p. 123-130Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

    As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

    Keywords
    Test, Vehicle, Engine, Performance, Simulator (driving), Computer
    National Category
    Computer Systems
    Research subject
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136153 (URN)9783981309935 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Driving Simulation Conference 2015. 16-18 september 2015, Tübingen, Germany
    Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2017-03-31 Last updated: 2019-04-28Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    Extensions for Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators
    Download (pdf)
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    presentationsbild
  • 241.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Buffoni, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Powertrain Model Assessment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification2018In: The 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelica and Simulation, 2018, p. 721-727Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For assessing whether a system model is a good candidate for a particular simulation scenario or choosing the best system model between multiple design alternatives it is important to be able to evaluate the suitability of the system model. In this paper we present a methodology based on finite state machine requirements verifying system behaviour in a Modelica environment where the intended system model usage is within a moving base driving simulator. A use case illustrate the methodology with a Modelica powertrain system model using replaceable components and measured data from a Golf V. The achieved results show the importance of context of requirements and how users are assisted in finding system model issues. 

  • 242.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transportation Research Institute.
    Fritzson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup2013In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools; April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, Vol. 84, p. 131-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation; estimating parameters for the powertrain model; the choice of numeric solver; and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
  • 243.
    Andersson, André
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Selenium-Testing as a Service2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Selenium has been a method to test web applications for over a decade, it is interacting directly with the browser and has gained support from both browsers and the community. With the growing amount of browsers, mobile devices and operating systems which a web application is expected to work with, services providing these systems for testing web applications against has gained interest. These services provide testing as a service (TaaS), and runs Selenium-tests in the cloud. This research tried to compare the different services with each other in regard to flexibility, cost, simplicity and reliability. I have also tried to see differences between running the tests locally and using these services. The results showed that there are some differences between the services, and the one best suited might depend on the web application.

    Download full text (pdf)
    selenium-testing_as_a_service.pdf
  • 244. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Andersson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Management information systems in process-oriented healthcare organisations2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis work was to develop a management information system model for process-oriented healthcare organisations. The study explores two questions: “What kinds of requirements do healthcare managers place on information systems?” and “How can the work and information systems of healthcare managers and care providers be incorporated into process-oriented healthcare organisations?”

    The background to the study was the process orientation of Swedish healthcare organisations. The study was conducted at the paediatric clinic of a county hospital in southern Sweden. Organisational process was defined as “a sequence of work procedures that jointly constitute complete healthcare services”, while a functional unit was the organisational venue responsible for a certain set of work activities.

    A qualitative research method, based on a developmental circle, was used. The data was collected from archives, interviews, observations, diaries and focus groups. The material was subsequently analysed in order to categorise, model and develop small-scale theories about information systems.

    The study suggested that computer-based management information systems in processoriented healthcare organisations should: (1) support medical work; (2) integrate clinical and administrative tools; (3) facilitate the ability of the organisation to measure inputs and outcomes.

    The research effort concluded that various healthcare managers need the same type of primary data, though presented in different ways. Professional developers and researchers have paid little attention to the manner in which integrated administrative, financial and clinical systems should be configured in order to ensure optimal support for process-oriented healthcare organisations. Thus, it is important to identify the multiple roles that information plays in such an organisation.

    List of papers
    1. Management demands on information and communication technology in process- oriented health-care organizations: The importance of understanding managers expectations during early phases of systems design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Management demands on information and communication technology in process- oriented health-care organizations: The importance of understanding managers expectations during early phases of systems design
    2002 (English)In: Journal of Management in Medicine, ISSN 0268-9235, Vol. 16, no 2-3, p. 159-169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There are numerous challenges to overcome before information and communication technology (ICT) can achieve its full potential in process-oriented health-care organizations. One of these challenges is designing systems that meet users’ needs, while reflecting a continuously changing organizational environment. Another challenge is to develop ICT that supports both the internal and the external stakeholders’ demands. In this study a qualitative research strategy was used to explore the demands on ICT expressed by managers from functional and process units at a community hospital. The results reveal a multitude of partially competing goals that can make the ICT development process confusing, poor in quality, inefficient and unnecessarily costly. Therefore, from the perspective of ICT development, the main task appears to be to coordinate the different visions and in particular clarify them, as well as to establish the impact that these visions would have on the forthcoming ICT application.

    Keywords
    Communications technology, Health care, Information technology, Management, Organizational development, Systems design
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13778 (URN)10.1108/02689230210434907 (DOI)
    Available from: 2003-10-06 Created: 2003-10-06 Last updated: 2013-09-05
    2. A Model for Interpreting Work and Information Management in Process-Oriented Healthcare Organisations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Model for Interpreting Work and Information Management in Process-Oriented Healthcare Organisations
    2003 (English)In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, Vol. 72, no 1-3, p. 47-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To increase productivity, management in healthcare organisations have introduced different types of process-oriented organisational configurations. Few studies have addressed clinical practice and information management in these settings. Methods: A case study was performed at a paediatric clinic. Data was collected from archives, through interviews, by participatory observation, and by performing a focus group session. The collected data was analysed using a qualitative and interpretative research strategy. Results: A model was developed of care practitioners’ daily work in process-oriented organisations. The model shows that clinical work was deeply integrated; the care activities were dependent on supply activities and tightly connected to management routines. Conclusion: The resulting model can be used to support development of health information system (HIS) embedded in process-oriented healthcare work.

    Keywords
    Process-oriented healthcare organisation; Health information system (HIS); Healthcare management; Care process; Case study methods
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13779 (URN)10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2003.09.001 (DOI)
    Available from: 2003-10-06 Created: 2003-10-06 Last updated: 2013-09-05
    3. A Management Information System Model for Process-Oriented Health Care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Management Information System Model for Process-Oriented Health Care
    2003 (English)In: Proceedings of Medinfo 2004, 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13780 (URN)
    Available from: 2003-10-06 Created: 2003-10-06 Last updated: 2013-09-05
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 245.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Hallberg, Nicklas
    FOI.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    A management information system-model for process-oriented health care2004In: Medinfo, IOS Press , 2004, p. 1008-1012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 246.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Management Information System Model for Process-Oriented Health Care2003In: Proceedings of Medinfo 2004, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Model for Interpreting Work and Information Management in Process-Oriented Healthcare Organisations2003In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, Vol. 72, no 1-3, p. 47-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To increase productivity, management in healthcare organisations have introduced different types of process-oriented organisational configurations. Few studies have addressed clinical practice and information management in these settings. Methods: A case study was performed at a paediatric clinic. Data was collected from archives, through interviews, by participatory observation, and by performing a focus group session. The collected data was analysed using a qualitative and interpretative research strategy. Results: A model was developed of care practitioners’ daily work in process-oriented organisations. The model shows that clinical work was deeply integrated; the care activities were dependent on supply activities and tightly connected to management routines. Conclusion: The resulting model can be used to support development of health information system (HIS) embedded in process-oriented healthcare work.

  • 248.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Management demands on information and communication technology in process- oriented health-care organizations: The importance of understanding managers expectations during early phases of systems design2002In: Journal of Management in Medicine, ISSN 0268-9235, Vol. 16, no 2-3, p. 159-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are numerous challenges to overcome before information and communication technology (ICT) can achieve its full potential in process-oriented health-care organizations. One of these challenges is designing systems that meet users’ needs, while reflecting a continuously changing organizational environment. Another challenge is to develop ICT that supports both the internal and the external stakeholders’ demands. In this study a qualitative research strategy was used to explore the demands on ICT expressed by managers from functional and process units at a community hospital. The results reveal a multitude of partially competing goals that can make the ICT development process confusing, poor in quality, inefficient and unnecessarily costly. Therefore, from the perspective of ICT development, the main task appears to be to coordinate the different visions and in particular clarify them, as well as to establish the impact that these visions would have on the forthcoming ICT application.

  • 249.
    Andersson, Bengt E. W.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samverkande informationssystem mellan aktörer i offentliga åtaganden: en teori om aktörsarenor i samverkan om utbyte av information1998Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 250.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrated Test Environment2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To implement a command line interpreter is normally an easy task. The task getsharder when adding requirements of multi instance functions and the system is torun on a multi-processor security critical embedded system. This thesis describesa first iteration of the system development. The project behind the thesis consistsof requirement elicitation, design, implementation and unit testing. The resultfrom the project is a working first version of the system.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Integrated Test Environment
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