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  • 201.
    Dahlfors, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Chen, Yun
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Bertil
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC-2, GE: endomed. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Inhibitory effect of diabetes on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle after balloon injury in rat aorta2000In: Experimental Diabetes Research, ISSN 1687-5214, E-ISSN 1687-5303, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on cell proliferation in rat aortic intima-media, as well as on local gene expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was studied. TGF-β1 mRNA was measured by solution hybridization and TGF-β1 protein by ELISA. Proliferation was measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into DNA two days after balloon injury. All BrdU-labelled cells observed were smooth muscle cells. After a diabetes duration of 2 and 4 weeks, labelled cells were significantly fewer compared with controls. Circulating levels of total TGF-β1 were lowered in rats with 2 weeks diabetes. Although the balloon injury procedure by itself stimulated the gene expression of TGF-β1, no significant difference in TGF-β1 mRNA content between diabetic and control rats after injury was found. In conclusion: vascular smooth muscle proliferation in vivo is inhibited by the diabetic state in this model of insulin deficient diabetes and this inhibition is not related to an impaired local expression of TGF-β1.

  • 202.
    Dalen, Helge
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Neuzil, Jiri
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology.
    a-tocopheryl succinate sensitises a T lymphoma cell line to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by suppressing NF-?B activation2003In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 153-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) can interfere with induction of apoptosis triggered by the tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, Apo2L). Therefore, agents that suppress NF-?B activation may sensitise cells to TRAIL-dependent apoptosis. Exposure of Jurkat cells to TRAIL resulted in massive and saturable apoptosis induction, following an initial lag time. This lag was abolished by pretreatment of the cells with subapoptotic doses of a-tocopheryl succinate (a-TOS) or the proteasome inhibitor MGI32. Exposure of the cells to TRAIL led to a rapid, transient activation of NF-?B, a process that was suppressed by cell pretreatment with a-TOS or MGI32. Activation of NF-?B by TNF-a prior to TRAIL exposure increased resistance of the cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that a-TOS sensitises cells to TRAIL killing, at least in some cases, through inhibition of NF-?B activation. This further supports the possibility that this semisynthetic analogue of vitamin E is a potential adjuvant in cancer treatment, such as in the case of TRAIL-mediated inhibition of cancer.

  • 203.
    Danbolt, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hult, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibbling Grahn, Lita
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ask, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Validation and characterization of the computerized laryngeal analyzer (CLA) technique1999In: Dysphagia (New York. Print), ISSN 0179-051X, E-ISSN 1432-0460, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 191-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the response characteristics of the Computerized Laryngeal Analyzer (CLA) and the validity of the noninvasive CLA method to detect swallowing-induced laryngeal elevation correctly. Two healthy adults and two experimental models were used in the study. The CLA technique identified all swallowing events but was unable to discriminate between swallowing and other movements of the tongue or the neck. The computer program produced a derivated response to a square wave signal. Stepwise bending increments of the sensor displayed a linear amplitude response. The degree of laryngeal elevation could not be estimated with the CLA technique, and it was not possible to draw any reliable conclusions from the recordings as to whether the larynx was moving upward or downward.

  • 204.
    Danielsson, Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Predictions of nitrogen doping in SiC epitaxial layers2003In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 433-436, 2003, Vol. 433-4, p. 137-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth of device quality epitaxial layers requires precise control of thickness and doping uniformities. Computer simulations can provide growers with the necessary knowledge for improving and optimizing the growth process. In this work, the CVD process is simulated in three dimensions, using a reaction-mass transport model. A simplified quantitative model for the nitrogen incorporation in intentionally doped 4H-SiC samples has been developed and applied to a wide range of process parameters. Different reaction schemes are necessary for the two faces of SiC to account for the different doping incorporation behavior. The simulations are validated by experimental data measured by SIMS with good agreement.

  • 205.
    Danielsson, Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Cathrine
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindvall, Bjorn
    University Hospital Örebro.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Expression of apoptosis related proteins in normal and diseased muscle: A possible role for Bcl-2 in protection of striated muscle2009In: NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS, ISSN 0960-8966, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 412-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique absence of major histocompatibility complex class I antigen (MHC-I) expression in normal muscle is one possible mechanism protecting striated muscle. In order to define their possible involvement in protection of normal muscle. we investigated the expression of molecules involved in muscle fibre death and survival mechanisms (Bcl-2, Fas, Fas-ligand and TRAIL), focusing on disorders with possible involvement of cytotoxic T cells. We studied muscle biopsies from 20 healthy volunteers, from 10 patients affected by polymyositis and 10 by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. By using immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real-time PCR we detected a constitutional expression of Bcl-2 in healthy muscle, whereas the expression was weaker in disease processes. Fas-L and TRAIL were not detected in muscle fibres, and Fas only in muscle affected by disease. Our findings indicate that the major apoptotic protein Bcl-2 might have a hitherto unrecognized role in the protection of normal muscle.

  • 206. Dare, E
    et al.
    Li, Wei
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology.
    Zhivotovsky, B
    Yuan, Xi Ming
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology.
    Ceccatelli, S
    Methylmercury and H2O2 provoke lysosomal damage in human astrocytoma D384 cells followed by apoptosis2001In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 1347-1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxic agent acting via diverse mechanisms, including oxidative stress. MeHg also induces astrocytic dysfunction, which can contribute to neuronal damage. The cellular effects of MeHg were investigated in human astrocytoma D384 cells, with special reference to the induction of oxidative-stress-related events. Lysosomal rupture was detected after short MeHg-exposure (1 ╡M, 1 h) in cells maintaining plasma membrane integrity. Disruption of lysosomes was also observed after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure (100 ╡M, 1 h), supporting the hypothesis that lysosomal membranes represent a possible target of agents causing oxidative stress. The lysosomal alterations induced by MeHg and H2O2 preceded a decrease of the mitochondrial potential. At later time points, both toxic agents caused the appearance of cells with apoptotic morphology, chromatin condensation, and regular DNA fragmentation. However, MeHg and H2O2 stimulated divergent pathways, with caspases being activated only by H2O2. The caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not prevent DNA fragmentation induced by H2O2, suggesting that the formation of high-molecular-weight DNA fragments was caspase independent with both MeHg and H2O2. The data point to the possibility that lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes act as executor factors in D384 cell death induced by oxidative stress. ⌐ 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  • 207.
    Daré, Elisabetta
    et al.
    The National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Wei
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zhivotovsky, Boris
    The National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yuan, Ximing
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ceccatelli, Sandra
    The National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Methylmercury and H2O2 provoke lysosomal damage in human astrocytoma D384 cells followed by apoptosis2001In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 1347-1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxic agent acting via diverse mechanisms, including oxidative stress. MeHg also induces astrocytic dysfunction, which can contribute to neuronal damage. The cellular effects of MeHg were investigated in human astrocytoma D384 cells, with special reference to the induction of oxidative-stress-related events. Lysosomal rupture was detected after short MeHg-exposure (1 μM, 1 h) in cells maintaining plasma membrane integrity. Disruption of lysosomes was also observed after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure (100 μM, 1 h), supporting the hypothesis that lysosomal membranes represent a possible target of agents causing oxidative stress. The lysosomal alterations induced by MeHg and H2O2 preceded a decrease of the mitochondrial potential. At later time points, both toxic agents caused the appearance of cells with apoptotic morphology, chromatin condensation, and regular DNA fragmentation. However, MeHg and H2O2 stimulated divergent pathways, with caspases being activated only by H2O2. The caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not prevent DNA fragmentation induced by H2O2, suggesting that the formation of high-molecular-weight DNA fragments was caspase independent with both MeHg and H2O2. The data point to the possibility that lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes act as executor factors in D384 cell death induced by oxidative stress.

  • 208. Davidsson, A.
    et al.
    Andersson, T.
    Hellquist, HB
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Apoptosis and phagocytosis of tissue-dwelling eosinophils in sinonasal polyps2000In: The Laryngoscope, ISSN 0023-852X, E-ISSN 1531-4995, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 111-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Sinonasal polyps contain numerous tissue-dwelling eosinophils, but the mechanisms causing their accumulation, functional activities, and resolution are largely unknown. Study Design: Nasal polyp tissue from 14 patients was evaluated for cellular expression of CD95, CD68, and Annexin-V, for the degree of apoptosis, and for phagocytosis of eosinophils. Material and Methods: Histological sections were immunostained as single stains for CD95, CD68, and Annexin-V, and as an immunostaining for CD68 combined with a modified Vital New Red staining. The latter staining is specific for eosinophils. Other sections were stained by terminal d-UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and routinely stained for H and E. Evaluation of the amount of stained cells was performed by counting the average number in 10 randomly chosen high-power fields. The TUNEL positivity was in all cases confirmed with apoptotic morphology. Results: The inflammatory infiltrate consisted of numerous eosinophils but also a considerable amount of lymphocytes, mast cells, and macrophage-like CD68+ cells. CD95 was frequently expressed on eosinophils, on numerous other inflammatory cells, and also on morphologically apoptotic cells. Annexin-V-positive eosinophils were not as frequent as CD95+ cells, but numerous Annexin-V-positive eosinophils were found. CD68+ cells approximately equalled the number of eosinophils. The number of cells phagocytosing eosinophils varied between polyps. Apoptosis of eosinophils (as evaluated by TUNEL combined with apoptotic morphology) was a common finding in six of the polyps. Conclusions: Previous in vitro and ex vivo findings of CD95 on eosinophils are now supported by demonstration of CD95 on eosinophils in this in vivo study. This investigation revealed a switch of the membrane-bound phosphatidylserine of apoptotic cells, which is a novel observation. The study has demonstrated apoptosis of tissue-dwelling eosinophils, and that CD68+ macrophage-like cells phagocytose eosinophils within the sinonasal polyps.

  • 209. D`Herde, Katharina
    et al.
    Mussche, Sylvie
    Roberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology.
    Morphological changes in dying cells2003In: Cell proliferation & apoptosis / [ed] D Hughes, FIMLS, H Mehmet;, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2003, p. 201-231Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis provides a detailed and novel practical guide to cell proliferation and apoptosis detection methods.

  • 210. Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas
    et al.
    Christoforidis, Savas
    Brunk, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Galaris, Dimitrios
    Endosomal and lysosomal effects of desferrioxamine: Protection of HeLa cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induction of cell-cycle arrest2003In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 719-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of endosomal/lysosomal redox-active iron in H2O 2-induced nuclear DNA damage as well as in cell proliferation was examined using the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). Transient transfections of HeLa cells with vectors encoding dominant proteins involved in the regulation of various routes of endocytosis (dynamin and Rab5) were used to show that DFO (a potent and rather specific iron chelator) enters cells by fluid-phase endocytosis and exerts its effects by chelating redox-active iron present in the endosomal/lysosomal compartment. Endocytosed DFO effectively protected cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage, indicating the importance of endosomal/lysosomal redox-active iron in these processes. Moreover, exposure of cells to DFO in a range of concentrations (0.1 to 100 ╡M) inhibited cell proliferation in a fluid-phase endocytosis- dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis of cells exposed to 100 ╡M DFO for 24 h showed that the cell cycle was transiently interrupted at the G 2/M phase, while treatment for 48 h led to permanent cell arrest. Collectively, the above results clearly indicate that DFO has to be endocytosed by the fluid-phase pathway to protect cells against H2O 2-induced DNA damage. Moreover, chelation of iron in the endosomal/lysosomal cell compartment leads to cell cycle interruption, indicating that all cellular labile iron is propagated through this compartment before its anabolic use is possible.

  • 211.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hanson, Lars
    Lunds Universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception2006In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 78-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the effects of manual control locations on two groups of randomly selected young and old drivers in relation to visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. Measures of visual time off road, steering wheel deviations and safety perception were performed with young and old drivers during real traffic. The results showed an effect of both driver's age and button location on the dependent variables. Older drivers spent longer visual time off road when pushing the buttons and had larger steering wheel deviations. Moreover, the greater the eccentricity between the normal line of sight and the button locations, the longer the visual time off road and the larger the steering wheel deviations. No interaction effect between button location and age was found with regard to visual time off road. Button location had an effect on perceived safety: the further away from the normal line of sight the lower the rating. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.

  • 212. Durrant, JD
    et al.
    Palmer, CV
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Technical Audiology.
    Analysis of counted behaviors in a single-subject design: Modeling of hearing-aid intervention in hearing-impaired patients with Alzheimer's disease2005In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 31-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical procedures related to patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) largely fail to address the patient's hearing. Given the challenges of this population, unconventional indicators of treatment efficacy may be required. Palmer et al (1999) reported on caregiver-tracked behaviors as outcome measures for hearing aid intervention. Using these data, hearing aid use and subsequent behavior was modeled as a first-order dynamic system, characterized by responses following an exponential time course. The results of such modeling suggest predictable outcomes of hearing aid intervention, or at least useful parameters of quantification (e.g. time-constant and steady-state response), permitting critical assessment of effects of intervention on negative behaviors versus hearing aid use, comparisons among behaviors, and/or comparisons of hearing-aid-use patterns and behavior counts among patients. Use in this and other difficult-to-test populations warrant further study to evaluate clinical efficacy of the analysis described. © 2005 British Society of Audiology, International Society of Audiology, and Nordic Audiological Society.

  • 213.
    Edell-Gustafsson, Ulla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Tema Health and Society.
    Regestein, Quentin
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Hyperarousal, depression and quality of life - Validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Hyperarousal Scale2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 58-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Research focusing on hyperarousability in association with general sensitivity to stress has increased. This study aimed to: (i) describe values for self-reported hyperarousal behaviour traits, depression, sleeplessness behaviour and health-related quality of life [The Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36)] in a gender-stratified random sample from the Swedish population, and (ii) test the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Hyperarousal Behavioural Trait Scale (H-scale). Methods: In this study, 402 women and 391 men from Sweden were included. A test-retest study was performed on 297 subjects. Results: The total mean score on the H-scale was 29.5 (SD 10.0, 95% CI 28.8-30.2). Compared to men, women scored higher on the H-scale (total score, sub-scales and many items), whereas no evidence of an age trend was seen. The H-scale has proven to be a valid and reliable scale. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed similar magnitude and direction between the H-scale and the Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale, as between the H-scale and the Vicious Cycle of Sleeplessness Behaviour Scale, Vitality, Mental Health and the Mental Component Summary index on the SF-36 respectively. The Cronbach's alpha for the H-scale was 0.84 and estimated stability test-retest point of time varies between 0.73 and 0.80. Conclusions: This study indicates gender differences in response style in association with altered health-related quality of life. The H-scale is a valid and reliable self-reported scale for measuring hyperarousal behavioural trait research outcome in clinical practice. © 2006 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  • 214.
    Edell-Gustafsson, Ulla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    A gender perspective on sleeplessness behavior, effects of sleep loss, and coping resources in patients with stable coronary artery disease2006In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, E-ISSN 1527-3288, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 75-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to systematically compare perceived sleep quality, sleeplessness behavior, sense of mastery, self-esteem, depression, subjective health, and effects of sleep loss in men and women with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Further aims were to determine possible predictors of poor sleep quality and sense of mastery, as well as the consequences of too little sleep. METHODS: Comparative-correlation and predictive design were used. Patients with a history of stable angina pectoris scheduled to undergo coronary angiography at Linköping University Hospital in Sweden were included. There were 47 women and 88 men (mean age 62.4 years) with CAD. Structured interviews using validated questionnaires covered sleep quality and sleep habits, effects of sleep loss, psychologic resources, and depression. RESULTS: Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that sleeplessness behavior, depressed mood, female gender, and pharmacologic treatments with inflammation inhibitors significantly (P < .0001) accounted for the variance of poorer sleep quality. The analysis also showed that the following factors in descending order significantly accounted (P < .0001) for the outcome of sleep quality: inability to feel refreshed by sleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, gastrointestinal problems, too little sleep, final morning awakening time, sleep onset latency, lying down because of daytime tiredness, and daytime physical tiredness. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with men, women with stable CAD may be especially at risk of experiencing poor sleep quality, even when sleeplessness behavior and pharmacologic treatments with inflammation inhibitors are controlled. It is also possible that they may be more at risk of depressed mood. Copyright © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.

  • 215.
    Edell-Gustafsson, Ulla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Psychological behavioural symptoms and sleep quality in patients with stable coronary artery disease2004In: Congress of the European Sleep Research Society,2004, 2004, p. 207-207Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Edell-Gustafsson, Ulla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Hyperarousal behavioural trait, sufficient sleep index and health related qualtiy of life insomnia associated professional sleep societies (APSS)2005In: Associated Professional Sleep Societies APSS,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Ekblad, S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Bergendahl, A
    Enler, P
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Möller, C
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Disturbances in postural balance are common in postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms2000In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 192-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence of unsteadiness and rotatory vertigo in peri- and postmenopausal women, and whether balance disturbances are more common in women with vasomotor symptoms and without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Method: A validated questionnaire was sent to all 1523 women aged 54 or 55 years in Linkoping, Sweden. Results: Daily or weekly unsteadiness was reported by 5%, and daily or weekly rotatory vertigo by 4% of all women. The frequency of vasomotor symptoms correlated with reported unsteadiness (rs = 0.23, p < 0.001). Fourteen per cent of women with daily vasomotor symptoms reported weekly or daily unsteadiness, compared with 3% of those without vasomotor symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 7.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.72-15.45). The frequency of vasomotor symptoms correlated with rotatory vertigo (rs = 0.19, p < 0.001). Ten per cent of women with daily vasomotor symptoms reported weekly or daily rotatory vertigo, compared with 2% of women without vasomotor symptoms (OR 5.21, 95% CI 1.07-25.52). No correlation was seen between vasomotor symptoms and falls. Users of HRT had the same prevalence of balance disturbances as non-users. Conclusions: Women with frequent vasomotor symptoms seem to run a greater risk of unsteadiness and rotatory vertigo than do women without symptoms. This association may not be explained by means of a cross-sectional study, but there might exist a causal connection between vasomotor symptoms and balance disturbances.

  • 218.
    Ekblad, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Lönnberg, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Estrogen effects on postural balance in postmenopausal women without vasomotor symptoms: A randomized masked trial2000In: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 278-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess whether estrogen treatment given to postmenopausal women without vasomotor symptoms improves balance more than placebo. Methods: Forty healthy postmenopausal women without vasomotor symptoms were randomized to transdermal 17▀-estradiol (E2) 50 ╡g/day for 14 weeks or identical transdermal placebo patches. Postural balance was measured with dynamic posturography before and after 4, 12, and 14 weeks of therapy. In this test, the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems were provoked with increasing difficulty and body sway was measured with a dual forceplate. A low score showed large sway and a score of 100 showed no sway at all. Results: Thirty-eight women completed the study. Both groups had normal balance for their ages and near maximum scores in the three easier balance tests at baseline. In the most difficult test, both groups improved their postural balance significantly (from 13 to 32 and from 22 to 39, respectively) after 4 weeks. Thereafter, no change was seen. One problem was low statistical power, but the relative change in balance did not differ between groups. The comparison did not show even a minute advantage of E2 over placebo, so a study with higher power would probably not have shown a more pronounced effect of estrogen than placebo. The change over time did not differ between groups, which indicates a significant learning effect.Conclusion: In women without vasomotor symptoms, estrogen therapy did not seem to increase postural balance significantly more than placebo. However, we could not rule out that estrogens affect postural balance in women with vasomotor symptoms. Copyright (C) 2000 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  • 219.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    The Worker Role Interviews: s prediktiva validitet för återgång till arbete2003In: At-Forum,2003, 2003, p. 17-18Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 220. Ekbom, Karl
    et al.
    Leissner, Lena
    Olsson, Jan-Edvin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Widner, Håkan
    Restless legs - vanligt sjukdomstillstånd som ofta missas. Möjligheter till framgångsrik behandling finns idag2006In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, p. 207-211Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interferon-Υ and interleukin-4 in health and disease: Studies on Borrelia infection, inflammatory polyneuropathies and normal pregnancy1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The immune system needs stringent regulation in order to effectively eliminate infecting agents and, at the same time, protect the body from immunemediated tissue destruction. T cells have a major role in this regulation by secreting cytokines. Interferon-y (IFN-y) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) exert antagonistic regulatory functions and are mutually inhibitory. Thus, immune responses are generally functionally dominated by IFN-y or IL-4, a balance which is believed to be decisive for the outcome. Besides providing protection against pathogens, the immune system also has impact on several other conditions, e. g. reproduction and inflammatory diseases. Much is known about the role of IFN-y and IL-4 in animal models of these conditions, but less data are available from studies in humans. Data on IL-4 secretion are particularly rare, since this cytokine is extremely hard to detect.

    Material and methods: Antigen-specific secretion of IFN-y and IL-4 was detected with ELISPOT -technique in different human conditions, including Borrelia-infection, inflammatory diseases in the peripheral nerves (the Guillain-Barre syndrome [GBS] and polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy [PNMGUS]) and normal pregnancy. A novel assay was developed for the detection of fetus-specific cytokine secretion during pregnancy. Finally, a therapeutical approach for selective redirection of inappropriate IFN-y secretion to IL-4 secretion was developed in an experimental model of GBS.

    Results: Predominant Borrelia-specific secretion of IFN-y and low or absent IL-4- secretion was found, both in patients with clinical Borrelia-infection and resistant individuals. A compartmentalization of this secretion to the central nervous system was evident in patients with neuro-borreliosis. There were indications that the specific IL-4 secretion increased over the disease course, and of lower numbers of Borrelia-specific IL-4 secreting cells in patients that did not fully recover compared with those who did. This suggests that Borrelia-specific IL-4 secretion might be necessary to down-regulate the inflammatory responses generated by IFN-y. Patients with a chronic disease course appeared to have a larger proportion of spontaneously IL-4 secreting cells compared with resistant individuals. Thus, individuals who develop chronic borreliosis may have limited ability to mount strong IFN-y secretion, which may be needed initially in the infection for eradication of the Borrelia bacteria.

    An increase in the secretion of IL-4 in response to paternal but not to unrelated anaantigen was found in the blood of pregnant women. This is an extraordinary finding, since allo-reactivity usually is predominated by IFN-y secretion. The secretion of IL-4 exclusively to paternal allo-antigen, suggests that this is primarily selective for the fehls. Thus, responses to antigens that are not present at the maternal-fetal interfaCe may well be IFN-y predominated, which is needed to combat common infections. Auto-reactive secretion of IFN-ywas found in PNMGUS, which is a chronic disease. Conversely, autoreactive secretion of IL-4, associated with recovery, was detected in the self-limiting disease GBS. This supports the hypothesis that auto-reactive IFN- )' secretion is involved in the pathogenesis of organ-specific inflammatory diseases, whereas IL-4 secretion is beneficial.

    Transfer of syngenic disease-specific cells, which had been ex vivo deviated to predominant secretion of IL-4, significantly ameliorated the disease in the experimental model of GBS. This may become a feasible approach for therapeutic intervention of organ-specific inflammatory diseases.

    Conclusions: The ELISPOT-technique successfully detected alterations in the spontaneous as well as the antigen-induced secretion of IFN-y and IL-4, which a1so in humans appears to have implications for health and disease.

  • 222.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Weissert, R.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Neuroimmunology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olsson, T.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Neuroimmunology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Transfer of myelin-specific cells deviated in vitro towards IL-4 production ameliorates ongoing experimental allergic neuritis2001In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A causal role of IL-4 (Th2) production for recovery in experimental allergic neuritis (EAN) was indicated by experiments where Th1-like autoreactive cell populations, taken from the induction phase of the disease, were deviated to extensive secretion of IL-4 in a selective fashion, by ex vivo stimulation with autoantigen in the presence of IL-4. The deviated cells were adoptively transferred to EAN rats at a time just prior to the onset of clinical signs. This treatment ameliorated EAN compared with sham treatment. This therapeutic approach, with generation of autoreactive IL-4-secreting cells ex vivo followed by subsequent adoptive transfer, may become a new selective treatment of organ-specific autoimmune diseases since, in contrast to previous attempts, it is done in a physiological and technically easy way.

  • 223.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Jönsson, Anna-Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Ärlehag, L
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Lyme borreliosis in Sweden - Diagnostic performance of five commercial Borrelia serology kits using sera from well-defined patient groups2004In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 74-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five commercial Borrelia serology kits available in Sweden were evaluated and compared for their diagnostic performance in sera from clinically well-characterized patient groups. With the clinically defined groups as the gold standard, i.e. without knowledge of antibody status in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, the diagnostic performance of the kits was compared and important differences in diagnostic usefulness were found. The kits from Abbot and DAKO, that often predict clinically relevant Borrelia infection and do not detect antibodies in sera from patients without strong suspicion of Borrelia infection, were considered the most useful in the population studied. This kind of validation study is an important part of good laboratory practice and should be performed by laboratories serving patient populations with varying endemicity of Borrelia.

  • 224.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Svenvik, Maria
    Roberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Bergström, S.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    A symptomatic Borrelia-seropositive individuals display the same incidence of Borrelia-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-secreting cells in blood as patients with clinical Borrelia infection.1999In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 115, p. 498-502Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 225.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Masreliez, C
    Svenvik, M
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Roberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Antibodies and T-cell reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi in an asymptomatic population: A study of healthy blood donors in an Inland town district in the South-East of Sweden2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 806-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the issue of whether Borrelia infection can be asymptomatic, blood donors with no history of borreliosis (n = 408) were screened for antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. Seropositive individuals (n = 17) were further investigated with respect to Borrelia-specific T-cell reactivity, using an interferon-? ELISPOT assay. Anti-Borrelia antibodies as well as Borrelia-specific T-cell responses were evident in 9 asymptomatic donors, strongly supporting a current or previous asymptomatic Borrelia infection.

  • 226.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Mathiesen, Leif
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Th2-deviation of fetus-specific T cells1999In: Immunology today (Amsterdam. Regular ed.), ISSN 0167-5699, E-ISSN 1355-8242, Vol. 20, p. 534-534Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Eklund, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Johansson, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Arbetskravsanalyser av arbetsuppgifter i Hälsans trädgård i Linköping utifrån The Revised Handbook for Analyzing Jobs (RHAJ)2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hälsans Trädgård is a project which is going to start in Gamla Linköping, Sweden. The authors were commissioned by Arbetslivsresurs, a company working with work rehabilitation, to select, define and make job analyses on five work tasks at Hälsans Trädgård in Gamla Linköping. A job analysis means an analysis of the demands the job make of the individual. The job analysis used in this study is called The Revised Handbook for Analyzing Jobs (RHAJ) and is from the US Department of Labor (DOL). As RHAJ is an American instrument, the authors produced a form where the concepts are translated into Swedish to make the analysis easier. The areas that were analyzed according to the RHAJ were: worker functions, general educational development, specific vocational preparation, aptitudes, temperaments, and physical demands and environmental conditions. The five work tasks that were analyzed at Hälsans Trädgård were: “Raking”, “Planting flowers”, “Weeding”, “Shoveling snow” and “Portraying Lisa”. The result shows that the five work tasks make low demands on the individual and that none of the tasks demand mathematical development. The task “Portraying Lisa” was the task which, in most cases, made the most demands on the individual. The discussion proposes how the work tasks can be more complex. The authors suggest investigations that test the RHAJ for validity and reliability and that the RHAJ in full be translated into Swedish and tested under Swedish circumstances in future research.

  • 228.
    Eklund, Lena K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lirvall, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abnormal expression of proteins in Notch and Wnt pathways in human squamous cell carcinoma of the skinManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Members of the Notch pathway are involved in various differentiation processes. Signalling via the Wnt/ß-catenin-pathway controls transcription of genes involved in proliferation events. These two pathways are interconnected through the cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled (Dvl-1).

    Objectives To evaluate the expression patterns of Notch1, Dvl-1 and ß-catenin proteins in human squamous cell carcinomas of the skin.

    Methods 40 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded SCCs were included in this study. Expression was detected with immunohistochemistry using avidin-biotin and DAB visualization.

    Results The majority of the normal epidermal cells lacked expression of Notch1, while the dysplastic and invasive tumour cells showed strong staining. Expression of Dvl-1 was observed in normal human epidermis, with a more intense staining indysplastic cells in 8 of 38 (21%) cases. Besides the expected cytoplasmic staining, 27 of 38 (71%) secs displayed nuclear staining and a potential nuclear localisation signal was identified. ß-catenin showed membranous and weak cytoplasmic staining in normal as well as tumour cells.

    Conclusions We have found enhanced expression of Notch1 in the majority of SCCs, indicating a disturbed differentiation process. We have also for the first time showed over-expression of Dvl-1 in dysplastic epidermal cells as well as normal staining of the nucleus. A classical nuclear localization signal is also identified in the Dvl-1 isoform A, whereas two other isoforms lack this recognition sequence.

  • 229. Eklundh, Thomas
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Monoamine compounds in cerebrospinal fluid of healthy subjects punctured without preceding strict bed rest: A pilot study2001In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 43, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interpretation of data on compounds in the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is limited by several confounding factors, e.g. motor activity for which strict bed rest prior to lumbar puncture is recommended for standardisation. Now we report data from 14 healthy males employing the standardised procedure except for the requirement of strict bed rest. The levels of serotonin, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol in the second CSF fraction (7-12 ml) were significantly higher than those in the first fraction (0-6 ml), indicating the presence of concentration gradients. 5-HIAA was negatively influenced by age and the neuraxis distance in the lying position and positively by atmospheric pressure. Storage time and atmospheric pressure contributed to the variance in dopamine. Both tyrosine, tryptophan and dopamine were linearly correlated with storage time. We also found a significant curvilinear correlation between tapping time and atmospheric pressure. On comparing with previous studies, the results support the notion that the issue of strict bed rest or not prior to lumbar puncture might have to be taken into consideration when interpreting lumbar monoamine CSF data.

  • 230.
    Eklundh, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Family Medicine, Psychiatric Section.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Örnhagen, Hans
    Division of Naval Medicine, National Defence Research Establishment, Department of Human Studies, Hårsfjärden, Sweden.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cerebrospinal fluid levels of monoamine compounds and cholecystokinin peptides after exposure to standardized barometric pressure2000In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 71, no 11, p. 1131-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Connections between mood changes and weather have been described throughout the ages, and in more recent years, there have been reports on a relationship between atmospheric pressure and neurotransmitter levels in cerebrospinal fluid.

    METHODS: To further investigate this issue under strictly standardized conditions, we have lumbar-punctured 8 healthy males under low (963 hPa) and high (1064 hPa) barometric pressure, using a pressure chamber.

    RESULTS: Under high pressure, the tyrosine concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were lower, while the cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) levels were higher. No differences between low and high pressure were found for tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA), and sulphated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8S). The serum level of CCK-8S was higher under high pressure. On comparing concentration ratios between the second and the first CSF fraction, we found significantly increased ratios for homovanillic acid (HVA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol (HMPG), but a decreased ratio for tyrosine under high pressure. The difference in the concentration ratios of HVA between low and high pressure correlated negatively with age. Intraspinal pressure correlated negatively with tapping time at low pressure.

    CONCLUSION: Our results are in line with the hypothesis that atmospheric pressure influences CSF levels of monoamine compounds and cholecystokinin peptides.

  • 231. Eklundh, Thomas
    et al.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Intraspinal pressure influences CSF disposition of tryptophan and 5-HIAA2001In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 84-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine compounds are influenced by factors such as age, gender, height, body weight, tapping time, and atmospheric pressure. We have now examined the role of intraspinal pressure. Thirteen male volunteers underwent lumbar puncture in the right decubitus position without preceding strict bed rest. The intraspinal pressure was recorded, and monoamine precursors, transmitters, and metabolites were analyzed in two consecutively collected CSF fractions. Tryptophan in 12 ml of CSF and the 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration ratio [fraction II (7-12 ml CSF)/fraction I (0-6 ml CSF)] correlated with the intraspinal pressure. Hypothetically, the intraspinal pressure may be a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of CSF tryptophan and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations, and this is an issue that has to be addressed in future CSF studies. Copyright ⌐ 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 232.
    Ekman, Bertil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MC - Medicincentrum, EMT-endo.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MC - Medicincentrum, EMT-endo.
    Growth hormone substitution titrated to obtain IGF-I levels in the physiological range in hypopituitary adults: Effects upon dynamic strength, endurance and EMG2003In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 90, no 5-6, p. 496-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effects of individualised growth hormone (GH) substitution, aiming at normal insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, on biomechanical output and surface electromyogram (EMG) of isokinetic muscle strength and endurance performance in 18 hypopituitary adults and compared with 17 matched healthy controls. The muscle function tests consisted of isokinetic contractions of the right knee extensors, from which torque and EMG were recorded. Three patients were excluded from the final analysis of the muscle function tests due to technical errors and one control subject moved from the area during the study. We found that GH-deficient adults without GH substitution were weaker and had less endurance than healthy control subjects. At the group level, plasma levels of IGF-I were normalised but generally no significant effects upon biomechanical output and EMG were found after dose titration and 6 months of a constant GH dose. However, subjects with the largest changes in IGF-I had significantly better biomechanical output and EMG compared to those with small changes in IGF-I. This finding may indicate that the net increase in IGF-I levels is critical for improvements in biomechanical output, EMG and perception of fatigue to occur.

  • 233. Ekselius, Lisa
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Non-compliance with pharmacotherapy of depression is associated with a sensation seeking personality.2000In: International Clinical Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0268-1315, E-ISSN 1473-5857, Vol. 15, p. 273-278Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Elert, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Aspegren Kendall, Sally
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Larsson, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Månsson, Bjarne
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Chronic pain and difficulty in relaxing postural muscles in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic whiplash associated disorders2001In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1361-1368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To investigate if muscle tension according to the surface electromyogram (EMG) of the shoulder flexors is increased in consecutive patients with fibromyalgia (FM) or chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Methods. A total of 59 consecutive patients with FM (n = 36) or chronic WAD (n = 23) performed 100 maximal isokinetic contractions combined with surface electromyography of the trapezius and infraspinatus. A randomized group of pain-free female (n = 27) subjects served as control group. Peak torque initially (Pti) and absolute and relative peak torque at endurance level (PTe, PTer) were registered as output variables, together with the EMG level of unnecessary muscle tension, i.e., the signal amplitude ratio (SAR). Results. The patient groups had a higher level of unnecessary tension initially and at the endurance level. The patients had lower absolute output (PTi and PTe), but the relative levels (PTer) did not differ comparing all 3 groups. Subjects with FM had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) than the other groups. BMI did not influence the SAR but correlated positively with PTi. Conclusion. The results confirmed earlier findings that groups of patients with chronic pain have increased muscle tension and decreased output during dynamic activity compared to pain-free controls. However, the results indicated there is heterogeneity within groups of patients with the same chronic pain disorder and that not all patients with chronic pain have increased muscle tension.

  • 235.
    Elert, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Sterner, Ylva
    Nyberg, Vanja
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Lack of gender differences in the ability to relax between repetitive maximum isokinetic shoulder forward flexions: A population-based study among northern Swedes2000In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 83, no 4-5, p. 246-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the effects of gender and age in a population-based sample of clinically healthy subjects on: (1) strength, endurance and perception of fatigue, (2) mean frequency (MNF) of the electromyogram (EMG), and (3) the ability to relax between active contractions (signal amplitude ratio, SAR) of the surface EMG of an isokinetic shoulder forward flexion test. With this aim we have analysed aspects of the validity of MNF as an indicator of fatigue, using peak torque as a criterion variable. The subjects were 27 men and 28 women (age range: 20-60 years), who were obtained by random sample from the official census lists (participation rate: 66%). The peak torque and surface EMG of two portions of the trapezius, deltoid and infraspinatus muscles were recorded throughout 100 repetitive maximal isokinetic shoulder forward flexions. No significant differences in the perception of fatigue and relative endurance levels of peak torque and work were found between males and females. Males were significantly stronger than females and, on average, females produced approximately 60% of the output of the males, 76% after normalisation for body mass. The men had significantly lower MNF endurance levels for three of the investigated muscles. When controlled for age and body mass, the men had a significantly higher MNF of the deltoid muscle than did the females. These differences were only found for the deltoid muscle. Significant correlations existed between the MNF of the four muscles and biomechanical output, indicating criterion validity for the MNF variable with respect to fatigue. There were no significant effects of gender or age on the ability to relax between repetitive contractions (SAR). The higher prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints of the neck-shoulder region in females cannot be explained by a higher intrinsic muscle tension. Age, gender, body mass index and biomechanical output can have significant effects upon MNF. These effects are important considerations in the interpretation of MNF, for instance in ergonomic situations.

  • 236.
    Elert, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Sydnerth, S-B.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine/Pain Clinic. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Åbjörnsson, L.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Aspects of criterion validity and sensitivity of the BAS-health scale in chronic pain patients - a pilot study of patients at a multidisciplinary pain centre.1999In: Advances in Physics, ISSN 0001-8732, E-ISSN 1460-6976, Vol. 1, p. 83-97Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 237.
    Eliasson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pasternak, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Aspenberg, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Linköping.
    Unloaded rat Achilles tendons continue to grow, but lose viscoelasticity2007In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 459-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tendons can function as springs and thereby preserve energy during cyclic loading. They might also have damping properties, which, hypothetically, could reduce risk of microinjuries due to fatigue at sites of local stress concentration within the tendon. At mechanical testing, damping will appear as hysteresis. How is damping influenced by training or disuse? Does training decrease hysteresis, thereby making the tendon a better spring, or increase hysteresis and thus improve damping? Seventy-eight female 10-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups. Two groups had botulinum toxin injected into the calf muscles to unload the left Achilles tendon through muscle paralysis. One of these groups was given doxycycline, as a systemic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. The third group served as loaded controls. The Achilles tendons were harvested after 1 or 6 wk for biomechanical testing. An increase with time was seen in tendon dry weight, wet weight, water content, transverse area, length, stiffness, force at failure, and energy uptake in all three groups (P < 0.001 for each parameter). Disuse had no effect on these parameters. Creep was decreased with time in all groups. The only significant effect of disuse was on hysteresis (P = 0.004) and creep (P = 0.007), which both decreased with disuse compared with control, and on modulus, which was increased (P = 0.008). Normalized glycosaminoglycan content was unaffected by time and disuse. No effect of doxycycline was observed. The results suggest that in growing animals, the tendons continue to grow regardless of mechanical loading history, whereas maintenance of damping properties requires mechanical stimulation.

  • 238. Elkarim, RA
    et al.
    Mustafa, M
    Link, H
    Bakhiet, M
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Induction of neutralizing autoantibodies to interferon-gamma in patients with polyneuropathy.1999In: Human Antibodies, ISSN 1093-2607, E-ISSN 1875-869X, Vol. 9, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239. Engquist, Bo
    et al.
    Åstrand, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Anzén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Dahlgren, Simon
    Engquist, Eva
    Feldmann, Hartmut
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Karlsson, Ulf
    Nord, Per Gunnar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Sahlholm, Sten
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Svärdström, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Simplified methods of implant treatment in the edentulous lower jaw. A controlled prospective study. Part I: one-stage versus two-stage surgery.2002In: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The original protocol for Brσnemark System implants in the mandible was a two-stage procedure with 3 months healing time. With five or six implants and a cast framework of gold, the treatment is rather expensive, and simplified methods would be desirable. PURPOSE: The goal of this controlled serial study was to investigate the outcome of a simplified procedure with one-stage surgery, four Brσnemark implants, shortened healing time, and a new titanium-acrylic fixed full prosthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-two patients were treated in three different groups at two specialist centers. All patients were provided with four implants, loaded with a Procera All-in-One bridge (Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) after 12 weeks. In group A (n = 30), one-stage surgery was combined with two-piece implants. In group B (n = 30), the control group, two-stage surgery and two-piece implants were used. In group C (n = 22), one-stage surgery was combined with one-piece implants. Marginal bone level was rated from radiographs at implant insertion, at baseline, and after 1 year. RESULTS: The survival rate after 1 year for group A was 93.3%, group B, 97.5%, and group C, 93.2%. The differences were not statistically significant. Between fixture insertion and baseline, the average bone loss for group A was 1.2 mm, group B, 1.3 mm, and group C, 1.3 mm. No complications in the form of bridge loosening or acrylic fractures were recorded during the first year. CONCLUSIONS: The survival rates and the marginal bone changes did not differ significantly between the one-stage groups and the control group. The survival rate and the marginal bone changes were similar for one-piece and two-piece implants. Four implants were sufficient to support full fixed prostheses in the mandibles. The Procera All-in-One bridges proved to be of high quality, and no complications were experienced. key words: endosseous implants, nonsubmerged implants, one-piece implants, prospective clinical study, submerged implants

  • 240. Engquist, Bo
    et al.
    Åstrand, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic.
    Anzén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Dahlgren, Simon
    Engquist, Eva
    Feldmann, Hartmut
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic.
    Karlsson, Ulf
    Nord, Per Gunnar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Sahlholm, Sten
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Svärdström, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Simplified methods of implant treatment in the edentulous lower jaw. Part II: Early loading2004In: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 90-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most implant treatment is performed with a two-stage surgical procedure. A disadvantage of these implant treatments is that they are time-consuming. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the results of early loading in the edentulous mandible and to compare those results with treatment results of one-stage surgery followed by a healing period and with two-stage surgery. Material and Methods: The material comprises four treatment groups with a total of 108 patients with edentulous lower jaws and 432 implants. All patients were treated with Brånemark implants (Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) with a turned surface and fixed prostheses in the lower jaw, supported by four implants. The patients in group A were treated with a one-stage procedure, a two-piece implant, and a 3-month healing period before loading. Group B (control group) had a two-stage procedure, a two-piece implant, and a 3-month healing period. Group C had a one-stage procedure, a one-piece implant, and a 3-month healing period. Group D was treated with a one-stage surgical procedure, a two-piece implant, and early loading (within 3 weeks). All patients were provided with a Procera® Implant Bridge (Nobel Biocare) with a framework made by computer-assisted milling of one piece of pure titanium. All patients have been followed up for 1 year. Results: The survival rates were 93.2 to 93.3% in the experimental groups and 97.5% in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant. The measurements of the marginal bone level demonstrated a mean bone loss of 0.8 mm between fixture insertion and the 1-year examination in patients with early loading (group D) whereas the bone loss in patients who underwent a healing period before loading was 1.3 to 1.6 mm. The difference between the control group and the group with early loading was significant. Conclusions: Survival rates for patients treated with a one-stage procedure were lower than survival rates for patients treated according to a "classical concept," but the differences were not statistically significant. There was no difference between treatment results with one-piece and two-piece implants. The implant loss in patients with early loading was probably caused by overloading, and careful supervision of occlusal loading is recommended. Early loading gave significantly less marginal bone loss when compared with two-stage surgery.

  • 241. Engquist, Bo
    et al.
    Åstrand, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic.
    Anzén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Engquist, Eva
    Feldmann, Hartmut
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic.
    Nord, Per Gunnar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Sahlholm, Sten
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Svärdström, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Clinic. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Simplified methods of implant treatment in the edentulous lower jaw: A 3-year follow-up report of a controlled prospective study of one-stage versus two-stage surgery and early loading2005In: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 95-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Interest in the use of one-stage surgery and immediate loading of oral implants has lately been increasing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the 3-year results of one-stage surgery versus two-stage surgery, early loading versus loading after a 3-month healing period, and the use of one-piece implants versus the use of two-piece implants. Materials and Methods: The study included 108 patients with edentulous mandibles. Each patient was treated with four Brånemark System® implants (Nobel Biocare AB, Göteborg, Sweden) and with full fixed prostheses. Patients were consecutively treated and were distributed in four groups: group A (one-stage surgery), group B (control group with two-stage surgery), group C (one-piece implants), and group D (early loading). In groups A and B Brånemark Standard implants and standard abutments were used. In group C the conical one-piece Brånemark implant was used, and in group D the patients had Brånemark System Mk III implants together with multiunit abutments. All patients were observed for 3 years. Results: Of the 432 inserted implants, 24 were lost. Survival rates in the three experimental groups ranged from 93.2 to 93.3% whereas the survival rate in group B (the control group with two-stage surgery) was 97.5%. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant. The changes in marginal bone level were measured from fixture insertion to the final follow-up at 3 years. The bone loss in group D (early loading) was significantly less than in group B (the control group) whereas there were no differences in marginal bone change between the other groups. Conclusions: Early loading seemed to give good results in the anterior part of the mandible. The survival rate of the early-loaded implants did not significantly differ from that of implants inserted with the conventional two-stage procedure, but the mean marginal bone loss around the surviving implants was less with early loading. ©2005 BC Decker Inc.

  • 242. Engquist, Bo
    et al.
    Åstrand, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Dahlgren, Simon
    Engquist, Eva
    Feldmann, Hartmut
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Gröndahl, Kerstin
    Marginal bone reaction to oral implants: A prospective comparative study of Astra Tech and Brσnemark System implants2002In: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In earlier studies of Astra Tech and Brσnemark System implants, high survival rates and small marginal bone changes have been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to compare the two systems, primarily with regard to marginal bone changes, but also with regard to other clinical variables of interest. The present paper describes the results after three years. Sixty-six patients were included in the study and randomly assigned to treatment with Astra Tech implants (n = 184) or Brσnemark System implants (n = 187). The marginal bone level was radiographically examined at fixture insertion, at abutment connection, at baseline (delivery of the prosthetic construction) and at 1- and 3-year follow-up examinations. Between fixture insertion and the baseline examination, the pattern of marginal bone resorption differed between the two systems. However, there was no significant marginal bone change between baseline and the 1-year examination or between the 1- and 3-year examinations. Nor were there any differences between the systems. The mean bone loss in the upper jaw between BL (baseline) and 3 years was 0.2▒0.3 mm for Astra Tech implants and 0.2▒0.1 mm for Brσnemark System implants. The corresponding figures for the lower jaw were 0.3▒0.2 mm and 0.2▒0.1 mm. The survival rate of Astra Tech implants was significantly higher (98.9%) than for Brσnemark System implants (95.2%). However, five of the nine implant losses in the Brσnemark group occurred in one patient. For that reason, this result must be interpreted with caution. The number of patients with implant losses did not differ significantly between the systems. Few complications were recorded up to 3 years.

  • 243. Engström, C
    et al.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Sigvardsson, S
    Cloninger, R
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Bipolar disorder. II: Personality and age of onset2003In: Bipolar Disorders, ISSN 1398-5647, E-ISSN 1399-5618, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 340-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether personality i.e. temperament and character interacts with age of onset in bipolar disorder. Methods: Bipolar patients were recruited among in- and outpatients from lithium dispensaries of northern Sweden. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder type I and II. Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used for measuring personality. TCI was administered to 100 lithium treated bipolar patients and 100 controls. Results: Treatment response was significantly lower (p = 0.005) in patients with early onset compared with late onset. Family history (p = 0.013) and suicide attempts (p = 0.001) were also significantly more common in patients with early onset. Further, patients with early onset were significantly higher (p = 0.045) in the temperament factor harm avoidance (HA) than patients with late onset, but the difference was weak. Patients with early onset had more fear of uncertainty (HA2, P = 0.022) and were more shy (HA3, p = 0.030). Bipolar I patients showed similar results as those in the total bipolar group (I and II), with significantly higher HA (p = 0.019, moderate difference), HA2 (p = 0.015) and HA3 (p = 0.043) in patients with early onset compared with late onset. Bipolar II patients showed no differences between early and late age of onset but the groups are small and the results are therefore uncertain. Conclusions: Early age of onset in bipolar disorder was correlated to an increase in severity, family history, poorer treatment response and poorer prognosis. Early onset was also correlated to personality.

  • 244.
    Engström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Sigvardsson, Sören
    Cloninger, C Robert
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Bipolar disorder. III: Harm avoidance a risk factor for suicide attempts2004In: Bipolar Disorders, ISSN 1398-5647, E-ISSN 1399-5618, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine whether personality, i.e. temperament and character influence suicide attempts in bipolar patients. Methods: Bipolar patients were recruited from lithium dispensaries. Temperament and character inventory (TCI) was administered to 100 euthymic bipolar patients and 100 controls. Results: Age of onset was significantly lower in patients with suicide attempts in the total bipolar group (I and II) and bipolar I patients compared with patients without suicide attempts. Bipolar (I and II) and bipolar I patients with suicide attempts were significantly higher in harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence compared with patients without suicide attempts. Patients (I and II) with suicide attempts had significantly more anticipatory worry, fatigability and asthenia than patients without suicide attempts. Bipolar I patients with suicide attempts had significantly more fatigability and asthenia and were more dependent than patients without suicide attempts. HA was lowest in patients with no suicide attempts and no family history of suicide, higher in patients with family history of suicide or patients with suicide attempts, and significantly highest in patients with suicide attempts and family history of suicide. Patients with suicide attempts and family history of suicide had more anticipatory worry, fatigability and asthenia. Bipolar disorder was significantly correlated to HA and suicide attempts to HA and PS. Family history of suicide and gender were significantly correlated to suicide attempts. Conclusions: Age of onset, HA, PS, gender and family history of suicide had a moderate to very strong effect on suicide attempts in bipolar patients. © Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  • 245. Engström, Christer
    et al.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Sigvardsson, Sören
    Cloninger, Robert
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Bipolar disorder: I. Temperament and character2004In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 131-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The nature of the relationship between personality and bipolar affective disorders is an important but unanswered question. Methods: We have studied personality in bipolar patients by using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). TCI were administered to 100 euthymic bipolar patients and 100 controls from the normal population. Results: Bipolar patients were significantly higher in harm avoidance (HA) and lower in reward dependence (RD), self-directedness (SD), and cooperativeness (CO) than controls. Bipolar patients are more fatigable, less sentimental, more independent, less purposeful, less resourceful, less empathic, less helpful, less pure-hearted, and have less impulse control than controls. Bipolar II patients are more impulsive, more fatigable, less resourceful, and have less impulse control than bipolar I patients. Limitations: Our results are limited to euthymic bipolar patients and cannot be generalized to affective disorders. Conclusions: Even when clinically euthymic on lithium maintenance, bipolar patients continue to have a characteristic cognitive deficit. This is in agreement with cognitive theories about cognitive deficits in depression that are regarded as important vulnerability factors in mood disorders.

  • 246.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Medical Radiology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Vigren, Patrick
    Neurology INR.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Subcortical and frontal determinants to working memory deficits in patients with Kleine-Levin syndrome.2007In: 13th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping,2007, NeuroImage: Elsevier , 2007, p. S78-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Medical Radiology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Ragnehed, Mattias
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Medical Radiology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Axelsson Söderfeldt, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Paradigm design of sensory–motor and language tests in clinical fMRI2004In: Neurophysiologie clinique, ISSN 0987-7053, E-ISSN 1769-7131, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms on sensory–motor and language functions are reviewed from a clinical user’s perspective. The objective was to identify special requirements regarding the design of fMRI paradigms for clinical applications. A wide range of methods for setting up fMRI examinations were found in the literature. It was concluded that there is a need for standardised procedures adapted for clinical settings. Sensory–motor activation patterns do not vary much at different hand motion tasks. Nevertheless it is one of the most important clinical tests. In contrast, the language system is much more complex. In several studies it has been observed that word production tasks are preferable in determination of language lateralisation. Broca’s area is activated by most tasks, whereas sentence processing and semantic decision also involve activation in temporoparietal and frontal areas. However, combined task analysis (CTA) of several different tasks has been found to be more robust and reliable for clinical fMRI compared to separate task analysis.

  • 248. Erhardt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blennow, Kaj
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Skogh, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lindström, Leif
    Engberg, Göran
    Kynurenic acid levels ae elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia2001In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 313, no 1-2, p. 96-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kynurenic acid is an endogenous glutamate antagonist with a preferential action at the glycine-site of the N-methyl D-aspartate-receptor. Mounting evidence indicate that the compound is significantly involved in basal neurophysiological processes in the brain. In the present investigation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of kynurenic acid was analyzed in 28 male schizophrenic patients and 17 male healthy controls by means of high pressure liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Schizophrenic patients showed elevated CSF levels of kynurenic acid (1.67 ▒ 0.27 nM) compared to the control group (0.97 ▒ 0.07 nM). Furthermore, CSF levels of kynurenic acid in schizophrenic patients were also found to correlate with age. The present finding is indicative of a contribution of kynurenic acid in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. ⌐ 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 249.
    Ericson, Iréne
    et al.
    Nässjö.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Geriatrics.
    Lundh, Ulla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Nolan, Mike
    Sheffield.
    What constitutes good care for people with dementia?2001In: British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing), ISSN 0966-0461, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 710-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Person-centred care for people with dementia is an aspiration of both family and professional carers, but what constitutes person-centred care and how it can be achieved is less clear. This article describes a Swedish study in which in-depth interviews were completed with both family and professional carers of people with dementia with the purpose of exploring what they considered to be "best care". Important areas of similarity and difference were identified and the results suggest that both groups of carers need to work closely together if person-centred care is to become a reality.

  • 250.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Health and well-being of children and young adults in relation to surgery of the tonsils2007In: Svensk ÖNH tidskrift, ISSN 1400-0121, Vol. 2, p. 42-45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

        

2345678 201 - 250 of 1252
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