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  • 201.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Artificial noses: Picture the smell2000In: Nature, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 406, p. 682-683p. 682-683Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in ‘soft’ measurement techniques that measure a particular quality of a sample rather than the quantities of individual properties making up this quality. This type of information gathering mimics the human senses, and has led to the development of ‘electronic noses’ for environmental monitoring, medical testing, and food and drink production. In the most sophisticated systems a unique chemical fingerprint can be generated by an array of sensors and then identified by pattern-recognition techniques as the smell of a rose, for example. On page 710 of this issue1, Rakow and Suslick suggest that human vision may soon become an important part of what is now known as artificial olfaction.

  • 202.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Computer screen photo assisted techniques: principles and applications2005In: 10 th National conference on Sensors and Microsystems,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    From a Laboratory Exercise for Students to a Pioneering Biosensing Technology2014In: PLASMONICS, ISSN 1557-1955, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 741-751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for biosensing was demonstrated 30 years ago. In the present contribution, its general background is described together with the necessary developments both in instrumentation and surface chemistry, leading to the final so-called BIAcore technology. The description is naturally colored by my personal opinion of the developments. SPR for the elucidation of organic mono- and multilayers introduced at the end of the 1970s formed the basis for the first biosensing demonstration of SPR in the beginning of the 1980s. It is pointed out how the need of an up-to-date laboratory exercise for the undergraduate students and the multidisciplinary environment at the Laboratory of Applied Physics at Linkoping University led to this demonstration. The initial experiments are touched upon and the further developments at Pharmacia, which led to the BIAcore technology, are described in some details. Some of the present activities in Linkoping related to optical biosensing with ubiquitous instrumentation are also described, including SPR detection with a computer screen and a web camera and most recently with a cellular phone.

  • 204.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Armgarth, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gas sensors based on catalytic metal-gate field-effect devices1986In: Sensors and Actuators, ISSN 0250-6874, Vol. 10, no 3-4, p. 399-421Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of gas-sensitive semiconductor devices with catalytic metal gates are reviewed, with emphasis on field-effect structures sensitive to hydrogen-containing molecules like H2, NH3, H2S, alcohols, ethylene etc.

    A brief review of some of the developed device structures are given. The principles of hydrogen sensors with Pd gates are described in some detail. Ammonia-sensitive field-effect devices with thin catalytic metal gates are discussed. Applications of gas-sensitive field-effect devices for studies of catalytic reactions together with electron spectroscopy in UHV systems, for medical diagnosis, in leak detectors and as biosensors are reviewed.

  • 205.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kariis, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spetz, Anita.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Recent developments in field-effect gas sensors1995In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 23, no 2-3, p. 127-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the ongoing studies at our laboratory of gas-sensitive field-effect devices with catalytic metal gates are reviewed. More particularly, we discuss the use of such devices in so-called electronic noses due to the possibility of changing the selectivity patterns of the devices by the choice of catalytic metal and operation temperature. Several examples of the application of electronic noses consisting of field-effect devices in combination with metal oxide-based sensors are given. Finally, a summary is given of some remaining scientific problems and studies related to the understanding and development of gas-sensitive field-effect devices.

  • 206.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Erlandsson, Ragnar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frykman, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hedborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Welin, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Artificial 'olfactory' images from a chemical sensor using a light-pulse technique1991In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 352, no 6330, p. 47-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    THERE is much interest in the use of chemical sensor arrays, in conjunction with pattern-recognition routines, for developing artificial olfactory devices-electronic noses-which can characterize the chemical composition of gas mixtures 1-5. Here we describe a technique that uses a continuous sensing surface and a detection method involving a scanning pulsed light source, to generate images that represent a fingerprint of the gases detected. The detector is a large-area field-effect device with a number of different catalytic metals constituting the detecting surface (the devices active gate) 6,7. A pulsed light beam scanned across this surface generates a photocapacitive current that varies with the value of the surface potential 8,9. A continuous sensing surface of this type provides information that would require an array of hundreds of discrete sensors. The technique also provides a new means of studying the coupling between the electronic properties of catalytic metals and chemical reactions taking place on their surfaces.

  • 207.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Computer screen photo-assisted chemical sensing2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Lundström inbjuden talare vid konferensen "International conference of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines ICPP-4", Rome, Italy 2-7 july 

  • 208.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Macken, Stephen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Optical properties of microstructures for computer screen photo-assisted experiments2006In: Eurosensors XX,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

          

  • 209.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Macken, Stephen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Optical properties of microstructures for computer screen photoassisted experiments2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 89, no 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SU-8 microstructured devices aiding the fluorescence detection in computer screen photoassisted experiments are demonstrated. The structures exploit computer screens as controlled light sources and web cameras as imaging detectors, separating the excitation by total internal reflection and redirecting surface generated fluorescence toward the detector. The devices are essentially disposable and allow the collection of up to five times larger fluorescent signals, while remaining compatible with the formation of complex response patterns and with fluidic functions.

  • 210.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nylander, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Palladium-silicondioxide-silicon structures as hydrogen sensors in electrolytes1983In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 249-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 211.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Microanalysis Systems for Gases1995In: Micro Total Analysis Systems, 1994, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995, p. 153-163Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ackelid, U.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Catalytic metals and field-effect devices—a useful combination1990In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 1, no 1-6, p. 15-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of gas-sensitive field-effect devices with catalytic metal gates are described. We demonstrate especially how the selectivity of these sensors depends on parameters such as the choice of catalytic metal, the structure of the catalytic metal film and the operation temperature of the device. The sensitivity towards molecules like hydrogen, ammonia, ethanol and ethylene is demonstrated. The selectivity pattern of devices with catalytic metal gates is discussed in relation to the fabrication of multisensor arrays and the development of 'artificial olfactory senses'.

  • 213.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alberry, W. J.
    Imperial College of Science an Technology, London, UK.
    Thomas, J. D. R.
    UWIST, Cardiff, UK.
    Semiconductor Biosensors [and Discussion]1987In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 316, no 1176, p. 47-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen- and ammonia-sensitive metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) structures are described. Special attention is paid to ammonia-sensitive MOS devices with thin (ca. 3 nm) iridium or platinum gates. It is shown how these devices can be used in combination with      immobilized enzymes to develop bioprobes or biosensing systems. The temperature dependence of the gas sensitivity of MOS structures with catalytic metal gates is considered. It is demonstrated that at low temperatures (30-40 <latex>$^\circ$</latex>C)iridium gates have a faster response to ammonia than platinum gates, and that Ir-MOS structures thus are better suited for the development of biosensors. It is also shown that at high temperatures (190-200 <latex>$^\circ$</latex>C) platinum gates can be used to detect unsaturated hydrocarbons such as ethylene. Gas evolution from ripening fruits was monitored with such a sensor. Some biosensing applications of ammonia sensitive Ir-gate MOS devices are described; for example, the determination of urea and creatinine. The devices are used both to measure a pulse of ammonia in a flowthrough system and to measure in situ steady-state responses as a bioprobe. The special features of gas sensors used for biosensing purposes are summarized.

  • 214.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Krantz-Rülcker, Tina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Twenty-five years of field effect gas sensor research in Linköping2007In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 247-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present contribution contains an overview of the development of gas sensitive field-effect devices in Linköping during the last 25 years. It is completely centred to the work at the Laboratory of Applied Physics at Linköping University, and is therefore not a proper review of a research field where many important contributions have been made by several other research groups. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 215.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    From hydrogen sensors to olfactory images — twenty years with catalytic field-effect devices1993In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 13, no 1-3, p. 16-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A personal description of the history of gas-sensitive field-effect devices is given. It is shown how the originally described palladium-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor has developed into sensing surfaces enabling the production of response images to odours. Images obtained for the odour from different cheeses are presented as examples of such artificial olfactory images.

  • 216.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Svensson, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Natural nanosystems2002In: Current applied physics, ISSN 1567-1739, E-ISSN 1878-1675, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 17-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A short review of our work on pigment containing cells as biosensors is given. It is pointed out that they combine several natural nanosystems, namely membrane bound receptors and their biochemical machinery, and the tubulin/actin network inside the cells for transport of submicron-sized pigment particles driven by molecular motors of 10-100 nm size.

  • 217.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Surface Properties and Osseointegration2005In: The Osseointegration Book from Calvarium to Calcaneus / [ed] Per-Ingvar Brånemark, Berlin: Quintessenz VerlagsGmbH , 2005, 1, p. 133-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      Branemark Osseointegration Center, Goteborg, Sweden. Comprehensive reference brings together the background and history of the subject and covers osseointegration from its origins, through theory to practice. Presents a wealth of data about the current applications and covers its origins in dentistry to facial reconstruction and orthopedics. High-quality color images

  • 218.
    Lvova, Larisa
    et al.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Galloni, Pierluca
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Floris, Barbara
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paolesse, Roberto
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Di Natale, Corrado
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    A Ferrocene-Porphyrin Ligand for Multi-Transduction Chemical Sensor Development2013In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 5841-5856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    5,10,15,20-Tetraferrocenyl porphyrin, H2TFcP, a simple example of a donor-acceptor system, was tested as ligand for the development of a novel multi-transduction chemical sensors aimed at the determination of transition metal ions. The fluorescence energy transfer between ferrocene donor and porphyrin acceptor sub-units was considered. The simultaneously measured optical and potentiometric responses of solvent polymeric membranes based on H2TFcP permitted the detection of lead ions in sample solutions, in the concentration range from 2.7 × 10−7 to 3.0 × 10−3 M. The detection limit of lead determination was 0.27 μM, low enough to perform the direct analysis of Pb2+ in natural waters.

  • 219.
    Lvova, Larisa
    et al.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata.
    Mastroianni, Marco
    University of Roma Tor Vergata.
    Di Natale, Corrado
    University of Roma Tor Vergata.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paolesse, Roberto
    University of Roma Tor Vergata.
    Towards Hyphenated Sensors Development: Design and Application of Porphyrin Electropolymer Materials2012In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 776-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The peculiar properties of porphyrins allow their exploitation as sensing materials in chemical sensors having different transduction principles, or even the intriguing possibility to develop sensors where two different transduction mechanisms are hyphenated in the same substrate. This approach can allow a significant increase in the chemical information obtained from the device and it can boost the performances in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. Our recent achievements in the field of functionalized porphyrins application for the development of the hyphenated optoelectrochemical sensors will be discussed in this contribution.

  • 220.
    Lvova, Larisa
    et al.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Pudi, Rajesh
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Galloni, Pierluca
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Lippolis, Vito
    University of Cagliari, CA USA.
    Di Natale, Corrado
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paolesse, Roberto
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Multi-transduction sensing films for Electronic Tongue applications2015In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 207, p. 1076-1086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the use of multi-transduction principle for sensing materials development is reviewed. In particular, the application of porphyrin-based films to a multi-transduction Electronic Tongue system for different analytical tasks is presented. The optical response of sensing films was registered by means of Computer Screen Photoassisted Technology (CSPT) that applies familiar devices, such as computer monitor screen and web-camera, as illumination light source and signal detectors. Simultaneously the electrochemical amperometric or potentiometric response of the same sensing material was measured. Data analysis combining both signals significantly improves the performance of the Electronic Tongue, thus opening new frontiers in application of such a system.

  • 221.
    Löfdahl, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Johansson, Martin
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Difference in hydrogen sensitivity between Pt and Pd field-effect devices2002In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 91, no 7, p. 4275-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 222.
    Löfdahl, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Chemical images2000In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 70, no 1-3, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical sensors can be used to generate a vast amount of information about the emissions from bio- and chemical processes, from food and bacteria and from a number of products. These emissions are either wanted or should be avoided. Wolfgang Gopel was one of those who recognized early the large potential of chemical sensor arrays and different modes of operation of a given sensor. We describe how large area field effect devices, with catalytic metal gates, can be used for the construction of a response image of a gaseous emission. More specifically, we discuss the new possibilities obtained through the use of catalytic metals with a gradient in thickness. Some basic features of such sensing surfaces are demonstrated and, finally, time-dependent response images from aging meat are used to demonstrate the potential of the method used. It is based on a scanning light pulse technique (SLPT) which measures local polarization or work function changes in two dimensions and, e.g. a sensing surface consisting of bands of different catalytic metals with a gradient in thickness.

  • 223.
    Löfdahl, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Utaiwasin, C.
    Carlsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Gas response dependence on gate metal morphology of field-effect devices2001In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dependence of the gas response on the gate metal morphology of field-effect gas sensors has been investigated in a new systematic way by using a scanning light pulse technique (SLPT) together with fabrication of metal gates where the metal morphology is continuously varied over the gate area. With the SLPT the local gas response at different points of the gate area can be measured. Furthermore, a mass spectrometric local gas sampling technique has been applied in combination with the local gas response measurements, which gives complementary information about the surface chemistry and how it changes with the morphology of the metal gate. Three different gate metals, Pd, Pt and Ir, have been studied by analysing the morphology and the gas response to five different gases, H2, NH3, C2H5OH, C2H4 and CH3CHO. Morphological aspects such as crack coverage, concentration of cracks and the length of the crack boundary, have been calculated from acquired scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Different possible response mechanisms are discussed in order to explain the observed responses and to understand the role of the morphology and the choice of the catalytic metal. Only in the case of ammonia a direct correlation between the morphological aspects, e.g. crack coverage, and the response was found. For Pd large changes in the local water pressure close to the metal gate surface have been measured at different parts of the metal gate by using the local gas sampling technique and a correlation is observed with the simultaneously measured gas response. Of the response mechanisms discussed in this contribution only a dissociative mechanism, where hydrogen atoms trapped at the interface between the metal gate and the insulator gives the response of the device, is consistent with all obtained results. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 224.
    Macken, Stephen
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Di Natale, C.
    Poalesse, R.
    D´Amico, A.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Microstructured devices for computer screen photo-assisted optical fingerprinting of high density response patterns2007In: Transducers ´07 - Eurosensors XXI,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 225.
    Macken, Stephen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Di Natale, Corrado
    University Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Paolesse, Roberto
    University Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    DAmico, Arnaldo
    University Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards integrated devices for computer screen photo-assisted multi-parameter sensing2009In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 632, no 1, p. 143-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The computer screen photo-assisted technique (CSPT) utilizes consumer electronic devices such as computer screens and web cameras for distributed chemical sensing. Key to this method is the development of small and disposable sensing assays able to aid the CSPT optical detection, and the evaluation of multiple indicators. Here we demonstrate CSPT identification of fluorescent indicators from individual 100 mu m SU-8 (10) pillars covering an area of 4 mm x 4 mm with a density of 47 elements mm-2. The extraction of distinctive spectral fingerprints is aided by the exploitation of a three-band Moire interference that enables the partial Bayer decoding of the CSPT images.

  • 226.
    Macken, Stephen
    et al.
    IFM .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Optical properties of microstructures for computer screen photo assisted experiments2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Poster på konferensen "Eurosensors XX", Göteborg, Sweden, 17-20 sept.

  • 227.
    Malik, Muhammad Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Macken, Stephen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Di Natale, C.
    Paolesse, R.
    D´Amico, A.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Computer screen photo-assisted fingerprinting of the excitation-emission-matrix of fluorescent indicators2007In: ISOEN 2007,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 228. Manzano, J.
    et al.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Computer screen illumination for the characterization of colorimetric assays2003In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 96, no 1-2, p. 173-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorimetric evaluation of samples sorted in a two-dimensional (2D) array is performed with a computer screen used as a controlled light source and a web camera as detector. The transmittance profiles are predicted with a 12 parameters model within errors of 5 or 10% for qualitative or semi-quantitative purposes, respectively. The use of random colour illumination additionally enables robust acquisition with only 50 snap-shots (in less than 1min) that contains the information of the whole array, independently of the number of samples. © 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 229. Manzano, J.
    et al.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Principal component analysis of sample response to RGB light2004In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 182-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present a principal component analysis (PCA) for data generated by a web camera recording of a two dimensional array of samples illuminated with CRT and TFT screens. In order to create a robust cross-platform identification system useful in bio-analysis we investigate a "buoyant" approach to PCA. Using such approach we assess the relevance of keeping local reference samples to compensate for the spurious angle dependence introduced by TFT screens. We show how local references allow for the detection of such screen dependent angular anisotropy and the construction of a new coordinate space where this effect is considerably reduced. This new coordinate space is built using only the RGB coordinates provided by the camera without resorting to the screen RGB coordinates. Finally we investigate the sensitivity of sample tagging with respect to the number of illuminating colours. We show that 3 quasi-pure R, G and B colours are enough to obtain good separation of data and robust CRT/TFT cross platform tagging.

  • 230.
    Martinelle, E
    et al.
    Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Italy.
    Buchholt, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paolesse, R
    Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Italy.
    D'Amico, A
    Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Italy.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Di Natale, C
    Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Italy.
    FET Transduction of Electric Dipole Changes in Organic Layers2007In: TRANSDUCERS 2007 - 2007 International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, IEEE , 2007, p. 1895-1898Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern chemistry makes possibile the production of artificial receptors endowed with interaction sites specific towards selected analytes. To fabricate chemical sensors a transducer able to preserve the selectivity of such sensing layers is requested. We demonstrate the Field Effect Transistors (FET) coated by metalloporphyrins emphasizes the coordination of analytes with the sensing molecules with respect to the weakest forces that tend to cancel the selectivity. Molecular simulations show that coordination of gases such as carbon monoxide and nitric oxide greatly change the porphyrin electric dipole both in magnitude and direction inducing a large FET signal shift.

  • 231. Martinelli, E.
    et al.
    Dini, F.
    Monti, D.
    Paolesse, R.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    D´Amico, A.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Di Natale, C.
    Optical transduction of chemical sensitivity of porphyrin nanotubes by CSPT platform2007In: IEEE Sensors 2007,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 232.
    Martinelli, E
    et al.
    Electrical Engineering Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Polese, D
    Electrical Engineering Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Dini, F
    Electrical Engineering Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Paolesse, R
    Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University Roma Tor Vergata.
    D’Amico, A.
    Electrical Engineering Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Schild, D.
    Department of Neurophysiology and Cellular Biophysics, University of Go¨ ttingen, Germany and Bernstein Forum of Neurotechnology, Göttingen, Germany.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Di Natale, C
    Electrical Engineering Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Odor Processing with an experimental model of Olfactory epithelium and bulb2011In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 36, no 1, p. E4-E4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial olfaction  was introduced  as a model tool  to investigateolfaction  properties  [1]. Nonetheless,   the  only  analogy  between the natural and the artificial system lies just in the selectivity proper- ties of the receptors. The implementation of more sophisticated fea- tures such as the large number of receptors and the glomerular layer have been hampered  by technical difficulties related to the manage- ment of large numbers  of simultaneous  signals.As demonstrated in the past, optical imaging is a read-out  tech- nique for sensors development that can provide large sensor arrays [2]. On that basis, we recently introduced  an artificial olfaction sys- tem based on the imaging of a continuous layer of chemical indi- cators [3]. In this situation an image sensor provides a segmentation of the whole sensing layer in a number  of elementary  units corre- sponding to the pixels of the image. Eventually, since it is possible to evaluate the optical properties of every single pixel, each pixel of the image may correspond to an individual sensor. In this regard, even low-resolution  images may easily result in thousands of independ- ent sensing units.In our system a collection of arbitrarily shaped regions of color indicators  is illuminated  by a controlled  light source;  the optical characteristics  of each pixel of the image are measured by a camera yielding the light intensities in the three channels  red, green, and blue.   The  combination  of  illumination   sequence  and   cameraread-out  results  in  a  fingerprint  encoding  the  optical  properties of the sensing layer portioned in image pixels. Even a simple clas- sification of these fingerprints assigns each pixel to a class, and each class contains pixels carrying the same color indicator.  This behav- ior resembles the association between ORNs carrying the same chemical receptors into the same glomerulus [4]. On the basis of this analogy it is straightforward to describe the layer of indicators as an artificial epithelium, pixels of the image as artificial olfactory  neu- rons, and the classes provided  by the classifier as an abstract  rep- resentation of artificial glomeruli.This system thus allows the generation of a complex model of olfaction,  including  glomerular  compartmentalization [5], which is then applied to data generated by the exposure to pure and mixed gases. Results show that such a model enhances the discrimination of pure and mixed odors. Eventually,  such a platform,  apart  from evidencing the similarities between natural and artificial olfactory systems, is also proposed as a practical tool to test olfactory models.

    1. K. Persaud  and G. Dodds,  Nature  299 (1982) 352

    2. Dickinson  et al., Nature  382 (1996) 697

    3. C. Di Natale  et al., PLoS  ONE 3 (2008) 3139

    4. P. Mombaerts, Annu Rev Neurosci 22 (1999) 487

    5. D. Schild and H. Riedel, Biophysical Journal,  61 (1992) 704

  • 233.
    Masunaga, Kumi
    et al.
    Kyushu University Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences.
    Michiwaki, Shintaro
    Kyushu University Graduate School of Information Science and Electrial Engineering.
    Izumi, Ryosuke
    Kyushu University Graduate School of Information Science and Electrial Engineering.
    Ivarsson, Patrik
    Asko Cylinda AB .
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Hayashi, Kenshi
    Kyushu University Graduate School of Information Science and Electrial Engineering.
    Toko, Kiyoshi
    Kyushu University Graduate School of Information Science and Electrial Engineering.
    Development of sensor surface with recognition of molecular substructure2008In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 130, no 1, p. 330-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A biological olfaction system is one of the highest performance chemical sensing systems for low-molecular-weight compounds. An ability of recognizing a various molecular properties based on their structures is essential for a biological odor recognition process. For the development of a sensor mimicking the olfactory system, we have formed benzene-patterned self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the sensor surface using SAMs with nanostructure that serves as adsorption sites for benzene ring, which is representative substructure of aromatics. The structure of the benzene-patterned SAM surface was analyzed by contact-angle measurement, ellipsometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Moreover, the electrodes evaluated as sensor surfaces with cyclic surface-polarization impedance (cSPI) sensor that measures changes in impedance of the electrode surface by adsorption of substances. The results of cSPI indicated the benzene-patterned SAM surface could distinguish benzene by recognizing of the hydrophobicity and the molecular size. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 234.
    Mecklenburg, M.
    et al.
    Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Svitel, J.
    Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Gang, J.
    Ornstein, K.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Lund University Hospital, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Dey, E.
    Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Bin, X.
    Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hedborg, E.
    Norrby, R.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Lund University Hospital, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Arwin, H.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Lund University Hospital, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Danielsson, B.
    Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Differentiation of human serum samples by surface plasmon resonance monitoring of the integral glycoprotein interaction with a lectin panel2002In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 459, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial infection and inflammation result in massive changes in serum glycoproteins. These changes were investigated by the interaction of the saccharide glycoprotein moiety with lectins. A panel of eight lectins (Canavalia ensiformis, Bandeiraea simplicifolia BS-I, Arachis hypogaea, Phytolacca americana, Phaseolus vulgaris, Artocarpus integrifolia, Triticum vulgaris and Pisum sativum) was used to differentiate human serum glycoproteins obtained from patients with various bacterial infections. Lectin functionalised sensing layers were created on gold-coated wafers and lectin-glycoprotein interactions were monitored by surface plasmon resonance. The interaction of the lectin panel with serum glycoproteins produces unique patterns. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyse the patterns. The actual panel of eight lectins enabled discrimination between sera obtained from patients sick with bacterial infection and healthy patients. Extended lectin panels have the potential to distinguish between types of bacterial infection and identify specific disease state. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 235.
    Mikalo, RP
    et al.
    BTU Cottbus, Angew Phys Sensor, DE-03046 Cottbus, Germany Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hoffmann, P
    BTU Cottbus, Angew Phys Sensor, DE-03046 Cottbus, Germany Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Batchelor, DR
    BTU Cottbus, Angew Phys Sensor, DE-03046 Cottbus, Germany Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lloyd-Spetz, A
    BTU Cottbus, Angew Phys Sensor, DE-03046 Cottbus, Germany Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Schmeisser, D
    BTU Cottbus, Angew Phys Sensor, DE-03046 Cottbus, Germany Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Comparison of HF and ozone treated SiC surfaces2000In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 353-3, p. 219-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single crystals of SiC were etched in hydrofluoric acid to remove the native oxide. Ozone exposure at room temperature is shown to give an oxide of about 0.7nm. The differences of interface and bulk oxides regarding their elemental composition and their oxidation states are reported as determined by photoelectron spectroscopy utilizing synchrotron radiation.

  • 236.
    Nakagomi, S.
    et al.
    School of Science and Engineering, Ishinomaki Senshu University, Ishinomaki, Japan.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Tobias, P.
    Center for Sensor Materials, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320, United States.
    Electrical characterization of carbon monoxide sensitive high temperature sensor diode based on catalytic metal gate - Insulator - Silicon carbide structure2002In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 379-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field-effect gas sensors based on catalytic metal-insulator-silicon carbide (MISiC) devices are investigated. For the evaluation of the barrier height, the temperature dependence of the current-voltage (I-V) and the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of MISiC Schottky diodes were investigated in CO and O2 atmospheres. Four methods were used to evaluate how a change in gas ambient influences the barrier height of the diode: a change of the intersection current at zero voltage in the forward direction of the I-V curve, a change of the temperature dependence in the forward direction and the reverse direction, respectively, of the I-V curve, and a change of the intersection voltage of 1/C2 versus V plot. The four methods gave similar changes in the barrier height for the device in 8000 ppm CO and 4000 ppm O2. The values of barrier height obtained from the I-V curves were here normalized by the ideality factor calculated from I-V measurements. The correlation between the barrier height change obtained from the I-V and the C-V measurements, respectively, is discussed regarding the ideality factor. It is proposed that absolute value of the barrier height under flat-band condition is the most important for the evaluation of the barrier height. In the mixture of CO and O2, the change of barrier height obtained from the C-V curve had roughly the same values as that from the I-V curve when normalized by the ideality factors. © 2002 IEEE.

  • 237.
    Nakagomi, S
    et al.
    Ishinomaki Senshu Univ, Sch Engn, Ishinomaki 9868580, Japan Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden SSENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Shinobu, H
    Ishinomaki Senshu Univ, Sch Engn, Ishinomaki 9868580, Japan Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden SSENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Unéus, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Influence of epitaxial layer on SiC Schottky diode gas sensors operated under high-temperature conditions2002In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 389-393, 2002, Vol. 389-3, p. 1423-1426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schottky diode gas sensors were fabricated on top of the epitaxial layer grown by three different methods, purchased from Cree Research Inc., by hot wall CVD, or by sublimation at a high growth rate. The epitaxial layers have different thickness and doping. The current-voltage characteristics of the gas sensors were compared in different gas ambient during operation in the high temperature region. The temperature dependence of the series resistance of the diodes revealed two types of carrier scattering mechanisms, impurity scattering for the sublimation epitaxial layer at 300-400degreesC and at 400-600degreesC, lattice scattering for all diodes. The ideality factor of the diode fabricated on the Cree substrate is higher than others. The higher ideality factor gives rise to a larger forward voltage change for a change in gas ambient. The amount of change in barrier height caused by a change in the ambient gas is almost the same for the three types of diodes. The value of the barrier height of the diode grown by the sublimation method is lower than for the others, which gives a higher reverse saturation current at temperatures above 400degreesC. The largest saturation current also shows the largest current change when switching between different gas atmospheres.

  • 238. Nakagomi, S
    et al.
    Takahashi, M
    Kokubun, Y
    Unéus, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Savage, S
    Wingbrant, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Andersson, M
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Löfdahl, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Substrate bias amplification of a SiC junction field effect transistor with a catalytic gate electrode2004In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 457-460, p. 1507-1510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The drain current-voltage (I-d-V-D) characteristics of a chemical gas sensor based on a catalytic metal insulator silicon carbide field effect transistor (SiC-FET) were measured in H-2 or O-2 ambient while applying negative substrate bias, V-sub, at temperatures up to 600degreesC. An increase in the negative V-sub gives rise to an increase of the drain voltage at a given drain current level, which can be used to adjust the device baseline. In addition, we found that the difference in drain voltage between H-2 and O-2 ambient at a given drain current level (the gas response to H-2) increases for an increased negative substrate bias. By modifying an equation for the drain current in a SIT (static induction transistor), the influence of substrate bias on the amplification factors, mu and eta, was estimated using the temperature dependence of the I-d-V-D characteristics. From this, the effect of substrate bias on the gas response to hydrogen was calculated. It was clarified that the increase in the gas response caused by the negative substrate bias is due to a substrate bias dependence of the amplification factor of the short channel device.

  • 239.
    Nakagomi, Shinji
    et al.
    School of Science and Engineering Ishinomaki Senshu University.
    Fukumura, Akira
    School of Science and Engineering Ishinomaki Senshu University.
    Kokubun, Yoshihiro
    School of Science and Engineering Ishinomaki Senshu University.
    Savage, Susan
    Acreo AB.
    Wingbrant, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Löfdahl, Mikael
    AppliedSensor AB.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Influence of gate bias of MISiC-FET gas sensor device on the sensing properties2005In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 108, p. 501-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of gate bias on the gas sensing properties of SiC-based field effect transistors with catalytic gate and a buried short channel has been studied. The drain current-voltage (I-d-V-D) characteristics of the device reveal non-saturation property, which is a consequence of the short channel design. The drain current is larger in hydrogen ambient than in oxygen ambient at the same drain voltage. The threshold voltage decreases with increasing positive gate bias, and increases with increasing negative gate bias. When a positive bias is applied to the gate, the I-d-V-D characteristics reveal a tendency to saturate. A positive gate bias increases the drain voltage response to hydrogen, as compared with a negative applied gate bias. However, a positive gate bias decreases the stability of the device signal. A change in the channel resistivity is the main reason for the change in the electrical properties when a positive gate bias is applied. A physical model that explains the influence of the gate bias has been studied, and the behavior of the barrier height in the channel was estimated by using the temperature dependence of the I-d-V-D characteristics.

  • 240.
    Nakagomi, Shinji
    et al.
    School of Science and Engineering, Ishinomaki Senshu University, Ishinomaki, Japan.
    Tobias, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Univ, S SENCE, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden; Linkoping Univ, Appl Phys Lab, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden; Ishinomaki Senshu Univ, Sch Sci and Engn, Ishinomaki 98680, Japan; .
    Baranzahi, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of carbon monoxide, water and oxygen on high temperature catalytic metal-oxide-silicon carbide structures1997In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High temperature sensors, Schottky diodes and capacitors, based on catalytic metal-oxide-silicon carbide devices are investigated. Reducing gases like hydrogen and other hydrogen containing gases, decrease the barrier height and the flat band voltage, respectively, which is used as the sensor signal. The sensitivity of the devices at 600 degrees C to mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen with and without water vapour is studied in this paper. A large binary response of the sensors to carbon monoxide similar to the sensor response to hydrogen gas is observed. Close to the stoichiometric ratio of carbon monoxide and oxygen, the signal changes from a high to a low value corresponding to an excess of carbon monoxide and an excess of oxygen, respectively. When hydrogen is added to a mixture of carbon monoxide and oxygen, the signal changes from a high to a low value at a higher oxygen concentration. Since the response of these devices to hydrogen and hydrogen containing gases is supposed to emanate from hydrogen atoms, the mechanism of the response to carbon monoxide is discussed. The signal to carbon monoxide as well as to hydrogen decreases in the presence of water vapour and the reason for this is discussed.

  • 241.
    Nayeri, Fariba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nayeri, Tayeb
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Xu, Junyang
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Almer, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in fecal samples: rapid detection by surface plasmon resonance2005In: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 5, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The development of biosensors, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology, enables monitoring of a variety of biospecific interactions without the need for chemical-, biological- or radiological-labelled reagents.

    Method

    We utilised SPR to detect hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in reconstituted faecal samples and studied samples from patients with infectious gastroenteritis (n = 20) and normal controls (n = 10). Mouse anti-human HGF monoclonal antibodies and recombinant human HGF receptor (c-Met)/Fc chimera were immobilised in flow cells of a CM5 biosensor chip.

    Results

    We found that infectious gastroenteritis produced a higher signal response compared to controls, due to binding of HGF to monoclonal anti-HGF antibody as well as binding of HGF to c-Met receptor (p < 0.01). The SPR signal response correlated with results from ELISA (r = 72%, p > 0.001). The signal response decreased significantly (p < 0.05) when samples were diluted with dextran, because of reduction in both specific as well as unspecific binding of HGF to dextran. The decrease in the specific response might imply that the dextran- binding site for HGF overlaps with the antibody binding epitope, or that dextran binding induces a conformational change of the HGF molecule. Bands corresponding to HGF were found by gel electrophoresis of purified faeces in an affinity chromatography column immobilised by HGF ligands.

    Conclusion

    Determination of HGF by SPR might be beneficial in diagnosis of acute situations that present with symptoms of gastroenteritis and may, possibly, guide appropriate medical treatments. This is to our knowledge the first report on the use of SPR for detection of HGF in faeces samples.

  • 242. Nielsen, A.T.
    et al.
    Amandusson, H.
    Bjorklund, R.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Ejlertsson, J.
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hydrogen production from organic waste2001In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 547-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extraction of pure hydrogen from the fermentation of household waste by a mixed anaerobic bacterial flora is demonstrated. Simulated household waste (600 g) was fermented in a bioreactor, which was continuously sparged with nitrogen (30 ml/min) fed in from the bottom. The gas stream from the biorector passes through a sulphide trap (ZnO) and then through a heated palladium-silver membrane reactor to separate hydrogen from the gas stream. In this way, waste remediation and biological hydrogen production is combined in a process where a large proportion of the hydrogen produced can be collected, free of other gaseous species from the fermentation. © 2001 International Association for Hydrogen Energy.

  • 243. Norberg, P
    et al.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Hydrogen-induced CO2 formation from ethylene deposits on Pt during consecutive O-2 and H-2 exposures2000In: Catalysis Letters, ISSN 1011-372X, E-ISSN 1572-879X, Vol. 65, no 1-3, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxidation of C2H4 deposits on polycrystalline Pt when exposed to consecutive O-2 and H-2 pulses at room temperature has been investigated in a long (L=36 mm), shallow (d=600-700 nm) micromachined glass-SiO2-Pt channel. Hydrogen-induced CO2 formation from species accumulated on the Pt surface was observed. Frequent switching of the O-2/H-2 exposure pulses was found to increase the efficiency of the oxidation of the carbonaceous deposits markedly. The observations may be of general interest for the regeneration of contaminated catalysts.

  • 244.
    Olsson, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    A self polishing electronic tongue2006In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 118, no 1-2, p. 461-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation to obtain reproducible measurements with a pulse voltammetric electronic tongue has lead to the development of self polishing device. A grit paper covered bar rotating over the working electrodes is performing the polishing, to avoid measurements while the polishing bar covers the electrodes an angular decoder is fitted. Measurements in buffer, 2 mM K3[Fe(CN)6] and a buffered tea samples shows that polishing reduces drift, sensitivity decreases with electrode fouling, pre-treatment or conditioning of electrodes post polishing must be optimised concerning the analyte. Also found was that drift due to electrode fouling is a repeatable mechanism which pattern can be used to increase information about the analyte. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 245.
    Olsson, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In situ studies of electrode regeneration by polishing during measurementsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A general problem for all electronic tongues (and for most other sensor systems), especially when measuring in crude and complex media, is electrode fouling. The possibility of using a selfpolishing voltammetric electronic tongue has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry. The tested compounds were potassium hexacyanoferrat(II) (K4Fe(CN)6) and urea, respectively. Effects of short term drift, directly after polishing before the electrode is completely equilibrated, are repeatable.

  • 246.
    Paolesse, R.
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Alimelli, A.
    Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    D'Amico, A.
    Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Venanzi, M.
    Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Battistini, G.
    Department G. Ciamician, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Montalti, M.
    Department G. Ciamician, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Di, Natale C.
    Di Natale, C., Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Insights on the chemistry of a,c-biladienes from a CSPT investigation2008In: New Journal of Chemistry, ISSN 1144-0546, E-ISSN 1369-9261, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 1162-1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer Screen Photoassisted Technique (CSPT) is a recent interesting approach for the development of optical sensor platforms using ubiquitous devices. We demonstrate here that the information obtained by CSPT measurements can be useful for other than sensing purposes and a computer set and a web camera can also be exploited as spectroscopic technique for the characterization of the compounds used as indicators. CSPT measurement data have been used to characterize novel features of the a,c-biladiene chemistry, which have been later confirmed by photophysical characterization carried out using classical instrumentation. The demonstrated analytical capabilities of a regular computer-web camera set reach a degree of complexity approaching that of fluorescence excitation-emission spectroscopy, something remarkable considering the exploitation of familiar and already well distributed devices. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

  • 247.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Seshadri, Prethi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony P.F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Two-dimensional gold-tungsten disulphide bio-interface for high-throughput electrocatalytic nano-bioreactors2014In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 1400136-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-throughput electrocatalytic nano-bioreactor on tungsten disulphide nanosheets is demonstrated for the first time. The fundamental goal of this research is to develop a higher surface area, resulting in a greater enzyme loading and thereby increasing bio-catalytic activity within a nano-confined volume. As a result, the nanobio-system is capable of highly specific recognition of target bioanalytes, therefore, showing significant potentials in a range of bioreactor applications.

  • 248. Pennazza, G.
    et al.
    Santonico, M.
    Paolesse, R.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    D´Amico, A.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Di Natale, C.
    Computer screen photo-assisted technology based artificial olfaction2007In: ISOEN 2007,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 249. Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fogelberg, J.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hydrogen adsorption states at the external and internal palladium surfaces of a Palladium-Silicondioxide-Silicon structure1985In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 58, p. 404-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrogen adsorption states at the external and internal Pd surfaces of a hydrogen sensitive Pd‐SiO2‐Si (Pd‐MOS) structure have been studied in high and ultrahigh vacuum. The steady‐state response of the Pd‐MOS structure (due to the hydrogen present at the Pd‐SiO2 interface) shows a logarithmic dependence on hydrogen pressure, independent of external surface condition. The heat of adsorption of the internal surface is coverage dependent and described by ΔHiH0(1‐aθi) giving ΔH0≊1.4 eV/molecule with a=1. Thus, there are always hydrogen adsorption states available at the internal surface independent of the applied pressure. This is why the Pd‐MOS structure works as a hydrogen sensor over a large pressure range. The importance of a surface cleaning procedure in order to obtain an atomically clean Pd surface after Ar sputtering is pointed out. It is observed that a, probably carbon, contaminated Pd surface has hydrogen adsorption properties similar to those of the palladium‐oxide interface. A clean Pd surface has adsorption sites with smaller heat of adsorptions than those at the interface. Furthermore, these adsorption sites give an increase in work function, whereas a decrease in work function is observed at the interface. It is pointed out that the difference in the heat of adsorption between surface and interface hydrogen adsorption sites means that hydrogen atoms are detected at the interface even when the hydrogen coverage at the clean surface is very small.

  • 250. Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fogelberg, J.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Oxygen as a poison or promoter in the catalytic dissociation of H2, C2H2, C2H4, and NH3 on palladium1986In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 27, p. 275-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissociation rates of H2, C2H4, C2H4, and NH3 have been studied on oxygen covered Pd surfaces by measuring the water desorption rates during exposure to each of the molecules. These results are correlated with the hydrogen response of a Pd-MOS structure. The measurements show a trend (at 473 K) where oxygen blocks H2 dissociation, blocks C2H4 dissociation only above a certain oxygen coverage, has no influence on C2H2 dissociation, and promotes NH3 dissociation.

234567 201 - 250 of 328
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