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  • 201.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Top-Down Rationalisation in Mail Delivery – Short-term Outcomes2002Inngår i: Organization, Intensity of Work, Quality of Work, Paris, France 21-22 November 2002, s. 8-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Post Office is undergoing large-scale restructuring, including outsourcing of the mail service division to an independent market driven organisation. As a consequence of exposure to competition, the local delivery offices were rationalised by introducing a new working concept called “Best Method”. It was a top-down change process that included downsizing the personnel, more standardisation of working and formalisation of delivery time. The changes have influenced the postmen’s working conditions in several ways and they perceive a greater workload. This paper aims to identify the factors that contribute to the increased workload and work intensification due to the rationalisation inherent in the new working concept. The findings emerge from an evaluative investigation conducted during autumn 2001 at fifteen local delivery offices in different parts of Sweden. It was carried out by an independent research team in industrial ergonomics through participant observation, 60 in-depth interviews and a questionnaire answered by 524 postal personnel, mainly postmen. Several factors contributing to the increased workload and work intensification have been identified, such as a faster work pace and greater physical workload, less flexibility for the individual, insufficient participation, shortcomings and contradictions in the new working concept, deficient strategic planning and systems thinking, and a somewhat indistinct organisational philosophy. Further research activities are now taking place and an intervention study is in the planning stage.

  • 202.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    En utredning om brevbärarpersonalens arbetsförhållanden och införandet av Bästa Metod2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utredningen har utförts på uppdrag av Servicenätet Posten vid Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap, inom forskningsområdet Kvalitet, Människa, Teknik vid Linköpings universitet. Syftet har varit:

    - dels att utvärdera den totala arbetssituationen för brevbärare med i huvudsak utdelning i flerfamiljshus,

    - dels att utvärdera hur införandet av den så kallade ”Bästa Metod” har fungerat, främst vad gäller införandeprocess, acceptans, delaktighet och manual.

    Utredningsarbetet har utförts under hösten 2001. Efter deltagande observation av brevbärare i flerfamiljshus under arbete, gjordes 60 djupintervjuer med såväl brevbärare, SEKO-ombud som postcenterchefer på femton av Posten utvalda utdelningskontor spridda över hela Sverige. Intervjumaterialet låg till grund för en enkät som distribuerades till samtlig personal på de femton utdelningskontoren. 525 enkäter har besvarats (en svarsfrekvens på 90 procent). Ergonomiska studier och fysiska mätningar har utförts på brevbärare under arbete för att identifiera belastningsergonomiska risker och prioritera mellan olika förbättringsförslag.

    Resultaten visar att brevbärarnas arbetsförhållanden i dag är krävande, framförallt i fysiskt avseende, något som understryks av en mycket hög besvärsfrekvens från rörelseorganen. Bästa Metod framstår som en principiellt bra arbetsmetod med stor utvecklingspotential. De flesta brevbärare bedömer metoden som arbetsbesparande och produktivitetsförbättrande men uttrycker farhågor för den fysiska arbetsbelastningen och framtida besvärsrisker samt kvalitetsbrister. Om utvecklingspotentialen skall kunna tas till vara för både verksamhetens och brevbärarnas bästa, erfordras en optimering av arbetssättet.

    Resultaten visar också att det finns stora skillnader i hur väl Bästa Metod fungerar vid de femton utdelningskontor som ingått i studien. Ett antal faktorer som försvårat införandet och tillämpningen av Bästa Metod har identifierats. Brist på delaktighet och lokal anpassning framträder särskilt. Arbetsledningens agerande på såväl lokal som central nivå har visat sig vara en kritisk faktor för hur väl arbetet med Bästa Metod har förlöpt.

    Vi bedömer att åtgärder som fokuserar på att öka brevbärarnas delaktighet och lokalt anpassa Bästa Metod, skulle resultera i bättre arbetsförhållanden för brevbärarna, en ökad effektivitet, bättre produktivitet och kvalitetsvinster. En infrastruktur som befrämjar god informationsspridning och kommunikation både horisontellt och vertikalt i organisationen är då avgörande.

    Med ett åtgärdsprogram och en plan för ständigt förbättringsarbete, skulle verksamheten med Bästa Metod och brevbärarnas arbetssituation på sikt kunna förbättras med åtgärder på såväl lokal som central nivå i organisationen. Utredningen har visat på ett antal önskvärda åtgärder och flera av dessa kan genomföras av Posten själva. De åtgärder som föreslås nedan genomförs av Posten i samarbete med Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap och de kan delas upp i två huvudkategorier:

    I. I rapporten preciserade förbättringsförslag som kan genomföras relativt omgående av Posten med stöd från Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap:

    KAMFACKEN

    • Förbättrad märkning av kamfacken och införande av kompletterande karta (prototyp finns redan klar), för att underlätta kamning på ny slinga samt förbättrad belysning vid kamfacken.

    • Justeringar och optimeringar av kamfacken där så är möjligt.

    • Förbättring av avlastningsytor vid kamfacken.

    SKOR

    • Införskaffande av lämpliga individuellt anpassade skor för både inomhus- och utomhusarbete.

    UTBILDNING

    • Utbildning i arbetsteknik av utvalda representanter från respektive utdelningskontor.

    ARBETSRUTINER

    • Fördelning av arbetsmoment, utveckling av arbetsrutiner som exempelvis slingors sammansättning och anpassad användning av cyklar och motordrivna fordon.

    UTRUSTNING

    • Utveckling av hjälpmedel och utrustning, som exempelvis centralpostfack.

    De ovanstående förändringarna testas på pilotkontor före breddinförande.

    II. Åtgärder som kräver ytterligare planering och utvärdering för att kunna genomföras och som innebär medverkan av Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap

    Lokala åtgärder genom utveckling av den lokala arbetsorganisationen mot välfungerande teambildningar på utdelningskontoren.

    Under sommaren 2001 började man på utdelningskontoren införandet av en teambaserad arbetsorganisation genom att tillsätta teamledare som ansvarar för den löpande verksamheten. En ytterligare utveckling av denna organisations-form föreslås. Man skulle därmed öka delaktigheten bland personalen, vilket på sikt skulle leda till bättre och effektivare arbetsformer med större påverkansmöjligheter över det dagliga arbetet, större ansvarskänsla, större arbetstillfredsställelse och högre yrkesstolthet. Denna arbetsform skulle kunna vidga synen på vad som är ”det egna distriktet” och skulle vidare minska känsligheten för störningar. I samband med detta skulle en plan för ”Ständiga Förbättringar” introduceras, för att bygga in ett kontinuerligt kvalitetstänkande och ökad delaktighet i det dagliga arbetet. Sammantaget skulle man kunna uppnå bättre lokal anpassning, högre produktivitet och bättre kvalitet.

    CENTRALA ÅTGÄRDER

    Utredningen har visat att det funnits kommunikationsglapp mellan de olika nivåerna i organisationen och att brevbärarpersonalen upplever bristande delaktighet, toppstyrning och otillräcklig flexibilitet i fråga om lokala anpassningar. Detta synes ha påverkat arbetet med Bästa Metod negativt.

    En analys behöver göras över hur kommunikationsglapp och delaktighets-brister uppstår, med syfte att utveckla åtgärdsförslag för att förbättra infrastrukturen och kommunikationen mellan de olika organisationsnivåerna. Därigenom skapas förutsättningar att från centralt håll öka delaktigheten och på så sätt skapa en bättre verksamhet. Resultaten matchas sedan mot erfaren-heterna på lokal nivå för vidare åtgärder.

    Framgången med Bästa Metod varierar på de femton utdelningskontor som ingått i studien. Rapporten visar att olika lokala förhållanden och förut-sättningar påverkat utfallet med Bästa Metod. Detta är något som kan utredas närmare.

    Behovet av lokala anpassningar måste vägas mot behovet av en standardisering av arbetet enligt Bästa Metod. Hur denna avvägning kan göras är förknippad med användningen av manualen för Bästa Metod och dess fortsatta nytta. Vi menar att en manual bör tydliggöra vad som är kärnan i det nya systemet och därmed ska gälla överallt, men manualen bör också tydliggöra vad som kan anpassas lokalt, och ge ett stöd för hur detta kan ske. Manualen behöver vidareutvecklas och omarbetas för detta syfte.

    Utredningen visar att det i vissa avseenden finns en bristande överens-stämmelse mellan den bärande tanken bakom Bästa Metod och den ökade flexibilitet som krävs av brevbärarna i praktiken. Det gäller bland annat hur snabbt nyanställda eller ovana brevbärare kommer upp i arbetstakt när man kammar upp post på en ny slinga, hur introduktion av nyanställda sker, vilka kvalifikationer brevbärare bör ha och vilka effekter detta har på yrkes-stoltheten. Den höga medelåldern på brevbärarna i dag kommer att medföra många nyanställningar inom en 10-15-årsperiod. Dessa frågor är då viktiga att utreda inte minst ur produktivitets- och kvalitetshänseende.

    Mot bakgrund av ovanstående föreslås följande åtgärder som hänför sig till punkt II ovan:

    • Att identifiera kommunikationsglapp och delaktighetsbrister för att skapa förbättringsförslag och ledningsstrategier i syfte att förbättra verksamheten.

    • Utbildning i Människa-Teknik-Organisation (MTO) och Life Cycle Cost analyser (LCC), för ökad systemsyn och möjligheter att analysera och utvärdera teknikval och alternativa åtgärder, utifrån konsekvenser för systemprestanda, ekonomi och människorna i systemet. Det finns ett flertal möjliga åtgärder som kan få positiv effekt på inte bara belastnings-situationen för brevbärarna utan också på produktivitet och kvalitet.

    • Att starta en tidsbegränsad kampanj som bygger på delaktighet genom brevbärarnas förslag till och utveckling av hjälpmedel och produkter med syfte att underlätta arbetet.

    • Utveckling av arbetsorganisationen med inriktning mot flexibla team med ansvar för sitt specifika område med syfte att:

    • öka delaktigheten hos personalen,

    • förbättra informationsspridning och kommunikation,

    • skapa utrymme för lokala anpassningar,

    • öka arbetstillfredsställelsen,

    • skapa förutsättningar för ökad yrkesstolthet,

    • minska den fysiska belastningsproblematiken samt stressrelaterade faktorer,

    • förbättra den arbetsrelaterade hälsan,

    • förbättra kompetensen genom att utveckla en kompetensutvecklingstrappa,

    • optimera förutsättningarna för nyanställda, vikarier och brevbärare som arbetar på nya slingor,

    • utbilda instruktörer i varje team både ergonomiskt och för handledning av nybörjare,

    • minska känslighet för störningar i systemet,

    • öka produktiviteten och kvaliteten i verksamheten.

  • 203.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evaluation of intervention measures: a methodological approach2006Inngår i: 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, Maastricht, the Netherlands 10-14 July, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling , 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common for researchers to evaluate interventions by having the participants answer standardized questions before and after, and measuring the effect of the intervention as a statistical difference between the two. There is a risk that the results of such a calculation will be misleading due to the subject interpreting the response scales differently on each occasion. This risk has previously been observed by Golembiewski et al, who indicated that we are dealing with a psychometric problem set that is especially evident in interventions. The question is whether the individual’s own yardstick for assessing or valuing a certain circumstance/area is the same before and after the intervention, or whether the yardstick has changed due to the subject gaining new experience within the conceptual framework. Golembiewski calls this phenomenon beta change. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate empirically the occurrence of beta change and its possible consequences for the interpretation of the results, with the aid of a model devised by Terborg et al. The material is taken from a health-promoting intervention project in the mail distribution division of the Swedish Post Office.

  • 204.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forskarstött förändringsarbete i själva verket: Att förbättra arbetssituationen för 15 000 brevbärare2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling belyser forskarstött förändringsarbete, inom ”Servicenätet Posten”, den division inom Posten Sverige AB som ansvarar för postdistribution till kunderna. Förändringsarbetet har handlat om att förbättra arbetssituationen för 15 000 brevbärare.

    Den teoretiska grunden utgörs av ett systemtänkande där konceptet ”Människa-Teknik-Organisation” (MTO), används för att granska interventionsprocessen.

    Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling är att bidra till kunskapsutveckling-en om forskarstött förändringsarbete utifrån följande delsyften: 1) att illustrera hur ett systemtänkande i förändringsarbete påverkar förståelsen för hur systemkomponenterna Människa, Teknik och Organisation (MTO) interagerar i praktiken, 2) att exemplifiera hur den kunskapen kan omsättas i praktiken genom utveckling och implementering av MTO-anpassade lösningar i samverkan mellan forskare och praktiker, 3) att empiriskt exemplifiera hur former för participation kan bidra till framgångsrikt förändringsarbete genom analys och syntes av process och resultat.

    Forskningsprojektet har bedrivits med en interaktiv ansats. Den interaktiva ansatsen har gjort det möjligt att belysa samverkan mellan forskare och praktiker på ett verklig-hetsnära och realistiskt sätt under fyra projektfaser fördelade över en femårsperiod.

    Den inledande projektfasen innebar en diagnostisering av problematiken. Ett antal åtgärdsförslag presenterades av forskargruppen och ledde vidare till ett forskarstött ut-vecklingsarbete under en andra projektfas då ett underlag till olika förbättringsåtgärder arbetades fram. Detta inbegrep utveckling av såväl teknisk som arbetsorganisatorisk ka-raktär för att åstadkomma effektiva och hälsosamma arbetsprocesser för brevbärare inom postutdelningsverksamheten. I en tredje projektfas testades och utvärderades hela åtgärdspaketet genom implementering på ett pilotkontor. I en fjärde och sista projektfas implementerades förbättringsåtgärderna på samtliga 602 postutdelningskontor i landet och forskarna gjorde en utvärdering.

    Resultaten visar hur man genom att anlägga ett MTO-perspektiv i förändringsarbete ökar möjligheterna att få klarhet i vilka faktorer som påverkar effektiviteten i ett pro-duktionssystem i sin helhet. Den tvärvetenskapliga forskningssatsningen i kombination med samverkan forskare/praktiker visade sig vara en förutsättning för att skapa förståel-se för interaktionen mellan M-T-O-komponenterna. Avhandlingen visar vidare hur olika former för participation i praktiken kan bidra till framgångsrikt förändringsarbete både vad gäller process och resultat. Den utförliga redogörelsen för interventionsprocessen, forskarrollens skiftande karaktär samt hindrande och främjande faktorer för forskarstött förändringsarbete, utgör andra viktiga kunskapsbidrag.

  • 205.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lidingörapporten I: en utvärdering i närtid av brevbärarnas arbetssituation2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna utvärdering har utförts av en forskargrupp vid Avdelningen för Industriell arbetsvetenskap vid Linköpings universitet. Det övergripande syftet var att medverka till att förbättra brevbärarnas arbetssituation (BAS). Utvärderingen genomfördes på uppdrag av Servicenätet Leverans, Posten Sverige AB.

    Syftet var närmare bestämt att ge en samlad bild av de olika BAS-åtgärderna i tre avseenden, nämligen

    1) att utvärdera effekten av förbättringsåtgärder för främjande av brevbärarnas arbetssituation,

    2) att utvärdera hur själva införandeprocessen fungerat samt

    3) att dra lärdomar inför implementering av förbättringsåtgärderna vid övriga postutdelningskontor i landet.

    Arbetet med att ta fram konkreta lösningar påbörjades i fyra delprojekt inom BAS II våren 2003 och avrapporterades under tidig höst 2003. Samtidigt startade förberedelser för att utvärdera helhetseffekten från samtliga åtgärdsförslag enligt BAS II på ett ”pilotkontor”, där valet föll på ett utdelningskontor på Lidingö.

    En projektgrupp med representanter för personalen på pilotkontoret, medlemmar från BAS-projekten samt forskargruppen planerade tillsammans hur de olika förbättringsåtgärderna skulle införas och utvärderas.

    De övergripande förbättringsåtgärderna gällde huvudsakligen

    - införande av manual för organisering av inomhusarbetet,

    - införande av ny märkning av kamfacken,

    - införande av ny arbetsbelysning vid kamfacken samt

    - utbildning i arbetsteknik.

    Dessutom testades och utvärderades en motordriven konstruktion för höj- och sänkbarhet av kamfacken.

    Implementeringen och datainsamlingen genomfördes på Lidingökontoret under perioden oktober 2003 till och med maj 2004. Inledningsvis genomförde forskargruppen deltagande observation av arbetssättet på utdelningskontoret. Därefter deltog 35 brevbärare genom att dels besvara fem delenkäter och dels medverka i fyra gruppintervjuer. Intervjuer genomfördes även med de två teamledarna, dirigenten samt postcenterchefen. Utvärderingen av förändringsarbetet handlar om hur resultaten upplevts, hur själva förändringsarbetet eller införandeprocessen fungerat och vilka lärdomar som kan dras av detta.

    Resultaten visar att förbättringsåtgärderna i sin helhet upplevdes mycket positivt av såväl brevbärare som kontorsledningen. Förbättringen av belysning och märkning var de åtgärder som lättast lät sig utvärderas på kort sikt eftersom de upplevdes ge en omedelbar och påtaglig förbättring. Arbetet med Manualen fordrade däremot organisatoriska förändringar av arbetsprocesserna på utdelningskontoret. Denna typ av förändringar kräver mer tid för att nå rättvisande resultat än vad projektplanen medgav. Detsamma gäller utbildningen i arbetsteknik som kräver en förändring i arbetssätt, vilket tar längre tid att lära sig.

    Brevbärarnas åsikter varierade beträffande själva införandeprocessen men generellt upplevdes vissa brister. Dessa minskade deras positiva upplevelser av förbättrings-åtgärderna.

    I ett pilotprojekts natur ligger att man vill dra lärdomar inför framtiden, i det här fallet lärdomar som andra postutdelningskontor kan dra nytta av vid införandet av BAS-åtgärderna men också lärdomar för personer som har ledningsansvar i projekt- och förändringsarbete. Som grund för de råd som ges i det avslutande avsnittet ligger de erfarenheter som medarbetarna på Lidingökontoret har delat med sig av.

  • 206.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Perceived Participation: a Key Factor for Successful Implementation of a New Working Concept2002Inngår i: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Congress of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 1-3 of October 2002, Norrköping, Sweden, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling , 2002, s. 229-234Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Post Office is undergoing large-scale restructuring including outsourcing of the mail service division to an independent market driven organisation. As a consequence of exposure to competition, the local delivery offices were rationalised by introducing a new working concept called “Best Method”. The implementation process varied substantially in terms of success at the local delivery offices. The aim of this paper is to identify factors crucial to the success of the process. The findings emerge from a study performed during autumn 2001 at fifteen local delivery offices in different parts of Sweden. It was carried out by participant observation, 60 in-depth interviews and a questionnaire answered by 524 postal personnel. A number of factors related to a successful implementation process have been identified as vital, such as participation, local and central managerial support and local adaptation of a managerial tool. In order to arrive at a more participative approach, an infrastructure is suggested that will improve information flow and communication both horizontally and vertically in the organisation. This calls for further research activities, which are planned in a second phase.

  • 207.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Utvärdering av interventionsarbete med hälsofrämjande åtgärder: en metodologisk ansats2007Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 83, nr 2, s. 130-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författaren arbetar som doktorand med en avhandling om förändringsarbete inom postutdelningsverksamheten, Servicenätet Leverans, Posten Sverige AB. Verksamheten har sedan mitten av 1990-talet har varit föremål för genomgripande omstrukturering och effektivisering för att möta kraven på konkurrens från andra aktörer på marknaden. För brevbärarpersonalen har detta medfört introduktion av ett nytt arbetskoncept, vilket har påkallat insatser för att främja brevbärarpersonalens hälsa och välbefinnande under arbetsutförandet.

  • 208.
    Karltun, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On Stage: Acting for development of businesses and ergonomics in woodworking SMEs2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reports findings and results from studies of development work and change processes in the secondary woodworking industry. The purpose with the research is to increase the knowledge on how companies can initiate change and to increase their ability to change. The dual aim of improving both business and working conditions served as a guiding condition for the research. Case studies and action research were performed in small companies, mainly with less than 100 employees and in some cases less than 20 employees.

    The thesis encompasses six papers addressing different topics within the framework of development work and change processes. Topics elaborated are how performance concerning the ergonomic situation in a company can be measured and how the content and process of ISO 9000 implementation as well as standardisation influence system performance and working conditions. Furthermore, a framework for how change is enacted in SMEs and its effects on ergonomic considerations is suggested. A methodology for initiating change efforts in complex and ambiguous problem situations is presented. Finally the different expert and participant roles in an organisational change effort are elaborated and analysed with reference to experiences from previous case studies and theory.

    Together, the papers and the thesis emphasize the importance of action and work activities as a base for change. It is in the conflicting work activities or work conduct of differing perspectives where many of the drivers of change can be found. I also argue that this is a main reason to give good working conditions utmost importance for organisation performance. Further, I conclude that the six papers together contribute to a theoretical basis for developing small firms and attractive workplaces. It is indicated that the results are relevant to small manufacturing firms, while neither organisational structure nor resources available are the same as in larger companies. Moreover, the organisational size has a number of implications on aspects like visibility, available theoretical knowledge, vulnerability, formalisation, institutionalised organisational inertia etc. that will alter the demands on the change process. Many of the results are not limited to woodworking industry; the technical content of the ergonomics problems will however be different in other firms.

    Delarbeid
    1. Use of Key Variables for Improving the Ergonomic Situation in a Company
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Use of Key Variables for Improving the Ergonomic Situation in a Company
    1994 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, 1994, s. 235-240Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14670 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-10-01 Laget: 2007-10-01
    2. Working Conditions and Effects of ISO 9000 in Six Furniture-Making Companies - Implementation and Processes
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Working Conditions and Effects of ISO 9000 in Six Furniture-Making Companies - Implementation and Processes
    1998 (engelsk)Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 225-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    What effects will the implementation of the quality standard ISO 9000 have regarding working conditions and competitive advantages? Which are the most important change process characteristics for assuring improved working conditions and other desired effects? These are the main questions behind this study of six furniture-making companies which implemented ISO 9000 during the period 1991-1994. The results show that customer requirement was the dominant goal to implement ISO 9000. Five of the six companies succeeded in gaining certification. The influence on working conditions was limited, but included better order and housekeeping, more positive attitudes towards discussing quality shortcomings, a few workplace improvements, work enrichment caused by additional tasks within the quality system and a better understanding of external customer demands. Among the negative effects were new, apparently meaningless, tasks for individual workers as well as more stress and more physically strenuous work. The effects on the companies included a decrease in external quality-related costs and improved delivery precision. The study confirms the importance for efficient change of the design of the change process, and identifies ‘improvement methodology’ as the most important process characteristic. Improved working conditions are enhanced by added relevant strategic goals and by a participative implementation process.

    Emneord
    quality standard, change process, ergonomics, ISO 9000, furniture industry
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14671 (URN)10.1016/S0003-6870(97)00061-6 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-10-01 Laget: 2007-10-01
    3. Standardisation - A Means for Creating Developing Work?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Standardisation - A Means for Creating Developing Work?
    1998 (engelsk)Inngår i: Ergonomics for Global Quality and Productivity: Proceedings, 1998Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14672 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-10-01 Laget: 2007-10-01
    4. Change processes and ergonomics improvements in SMEs
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Change processes and ergonomics improvements in SMEs
    2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 135-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the question of how change processes can create ergonomic improvements in small- and medium-sized industrial enterprises. Drawing on experiences from two described and analyzed case studies in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and from ISO 9000 implementation processes previously studied, a hypothetical change framework is suggested through a theory generating approach. It separates change into action-driven change, which is an active experiential improvement process, and into vision-driven change, which is of a visionary design character. The ability to bring about problem solving into action was important for the success of the change processes. Furthermore, the nature of different hampering mechanisms concerning ergonomic improvements is discussed.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14673 (URN)10.1002/hfm.10055 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-10-01 Laget: 2007-10-01
    5. SMECA - A methodology for organisational change in SMEs
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>SMECA - A methodology for organisational change in SMEs
    2007 (engelsk)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14674 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-10-01 Laget: 2007-10-01
    6. Deltagare, experter och förändringsagenter i hälsofrämjande utvecklingsarbete [Ergonomists, experts and participats in change: how do they relate?]
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Deltagare, experter och förändringsagenter i hälsofrämjande utvecklingsarbete [Ergonomists, experts and participats in change: how do they relate?]
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, nr 2, s. 156-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Emneord
    Health Promotion, Human Engineering, Extraction and Processing Industry, Humans, Intervention Studies, Theoretical Models, Occupational Health, Organizational Innovation, Professional Competence, Research Personnel
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14675 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-10-01 Laget: 2007-10-01
  • 209.
    Kawczynski, Lukasz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för produktionsekonomi.
    The Design of a Packing Line in a Manufacturing Company2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s competitive global economy, the focus is on faster delivery of orders at lower total costs. In this paper we are interested in several aspects of order picking systems. We examine the influence of station layout, storage policy, picking policy and sorting solution on order picking system performance. On each of the analysis we consider a few solutions. We determine influence of different number of station in raw on picking system performance. We design the replenishment system supported by kanban philosophy with implemented economical order quantity (EOQ) and reorder point (ROP). The picking system is designed for assumed product’s demand values. The assessment of each of the solution is done through Arena simulation model. The results show that properly designed station with reasonable storage policy and implemented batching policy brings significant raise in order picking system productivity. In addition, we found that proper sortation system logic allows for more equal workload and reduction of maximum queue lengths. The results offer solutions to managers looking to implement improvements in order picking systems.

  • 210.
    Keller, Kristian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Lundberg, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Framtagning och miljömärkning av kvicksilverfri xenonstrålkastare2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The project this report is handling has been implemented on NBB, Nordisk Bilbelysning AB in Linköping. The company produces and develops lightning and searchlights for all types of vehicles. Lately NBB´s supplier of electronics, OSRAM, has developed a mercuryfree xenon lightsource. Mercury is one of the most hazardous environmental waste and to get rid of the mercury entirely in the lightsource is a big step that means alot for the environment.

    This lightsource will be placed in one of NBB´s worksearchlights called My, and will be sold as an alternative to mercurycontaining searchlights. NBB wants to put an environmental label on this product and they want to have essential information about the product that is needed for the production. That is what the project has handled. A study of environmental labeling has been made witch has led to that an environmental declaration type II will be used as labeling and marketing for the environmental properties the serachlight has.

    The purpose of this master's thesis is to help and support NBB in environmental labeling and developing of a My searchlight with mercuryfree lightsource. A environmental labeled searchlight would mean a bigger place on the market and consequently lowered environmental affect.

    Lifecycleanalysis with the program ECO-it shows that a mercuryfree lightsource in the searchlight would not involve a environmental profit compared to a mercurycontaining lightsource because the lifelenght of a mercuryfree lightsource is 500 hours shorter. This means that the lightsource has to be changed more frequently if you choose the mercury free alternative and that affects the environment.

    The lifecycleanalysis also shows that the transports of components affects the environment little in compare to the production of the product and therefore a change to Swedish suppliers has not been implemented.

    Temperatur and lightmeasures has been made and compared between the searchlight containing mercury with the searchlight not containing mercury. The results of the measurements shows that the flow of light from a mercury free searchlight is about 15% lower and the temperature inside 5°C higher. This means that the construction not has to be changed as the temperature is on a acceptable level.

    The use of mercury in lightsources will likely not be used forever as new law demands becomes stricter and stricter by time. The environmental declaration that was made contains among other things a list of materials of the product and information about the products lifecycle. A logotype has also been suggested as a environmental label logotype for the company to use. The environmental declaration will be used as marketing of the product on the company website for exemple.

  • 211.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Micro-foundations of value-based pricing and selling2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Enabling customer value creation is central to marketing theory and practice. Yet, doing so does not ensure that supplier firms profit from it. Value-based pricing and selling come with the prospect of translating customer value creation into greater profits for suppliers. However, despite sustained interest, only a limited number of firms emphasize value-based pricing and selling. Existing research has highlighted organizational challenges as potential reasons. Unfortunately, this focus on organizational challenges obscures the role of individuals within organizations (i.e., its micro-foundations), such as the fact that managers and salespeople determine and realize prices. The purpose of this thesis is thus to describe and analyze the micro-foundations of value-based pricing and selling in business markets.

    The thesis’ conceptual framework introduces bounded rationality and heterogeneity—two overlooked forces—to investigate the affective, cognitive, and motivational micro-foundations of value-based pricing and selling. The thesis’ empirical foundation consists of five papers that investigate the microfoundations suggested by the framework.

    The findings indicate that research would benefit from a wider variety of research approaches. Currently, insights into micro-foundations are lacking, in part due to the focus on research designs and theories aimed at the organizational level; experimental designs and theories from psychology would allow amendments to prior research. Furthermore, individual rationality and individual differences play a role. In this regard, managers’ cognitive biases impact upon the extent to which firms focus on value-based pricing. Moreover, price presentation impacts managers’ value perception and purchase intention. The findings also suggest that managers’ personalities and salespeople’s experience and learning orientation are important individual differences affecting the emphasis on valuebased pricing and selling. Consequently, affective, cognitive and motivational micro-foundations—arising due to bounded rationality and heterogeneity— explain some of the challenges associated with value-based pricing and selling.

    This thesis contributes with insights into several micro-foundations affecting value-based pricing and selling. In so doing, the thesis belongs to a growing stream of research that is shifting the focus from organizational processes to the individual foundations of value-based pricing and selling. The thesis also provides suggestions on how managers can use micro-foundations to the advantage of their firms.

    Delarbeid
    1. Pricing strategy: A review of 22 years of marketing research
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Pricing strategy: A review of 22 years of marketing research
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 78, s. 101-110Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the development and current state of pricing strategy research by undertaking a content analysis of 515 articles published in leading academic journals between 1995 and 2016. The results suggest several developments in research focus and methodology; recent research has focused more strongly on services and applies more rigorous research designs. The results also indicate a persistent focus on consumer markets and economic theories, as well as an increasing consideration of demand-side respondents, at the expense of supply-side respondents. An important feature of this review is a set of actionable takeaways, with both theoretical and methodological implications for pricing strategy research.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2017
    Emneord
    Pricing strategy; Literature review; Content analysis; Marketing; Takeaways
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137345 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.05.005 (DOI)000405053800010 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Torsten Soderbergs Stiftelse, Sweden [E24/14]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-05-13 Laget: 2017-05-13 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-21bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Does managerial personality influence pricing practices under uncertainty?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Does managerial personality influence pricing practices under uncertainty?
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 26, nr 7, s. 771-784Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - While marketing and management research suggests that managers individual characteristics influence pricing decisions, the influence of personality traits in this context remains unclear. This study aims to explore the relationship between the five basic personality traits of the five-factor model (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness and neuroticism) and three basic pricing practices (value-, competition- and cost-informed).

    Design/methodology/approach - On the basis of a non-experimental decision-making scenario, the analysis examines the pricing decisions of 57 managers in relation to a new business service.

    Findings - The results suggest that managers conscientiousness and openness to experience are positively related to preference for value- informed pricing. Similarly, managers agreeableness is positively related to preference for competition- informed pricing and managers openness to experience and agreeableness are positively related to preference for cost-informed pricing.

    Research limitations/implications - The cross-sectional study design does not support causal inference, and the modest sample size may limit the external validity of the findings.

    Practical implications - By increasing awareness of the influence of personality on pricing preferences, the findings are of relevance to managers who are directly involved in pricing decisions. Additionally, the findings are informative for managers who must assign responsibility for pricing authority within firms.

    Originality/value - This empirical exploration of the relationship between certain personality traits and specific pricing practices contributes to the literature on psychological aspects of pricing theory by showing how managerial personality influences pricing preferences under uncertainty.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017
    Emneord
    Personality; Pricing; PLS modelling; Judgement and decision making
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143961 (URN)10.1108/JPBM-11-2016-1352 (DOI)000417505100009 ()2-s2.0-85038432657 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-12-29 Laget: 2017-12-29 Sist oppdatert: 2019-10-31
    3. Value-based pricing and cognitive biases: An overview for business markets
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Value-based pricing and cognitive biases: An overview for business markets
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 68, s. 86-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate how cognitive biases inhibit value-based pricing practices among managers in business markets, this article considers five different cognitive biases—perceived lack of control, herding, fixed-pie bias, ambiguity aversion, and egocentric fairness bias—and their effects on value-based pricing. Despite recent calls for more research on the psychological aspects of pricing, few studies have focused on business markets. Drawing on research in psychology and marketing for its theoretical foundation, this overview extends the limited body of existing research. The article's key contribution is to explain how psychological challenges affect value-based pricing practices, with implications and suggestions for further research.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2018
    Emneord
    Value-based pricing; Cognitive bias; Debiasing; Business market; Managerial decision-making
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141951 (URN)10.1016/j.indmarman.2017.09.028 (DOI)000424310200008 ()2-s2.0-85031322039 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-14 Laget: 2017-10-14 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-21bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 212.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pricing value and selling value: A view on individuals within organizations2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    At the heart of long-term success lies firms’ ability to provide customers with products and services that enable customer value creation and firms’ ability to capture value in the form of profits. To this effect, managers and salespeople have an impact on a firm’s value creation and value capture ability through their pricing and selling behavior and decisions. Value-based pricing and value-based selling are two practices that allow firms to create customer value and capture value for the firm that have witnessed a recent surge in interest. Despite this growing interest, many investigations reside on the firm level, and thus, factors influencing individual managers and salespeople in the usage of both practices have been rather overlooked. The purpose of this licentiate thesis is to investigate factors influencing those individuals’ practice of pricing and selling value.

    The research is based on three articles that investigate pricing and selling value from different vantage points. The articles include a literature review that shows developments in and the current state of pricing strategy research; a study investigating the effects of managerial personality on the usage of value-based pricing for a new industrial service; and a survey that explores salesperson’s usage of value-based selling in the steel industry.

    The thesis finds that pricing strategy research increasingly considers customer value by investigating strategies grounded in value-based pricing practices and increasing focus on customer value through more research on services. Further, the magnitude of internal and external factors influences managers and salespersons’ use of value-based pricing and selling. Finally, the research outlines approaches for managers responsible for pricing and selling to deal with the effects of the identified factors on value-based pricing and selling.

    The research contributes with an exploration and assessment of factors influencing managers and salespeople in using value-based pricing and selling and discusses how firms can deal with these factors. In doing so, the research contributes to pricing and selling literature and the evolving focus on individual aspects in pricing and selling value.

  • 213.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Affordable reconfigurable assembly tooling: an aircraft development and manufacturing perspective2002Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry has changed in recent years. Increased globalization has led to a situation where few manufacturers build their own complete products "in-house". This situation is no different in the aerospace industry. In fact, aircraft manufacturers who build their complete aircraft in­ house are uncommon today. Aircraft manufacturers have, more and more, become specialists in limited areas of development and manufacturing. As specialists, aircraft manufacturers have focused on a narrow field of product categories. It would be a great advantage if these manufacturers had an assembly system that could produce several kinds of product categories using the same production equipment, instead of having one dedicated piece of equipment for each assembly.

    Today, the most common solution for aircraft assembly is Conventional Tooling (CT). CT is based on the same principles used during the early days of aircraft assembly tooling. The main principle of CT is that the fixture/tool is fabricated according to the shape of the workpiece, and that every assembly to be built requires its own unique tool. The problem with this type of tooling, however, is that developing one tool for each assembly is expensive and takes up a lot of storage space.

    The next generation of aircraft will be more advanced than their predecessors as world-class aircraft manufacturer employ the newest technologies in every new aircraft they manufacture. Building an advanced product like an aircraft involves continuous changes, both in the development of new aircraft and in the development of manufacturing technologies for the serial manufacture of aircraft. One of the main challenges for tomorrow' s aircraft industry will be to develop assembly systems that can manage changes within one product. Aircraft manufacturers would also benefit from using the same flexible assembly equipment for many product types, since product volumes in the aircraft industry are much smaller than in other industries.

    This thesis presents the theory of Conventional Tooling and its advantages and limitations, as well as new solutions. Given the advantages from both Conventional Tooling and the new tooling methods, together with general aircraft assembly requirements, a synthesizes has been made which has resulted in a new concept called Affordable Reconfigurable (Assembly) Tooling (ART). ART is based on using a robot to reconfigure the moveable fixturing units, called Dynamic Modules. The Dynamic Modules can also be detached from the Static Framework and attached again in a new configuration. Reconfiguration enables the ART concept to make changeovers between product types within a product family, and modularity enables the tool to be rebuilt between product families. The conclusion of this thesis is that if the enabling technologies work, i.e. if the technical solutions for ART are feasible, then the ART concept could represent a promising solution for manufacturers striving to meet future requirements for aircraft manufacturing in a turbulent globalized marketplace.

  • 214.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reconfigurable tooling for airframe assembly: a state-of-the-art review of the related literature and a short presentation of a new tooling concept2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From the early days of aircraft manufacturing Dedicated Tooling has been used in the assembly process to ensure the attainment of assembly tolerances and product quality. Dedicated Tooling clamps the aircraft parts to be assembled into the jig to enable assembly by riveting. However, increased competition in the aircraft industry has driven the need to improve quality while reducing cost and in turn the need for innovative solutions to accomplish this.

    In this review paper the possibility of using metrology to increase the position accuracy in robotics will be examined. This is necessary to be able to use robotics in assembly of aircraft parts with the appropriate accuracy. Also, because of the small product volumes in the aircraft industry, the jigs must be flexible in order to assemble more than one structure in each jig. Solving these two problems could be the break through for starting to use robotics in aircraft assembly at a higher rate, and doing so in a cost-effective way.

    By then reviewing literature of today's flexible tooling technology in the aircraft industry, the conclusion indicates that there is a gap to fill in aircraft assembly tooling. Modular Tools is one solution where standard aluminium profiles are used to manufacture jigs with some degree of flexibility. Another way is pogo fixturing, which uses sticks to hold airframe parts together in the assembly process. The sticks can only be reconfigured in a limited range, and are not cost-effective. By using Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling, the jigs will not only have greater ability to be reconfigured, but by using robotics for the reconfiguration task as well as for drilling, riveting and other material handling tasks, the system will also be cost effective.

  • 215.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Ingvar
    Novator AB.
    Ennis, Mark
    Novator AB.
    Robotic orbital drilling of structures for aerospace applications2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing research into orbital drilling using standard industrial robots. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project - ADFAST*. Generally it is difficult to use standard industrial robots to automate drilling in the aerospace industry. The stiffness of the standard robotic device is not sufficient to resist the deflections caused by the cutting forces from the drilling process, therefore it is difficult to achieve the tight hole tolerance requirements. Orbital drilling creates lower axial cutting forces compared to conventional drilling and therefore allows the use of low-cost standard industrial robots for drilling holes within the required hole tolerances. This paper presents results from a study where forces, moments and dislocations produced during orbital- and conventional drilling have been measured.

  • 216.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Loser, Raimund
    Leica Geosystems AG.
    6DOF metrology-integrated robot control2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing research into Metrology-integrated robot control. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project – ADFAST*. The ADFAST project tries to implement the use of industrial robots in low-volume production, high-demand-on-accuracy operations and for dynamic force compensation. To detect and compensate deflection in industrial robots during a process, the robot uses a metrology system. The metrology system supervises the tool center point of the robot as it executes its processes. Leica has recently released a new metrology system; the LTD800, which measures distances with laser interferometry and can simultaneously measure orientation of targets, through photogrammetry, using an additional camera on top of the measuring unit. This paper will describe theory and results from tests performed on integrating the LTD800 with the robot.

  • 217.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Loser, Raimund
    Leica Geosystems AG, Metrology Division, Switzerland.
    Cooke, Andrew
    BAE Systems, Advanced Technology Centre, United Kingdom.
    Sunnanbo, Albin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Von Arb, Konrad
    Leica Geosystems AG, Metrology Division, Switzerland.
    Metrology-integrated industrial robots: calibration, implementation and testing2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the 35th ISR (International Symposium on Robotics), 2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents integration of a metrology system and an industrial robot. The metrology system consists of a laser tracker that measures the distance to a prism with high accuracy and a camera that through photogrammetry measures the orientation of a reflector. Both laser prism and camera reflector is integrated to a 6D-Reflector that is attached close to the TCP of an industrial robot. Tracker and robot is connected to a PC on a TCP/IP network. The PC takes measurements with the tracker, and thereby compensates the robot to reach high absolute accuracy in the robot positioning (+/-50 μm). The 6D-Reflector has multi-functionality and simplifies calibration procedures. This paper explains the architecture of the system and the methods for calibration.

  • 218.
    Kilbo, Per
    et al.
    Swerea IVF.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ström, Mikael
    Swerea IVF.
    OEM advantages to prosper on the remanufacturingand service market2011Inngår i: Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Remanufacturing: July 26-29, Glasgow, UK, 2011, s. 330-336Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 219.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    How World Leading Manufacturers Can Achieve Differentiation Through E-Business: New Services, Enhanced Relationships, and Reduced Costs2007Inngår i: 18th Information Resources Management Association International Conference, Vancouver, Canada: Managing Worldwide Operations and Communications with Information Technology, Hershey, New York: IGI Global , 2007, s. 502-506Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    E-business development is today driven by mature and established companies and is becoming an important tool to increase competitive advantage and to sustain profitability. This paper investigates how world-leading manufacturers can achieve differentiation through their use of e-business. Many companies use e-business as vehicles to launch new information-based service, as an important enabler to enhance and deepen customer relationships, and to reduce costs associated with customer management. Using e-business in this way will increase the opportunities for differentiation and create sustainable competitive advantage. Successful employment of e-business creates services that retain current customers and attract new ones as well as justifies premium prices and keeps low-cost competitors in check.

  • 220.
    Kjellgren, Carina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Larsson, Adéle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Ledarskap och delaktighet: en fallstudie om ledarskapets betydelse för medarbetarnas delaktighet2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens övergripande syfte är att studera fenomenen ledarskap och delaktighet i en kommunal verksamhet, mer specifik avses att undersöka ledarskapets betydelse för medarbetarnas delaktighet. Avsikten med föreliggande studie är således att studera vad i ledarskapet som ledarna och medarbetarna uppfattar påverkar delaktigheten, och hur dessa faktorer påverkar delaktigheten, stödjande eller hindrande. Den teoretiska referensramen presenterar en forskningsöversikt över ledarskapsforskning, delaktighetsbegreppets komplexitet samt faktorer i ledarskapet som påverkar medarbetarnas delaktighet.

    Empirin har inhämtats genom tio kvalitativa intervjuer på två enheter inom en kommun belägen i Östergötland. Resultaten visar fler olika faktorer i ledarskapet som påverkar medarbetarnas delaktighet. Faktorerna som framkommit i studien som verkar stödjande är; visa intresse, förtroende, tillgänglighet, tillåtande, belöning och engagemang. De faktorer som påverkar både stödjande och hindrande är; relation och kommunikation. Även hur de intervjuade definierar begreppet delaktighet påverkar delaktigheten. Vi kan härleda alla faktorer förutom tillgänglighet till befintlig forskning. Undersökningen visar således att fler faktorer i ledarskapet har betydelse för medarbetarnas delaktighet.

  • 221.
    Kjellsdotter Ivert, Linea
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dreyer, Heidi
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Kaipia, Riikka
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Contingency between S & OP design and planning environment2015Inngår i: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 747-773Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand how companies design sales and operations planning (S&OP) contingent on the planning environment (PE).

    Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of the literature, the paper creates an analytical framework identifying the main constructs related to the PE and S&OP design, which is the basis for gathering and analysing qualitative data from eight cases in the food industry. The findings highlight the relations between S&OP and the PE, and are used for generating three propositions.

    Findings – Responding to the complex and uncertain PE, the companies set up S&OP on a stockkeeping unit (SKU) level, with the possibility of re-planning and a flexible planning horizon, thus differing

    from what has generally been suggested in the literature. In addition, the companies are aligning the inputs, activities, and outcomes of the S&OP process to the PE. Particularly important environmental contingencies are uncertainty connected to demand and supply, frequent product launches, and production network complexity. Product-related variables have a lower impact on the S&OP design.

    Research limitations/implications – The present study is limited to one industry only and a  comparison between industries with larger data sets would be valuable in future studies. The study selected cases based on their S&OP maturity; further studies need to explore the effect of the alignment of S&OP and the PE on the planning performance.

    Originality/value – In the literature, S&OP is presented as a generic process with a strict formal design that is equal for all companies. The study provides insights into how companies adjust S&OP according to the PE.

  • 222.
    Kollberg, Beata
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Balanced Scorecard and Learning in Organisations2002Inngår i: Arbete, Människa, Miljö och Nordisk Ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, nr 1, s. 13-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 223.
    Kollberg, Beata
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Balanced Scorecard and Learning in Organisations2002Inngår i: Conference Proceedings: Nordic Ergonomic Society (NES), 2002Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 224.
    Kollberg, Beata
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kammerlind, Peter
    Qulturum, Landstinget i Jönköping.
    Henriks, Göran
    Qulturum, Landstinget i Jönköping.
    Development of macro level performance measurementsystems in health care services2010Inngår i: 17th International Annual EurOMA Conference Managing Operations in Service Economies: Proceedings papers, Porto: Catholic University of Portugal , 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increased interest for performance measurement in health care, few authorshave studied how top managers on a macro level develop performance measurement (PM)systems. The purpose is to identify factors that enable the development of macro level PMsystems in health care. Based on a case study in nine top management teams in Swedishhealth care, four enabling factors are identified: building an infrastructure, using tools forvisualizing measures, selecting useful macro level measures, and expressing the purpose asa means to improve clinical practice rather than the PM system per se.Despite the increased interest for performance measurement in health care, few authorshave studied how top managers on a macro level develop performance measurement (PM)systems. The purpose is to identify factors that enable the development of macro level PMsystems in health care. Based on a case study in nine top management teams in Swedishhealth care, four enabling factors are identified: building an infrastructure, using tools forvisualizing measures, selecting useful macro level measures, and expressing the purpose asa means to improve clinical practice rather than the PM system per se.

  • 225.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Service productivity gains through information and communication technology applications: A service marketing approach2008Inngår i: International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, ISSN 1743-8268, E-ISSN 1743-8276, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 96-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on examples from Information and Communication Technology- (ICT-) based improvements in service productivity in the service organisations of three manufacturing firms, this paper argues for a service-centred approach towards productivity. When improving the productivity of industrial services, one of the three profitability-generating strategies, cost-efficiency, revenue effectiveness and capacity utilisation – or a combination – can be used. Increased standardisation and automation is a consequence of technological development, making capacity less a constraint in services and even if ICT applications often primarily improve cost efficiency, the elements improved vary depending on the solution implemented. Thus, ICT can enhance existing service processes and enable new service offerings to increase overall profitability. A productivity model for ICT-based services is presented and it is suggested that central coordination is often required in order to develop ICT-based services.

  • 226.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Design Space Configuration for Minimizing Design Information Entropy2015Inngår i: ICoRD’15 - Research into Design Across Boundaries Volume 1: Theory, Research Methodology, Aesthetics, Human Factors and Education / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, New Delhi, India: Springer India , 2015, s. 51-60Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper concepts for quantitative theory of design are developed. The design process is viewed as a process of increasing the information of the product/system using concept from information theory. The creation and evolution of design space and information entropy are central concepts that are studied in this paper. Furthermore, axiomatic design is discussed in relation to this, and it is shown that the two fundamental axioms are likely to be dependent.

    The design information entropy is used as a state that reflects both complexity and refinement, and it is argued that it can be useful as some measure of design effort and design quality. It provides a tool to describe the relation between a design, and the design space from which it is derived as well as for quantitative description for various aspects of design, both structural information regarding architecture and connectivity, as well as for parameter values, both discrete and continuous. In this paper it is also shown to be useful as a measure of quality when configuring design spaces, such as in  product platforms, and when setting up parameterization for design.

  • 227.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Denzler, Patrick
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Mats
    Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Production system and material efficiency challenges for large scale introduction of complex materials2017Inngår i: Advanced Materials Proceedings, ISSN 2002-4428, Vol. 2, nr 8, s. 492-499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper links production system research to advanced material research for the vehicle industry. Facilitated by need for reduction of fuel use, the automotive industry is pushing a radical change from using steel structures to new mixed materials structures. In production systems optimised for steel, the changes will affect productivity and material efficiency. Four industrial case studies focusing on production economy and productivity give implications of production technology demands on the material selection regarding new joining techniques and additive or forming methods which has to be investigated when considering new materials. Material efficiency analysis shows that minimising spill in production operations and regulatory demand of recycling need to be considered in material development, which implies both design for disassembly, advanced separation processes and use of recycled raw materials. To be successful in new material introduction, new information flows and knowledge sharing moving from operations and manufacturing development to materials development and design are needed. The material developers could use axiomatic design strategies to structure the production system demands on the materials. State of the art lightweight producers in vehicle and automotive industry are likely early adopters to advanced lightweight structures with need of information flows between material development and operations.

  • 228.
    Kurilova, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, s. 3225-3236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a viable way to prolong the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts. Despite its economic, environmental, and social benefits, remanufacturing is associated with many challenges related to core (used product or its part) availability, timing and quality. The aim of this paper is to study how lean production could be used to tackle remanufacturing process challenges and contribute to shorter lead times. To meet this aim, we conducted a literature review and case studies of four remanufacturing companies. The case companies remanufacturing challenges were: (1) a lack of material requirements planning system, (2) poor core information, (3) a lack of core material, (4) poor spare parts information, (5) a lack of spare parts material, (6) insufficient quality management practices, (7) large inventories, (8) stochastic remanufacturing processes, (9) a lack of supply-demand balance, and (10) insufficient automation. These challenges contribute to long and variable remanufacturing process lead times. To tackle remanufacturing challenges, seven lean-based improvements with a major effect on improvements in lead time were suggested: standard operations, continuous flow, Kanban, teamwork, employee cross-training, layout for continuous flow, and supplier partnership. Providing that the suggested improvements are implemented, a possible lead time reduction of 83-99 per cent was projected. 

  • 229.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lean Remanufacturing: addressing system challenges2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Environmental Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing (Eco-Design -15), 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with remanufacturing is emphasized through delivering same or better than original product quality and prolonging physical product performance. However, remanufacturing faces challenges related to complex material and information flows. Therefore in order to sustain competitive some remanufacturers investigate opportunity to improve through lean production.

    The aim with this paper is to define remanufacturing challenges from a system perspective and investigate how these challenges can be addressed by lean production principles. Data is collected via focus group interviews at three remanufacturing companies. In addition, a literature study on lean principles and practices to deal with the identified challenges was conducted.

    The lean principles in remanufacturing: value, value stream, flow, pull and perfection are described and five remanufacturing system challenges: uncertainty, complexity, variability, inflexibility, lean waste were defined. As a result, a generic lean approach to deal with remanufacturing system challenges is developed with a focus on pull-based remanufacturing.

  • 230.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lean Remanufacturing: Reducing Process Lead Time2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a product recovery option in which used products are brought back into useful life. While the remanufacturing industry stretches from heavy machinery to automotive parts, furniture, and IT sectors, it faces challenges. A majority of these challenges originate from the remanufacturing characteristics of having little control over the core (the used product or its part), high product variation, low product volumes, and a high proportion of manual work, when compared to manufacturing. Some remanufacturing challenges appear to be process challenges that prolong process lead time, making remanufacturing process inefficient.

    Lean is an improvement strategy with roots in the manufacturing industry. Lean helps to increase customer satisfaction, reduce costs, and improve company’s performance in delivery, quality, inventory, morale, safety, and other areas. Lean encompasses principles, tools and practices to deal with e.g. inefficient processes and long process lead times. Therefore, in this thesis lean has been selected as an improvement strategy to deal with long remanufacturing process lead times.

    The objective of this thesis is to expand knowledge on how lean can reduce remanufacturing process lead time. This objective is approached through literature studies and a case study conducted at four remanufacturing companies. There are five challenges that contribute to long process lead time: unpredictable core quality, quantity, and timing; weak collaboration, information exchange, and miscommunication; high inventory levels; unknown number of required operations in process and process sequence; and insufficient employee skills for process and product upgrade. When analysing the case companies’ process lead times it was found that there is a need to reduce waiting times, which account for 95 to 99 per cent of process lead times at three of the four companies.

    To improve remanufacturing process efficiency and reduce remanufacturing process lead time six lean practices are suggested: product families; kanban; layout for continuous flow; cross functional teams; standard operating procedures; and supplier partnerships. The suggested lean practices have a key focus on reducing waiting time since it prolongs the process lead time. This thesis contributes to lean remanufacturing research with the case study findings on lean practices to reduce remanufacturing process lead time and increase process efficiency.

    Delarbeid
    1. Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 644-652Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lean philosophy, which promotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from the Japanese car manufacturer, Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean has not been fully explored is remanufacturing, a process that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to the uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity. This study explored remanufacturing by identifying its challenges and opportunities in becoming lean. The challenges of a lean remanufacturing system do not exceed its advantages. Although some researchers state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean principles to remanufacturing, this research utilizes lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that focuses on improving the remanufactured products’ quality, process lead times, and inventory levels. 

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Fuji Technology Press, 2014
    Emneord
    lean, remanufacturing, product life cycle, continuous improvement
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120764 (URN)
    Prosjekter
    ÅterProdukt, KEAP
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-08-24 Laget: 2015-08-24 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

    Emneord
    Remanufacturing, Lean, Material and Information Flows, Data collection workshop, Process map
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118270 (URN)
    Konferanse
    Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), September 16-18, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-05-25 Laget: 2015-05-25 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 26, s. 270-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Remanufacturing, Product life-cycle, Lean, Pull, Kanban
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118272 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.187 (DOI)000360931800048 ()
    Konferanse
    12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing - Emerging Potentials, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 22–24 September 2014
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-05-25 Laget: 2015-05-25 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference onRemanufacturing (ICOR17), 2017, s. 47-56Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual accumulation of electronic equipment waste, including IT, in the European Union reached at least nine million tons in 2015. These products usually have a limited lifespan, and many consumers tend to buy new devices before their old ones stop working.

    Remanufacturing is one of the effective ways to contribute to IT waste reduction. Product life extension through remanufacturing gives the product one or several more users throughout its life cycle. When remanufacturing is applied to laptops, the extraction of virgin materials, the energy consumption for manufacturing and the amount of waste are all reduced. However, today many remanufacturers of IT face challenges associated with inefficient and complex processes due to uncertainties in core timing, volume and quality. Lean remanufacturing is typically treated as an operations improvement strategy that deals with the process challenges. Just-in-time is one of the lean strategies to address inefficient, long and stochastic operations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time can help to reduce remanufacturing process lead time, and consequently increase process efficiency.

    The data was collected through a focus group interview and a simplified Value Stream Mapping lean method at an IT remanufacturing company. The company’s remanufacturing process is assessed regarding process lead time and efficiency. Based on the case company's process challenges, the following possible just-in-time solutions were developed for remanufacturers: cellular layout, distinct product family flows and Kanban reordering system.

    Emneord
    Recovering, Laptops, Lean, Just-in-time solutions, Process efficiency
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142345 (URN)
    Konferanse
    3rd International Conference on Remanufacturing ICOR-17, Linköping, Sweden, October 24-26, 2017
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-27 Laget: 2017-10-27 Sist oppdatert: 2019-04-02bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: QMOD proceedings, 2017Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - One efficient way to prolong the functional life of used products is remanufacturing. Compared to manufacturing, remanufacturing is a complex industrial process due to among other things high product variability, low production volumes and uncertain quality of returned used products. Remanufacturers are dependent on product information from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), but that information is often not shared. Remanufacturers struggle to access or develop lacking product information and need a strategy to address information flow challenges. Lean could be a suitable strategy to improve the information flow. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to identify and suggest Lean improvements to address remanufacturer’s information flow challenges.

    Methodology/Approach - Based on a case study of a filling machine remanufacturer, this paper discusses the information flow challenges and Lean-based solutions. The data was collected through a three-hour focus group interview combined with a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) method with the participation of seven company employees representing sales, logistics, quality, maintenance and production departments.

    Findings - Two key information flow challenges were identified at the company: a lack of available product data and miscommunication with the OEM, and poor internal information sharing. The analysis of the identified challenges and improvement ideas created a platform for developing Lean-based solutions:1) developing standard operations through instruction checklists and kitting areas;2) boosting supplier and customer relations through six best partnering practices; and3) developing people and teams through teamwork and training.

    Originality/Value of paper – All industries have their own specific challenges and development needs. This paper focuses on information flow challenges in remanufacturing. Original product information is often not shared, even when the remanufacturer has a contract with the OEM. Only few remanufacturers work with Lean today, but Lean could be a strategy to address the information flow challenges. This paper contributes to the knowledge on how Lean could be applied in the remanufacturing context.

    Emneord
    Lean remanufacturing, Information flow, Challenges, Improvements
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142344 (URN)
    Konferanse
    20th QMOD conference, Copenhagen/Elsinore, Denmark and Helsingborg, Sweden, 5-7 August, 2017
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-27 Laget: 2017-10-27 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 29, s. 780-785Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a sustainable development, circular economy approaches and circular material flows are explored in industry. However, circular information flows remain essentially unestablished. The aim of this paper is to: 1) explore categories and types of product life-cycle information available for remanufacturing; 2) identify constraints for efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing; and 3) propose initiatives to facilitate product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing.

    Data was collected through workshops and interviews at five remanufacturing companies. An accumulated Sankey diagram illustrates product life-cycle information flow, losses and bottleneck. Based on the analysis, possible initiatives to facilitate efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing are presented.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Remanufacturing; Product life-cycle stackeholder; Feedback; Feed forward; Sankey diagram
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120761 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.162 (DOI)000356146100132 ()
    Konferanse
    22nd CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering (LCE), Univ New S Wales, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, April 7-9, 2015
    Prosjekter
    Återprodukt, KEAP2
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-08-24 Laget: 2015-08-24 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    7. Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, s. 3225-3236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a viable way to prolong the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts. Despite its economic, environmental, and social benefits, remanufacturing is associated with many challenges related to core (used product or its part) availability, timing and quality. The aim of this paper is to study how lean production could be used to tackle remanufacturing process challenges and contribute to shorter lead times. To meet this aim, we conducted a literature review and case studies of four remanufacturing companies. The case companies remanufacturing challenges were: (1) a lack of material requirements planning system, (2) poor core information, (3) a lack of core material, (4) poor spare parts information, (5) a lack of spare parts material, (6) insufficient quality management practices, (7) large inventories, (8) stochastic remanufacturing processes, (9) a lack of supply-demand balance, and (10) insufficient automation. These challenges contribute to long and variable remanufacturing process lead times. To tackle remanufacturing challenges, seven lean-based improvements with a major effect on improvements in lead time were suggested: standard operations, continuous flow, Kanban, teamwork, employee cross-training, layout for continuous flow, and supplier partnership. Providing that the suggested improvements are implemented, a possible lead time reduction of 83-99 per cent was projected. 

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
    Emneord
    Remanufacturing; Circular economy; Lean production; Lead time
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144880 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.11.023 (DOI)000423002500020 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems [2013-03333]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-02-09 Laget: 2018-02-09 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17
  • 231.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer2014Inngår i: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

  • 232.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Remanufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities to be Lean2013Inngår i: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2013 International Symposium, 2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The lean philosophy, which denotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from Japanese car manufacturer Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean is not fully explored is remanufacturing, a business that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity.This paper has explored remanufacturing by revealing its challenges and opportunities to be lean. The identified challenges to work with lean do not overcome the advantages of a lean remanufacturing system. Even though some researches state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean to remanufacturing, this research recovers lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that not only works for manufacturing but also for remanufacturing.

  • 233.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops2017Inngår i: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference onRemanufacturing (ICOR17), 2017, s. 47-56Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual accumulation of electronic equipment waste, including IT, in the European Union reached at least nine million tons in 2015. These products usually have a limited lifespan, and many consumers tend to buy new devices before their old ones stop working.

    Remanufacturing is one of the effective ways to contribute to IT waste reduction. Product life extension through remanufacturing gives the product one or several more users throughout its life cycle. When remanufacturing is applied to laptops, the extraction of virgin materials, the energy consumption for manufacturing and the amount of waste are all reduced. However, today many remanufacturers of IT face challenges associated with inefficient and complex processes due to uncertainties in core timing, volume and quality. Lean remanufacturing is typically treated as an operations improvement strategy that deals with the process challenges. Just-in-time is one of the lean strategies to address inefficient, long and stochastic operations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time can help to reduce remanufacturing process lead time, and consequently increase process efficiency.

    The data was collected through a focus group interview and a simplified Value Stream Mapping lean method at an IT remanufacturing company. The company’s remanufacturing process is assessed regarding process lead time and efficiency. Based on the case company's process challenges, the following possible just-in-time solutions were developed for remanufacturers: cellular layout, distinct product family flows and Kanban reordering system.

  • 234.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer2015Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 26, s. 270-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

  • 235.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Poksińska, Bonnie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges2017Inngår i: QMOD proceedings, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - One efficient way to prolong the functional life of used products is remanufacturing. Compared to manufacturing, remanufacturing is a complex industrial process due to among other things high product variability, low production volumes and uncertain quality of returned used products. Remanufacturers are dependent on product information from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), but that information is often not shared. Remanufacturers struggle to access or develop lacking product information and need a strategy to address information flow challenges. Lean could be a suitable strategy to improve the information flow. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to identify and suggest Lean improvements to address remanufacturer’s information flow challenges.

    Methodology/Approach - Based on a case study of a filling machine remanufacturer, this paper discusses the information flow challenges and Lean-based solutions. The data was collected through a three-hour focus group interview combined with a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) method with the participation of seven company employees representing sales, logistics, quality, maintenance and production departments.

    Findings - Two key information flow challenges were identified at the company: a lack of available product data and miscommunication with the OEM, and poor internal information sharing. The analysis of the identified challenges and improvement ideas created a platform for developing Lean-based solutions:1) developing standard operations through instruction checklists and kitting areas;2) boosting supplier and customer relations through six best partnering practices; and3) developing people and teams through teamwork and training.

    Originality/Value of paper – All industries have their own specific challenges and development needs. This paper focuses on information flow challenges in remanufacturing. Original product information is often not shared, even when the remanufacturer has a contract with the OEM. Only few remanufacturers work with Lean today, but Lean could be a strategy to address the information flow challenges. This paper contributes to the knowledge on how Lean could be applied in the remanufacturing context.

  • 236.
    Kurilova-Pališaitienė, Jelena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Toward Lean Remanufacturing: Challenges and Improvements in Material and Information Flows2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is an environmentally sound material recovery option which is essential to compete for sustainable manufacturing. The aim with remanufacturing at a majority of companies is to prolong physical product performance by delivering the same or betterthan-original product quality. In general, remanufacturing is an industrial process that brings used products back to useful life by requiring less effort than is demanded by the initial production process. Consequently, from a product life-cycle perspective, remanufacturing generates great product value.

    Remanufacturers lag behind manufacturers since they often face complex and unpredictable material and information flows. Based on a review of remanufacturing research, remanufacturing challenges in material and information flows can be classified into three groups: insufficient product quality, long and unstable process lead times, and an unpredictable level of inventory. While some remanufacturing researchers state that manufacturing and remanufacturing are significantly different, they have more in common than many other processes operations. Therefore, to sustain competitive remanufacturing, companies investigate an opportunity for improvement through the employment of lean production that generates significant benefits for manufacturers.

    In order to investigate the potential to address remanufacturing challenges by lean production, a Minimum time for material and information flow analysis (MiniMifa) method was developed. This method originates from the value stream mapping (VSM) method, broadly practiced to bring lean to manufacturing companies. The focus of MiniMifa was to collect empirical data on the identified groups of remanufacturing challenges from the remanufacturing perspective, and to provide a basis for the development of improvements originating from lean principles.

    Lean production was selected for this research due to its system perspective on material and information flows. Among the defined lean principles in remanufacturing, a pull principle was investigated at the case companies. The suggested principle demonstrated a reduction in lead time, followed by improvements in inventory level and product quality. However, in order to become lean, remanufacturers have to overcome three levels of lean remanufacturing challenges: external and internal challenges as well as lean wastes.

    Finally, this research reduces the gap between academia and industry by contributing with a possible solution to the identified remanufacturing challenges in material and information flows.

    Delarbeid
    1. Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

    Emneord
    Remanufacturing, Lean, Material and Information Flows, Data collection workshop, Process map
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118270 (URN)
    Konferanse
    Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), September 16-18, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-05-25 Laget: 2015-05-25 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 26, s. 270-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Remanufacturing, Product life-cycle, Lean, Pull, Kanban
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118272 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.187 (DOI)000360931800048 ()
    Konferanse
    12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing - Emerging Potentials, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 22–24 September 2014
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-05-25 Laget: 2015-05-25 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 644-652Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lean philosophy, which promotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from the Japanese car manufacturer, Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean has not been fully explored is remanufacturing, a process that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to the uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity. This study explored remanufacturing by identifying its challenges and opportunities in becoming lean. The challenges of a lean remanufacturing system do not exceed its advantages. Although some researchers state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean principles to remanufacturing, this research utilizes lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that focuses on improving the remanufactured products’ quality, process lead times, and inventory levels. 

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Fuji Technology Press, 2014
    Emneord
    lean, remanufacturing, product life cycle, continuous improvement
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120764 (URN)
    Prosjekter
    ÅterProdukt, KEAP
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-08-24 Laget: 2015-08-24 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 237.
    Källmar, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson Sundqvist, Therese
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integration of Environmental Aspects in Product Development and Ship Design2013Inngår i: Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Singapore 17-19 April, 2013 / [ed] Andrew Y. C. Nee, Bin Song and Soh-Khim Ong, Singapore: Springer, 2013, s. 41-46Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ship recycling is a pressing issue to handle due to bad conditions in South Asian countries. The objective of this paper isto explore how to integrate environmental aspects, especially recycling, in the product development process of ships atKockums AB by developing and proposing an implementation of a tool, document and/or method. As a result, a Long-termEnvironmental Action Plan (LEAP) including 18 actions was developed. The proposed way of implementing LEAP wasthrough plan-do-act-check methodology by a systematic integration of ecodesign. LEAP includes tools, documents andmethods that are to be used in daily work and product development.

  • 238.
    Lakemond Ebbers, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Ingenjörshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Ingenjörshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    From product development to production - on the complexity of geographical and organizational dispersion2006Inngår i: R and D Management Conference,2006, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 239.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    A model for managing interfaces between technology development, product development and production2007Inngår i: RD Management Conference,2007, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 240.
    Landgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för produktionsekonomi.
    Tjernström, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för produktionsekonomi.
    Förbättrat informationsflöde för ökad synkronisering och kostnadseffektivitet i försörjningskedjan – en fallstudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Slut i hyllan-problematiken är en fråga som aktualiserats i dagligvaruhandeln i allt högre grad det senaste året. I takt med att konkurrensen ökar och marginalerna minskar måste lagernivåer pressas. Det här sker så småningom på bekostnad av servicegraden. Problemet har visat sig särskilt stort i samband med kampanjer. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att kartlägga informationsflödet i försörjnings-planeringen mellan en leverantör och en grossist i dagligvarubranschen samt att se hur detta flöde kan förbättras för att hög servicegrad ska kunna uppnås utan alltför höga lager. Arbetet är utfört som en fallstudie på Findus och Ica med Findus laxfilé naturell som modellprodukt.

    Kartläggningen av informationsflödet i planeringsprocessen har visat på ett komplext flöde där många personer och funktionella enheter från båda företag är inblandade. Undersökningen har också identifierat ett antal svagheter som gör att servicegrad och kostnadseffektivitet försämras.

    De problem vi ser grundar sig främst i de ingående aktörernas bristande medvetenhet om försörjningskedjans förutsättningar och begränsningar. Detta leder till att förståelse för vilken information som är viktig att förmedla saknas. Vidare saknar processen en tydlig struktur där flera prognoser görs oberoende av varandra med olika underlag och med olika syften. Resultatet blir en hög osäkerhet vilken måste hanteras med säkerhetslager. Undersökningen har visat att kostnadsfokus är svagt i förhållande till servicegrad vilket riskerar försörjningskedjans kostnad-seffektivitet

    Vi tror att en ökad integration i en enkel och tydligt strukturerad planeringsprocess skulle kunna förbättra servicegraden och kostnadseffektiviteten. En ökad medvetenhet om försörjningskedjans förutsättningar och kostsamma flexibilitet skulle göra fördelarna med informationsdelning tydligare. Att använda balanserade styrmått som belyser försörjningskedjans synkronisering såväl som kostnads-effektivitet minskar risken för att problem döljs med höga lager.

    Våra slutsatser visar att det finns en klar förbättringspotential i informationsflödet; förändringar skulle bidra till en högre servicegrad till en lägre kostnad.

  • 241.
    Landstedt, John
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Karlsson, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Transportation through the Scandria Corridor: A sustainable transport concept between the Adriatic Sea and Scandinavia2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Scandria Corridor is the shortest way between the Adriatic Sea and the Baltic Sea and stretches from the harbors in the Adriatic Sea to Scandinavia, with branches to Stockholm and Oslo. By offering the shortest route it should be an area in focus for transporting goods. But a large share of European freight traffic goes through the western parts and most main development routes are in east-west connections. Indications have however been made that higher amounts of goods will enter the European market through the harbors in the Mediterranean Sea. As Western Europe is already crowded and congestion is a problem the Scandria Corridor offers new routes with free capacity and shorter south-north connections.

    An immediate problem of European freight traffic is the large use of trucks as means of transportation. As trucks causing large negative environment affects such as high emission levels, congestion on roads and deterioration of the infrastructure the European Union promotes use of other transport concepts. But the alternatives, railway and inland waterway transports, faces different kinds of barriers making them less competitive which obstructs their implementation.

    The information above leads to the thesis purpose “to suggest a sustainable and innovative concept for transporting goods applicable in the Scandria Corridor.” To be sustainable the concept should be future considerate (consider changes in transport conditions), feasible (achieve competitive customer service at reasonable costs) and environmentally friendly (less negative environmental affects than the alternatives). Innovative translates as being open-minded when it comes to combining and implementing ideas, concepts and methods.

    Through a mapping of the infrastructure in the corridor, conditions for the transport methods and customer values the conclusion can be drawn that railway transportation is the best option for transportation in the Scandria Corridor. There are however some barriers that obstruct the set-up of the concept and what route that should be used. A large barrier is the complexity of cross-border transport in Europe because of several different railway electrification systems. Another large barrier is different train control systems that calls for large investments in trains compatible with all systems crossed and staff educated in each system. Another barrier is the low standard of railway tracks in Eastern Europe.

    A mapping of customer values informs that the price is the most important aspect followed by the delivery dependability, given that the lead time is similar to the alternatives. Flexibility is important to some but for most the aspects above are more important. Low environmental affects is important to all parties but no one wants to pay to achieve it. Through analysis of the mapping with support of the theories train needs to offer a lower price than truck alternatives offer to be competitive due to trucks flexibility and ability to reach all destinations. Furthermore train has better possibilities in profitable the longer the distance is.

    Goods flows are studied for the northern Adriatic ports which give that Trieste, Venice and Koper handles the largest volumes. But the amounts of goods between the ports and northern parts of the corridor are probably too low to use one port as the south end point of the concept. Instead a strategic location like Villach (Austria) or Verona (Italy) is better suited as they can work as funnels for larger areas. The solution with a funnel seems to be the best solution for Scandinavia where Trelleborg can be the north end point as a rail ferry from Rostock, suitable for the transport from Germany to Sweden, enters the port of Trelleborg. From Trelleborg goods can be spread to other parts of Scandinavia mainly through branches to Oslo and Stockholm.

    To be sustainable a train concept needs a high fill rate in both directions. To get a high fill rate loading points can be used between the end points. Through a mapping of goods flow between Sweden and regions in the corridor suitable loading points tend to be Berlin (Germany), Munich (Germany) and Vienna (Austria). It is the demand of transport that decides how many loading points that should be used but the fewer the better since they increases the costs and lead time.

    The suggested concept is a train line with green trucks as back-up to irregular demands and problems on railway tracks. Three different concept routes are presented in the thesis.

    The concepts could be arranged in order of implementation. Concept 1 probably has the best chance of getting a high fill rate but the competition is hard on the route. If concept 2 is ready for implementation depends on the demand of transport on this route. When the goods flows are large enough it would probably be a better option because of the few electrification systems and train control systems crossed. Concept 3 is more of a concept for the future, due to many barriers. By using this route bottlenecks and congestion can be avoided.

  • 242.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    An introduction to value stream mapping and analysis2016Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Value stream mapping (VSM) is a method for illustrating and analyzing the logic of a production process. The terminology stems  from the metaphor of the production process as a steady stream of products where value is added for each step that the products take down stream. This metaphor and the  terminology also strengthen the notion of continuous flow as the ultimate form of production–at least in terms of efficiency...

  • 243.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploring organizational translation: A case study of changes toward Lean Production2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean Production has received massive attention during recent years, and many organizations attempt to introduce it with an ambition to reach the radical improvement effects that are promised in the popular management literature. However, introducing a management concept can be a very challenging task, and research has shown that the majority of such initiatives fail. A common observation is that the outcome of a change initiative differs from its initial intentions, which indicates that the content of the change is somehow transformed during the process. This kind of transformation can be described as organizational translation.

    The purpose of the thesis is to provide an account of how processes of organizational translation transpire and to analyze and identify the main determinants of their outcome.

    The thesis is based on a longitudinal case study that has focused on the introduction of the management concept Lean in a large Swedish manufacturing company. The study has been performed in two phases. In the first phase, a series of retrospective interviews have been performed with employees at all hierarchical levels within the company. The second phase of the study has been based on a prospective approach. This phase has comprised a combination of interviews, observations and document studies, with focus on a pilot project within the company. The study was performed between 2007 and 2011 and covers events between 2003 and 2011.

    By analyzing the changes from a translation perspective, the thesis contributes to explore the meaning of organizational translation and the mechanisms through which Lean is materialized and developed into organizational practice.

    Three types of organizational translation are presented in the thesis. These are defined as the activities and processes through which Lean is translated to a local set of ideas, practices and objects, respectively. It is suggested that these three entities and the corresponding forms of translation interact and together influence how people behave, which in turn will affect the results of the change initiative. This implies that all three types of organizational translation need to be addressed for a change initiative to be successful. Further, the suggested change must be translated so that it is represented in physical objects, people’s understanding and organizational practice. Lack of alignment between these three entities will create tension, which will likely hinder change and increase the risk of failure.

    Delarbeid
    1. Defining lean production: some conceptual and practical issues
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Defining lean production: some conceptual and practical issues
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 127-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the definition of lean production and the methods and goals associated with the concept as well as how it differs from other popular management concepts. '

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a review of the contemporary literature on lean production, both journal articles and books.

    Findings – It is shown in the paper that there is no consensus on a definition of lean production between the examined authors. The authors also seem to have different opinions on which characteristics should be associated with the concept. Overall it can be concluded that lean production is not clearly defined in the reviewed literature. This divergence can cause some confusion on a theoretical level, but is probably more problematic on a practical level when organizations aim to implement the concept. This paper argues that it is important for an organization to acknowledge the different variations, and to raise the awareness of the input in the implementation process. It is further argued that the organization should not accept any random variant of lean, but make active choices and adapt the concept to suit the organization's needs. Through this process of adaptation, the organization will be able to increase the odds of performing a predictable and successful implementation.

    Originality/value – This paper provides a critical perspective on the discourse surrounding lean production, and gives an input to the discussion of the implementation of management models.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2009
    Emneord
    Lean Production, Quality Management, Definition
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18419 (URN)10.1108/17542730910938137 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-05-26 Laget: 2009-05-26 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Quality Improvement activities in Swedish industry: drivers, approaches and outcomes
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Quality Improvement activities in Swedish industry: drivers, approaches and outcomes
    Vise andre…
    2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 206-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to present and discuss the current state of quality-improvement activities in Swedish companies. The paper focuses on the drivers for quality improvement; types of approaches, tools and techniques, and organizational aspects influenced by quality improvement; and potential areas for improvement.

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents results from a survey on quality improvement work in Swedish industry. Data for this paper were collected using a web-based questionnaire that was distributed to 800 production managers working in Swedish service and manufacturing organizations. Of the 800 questionnaires sent, a total of 118 questionnaires were filled out, which resulted in a response rate of 16 percent.

    Findings – The result shows that the major drivers for quality improvement work in Swedish industry are economical aspects as the need for cost reduction, the need to become more competitive and the wish to increase market share. Drivers such as pressure from shareholders and trends in management have a minor role. The underlying approaches for quality improvement work are standards such as ISO 9000 and ISO 14000. A total of 72 percent of respondents stated that they work with quality management systems; 59 percent, with environmental management systems. The aspects that were most positively influenced by the improvement work were employee motivation, customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, product/service quality, and flow in internal processes.

    Research limitations/implications – Empirical results obtained in Sweden may differ to some extent in other countries.

    Practical implications – This paper is intended as a source of inspiration for researchers, consultants, and managers who are interested in the current trends and future developments in the quality field.

    Originality/value – The paper provides valuable insights into the current state of quality improvement activities in Swedish industry, as seen from the perspective of the production manager.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Emerald, 2010
    Emneord
    Quality improvement, Quality standards, Total quality management
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-62694 (URN)10.1108/17566691011057366 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2010-12-02 Laget: 2010-12-02 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Non-human resistance in changes towards lean
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Non-human resistance in changes towards lean
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Organizational Change Management, ISSN 0953-4814, E-ISSN 1758-7816, Vol. 25, nr 6, s. 853-866Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The importance of social issues is well established in the literature on resistance to change. However, much can be gained by including physical objects in the analysis. Using actor-network theory, this paper aims to explore the resistance of non-human actors in organizational change and contribute to an expanded understanding of resistance to change. Design/methodology/approach: The article is based on a longitudinal case study of the introduction of lean in a large Swedish manufacturing company. The empirical basis consists of interviews, observations and document studies. Actor-network theory is used as a theoretical lens to identify non-human resistance to change. Findings: The paper proposes that non-human actors can inhibit change through a lack of alignment with the overall change initiative. This may cause large variation in the interpretation of the proposed change and a lengthy process of construction and negotiation. The paper provides examples of four different types of non-human resistance that result from this lack of alignment. Practical implications: It is proposed that change initiatives need to be aligned with existing practice and anchored in objects that are integrated in organizational routines. The four types of non-human resistance presented in the paper may be used as a checklist to reduce the risk of failure. Originality/value: The predominant focus on social issues tends to disregard the impact of the physical environment in change processes. Actor-network theory and the inclusion of the physical environment will help to expand and improve the understanding of resistance to change.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
    Emneord
    Actor-network theory; Change; Change management; Lean production; Manufacturing industries; Resistance; Sociotechnical change; Sweden
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75353 (URN)10.1108/09534811211280609 (DOI)
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence day the status of this article was: Manuscript

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-02-27 Laget: 2012-02-27 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Balanced Scorecard as Organizational Practice: A multi-perspective analysis
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Balanced Scorecard as Organizational Practice: A multi-perspective analysis
    2010 (engelsk)Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Much academic attention has been directed towards management models, but there is limited research into the details of how these models are put to use in organizations. In this paper, we employ a multi-theoretical process perspective on the introduction of Balanced Scorecard in a Swedish healthcare organization. Through the application of actor-network theory, behavior setting theory and distributed cognition, we have identified a set of complementary observations and conclusions. First, we claim that a critical mass of actors is needed to support the change effort. We also emphasize the need for a problematization process in which critical voices are given room to influence the introduction. Further, we stress the importance of aligning the physical environment with organizational goals, and argue that well-designed feedback mechanisms may prevent undesired decoupling of managerial practice.

    sted, utgiver, år, sider
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010
    Emneord
    Management models, change, process studies, multiple interpretations
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75049 (URN)
    Merknad
    Working paper.Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-02-16 Laget: 2012-02-15 Sist oppdatert: 2015-02-05bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 244.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Practise what you preach: Quality of education in education on quality2012Inngår i: : How may organizations use Learning, Creativity and Innovation in realizing their dreams of excellence and recover from the economic crisis? / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Jens J. Dahlgaard & Adam Hamrol, 2012, s. 855-867Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 245.
    Larsson, Andréas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Lönnberg, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Utveckling av metod för mätning av Overall Equipment Effectiveness vid Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT AB) i Finspång är ett företag vars verksamhet är inriktad på tillverkning av gas- och ångturbiner för främst industriella tillämpningsområden. Företaget har cirka 2 100 anställda och är en del av den tyska storkoncernen Siemens AG. Inom SIT AB har det sedan tidigare funnits en delad mening kring vilka orsaker som främst bidrar till förluster inom företagets produktion. I dagsläget genomförs flera olika typer av driftsuppföljningar, ett problem är dock att dessa inte är synkroniserade för att ge en tydlig förlustbild på maskinspecifik nivå. Till följd av detta önskar nu produktionsansvariga på SIT AB undersöka möjligheten att mäta utrustningseffektiviteten hos sina maskinresurser genom införande av mätetalet Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). Genom ett pilotprojekt ska en metod för mätning av OEE på SIT AB utvecklas, denna ska sedan implementeras och testas på två av företagets fleroperationsmaskiner. Pilotprojektet genomförs i form av ett examensarbete, arbetet ska ligga till grund för rekommendationer gällande hur mätresultaten ska användas samt hur SIT AB ska gå tillväga för att kunna genomföra OEE-mätningar i större skala.

    OEE avser mätning av total utrustningseffektivitet genom ett enda mätetal. Syftet med beräkningen är att åskådliggöra omfattningen av de sex stora produktionsförluster som definieras inom ramen för Total Productive Maintenance. Efter förlustanalys kan välriktade förbättringsåtgärder vidtas med avsikt att öka utrustningseffektiviteten hos den studerade resursen.

    Inom denna undersökning konstateras att OEE är ett mätetal som främst är framtaget för applikation i processliknande industrier. Eftersom SIT AB bedriver tillverkning i en huvudsakligen funktionell verkstadsmiljö krävs viss anpassning för att öka mätetalets tillämpbarhet på företaget. En sådan anpassning får även stöd i litteraturen där det klargörs att det är viktigare att åstadkomma en mätning som kan ligga till grund för förbättringsarbete än att strikt följa grunddefinitionen av OEE. Som stöd för metodanpassningen genomfördes en fallstudie på Kongsberg Terotech AS (KTT), ett av nordens ledande företag inom branschen för underhåll av verktygsmaskiner. KTT har stor erfarenhet inom OEE-mätning genom arbete som rådgivare på uppskattningsvis 15-20 olika företag där verksamhetsområdena sträcker sig från enstyckstillverkning till processindustri och från skärande bearbetning till livsmedelindustri.

    Den metod som utvecklats för mätning av OEE på SIT AB är helt baserad på storheten tid. Mätningen sker genom tidsregistrering inom ett diskret antal fördefinierade förlustkategorier, framtagna specifikt för de studerade maskinerna. Genom utvecklandet av en specialdesignad blankett kan datainsamlingen skötas av maskinernas operatörer under pågående ordinarie arbete. Mätningarnas manuella utförande utgör ett hinder för exakt stopptidsmätning, konceptet kan dock införas med kort varsel och utan krav på dyra investeringar i avancerad mätutrustning.

    På inrådan från KTT genomfördes OEE-mätning under en period om fyra veckor i respektive maskin. Förlustdata kunde insamlas från 95 av 96 möjliga skift och dataunderlaget omfattar 564 respektive 576 planerade produktionstimmar i vardera resurs. Trots att de båda fleroperationsmaskinerna i princip är identiska till utförandet uppvisades förlustbilder som i jämförelse är relativt olika. Av detta dras slutsatsen att maskinerna bör behandlas individuellt vid vidtagandet av eventuella förbättringsåtgärder.

    OEE-mätning är något som enbart ska utföras i syfte att underlätta och motivera kontinuerligt förbättringsarbete kopplat till företagets tillverkningsprocesser. Den framtagna mätmetoden kan hjälpa SIT AB att värdera förbättringspotentialen hos den studerade produktionsutrustningen, insamlad data kan även användas för att prioritera hur förbättringsinsatserna ska fokuseras. Huvuddragen i metoden kan även användas för mätning i stor skala, förlustkategorier bör dock väljas utgående från den maskin där mätningarna ska introduceras. En tydlig nackdel är att metoden i nuvarande utförande inte säkerställer god kvalitet i insamlad data, detta kan innebära viss risk för att beslut fattas på felaktiga grunder. Metoden kan vara lämplig att använda som introduktion till OEE-mätning eller i det fall att företaget vill undvika mer omfattande investeringar kopplat till mätningarna. Om SIT AB i framtiden vill satsa på OEE-mätning rekommenderas att datainsamlingen automatiseras.

    Det förbättringsarbete som ska följa av genomförda OEE-mätningar bör skötas av förbättringsgrupper tillsatta för ändamålet. Förbättringsgrupperna innehåller med fördel personal med olika kunskapsområden. En tvärfunktionell sammansättning bör innebära att förbättringsarbetet kan skötas på ett mer mångsidigt sätt än vid behandling av enskilda personalgrupper. Den viktigaste förutsättningen för ett lyckat förbättringsarbete är att alla beslut kan baseras på fakta från verkligheten, mätningar som exempelvis OEE utgör konkreta verktyg för att åstadkomma denna situation. För att kunna styra och förbättra centrala produktionsprocesser måste dessa ständigt utvärderas. I detta sammanhang kan införandet av OEE-mätning komma att spela en central roll för verksamheten på SIT AB.

  • 246.
    Larsson, Ann-Christine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Empowermentprocesser – ett sätt att öka långtidssjukskrivna kvinnors resurser?: En studie om att återta balansen i arbetslivet att återta balansen i arbetslivet2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explain how a group of women have ended up on the long-term sick-list and how a return to working life can be brought about. Support for their return is organized within the framework of a R&D project within the EU-program EQUAL, where empowerment is one of the key principles.

    The research has been carried out using an interactive approach in close collaboration with the women in the project who have been signed-off long-term on medical grounds. Group discussions, questionnaires and individual interviews have provided the basis for collective analyses. This learning process, which is the central core in the interactive research, has, resulted in a deeper and more valid understanding of the reasons leading to ill-health and of the return to working life.

    The empirical part of the study and the analyses are divided into three parts. The first part I call the powerlessness process, namely tha which the women describe as a contributory factor to ill-health, caused by diminishing resources and increasing demands both in working life and in private life, and which eventually initiates a long-term signing-off on medical grounds. The second part is concerned with regaining and/or changing the resources that have been lost during the powerlessness process. The third part illustrates the return to working life, which is described in different steps.

    The thesis shows the worth of looking at the interplay between individual, organizational and community levels when trying to understand the reasons underlying ill-health and how changes at these different levels can affect the individual.

    The thesis shows also the importance of looking at ”life as a whole” and not just working life, where a return to work is concerned. In order to achieve a sustainable working life, attention must also be paid to gender structures and work-life balance.

  • 247.
    Laurinsson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Produktionsutveckling av cylinderrörs tillverkning2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensjobb utfördes på Stacke Hydraulik AB som tillverkar och säljer hydrauliska system.

    Uppdraget var att uppdatera deras befintliga verkstadslayout samt att studera om flödet för ”små och medelstora” rör går att förbättra. För att kunna optimera flödet var man tvungen att ta fram vilka/vilken process som var flaskhals, för att sedan kunna ge förslag på förändringar som kan leda till ett bättre flöde och en kortare ledtid.

    Studierna av flaskhals grundades på totalt 50 stycken cylinderrör, de mest tillverkade samt de som har störst volymvärde. Produktionsgrupp 117 (svarv) identifierades som flaskhals eftersom den tog längst tid i processen, men även produktionsgrupp 118 (svarv) är en flaskhals. 26 % av cylinderrören hade produktionsgrupp 117 som flaskhals medan 24 % hade produktionsgrupp 118.

    För att optimera produktionsflödet för dessa rör krävs det att man använder produktionsgrupperna effektivt med minimerat slöseri.

    Ett alternativ till förbättring skulle kunna vara en utökad maskinpark för tillverkning av dessa rör.

  • 248.
    Lee, H. M.
    et al.
    Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Swedish WEEE system – Challenges and Recommendations2012Inngår i: Sustainable Systems and Technology (ISSST), 2012, IEEE , 2012, s. 1-6Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The directive in WEEE has been in effect since 2001 in the European Union (EU) and Sweden has been the best performance since it was launched. This study looks into how the various stakeholders are playing their role in the system, why was it successful and what are the challenges ahead for the system to further improve and the bring up the rate of WEEE recycling in the country. This work is done by interviewing and visiting the various stakeholders involved in the Swedish WEEE system including the Swedish EPA, Swedish Waste Management, El-Kretsen which is the association representing the manufacturers, the recyclers that are providing the EoL services in the system and consumers of the recycling centres. The study revealed that the system had performed well by virtue of the common understanding and general awareness of the public adding on to the fact that the consumption rate of EEE is also high in Sweden. All the stakeholders displayed a sense a responsibility towards pushing for higher volume to be collected. Many issues that are occurring in collecting WEEE are inherited from the earlier life cycle stages particularly in design and manufacturing. It was also found out in the study that it is more economically viable for the EoL stakeholders to operate WEEE collection as compared to the past due to the growing demands of resources. The processing capacity at times is lagging behind the collection rate. Recommendations for improving the system from both the system level and technical level are also mentioned subsequently in the paper.

  • 249.
    Lee, Hui Mien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nasr, Nabil
    Golisano Institute of Sustainability, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA.
    Review of End-of-Life Management Issues in Sustainable Electronic Products2011Inngår i: CIRP 9th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, 2011, s. 121-131Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about climate change and other related environmental challenges have prompted increased interest in sustainable development. In industry, many manufacturers such as the electronics manufacturers have strived to improve their environmental footprints through sustainable manufacturing while also making sure that the bottom line is being met. Electronic products, while bringing technological progress to mankind, generate numerous environmental challenges, especially at their End-of-Life (EoL) stage.

     

    This paper review and discuss the current situation and issues in designing, manufacturing, collecting and marketing of electronic products with respect to the EoL stage. Certain decisions about electronic products made in the early production stages can have serious implications in the management of the products at EoL. For example, a product designed such that it is difficult to disassemble in order to remove hazardous substances can be very inefficient to manage at the EoL stage. Discussion of electronic products’ EoL management approaches is presented in this paper. Subsequently, suggestions for the stakeholders to address the complexities in making electronic products more sustainable are proposed.

  • 250.
    Leppälampi, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Krantz, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Värdekedjeanalys av returflöden på Scania: Fallstudie på marknaderna i Sverige, Tyskland och Benelux2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today Scania give a high priority to the continuous improvements on the quality of their vehicles. To follow up the flaws in product quality, which are recognized by the repairs at the local workshops, material requests are carried through to be able to analyze the defects at the plant in Södertälje – in purpose to improve the product quality. The material requests are also carried through to compensate the workshop for their expenses and to check that they are working according to the company’s warranty manual.

    Due to local routines and different distribution structures at the different markets the lead times and the costs caused by the flow of material are hard to estimate. Furthermore the lead times are in many cases unjustified long, which imply that the information about quality problems reaches Scania at a late stage. The variations in lead times moreover results in problems with planning the activities.

    This study has, in the light of the background described above, aimed to map and analyze the lead times and costs which are caused by the flow of warranty material, from the company’s workshops to the plant in Södertälje. Based on the results of the analysis a range of alternative solutions also have been prepared in purpose to reduce the lead times in a cost efficient way.

    The mapping, which took place on the Swedish, German and Benelux markets, has mainly been carried out through visits at the workshops and the distributors at respective markets. Apart from the qualitative aspects in collected data the performance of the studied markets, in the form of costs and lead times, has been compiled and calculated. The observed characteristics were later on analyzed together with relevant logistics management theory to point out strengths and weaknesses with different solutions.

    Based on the mapping and the analysis the second part of the study could be completed, which aimed to formulate a range of recommendations. The recommendations, which are presented below, are principally formulated in correspondence with the priorities of Scania – namely to achieve high product quality and rapid information.

    1. Improved and more concrete management at factory level. This can be achieved through clarified targets which include explicit measurements and directives towards all actors.
    2. Reduce the waiting time between activities. This can be achieved by a combination of incentives and demands on the distributors as well as on the workshops.
    3. Change the transport strategies. On the Benelux market the transport solutions are well designed and are therefore both cost effective and quite fast, which implies short lead times. On the Swedish market a consolidation of goods is proposed to decrease the delivery rate in Södertälje to just once a week. On the German market merged deliveries are proposed, the same transport that delivers spare parts to the workshop will through this recommendation also pick up the warranty material. The warranty material will in this solution also be merged in a collection point and thereafter be transported to the distributor once a week.
    4. Change the transport frequencies. The different markets will send in material on predefined days once a week, which will contribute to keep the lead times short and the quantities at a more manageable level.
    5. Even out the inflow of material to Södertälje and avoid handling in Building 220X, to reduce the problems with stress, mishandling and lack of recourses which occur because of the uneven inflow at the receiving area today. Clear information should in according to this be given to each market concerning for instance shipping date and quantities.
    6. Improve the integration of the information systems, to facilitate the spreading of information and administrative activities related to claims and material requests. This also implies that forecasting and management is facilitated.

     

    Through the recommendations the lead time for the Swedish market is estimated to be reduced from 21 to 13 days, for the German market from 60 to 21 days and from 39 to 21 days for the Benelux-market. Apart from reduced lead times the more straight demands, incentives and improved routines will imply that the variations in lead times are reduced.

    Due to the changes according to the recommendations the costs will be reduced, both through the reduced lead times, which affect the capital costs, as well as more efficient structures that reduce the handling costs and the costs of transportation.

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