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  • 201.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Risto, Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Linköping.
    Borg, K
    Johansson, J
    Injury incidence in a men's elite bandy league: An epidemiological study of a full regular season2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 636-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bandy is a popular European winter team-sport. The best bandy teams participate in semi-professional leagues, where the play-off games attract more than 10 000 spectators. Injury patterns in elite bandy have not been investigated previously. The aim of this study is to examine the incidence and types of injuries sustained during elite bandy games for men. Twelve of the 16 teams in the Swedish elite bandy league during the 2002 season participated in the study. In total, 36 injuries were recorded, corresponding to 7.3 injuries/1000 player game hours and 5.7 injuries/1000 athlete exposures. Collision was the most common injury cause (47%), while contusion was the most common injury type (25%), followed by fracture (22%) and ligament rupture (19%). The study showed that the injury incidence in elite bandy is low, but also that the injuries that are still sustained are relatively severe. This pattern can be explained by the fact that even though bandy rules do not allow body checks, collisions between skaters moving at high speeds still cause the majority of injuries. Further studies of the injury rehabilitation practices, and the implementation and evaluation of safety programs in elite bandy are warranted. © 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  • 202.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Risto, Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Linköping.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Injuries in competitive youth bandy: An epidemiological study of a league season2002In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 993-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Bandy, with a century-long tradition in northern Europe, is a winter team-sport similar to ice hockey. To investigate the occurrence of injuries during competitive youth bandy games, injury incidence, injury types, and age-related risks were analyzed for one youth league season. Methods: The National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) definition of sports injury was used for the injury registration. All 416 games during the 1999-2000 season in the Swedish southeastern youth bandy league were included in the study. Primary data was collected by a questionnaire and completed by the team coaches after each game. At the end of the season, physician interviews with each team coach were performed to assure that no injuries had been missed as well as to ascertain whether there was any remaining disability. Results: In total, 2.0 injuries (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.9 injuries) per 1000 player game hours were recorded. Sixty-eight percent of the injuries caused the injured player to be absent from bandy play for more than a week. Collision was the most common cause of injury (36%), and contusion was the most common injury type (41%). The injury incidence in the leagues for older players (Youth 14 - Youth 16) was slightly higher than in the leagues for the younger players (Youth 12 - Youth 13), while participation by under-aged players in games organized for older players led to an almost four-fold increase of injury risk. For severe injuries, the mean rehabilitation time away from bandy practice or competition was 27 d (range 8-56 d). Conclusion: The overall injury incidence during youth bandy games is low, but the injuries that occur cause extensive absences from the only four months long bandy season. From a public health perspective, bandy can be recommended for consideration when physical exercise is to be promoted among school-age children in countries with a winter climate.

  • 203.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Schyllander, Jan
    Swedish Civil Contingencies Agcy, Sweden.
    Ekman, Diana Stark
    Walden Univ, MN USA; Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    Ekman, Robert
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kristensson, Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Community-level football injury epidemiology: traumatic injuries treated at Swedish emergency medical facilities2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 94-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the popularity of the sport, few studies have investigated community-level football injury patterns. This study examines football injuries treated at emergency medical facilities using data from three Swedish counties. An open-cohort design was used based on residents aged 0-59 years in three Swedish counties (pop. 645 520). Data were collected from emergency medical facilities in the study counties between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2010. Injury frequencies and proportions for age groups stratified by sex were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and displayed per diagnostic group and body location. Each year, more than 1/200 person aged 0-59 years sustained at least one injury during football play that required emergency medical care. The highest injury incidence was observed among adolescent boys [2009 injuries per 100 000 population years (95% CI 1914-2108)] and adolescent girls [1413 injuries per 100 000 population years (95% CI 1333-1498)]. For female adolescents and adults, knee joint/ligament injury was the outstanding injury type (20% in ages 13-17 years and 34% in ages 18-29 years). For children aged 7-12 years, more than half of the treated injuries involved the upper extremity; fractures constituted about one-third of these injuries. One of every 200 residents aged 0-59 years in typical Swedish counties each year sustained a traumatic football injury that required treatment in emergency healthcare. Further research on community-level patterns of overuse syndromes sustained by participation in football play is warranted.

  • 204.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gursky, Elin
    ANSER/Analytic Services Inc, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyce, Jim
    Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Performance of eHealth data sources in local influenza surveillance: a 5-year open cohort study using data from Google Flu Trends, telenursing call centres, health service provider web-pages, and mass media coverage2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 205.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gursky, Elin
    National Strategies Support Directorate, ANSER/Analytic Services Inc., Arlington, VA, USA.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyce, James
    Department of Anthropology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holm, Einar
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Performance of eHealth data sources in local influenza surveillance: a 5-year open cohort study2014In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 16, no 4, p. e116-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is abundant global interest in using syndromic data from population-wide health information systems--referred to as eHealth resources--to improve infectious disease surveillance. Recently, the necessity for these systems to achieve two potentially conflicting requirements has been emphasized. First, they must be evidence-based; second, they must be adjusted for the diversity of populations, lifestyles, and environments.

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to examine correlations between data from Google Flu Trends (GFT), computer-supported telenursing centers, health service websites, and influenza case rates during seasonal and pandemic influenza outbreaks. The secondary objective was to investigate associations between eHealth data, media coverage, and the interaction between circulating influenza strain(s) and the age-related population immunity.

    METHODS: An open cohort design was used for a five-year study in a Swedish county (population 427,000). Syndromic eHealth data were collected from GFT, telenursing call centers, and local health service website visits at page level. Data on mass media coverage of influenza was collected from the major regional newspaper. The performance of eHealth data in surveillance was measured by correlation effect size and time lag to clinically diagnosed influenza cases.

    RESULTS: Local media coverage data and influenza case rates showed correlations with large effect sizes only for the influenza A (A) pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 (r=.74, 95% CI .42-.90; P<.001) and the severe seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2011-2012 (r=.79, 95% CI .42-.93; P=.001), with media coverage preceding case rates with one week. Correlations between GFT and influenza case data showed large effect sizes for all outbreaks, the largest being the seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2008-2009 (r=.96, 95% CI .88-.99; P<.001). The preceding time lag decreased from two weeks during the first outbreaks to one week from the 2009 A pH1N1 pandemic. Telenursing data and influenza case data showed correlations with large effect sizes for all outbreaks after the seasonal B and A H1 outbreak in 2007-2008, with a time lag decreasing from two weeks for the seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2008-2009 (r=.95, 95% CI .82-.98; P<.001) to none for the A p H1N1 outbreak in 2009 (r=.84, 95% CI .62-.94; P<.001). Large effect sizes were also observed between website visits and influenza case data.

    CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between the eHealth data and influenza case rates in a Swedish county showed large effect sizes throughout a five-year period, while the time lag between signals in eHealth data and influenza rates changed. Further research is needed on analytic methods for adjusting eHealth surveillance systems to shifts in media coverage and to variations in age-group related immunity between virus strains. The results can be used to inform the development of alert-generating eHealth surveillance systems that can be subject for prospective evaluations in routine public health practice.

  • 206.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gursky, Elin
    ANSER/Analytic Services Inc, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyce, Jim
    Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Predictive value of telenursing complaints in influenza surveillance: a prospective cohort study in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gursky, Elin
    ANSER/Analytic Services Inc, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks: a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Swedish adult population2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Gursky, E. A.
    Analytic Serv Inc, VA USA.
    Stromgren, M.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Holm, E.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nyce, J. M.
    Ball State University, IN 47306 USA.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Predictive performance of telenursing complaints in influenza surveillance: a prospective cohort study in Sweden2014In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 19, no 46, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Syndromic data sources have been sought to improve the timely detection of increased influenza transmission. This study set out to examine the prospective performance of telenursing chief complaints in predicting influenza activity. Data from two influenza seasons (2007/08 and 2008/09) were collected in a Swedish county (population 427,000) to retrospectively determine which grouping of telenursing chief complaints had the largest correlation with influenza case rates. This grouping was prospectively evaluated in the three subsequent seasons. The best performing telenursing complaint grouping in the retrospective algorithm calibration was fever (child, adult) and syncope (r=0.66; pless than0.001). In the prospective evaluation, the performance of 14-day predictions was acceptable for the part of the evaluation period including the 2009 influenza pandemic (area under the curve (AUC)=0.84; positive predictive value (PPV)=0.58), while it was strong (AUC=0.89; PPV=0.93) for the remaining evaluation period including only influenza winter seasons. We recommend the use of telenursing complaints for predicting winter influenza seasons. The method requires adjustments when used during pandemics.

  • 209.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Gursky, Elin
    National Strategies Support Directorate, ANSER/Analytic Services Inc, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. e91060-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443) of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8), sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a) an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b) severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0%) reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45–85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89), severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85)) and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82), AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82)), using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75), AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80)), and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76), AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80)). We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non-pharmaceutical health actions in the Swedish outlined context, and that variations in threat appraisal played a smaller role in these models despite scientific uncertainties surrounding a recent mass vaccination campaign.

  • 210.
    Trygg, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rosenlund, Elisabeth
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Personality characteristics of women with fibromyalgia and of women with chronic neck, shoulder, or low back complaints in terms of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and defense mechanism technique modified2002In: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 33-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To compare personality features of fibro-myalgia patients with those of a disease control group with regional pain.

    Methods: A group of 33 women with fibromyalgia [FMS-group] was compared on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI] and the Defense Mechanism Technique modified [DMTm] with 31 women [C-group] without this diagnosis who had localized chronic pain in their neck, shoulder, and/or low back areas and were very similar in chronological age, intelligence, and basic personality patterns.

    Results: As hypothesized the FMS-group scored higher than the C-group on the MMPI-scales of Hypochondriasis, Depression, and Hysteria. They also scored higher on Admission of symptoms, Psych-asthenia, Anxiety, Schizophrenia, Social introversion, and a number of nonclinical subscales. The differences were not found to be due to differences in pain intensity. The only statistically significant difference in DMTm between the groups was that of FMS patients more often reporting the projected self to be positive and/or to be afraid, suggesting them to be more vulnerable than the comparison group to threatening experiences. Significant relationships between the disability level and the number of tender points, group membership, pain intensity, and various of the MMPI scales were found.

    Conclusions: There were no signs on the MMPI of serious psychological disturbances in either group, and at the “deeper” psychological level, assessed in DMTm, there were no marked differences between the two groups, a proneness to somaticize psychological pain being found in both groups. Both the MMPI and the DMTm results were interpreted as suggesting that a cognitive coping strategy program be considered for rehabilitation. The fact that both different symptoms and signs had importance when regressing disability might indicate that univariate approaches is not sufficient when investigating factors of importance for disability.

  • 211.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Economic motives to use participatory design approach in the development of public health information systems2001In: Proceedings of Medinfo 2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Swedish Agency for Innovation Systems, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    A theory for classification of health care organizations in the new economy2003In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 465-473Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Changes in the roll of IT in primary healthcare2004In: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, ISSN 0195-4210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proceeding of 11th Conference on Medical Informatics, Medinfo-San Francisco, Cal. (Eds) Edward Shortliffe et.al .Amsterdam: IOS. Press, 2004

  • 214.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, FHVC - Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum, Socialmed FHVC.
    Design participation as an insurance: Risk-management and end-user participation in the development of information systems in healthcare organizations2002In: Methods of Information in Medicine, ISSN 0026-1270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 76-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to build a theoretical framework for analysis of when decision-makers should use end-user participation as a form of insurance for unforeseen consequences of implementing information systems in healthcare organizations. Method: Data were collected in a case study of an information system development project in a small clinical setting. During the initial phase, the future end-users of the system were allowed to actively influence the system design and test every new tool that was considered for implementation. Results: The results of the case study suggest that when time and effort are invested in allowing healthcare staff to participate in information system development processes, the benefits can well exceed the costs throughout the life cycle of the project. Risk-averse decision-makers fearing negative secondary consequences of a HIS, with regard to clinical work flow, will always adopt measures to prevent future failures, if they can find a possibility of shifting these risks. Therefore, they calculate the present discounted value of the effects accrued over time to the unit and predict the amount of resources they are willing to pay to acquire an insurance (such as design participation) that will protect the organization from future losses. Conclusions: End-user participation in the design process can be the key positive influence on the quality of the service and, thereby, organizational effectiveness. Investments in broad design participation can, consequently, be a productive activity that transforms potential current income into future benefits.

  • 215.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Individual Preferences and On-line Public Health Services2002In: Proceedings of AMIA annual fall Symposium in San Antonio Texas Nov 9-13, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, FHVC - Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum.
    To choose to be poor today but have good future prospects: Consumer participation in the development of information systems in healthcare organizations.2000In: JAMIA Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, ISSN 1067-5027, E-ISSN 1527-974X, p. 1150-1150Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Healthcare professional's demand for knowledge in informatics. 1999In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, E-ISSN 1872-8243, Vol. 53, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, FHVC - Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum.
    Patel, VL
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Social Med, Linkoping, Sweden McGill Univ, Montreal, PQ, Canada Linkoping Univ, Dept Comp Sci, MDA, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Information technology and knowledge exchange in health-care organizations1999In: JAMIA Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, ISSN 1067-5027, E-ISSN 1527-974X, p. 632-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing global interest in information technology among health care institutions, little has been discussed about its importance for the effectiveness of knowledge management. In this study, economic theories are used to analyze and describe a theoretical framework for the use of information technology in the exchange of knowledge. The analyses show that health care institutions would benefit from developing global problem-solving collaboration, which allows practitioners to exchange knowledge unrestricted by time and geographical barriers. The use of information technology for vertical integration of health-care institutions would reduce knowledge transaction costs, Le. decrease costs for negotiating and creating communication channels, and facilitating the determination of what, when, and how to produce knowledge. A global network would allow organizations to increase existing knowledge, and thus total productivity, while also supporting an environment where the generation of new ideas is unrestricted Using all the intellectual potential of market actors and thereby releasing economic resources can reduce today's global budget conflicts in the public sector, Le. the necessity to choose between health care services and for instance, schools and support for the elderly. In conclusion, global collaboration and coordination would reduce the transaction costs inherent in knowledge administration and allow a more effective total use of scarce health-care resources.

  • 219.
    Wigertz, Ove
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Lundquist, Per-Gotthard
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Teaching health informatics at Linköping University. A New design for the medical student curriculum1996In: HTE96 European Conference on Health Telematics Education,1996, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 220.
    Wilhelmsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ponzer, Sari
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Are female students in general and nursing students more ready for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare?2011In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 11, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Interprofessional Education (IPE) is now spreading worldwide and many universities are now including IPE in their curricula. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not such student characteristics as gender, previous working experience in healthcare, educational progress and features of the learning environment, such as educational programmes and curriculum design, have an impact on their open-mindedness about co-operation with other professions. Methods: Medical and nursing students at two Swedish universities were invited to fill in the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Totally, 955 students were invited and 70.2% (n = 670) participated in the study. A factor analysis of the RIPLS revealed four item groupings (factors) for our empirical data, but only one had sufficient internal consistency. This factor was labelled "Team Player". Results: Regardless of the educational programme, female students were more positive to teamwork than male students. Nursing students in general displayed more positive beliefs about teamwork and collaboration than medical students. Exposure to different interprofessional curricula and previous exposure to interprofessional education were only to a minor extent associated with a positive attitude towards teamwork. Educational progress did not seem to influence these beliefs. Conclusions: The establishment of interprofessional teamwork is a major challenge for modern healthcare. This study indicates some directions for more successful interprofessional education. Efforts should be directed at informing particularly male medical students about the need for teamwork in modern healthcare systems. The results also imply that study of other factors, such as the students personality, is needed for fully understanding readiness for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare. We also believe that the RIPL Scale still can be further adjusted.

  • 221.
    Wilhelmsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Annemie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nurses views of interprofessional education and collaboration: A comparative study of recent graduates from three universities2013In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 155-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today interprofessional education (IPE) is spread throughout the world. In Sweden only one of the existing nursing programs has an IPE curriculum on several levels during the training. The aim of this study was to examine how nurses who recently graduated from universities with IPE or non-IPE curricula perceive the importance of different educational goals and whether they found themselves prepared for their profession, and especially for collaboration with other professions. Three universities with different commitments to IPE were studied. We used a survey with eight different targets: communication skills, cooperation with other professions, problem-solving capability, self-directed learning skills, whether their education has prepared them to work professionally, to perform research, to take care of acutely ill patients, to work preventively and working as a nurse. The participants were asked whether their undergraduate education had prepared them for these targets and whether they perceived that the targets were important goals for their education. A main result in this study was that nurses who had recently graduated from the IPE university perceived to a greater extent that their undergraduate training had prepared them to work together with other professions in comparison with nursing students from non-IPE universities.

  • 222.
    Wilhelmsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Annemie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nurses with IPE curricula during training think they are better prepared to work with other health professionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today interprofessional education is spread throughout the world. In  Sweden only one of the existing nursing programmes has an IPE curriculum on several levels during the training.

    The aim of this study was to examine how nurses who recently graduated from universities with IPE or non-IPE curricula perceive the importance of different educational goals and whether they found themselves prepared for their profession, and especially for collaboration with other professions.

    Three universities with different commitments to interprofessional education were studied. We used a survey with eight different targets: communication skills, co-operation with other professions, problem solving capability, self-directed learning skills, whether their education has prepared them to work professionally, to perform research, to take care of acute ill patients, to work preventively and working as a nurse. The participants were asked if their undergraduate education had prepared them for these targets and if they perceived that the targets were important goals for their education.

    A main result in this study was that nurses who had recently graduated from the IPEuniversity perceived to a greater extent that their undergraduate training had prepared them to work together with other professions in comparison with nursing students from non-IPE universities.

  • 223.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ethical issues in public health informatics: implications for system design when sharing geographic information2002In: Journal of Biomedical Informatics, ISSN 1532-0464, E-ISSN 1532-0480, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 178-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public health programs today constitute a multi-professional inter-organizational environment, where both health service and other organizations are involved. Developing information systems, including the IT security measures needed to suit this complex context, is a challenge. To ensure that all involved organizations work together towards a common goal, i.e., promotion of health, an intuitive strategy would be to share information freely in these programs. However, in practice it is seldom possible to realize this ideal scenario. One reason may be that ethical issues are often ignored in the system development process. This investigation uses case study methods to explore ethical obstacles originating in the shared use of geographic health information in public health programs and how this affects the design of information systems. Concerns involving confidentiality caused by geographically referenced health information and influences of professional and organizational codes are discussed. The experience presented shows that disregard of ethical issues can result in a prolonged development process for public health information systems. Finally, a theoretical model of design issues based on the case study results is presented.

  • 224.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design of information systems for Public Health Programs: the case of Motala WHO safe communityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In public health only a fraction of the potential that information systems (ISs) and geographical information systems (GISs) provides has been used. Public-health programs are executed in complex environments, and are characterized by being multi-professional and inter-organizational. Hence, there is a need for extensive studies of how ISs should be con figured to truly support public health practitioners. The objective of this study is to explore how information technology, including GIS functionality, should be configured to support practitioners in community-based public health programs.

    Measurements: The critical incident technique, interviews, the voice of the customer table, and use case maps were used for data collection.

    Results: Communication and a clearinghouse with contact persons were identified as key features and support for creating both official and unofficial contact networks is provided. The design has a module-based architecture, including an extendable easy-to-use module with GIS functionality.

    Conclusions: To support both individuals and heterogonous teams in complex public health programs, a module-based architecture is proposed. Hence, the system can be tailor-made to support individuals in their specific tasks and at their specific skill level.

  • 225.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prerequisites to use information system as support in Public Health Programs: an initial requirements elicitation and analysis for WHO safe sommunitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The public health context constitutes a heterogeneous environment and presents a complex task for system developers. In this study, the requirements elicitation and analysis of prerequisites for using information systems (ISs) in public health programs is investigated. Special interest is also paid to geographical information system (GIS) functionality. The specific objective of this study is to explore the need for support of ISs and GISs that exists in WHO Safe Communities in Sweden. To elicit the requirements, a questionnaire based on the critical incident technique (CIT) was used. By using CIT, it is possible to focus the development on the problems experienced by the users. Moreover, it covers both technical and social requirements. Thereafter a voice of the customer table is used to transform the needs to technical requirements. The study results in recommendations for ISs development with GIS functionality for public health practitioners.

  • 226.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Greenes, RA
    Adaptation of the critical incident technique to requirements engineering in public health2001In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 1180-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of modern information systems in public health provides new possibilities for improvements in public health services and hence also of population's health. However, development of information systems that truly supports public health practices requires that technical, cognitive, and social issues be taken into consideration. In requirements engineering for public health, a notable problem is that of capturing all aspects of the future user's voices, i.e., the viewpoints of different public health practitioners. Failing to capture these voices will result in inefficient or even useless systems. The aim of this paper is to report a requirements-engineering instrument to describe problems in the daily work of public health professionals. The issues of concern thus captured can be used as the basis for formulating the requirements of information systems for public health professionals.

  • 227.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greenes, Robert A.
    Decision Systems Group, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Using the critical incident technique to define a minimal data set for requirements elicitation in public health2002In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, E-ISSN 1872-8243, Vol. 68, no 1-3, p. 165-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of computer-based information systems (ISs) in public health provides enhanced possibilities for service improvements and hence also for improvement of the population's health. Not least, new communication systems can help in the socialization and integration process needed between the different professions and geographical regions. Therefore, development of ISs that truly support public health practices require that technical, cognitive, and social issues be taken into consideration. A notable problem is to capture ‘voices’ of all potential users, i.e., the viewpoints of different public health practitioners. Failing to capture these voices will result in inefficient or even useless systems. The aim of this study is to develop a minimal data set for capturing users' voices on problems experienced by public health professionals in their daily work and opinions about how these problems can be solved. The issues of concern thus captured can be used both as the basis for formulating the requirements of ISs for public health professionals and to create an understanding of the use context. Further, the data can help in directing the design to the features most important for the users.

  • 228.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ethical issues in public health projects: Implications of geographic information resolution2002In: Alvarez I:, Ward Bynum T., Àlvaro de Assis Lopes J., and Rogerson S. Proceedings of the sixth international conference: The transformation of organisations in the information Age: Social and ethical implications. ETHICOMP 2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Requirements Engineering for inter-organizational health information systems with functions for spatial analyses: modeling a WHO safe community applying Use Case Maps2002In: Methods of Information in Medicine, ISSN 0026-1270, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 299-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate Use Case Maps (UCMs) as a technique for Requirements Engineering (RE) in the development of information systems with functions for spatial analyses in inter-organizational public health settings.

    Methods: In this study, Participatory Action Research (PAR) is used to explore the UCM notation for requirements elicitation and to gather the opinions of the users. The Delphi technique is used to reach consensus in the construction of UCMs.

    Results: The results show that UCMs can provide a visualization of the system's functionality and in combination with PAR provide a sound basis for gathering requirements in inter-organizational settings. UCMs were found to represent a suitable level for describing the organization and the dynamic flux of information including spatial resolution to all stakeholders. Moreover, by using PAR, the voices of the users and their tacit knowledge is intercepted. Further, UCMs are found useful in generating intuitive requirements by the creation of use cases.

    Conclusions: With UCMs and PAR it is possible to study the effects of design changes in the general information display and the spatial resolution in the same context. Both requirements on the information system in general and the functions for spatial analyses are possible to elicit when identifying the different responsibilities and the demands on spatial resolution associated to the actions of each administrative unit. However, the development process of UCM is not well documented and needs further investigation and formulation of guidelines.

2345 201 - 229 of 229
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