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  • 201.
    Lundqvist, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Creating Resilience – A Matter of Control or Computation?: Resilience Engineering explored through the lenses of Cognitive Systems Engineering and Distributed Cognition in a patient safety case study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the research approach known as Resilience Engineering (RE) has offered a promising new way of understanding safety-critical organizations, but less in the way of empirical methods for analysis. In this master’s thesis, an extensive comparison was made between RE and two different research approaches on cognitive systems: Distributed Cognition (DC) and Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) with the aim of exploring whether these approaches can contribute to the analysis and understanding of resilience. In addition to a theoretical comparison, an ethnographic healthcare case study was conducted, analyzing the patient safety at a pediatric emergency department using the Three-Level Analytical Framework from DC and the Extended Control Model from CSE, then conducting an RE analysis based on the former two analyses. It was found that while the DC and CSE approaches can explain how an organization adapts to current demands, neither approach fully addresses the issue of future demands anticipation, central to the RE perspective. However, the CSE framework lends itself well as an empirical ground providing the entry points for a more thoroughgoing RE analysis, while the inclusion of physical context in a DC analysis offers valuable insights to safety-related issues that would otherwise be left out in the study of resilience.

  • 202.
    Lundqvist, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Riskkompensation hos dysforiska bilförare: en körsimulatorstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Med fler än en miljon omkomna i trafikolyckor världen över varje år är trafiksäkerhet ett ständigt aktuellt område. Studier på deprimerade patienter har visat att negativ sinnesstämning medför försämrad körförmåga. Dessa effekter är i hög grad outforskade och det är därför viktigt att undersöka om de förekommer även vid en mildare grad av nedstämdhet, så kallad dysfori, vilket i så fall skulle innebära att negativ sinnesstämning i likhet med trötthet och alkoholpåverkan utgör en allvarlig trafikfara. För att bättre förstå hur sinnesstämning påverkar körförmåga är det dock också relevant att undersöka om dysfori kan bidra till riskkompensation, det fenomen som inträffar när människor kompenserar för säkerhetsförändringar genom ett förändrat riskbeteende. I denna uppsats beskrivs en del av en körsimulatorstudie kring dysfori och bilkörning, där syftet var att undersöka om dysfori kan vara en orsak till riskkompensation. 15 studenter vid Linköpings universitet delades upp i en testgrupp med dysforiska försöksdeltagare (N = 5) och en kontrollgrupp (N = 10) med hjälp av Major Depression Inventory, ett instrument för att diagnostisera depression. Dessa fick sedan genomföra en körning i simulatorn Desktop T&D där time headway, time to collision, genomsnittshastighet och antal omkörningar mättes för de olika grupperna för att undersöka förekomsten av riskkompensation. Resultatet visade att inga signifikanta skillnader kunde observeras för något av måtten. Riskkompensation har i många studier visat sig vara ett komplext fenomen att undersöka och ett flertal metodologiska problem förelåg, särskilt på grund av svårigheten att mäta risk i en simulator med god validitet. Det är dock viktigt att fortsatta undersökningar görs för att bättre förstå riskkompensation, samt att fenomenet beaktas som en tänkbar inverkande faktor i framtida studier av körförmåga.

  • 203.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Cognitive hearing aids and top-down/bottom-up issues2014Inngår i: Abstract book, 2014, s. 39-40Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory is important for online language processing in a dialogue. We use it to store, to inhibit or ignore what is not relevant, and to attend to things selectively. lt is our way of keeping track while taking tums or following the gist of the dialogue. The Ease-of Language Understanding (ELU) model describes the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in sound and speech processing and attempts to explain findings on e.g. the relationship between WMC and speech signal processing and short-term retention and the effects of hearing impairment on memory.

    In a given listening situation, the mental/cognitive state may be different in the same acoustic environment if the cognitive tasks differ including e.g. single task versus dual task, time of the day, fatigue, or attention to different sources. Hearing aids include automatics to control signal processing schemas like noise reduction and beamforming/directional microphones. The different mental states during listening indicates that for a hearing aid it might not be enough with just measuring acoustics, it might be necessary to monitor cognitive parameters and make decisions on hearing aid settings, i.e. cognition-driven hearing aids. New technological developments relevant for auditory processing include physiological monitoring via e.g. the electroencephalogram (EEG), and via pupillometry. In the presentation some ideas will be reviewed and some preliminary work will be presentad on (a) cognitive load monitoring for hearing aid control, and (b) attention modulation, i.e. which source is attended to?

  • 204.
    MacDonald, Beatriz
    et al.
    Univ New Mexico, NM 87131 USA.
    Pennington, Bruce F.
    Univ Denver, CO 80208 USA.
    Willcutt, Erik G.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, CO USA.
    Dmitrieva, Julia
    Univ Denver, CO 80208 USA.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Byrne, Brian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Univ New England, Australia.
    Olson, Richard K.
    Linköpings universitet. Univ Colorado Boulder, CO USA.
    Cross-Country Differences in Parental Reporting of Symptoms of ADHD2019Inngår i: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, ISSN 0022-0221, E-ISSN 1552-5422, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 806-824Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies within the United States suggest there are cultural and contextual influences on how attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are perceived. If such influences operate within a single country, they are likely to also occur between countries. In the current study, we tested whether country differences in mean ADHD scores also reflect cultural and contextual differences, as opposed to actual etiological differences. The sample for the present study included 974 participants from four countries tested at two time points, the end of preschool and the end of second grade. Consistent with previous research, we found lower mean ADHD scores in Norway and Sweden in comparison with Australia and the United States, and we tested four explanations for these country differences: (a) genuine etiological differences, (b) slower introduction to formal academic skills in Norway and Sweden than in the United States and Australia that indicated a context difference, (c) underreporting tendency in Norway and Sweden, or (d) overreporting tendency in the United States and Australia. Either under- or overreporting would be examples of cultural differences in the perception of ADHD symptoms. Of these explanations, results of ADHD measurement equivalence tests across countries rejected the first three explanations and supported the fourth explanation: an overreporting tendency in the United States and Australia. These findings indicate that parental reporting of ADHD symptoms is more accurate in Norway and Sweden than in Australia and the United States, and, thus, have important clinical and educational implications for how parental reporting informs an ADHD diagnosis in these countries.

  • 205.
    Malmberg, Milijana
    et al.
    Habilitation and Health, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden; Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S Snekkersten, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evaluating the short-term and long-term effects of an internet-based aural rehabilitation programme for hearing aid users in general clinical practice: a randomised controlled trial.2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 5, artikkel-id e013047Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Guided internet-based intervention beyond hearing aid (HA) fitting has been shown to be efficacious in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, internet interventions have rarely been applied clinically as a part of regular aural rehabilitation (AR). Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-based AR for HA users from a clinical population.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: The Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE) was used as the primary outcome measure, and the Communication Strategies Scale (CSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used as secondary outcome measures. All questionnaires were administered before and directly after the intervention and at 6 months postintervention.

    METHODS: We used a parallel group design (RCT). The data were collected in 2013-2014 at three different clinics. Seventy-four HA users were randomly assigned to receive either full internet-based AR (intervention group, n=37) or one element of the internet-based AR (control group, n=37).

    RESULTS: Data were analysed following the intention-to-treat principle. Each group showed improved HHIE scores over time and did not differ significantly from each other. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement compared with the control group for the CSS total and the non-verbal subscale scores. The intervention group and control group were also subdivided into two age groups: 20-59 years and 60-80 years. Significantly better improvement on the CSS total and non-verbal subscale scores was found in the older group compared with the younger participants.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that participants in an internet-based intervention applied in general clinical practice showed improved self-reported communication skills compared with a control group. Receiving a full intervention was not more effective in improving self-reported hearing problems than receiving just one element of the internet-based intervention.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This trial is registered at ClinicalTrals.gov, NCT01837550; results.

  • 206.
    Meltzoff, Andrew N.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Murray, Lynne
    Univ Reading, England; Univ Cape Town, South Africa.
    Simpson, Elizabeth
    Univ Miami, FL 33124 USA.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nagy, Emese
    Univ Dundee, Scotland.
    Nadel, Jacqueline
    Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, France.
    Pedersen, Eric J.
    Univ Colorado, CO 80309 USA.
    Brooks, Rechele
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Messinger, Daniel S.
    Univ Miami, FL 33124 USA.
    De Pascalis, Leonardo
    Univ Liverpool, England.
    Subiaul, Francys
    George Washington Univ, DC USA.
    Paukner, Annika
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver Natl Inst Child Hlth and Hum, MD USA.
    Ferrari, Pier F.
    Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    Re-examination of Oostenbroek etal. (2016): evidence for neonatal imitation of tongue protrusion2018Inngår i: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 21, nr 4, artikkel-id e12609Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The meaning, mechanism, and function of imitation in early infancy have been actively discussed since Meltzoff and Moores (1977) report of facial and manual imitation by human neonates. Oostenbroek etal. (2016) claim to challenge the existence of early imitation and to counter all interpretations so far offered. Such claims, if true, would have implications for theories of social-cognitive development. Here we identify 11 flaws in Oostenbroek etal.s experimental design that biased the results toward null effects. We requested and obtained the authors raw data. Contrary to the authors conclusions, new analyses reveal significant tongue-protrusion imitation at all four ages tested (1, 3, 6, and 9 weeks old). We explain how the authors missed this pattern and offer five recommendations for designing future experiments. Infant imitation raises fundamental issues about action representation, social learning, and brain-behavior relations. The debate about the origins and development of imitation reflects its importance to theories of developmental science.

  • 207.
    Meurling, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Information review and instructional design at The Astonishing Tribe2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis sets out to answer two fundamental questions about the information given to customers by The Astonishing Tribe; how is this information perceived, and what improvements can be done. The information was gathered by interviewing customers and employees at The Astonishing Tribe, and analyzing this data using grounded theory methodology. The emerging patterns were then taken and examined from an instructional design viewpoint, presenting possibilities of improvement in areas of examples, tutorial material and documentation, drawing on earlier instructional design research.

  • 208.
    Michael, John Andrew
    et al.
    Univ Warwick, England; Cent European Univ, Hungary.
    Szigeti, András
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kultur och estetik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    The Group Knobe Effect2019Inngår i: Philosophical Explorations, ISSN 1386-9795, E-ISSN 1741-5918, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 44-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper, we present and discuss a series of experiments in which we investigated peoples willingness to ascribe intentions, as well as blame and praise, to groups. The experiments draw upon the so-called "Knobe Effect". Knobe [2003. "Intentional action and side effects in ordinary language." Analysis 63: 190-194] found that the positiveness or negativeness of side-effects of actions influences peoples assessment of whether those side-effects were brought about intentionally, and also that people are more willing to assign blame for negative side-effects of actions than they are to assign praise for positive side-effect of actions. Building upon this research, we found evidence that the positiveness or negativeness of side-effects of group actions influences peoples willingness to attribute intentions to groups (Experiment 1a), and that people are more willing to assign blame to groups for negative side-effects of actions than they are to assign praise to groups for positive side-effects of actions (Experiment 1b). We also found evidence (Experiments 2a, 2b, 3 and 4) that the "Group Knobe Effect" persists even when intentions and blame/praise are attributed to groups non-distributively, indicating that people tend not to think of group intentions and group blame/praise in distributive terms. We conclude that the folk are collectivist about group intentions, and also about the blameworthiness and praiseworthiness of groups.

  • 209.
    Moche, Hajdi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Is happiness choosing to give or to take money?: An experimental study of prosocial spending, active and passive choices and nudging2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Research within positive psychology has shown that spending money on other people (prosocial spending) makes you happier than spending it on yourself (proself spending). The present study tested and extended this idea. Also, how an active or a passive choice in spending affect happiness has been tested. Lastly, this study is the first one to test the effect of nudging on happiness by examining the role of choice, defaults in spending. Three measures of subjective well-being (SWB) was used before and after the manipulation. The web experiment consisted of 788 people recruited from a web-based research company that were randomized to five conditions. Participants played a game and won money, of which some could be donated to a charity organization - representing prosocial spending. The results show that prosocial spending makes people happier than proself spending and that active choices elicit significantly more negative affects than passive choices. A default effect was also found, in so that more people chose proself spending when this was the default. Lastly, the greatest effect on happiness is to change from a default, compared to following a default or doing an active choice without a default. The results are in line with findings in positive psychology as well as theories suggesting that people feel less satisfied and happy when making decisions.

  • 210.
    Moe, Vibeke
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway; Eastern and Southern Norway, Norway.
    Cecilie Braarud, Hanne
    Eastern and Southern Norway, Norway; Uni Research Heatlh, Norway.
    Wentzel-Larsen, Tore
    Norwegian Centre Violence and Traumat Stress Studies, Norway; Eastern and Southern Norway, Norway.
    Slinning, Kari
    University of Oslo, Norway; Eastern and Southern Norway, Norway.
    Tranaas Vannebo, Unni
    Eastern and Southern Norway, Norway.
    Guedeney, Antoine
    Hospital Bichat Claude Bernard, France; INSERM, France; University of Denis Diderot Paris Cite, France.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Margrethe Rostad, Anne
    Municipal Trondheims Welf Clin, Norway.
    Smith, Lars
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression2016Inngår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 44, s. 159-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N = 238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N = 64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 211.
    Moradi, Shahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Comparison of deaf and hearing children in working memory and problem solving2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 212.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Visual Cues Contribute Differentially to Audiovisual Perception of Consonants and Vowels in Improving Recognition and Reducing Cognitive Demands in Listeners With Hearing Impairment Using Hearing Aids2017Inngår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 60, nr 9, s. 2687-2703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose We sought to examine the contribution of visual cues in audiovisual identification of consonants and vowels—in terms of isolation points (the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus), accuracy, and cognitive demands—in listeners with hearing impairment using hearing aids.

    Method The study comprised 199 participants with hearing impairment (mean age = 61.1 years) with bilateral, symmetrical, mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Gated Swedish consonants and vowels were presented aurally and audiovisually to participants. Linear amplification was adjusted for each participant to assure audibility. The reading span test was used to measure participants' working memory capacity.

    Results Audiovisual presentation resulted in shortened isolation points and improved accuracy for consonants and vowels relative to auditory-only presentation. This benefit was more evident for consonants than vowels. In addition, correlations and subsequent analyses revealed that listeners with higher scores on the reading span test identified both consonants and vowels earlier in auditory-only presentation, but only vowels (not consonants) in audiovisual presentation.

    Conclusion Consonants and vowels differed in terms of the benefits afforded from their associative visual cues, as indicated by the degree of audiovisual benefit and reduction in cognitive demands linked to the identification of consonants and vowels presented audiovisually.

  • 213.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. he Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Greater explicit cognitive resources support speech-in-noise identification in elderly normal-hearing listeners2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies have demonstrated that cognitive capacity of listeners is a key factor in speech-in-noise tests in young-normal-hearing listeners (e.g., Moradi et al., 2014) and hearing-impaired individuals (e.g., Foo et al., 2007; Rudner et al., 2012). In addition, aging is associated with decline in sensory and cognitive functions that may impair speech perception in noisy conditions.

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between working memory and attentional capacities and speech-in-noise identification in elderly normal-hearing listeners. Twenty-four native Swedish speakers (13 women and 11 men) normal hearing were recruited to participate in the study. The mean age of participants was 71.5 years (SD = 3.1 years, range: 66–77 years). The reading span test (RST) and the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test (PASAT) were used to measure working memory capacity and attentional capacity, respectively. The speech-in-noise identification measured using the HINT (at 50% correct level) and Hagerman test (at 80% correct level). Results showed that individuals with greater working memory and attentional capacities had better performance in HINT and Hagerman tests. These findings support the notion that explicit cognitive resources of listeners play a critical role in identification of speech stimuli under degraded listening conditions.

  • 214.
    Möller, Clara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Odersjö, Caroline
    Linköpings universitet.
    Pilesjö, Frans
    Linköpings universitet.
    Terpening, Kendra
    Linköpings universitet.
    Österberg, Malin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Reflective Functioning, Limit Setting, and Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Dyads2017Inngår i: Parenting, science and practice, ISSN 1529-5192, E-ISSN 1532-7922, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 225-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. There is a need for better understanding the relation between parents mentalizing about their child and their actual behavior toward the child. Specifically, it is important to understand the significance of mentalization about discrete parental challenges in comparison with mentalization about the relationship in general in relation to their interaction with the child. This study aimed to examine parental mentalization and observed emotional availability.

    Design. Forty mothers were observed in a play situation with their children (aged 3-10years) to rate the emotional availability in the interaction. Mothers were also interviewed with the parent development interview and about parental limit setting to assess parental reflective functioning.

    Results. Analyses showed moderate correlations between the reflective functioning scores and the emotional availability dimensions. Approximately 15% of the variance in emotional availability scales could be accounted for by the reflective functioning ratings.

    Conclusions. The results suggest that parents ability to mentalize about limit setting behaviors may affect interactions between the parent and child.

  • 215.
    Nasser, Mohamed
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    The Study of the Relationship between Linguistic Skills and Psychological Disorders2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Our current knowledge about the relationship between linguistic skills and psychological disorders is somewhat diffuse. One reason is because it is difficult to investigate this relationship without including conditions that clearly influence the results in one way or another (e.g. culture, environment, socioeconomic class etc). This study aims to investigate the relationship in an attempt to highlight a potential link. By using the lens of several fields altogether; cognitive science, linguistics, neuroscience, neurocognition, this study shed light on the relationship and encourage further studies in this field to determine the role of linguistic skills in mental health in general. In the experiment, linguistic skills were measured opposed to depression as a specific disorder to quantify specific data. Linguistic skills were measured by density and diversity and PHQ-9 survey question were used to determine depression scale. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations between some measures of linguistic skills and PHQ-9. The significant statistical correlation found points towards the hypothesis that, better linguistic skills promote well-being, and psychological disorders take minor effect relative to poorer linguistic skills. This topic is large-scaled which means that background variables must be acknowledged thoroughly, which due to the extent of this thesis, were not. The results are discussed further as well as limitations of the study. Improvements for further research are proposed.

  • 216.
    Neher, T
    et al.
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Hopkins, K
    School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Moore, BC
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Binaural temporal fine structure sensitivity, cognitive function, and spatial speech recognition of hearing-impaired listeners (L).2012Inngår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 131, nr 4, s. 2561-4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between spatial speech recognition (SSR; the ability to understand speech in complex spatial environments), binaural temporal fine structure (TFS) sensitivity, and three cognitive tasks were assessed for 17 hearing-impaired listeners. Correlations were observed between SSR, TFS sensitivity, and two of the three cognitive tasks, which became non-significant when age effects were controlled for, suggesting that reduced TFS sensitivity and certain cognitive deficits may share a common age-related cause. The third cognitive measure was also significantly correlated with SSR, but not with TFS sensitivity or age, suggesting an independent non-age-related cause.

  • 217.
    Nelson, Keith E
    et al.
    Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Barlieb, Aran
    Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Khan, Kiren
    Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Vance Trup, Elisabeth M
    Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tjus, Tomas
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Working Memory, Processing Speed, and Executive Memory. Contributions to Computer-Assisted Second Language Learning:  2012Inngår i: Contemporary Educational Technology, ISSN 1309-517X, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 184-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     How individual differences in information processing affect second language (L2) learning has been unclear in prior research.  Adults lacking prior skill in Swedish were Pretested for working memory, processing speed, and executive memory capacity.  Participants then received 6 computer-based instructional sessions with pictorial animations of Swedish sentences, with a built-in experimental contrast between some lessons at high and some at low rates of presentation.  The faster rate carried greater processing demands for the learners. Higher levels of Swedish performance during Instructional Sessions were associated with higher Working Memory levels, as expected from widely-used models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley & Hitch, 1994).  In contrast, results at demanding long-term retrieval on a Posttest were more complex and revealed several dynamic relationships between Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Swedish language learning.  Learners with low rather than high working memory showed higher L2 skills at long-term testing when instructional lessons had employed fast animations. This first-time demonstration that prior cognitive profiles strongly influence learners’ progress in second language requires refinements in existing theories.  Further, the results hold implications for tailoring second language teaching on-line or in other technology-based instruction to learner profiles on abilities in working memory, processing speed, and executive memory.

  • 218.
    Nelson, Keith E.
    et al.
    Penn State University.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Abuelhaija, Lutfi
    Wroblewski, Roberta
    Implications for language acquisition models of childrens' and parents' variations in imitation1989Inngår i: The many faces of imitation in language learning / [ed] G E Speidel & K E Nelson, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 1989, s. 305-323Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the course of this chapter, we consider evidence from three countries, Sweden, Jordan, and the United States. Individual differences between children and also between parents in their imitation tendencies will be examined through a series of questions concerning imitation at different ages and in different cultures. It will be possible to both summarize important research findings on imitation and to discuss theoretical implications of these research findings.

  • 219.
    Nelson, Keith E
    et al.
    Penn State University, USA.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Tjus, Tomas
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Theoretical and applied in sights from multimedia facilitation of communication skills in children with autism, deaf children, and children with other disabilities1997Inngår i: Communication and language acquisition: discoveries from atypical development / [ed] L B Adamson & M A Romski, Baltimore, USA: Brookes Publishing Company, 1997, s. 299-328Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 220.
    Nelson, Keith E
    et al.
    Penn State University, USA.
    Welsh, Janet M
    Penn State University, USA.
    Camarata, Stephen M
    Vanerbilt University, USA.
    Tjus, Tomas
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    A rare event transactional model of tricky mix conditions contributing to language acquisition and varied communicative delays2001Inngår i: Children's Language, Volume 11: Interactional Contributions to Language Development / [ed] K E Nelson, A Aksu-Koç, C E Johnson, Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001, s. 158-197Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 221.
    Nilheim, Katarina
    et al.
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Regionsenter for barne- og ungdomspsykiatri, Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Tjus, Tomas
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Datorn som pedagogiskt hjälpmedel för barn med autism: En attitydundersökning bland föräldrar och personal vid Rebeckaskolan2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier genomförda i Västsverige har visat att en multimediabaserad strategi kan hjälpa barn med autism att utveckla sin läsförmåga samt motiverar till ökad kommunikation mellan barnet och dess lärare. I föreliggande rapport utvecklas perspektivet till att inkludera föräldrars och lärares attityder till att använda datorer för barn med autism. All pedagogisk personal och alla föräldrar vid Rebeckaskolorna i Göteborg inviterades att svara på en enkät. Trettiofem lärare ochtjugoen föräldrar svarade (en svarsfrekvens av 58 respektive 39 procent). Globalt visar svaren från denna självselekterade grupp att man har en positiv syn på datorns roll som pedagogiskt hjälpmedel. Speciellt viktig anses datorn vara för att utveckla språk,kommunikation, matematik samt begreppsförståelse. Områden som omvärldsförståelse och mentaliseringsförmåga ses som relativt mindre viktiga. Vid en gruppjämförelse framkommer att föräldrar värderar datorns roll högre än vad lärarna gör inom områdena begreppsförståelse, mentalisering och språkträning. Bara lärarna ser datorn som viktig som förströelse för barnen.

  • 222.
    Nilsson, Cassandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Bryggan mellan två världar: En tolkande fenomenologisk analys av bisexuella personers identitetsarbete2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att studera hur bisexuella personer förhåller sig till sin identitet i en binär värld. Fem personer (en med icke-binär könsidentitet, en man, två kvinnor och en queer kvinna) har intervjuats, och intervjuerna har analyserats utifrån tolkande fenomenologisk analys, även kallad IPA. I resultatet framkommer mycket som bekräftar tidigare forskning gällande identitetsutveckling där de genomgår faser av förvirring, behov av stolthet/komma ut, kulturell gemenskap och syntes. Deltagarna upplever också att det ställs vissa särskilda krav på bisexuella personer och har upplevelser av olika former av stigmatisering som riktas mot bisexualitet, såsom hypersexualitet, sexualisering och monosexism. 

  • 223.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Johansson, Erika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Larsson, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The experience of internal and external supporting objects from the perspective of six young women who have lost a parent to cancer: An interpretative phenomenological analyisis2017Inngår i: Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Vol. 2, nr (2), s. 24-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescents losing a parent are a risk group for future complications in their ongoing live such as higher rate of mortality, self- harm and other mental health problems. There is a lack of knowledge in what, how and when to offer help as well as no concluding theoretical model to understand the whole process of losing a parent. The objective of this study was to examine how the relationships of some young people are affected by the loss of a parent to cancer during their teenage years.

    Method: Six women aged between 18 and 25 participated in the study. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) method was used.

    Result: The theme of loneliness was cemented with the two main themes, into loneliness and out of loneliness and sub-themes such as, cancer comes along, silence, hold on to and miss, those closest, the supporters, independence, closeness and distance.

    Conclusion: The parent who has died lives on as an inner object and the support from the remaining parent is viewed very important. The process to be back on track seems diverse and continues for a long time and outside help needs to tune in with this.

  • 224.
    Nilsson, Lisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    "Har du kontrollen?": En fallstudie om positionsöverlämningar på ATCC Stockholm2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Flygledare övervakar alla flygplan som färdas världen över genom att se till attflygplanen håller separationsgränserna. Flygledarna jobbar i pass på cirka en timme ochbyts sedan av, en så kallad positionsöverlämning. Det är viktigt att den som tar överpositionen får all information den behöver för att kunna fortsätta leda flygplanen på ett säkert sätt och eventuellt vidta åtgärder för att säkerställa en välordnad flygtrafik. Incidentrapporter visar att ett oproportionerligt stort antal incidenter sker 5- 15minuter efter en positionsöverlämning. På grund av detta vill LFV undersöka hur positionsöverlämningarna går till för att senare kvalitetssäkra dem. Syftet med denna rapport har varit att beskriva positionsöverlämningar på ATCC Stockholm. Resultatet visar att flygledarna till stor del använder sig av en memorerad checklista som inte skiljer sig mycket från den fysiska de har framför sig och följer därmed ett generellt mönster. Det visar även att det svåra kan vara att upprätthålla uppmärksamheten under alla överlämningarna. Resultaten ger LFV en utgångspunkt till att börja med kvalitetssäkringen. Ur ett akademiskt perspektiv visar resultaten en tillämpning på hurde teorier som används i studien kan appliceras i kontexten positionsöverlämningar mellan flygledare.

  • 225.
    Nilsson, Lisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    The difficulty of predicting risky decisions: - An experiment investigating present and future affective states influence on risk-taking2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 poäng / 18 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Affect and feelings states influences decision-making and risk-taking, however is it not clear yet how. This report presents a between-subject experiment on the two mechanisms, affective evaluation and affect regulation, and on how risk-taking redirects depending on which of the two is active. Incidental affect (positive, negative or neutral) was induced by pictures in an online experiment with 999 participants, who conducted the Columbia Card Task (CCT) to measure the risk-taking. The participants were informed prior to the task that gambling either makes people happy (mood-lifting cue), sad (mood-threatening cue) or has no effect on people’s mood (mood-freezing cue). The predicted results in this experiment was not found. However, the results indicate that mood changing qualities of a task can be manipulated and that further research about the interaction between incidental and integral affect is needed. The results also displayed how fleeting induced affect can be and consciousness about what affect is used is discussed.

  • 226.
    Nordensköld, Axel
    et al.
    Örebro university, Sweden.
    Nordanskog, Pia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    ECT: Kliniska riktlinjer för elektrokonvulsiv behandling2014 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Mycket svåra psykiska sjukdomar medför stort lidande, sänker individens funktionsnivå påtagligt och påverkar anhöriga i hög grad. Obehandlade kan de i värsta fall leda till döden. Korrekt administrerad och på välvalda indikationer är elektrokonvulsiv terapi (ECT) en säker och effektiv behandling vid flera av dessa sjukdomar.Svenska Psykiatriska Föreningen har tagit initiativ till att skapa kliniska riktlinjer för ECT. Ambitionen är att tillhandahålla aktuell kunskap inom hela ECT-området och att vara ett stöd i användning och uppföljning av ECT. I riktlinjerna föreslås kvalitetsindikatorer som med stöd av kvalitetsregistret för ECT kan användas för att utveckla den egna verksamheten.Riktlinjerna vänder sig till behandlingsansvariga läkare, verksamhetschefer och till övrig personal inom psykiatrin i Sverige.Svenska Psykiatriska Föreningen har sedan 1996 utformat kliniska riktlinjer för en rad psykiatriska områden. ECT - kliniska riktlinjer för elektrokonvulsiv behandling är den femtonde skriften i serien Svensk Psykiatri.

  • 227.
    Nordqvist, Emelie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Institutionen för psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Institutionen för psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    An electrophysiological index of associative learning correlates with event memories in 14 month old children2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Deferred imitation (DI) is an early form of event memory that indexes early individual differences in infant cognition but the underlying neural processes is to a large degree uncharted. The present study examines how event-related potentials (ERPs) as a response to an associative learning procedure relates to DI measured with an observation-only design. Thirty children participated and acceptable ERP data was collected from 15 (9 boys).  DI was measured with a thirty minutes delay and ERP was recorded with a Geodesic High Density Net with 128 electrodes. The ERP procedure consisted of two pairs of pictures presented six times (= the learning phase) and a test phase introducing two violations: Two familiar pictures in a new combination (ASSO) or a combination of one familiar and one novel picture (NOV). In addition, visual recognition memory was also measured. ERP revealed an Nc within 300-600 ms post stimuli. A higher mean amplitude was observed for ASSO (p < .05) and a marginal effect was noted for NOV (p = .055). Better DI performance correlated with larger Nc change scores between ASSO and the last presentation in the learning phase (rs (15) = .57; p < .05). Preliminary analyses of early and late slow waves (800 to 1500ms post stimuli) revealed no further relationship between ERP and DI and no significant correlation between DI and visual recognition memory. This finding indicates a possible direct link between electrophysiological indices of learning and behavioral observations of declarative like memory processes in young infants.

  • 228.
    Nydén, Agneta
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hjelmquist, Erland
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Heiman, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Attention and executive functions in children with Asperger syndrome, attention disorders and reading/writing disorder1999Inngår i: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 213-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Executive function/attention deficits were examined in children with Asperger syndrome, attention disorder and reading/ writing disorder and in a group of normal children. Neuropsychological tests as well as cognitive tasks measuring different components in the processing of information were used. The measures were divided into Mirsky’s four components of attention, namely ‘sustain’,‘focus-execute’,‘shift’ and ‘encode’. All abnormal groups differed markedly from the normal group on measures of executive function/attention. The group diagnosed as having attention disorder showed the most consistent difficulties. However, no specific marker of ‘executive function deficits’ that could represent the three different disorders was found.

  • 229.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Elevers och studenters syn på grupparbete2013Inngår i: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac & Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, 3, s. 233-244Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 230.
    Ohlsson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Planerat beteende och varierad kost: Hur en webbaserad måltidsplaneringstjänst kan få människor att regelbundet äta varierat2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen presenterar två studier som med den socialpsykologiska modellen ’teorin om planerat beteende’ (Ajzen, 1991) undersöker hur väl en webbaserad måltidsplaneringstjänst lyckas med att få dess användare att regelbundet äta varierat.

    Tjänsten bestod huvudsakligen av en sökbar receptdatabas på 250 recept, en kalender för att planera in recepten i, och en inköpslista som genererades automatiskt utifrån recepten i kalendern. Tjänsten byggdes under tiden som uppsatsen skrevs, och författaren deltog som interaktionsdesigner i detta projekt.

    I  uppsatsen presenteras  två sekventiella studier för att mäta användarnas intention till beteendet. I vardera studie presenteras först webbtjänsten och den funktionalitet den hade vid tiden för testet. Detta följs av en hypotes om tjänstens påverkan över användarnas vilja att äta varierat. I vardera studie genomfördes sedan ett användartest av tjänsten, där 13 respektive 15 personer fick använda webbsidan och svara på enkätfrågor. Enkäterna mätte attityd, subjektiv norm, upplevd beteendekontroll och intention till beteendet att regelbundet äta varierat, och en mätning gjordes före och en efter användartestet av tjänsten.

    Testen visade på signifikanta ökningar för användarna givet att de skulle använda tjänsten; för upplevd beteendekontroll i den första studien; för subjektiv norm i den andra studien, och för intention i båda studierna.

    Uppsatsen presenterar också interaktionsdesignsbeslut tagna för att anpassa tjänsten efter resultaten av mätningarna av användarnas intention. Avslutningsvis lyfter författaren fram forskningsfrågor för framtida studier i ämnet att förjupa sig i.

  • 231.
    Olsson, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    “Count on me!”: Mathematical development, developmental dyscalculia and computer-based intervention2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A “sense” of number can be found across species, yet only humans supplement it with exact and symbolic number, such as number words and digits. However, what abilities leads to successful or unsuccessful arithmetic proficiency is still debated. Furthermore, as the predictability between early understanding of math and later achievement is stronger than for other subjects, early deficits can cause significant later deficits. The purpose of the current thesis was to contribute to the description of what aspects of non-symbolic and symbolic processing leads to later successful or unsuccessful arithmetic proficiency, and to study the effects of different designs of computer-programs on pre-school class aged children. The cognitive mechanisms underlying symbolic number processing and different arithmetic skills were mapped to discover their contributions to children’s proficiency. Findings show that the non-symbolic system continues to contribute to arithmetic performance, and that the general cognitive abilities’ contributions might vary with development. Moreover, more advanced mathematical skills were supported by less advanced. In order to investigate the underlying core deficit in DD, performance was contrasted with an individually matched control group on general cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that DD children are impaired on both nonsymbolic and symbolic processing, the most impairment on the symbolic measures. Furthermore, the results indicated subgroups. In order to investigate the effects of early intervention, three theoretically different designs of computer programs, designed in accordance to hypotheses of number processing were compared to a passive control group. Results revealed that even brief, daily arithmetic training utilizing theoretically different designs impacted different aspects of symbolic processing. The presented findings indicate that the non-symbolic system is the foundation for the symbolic system, and that DD is caused by a non-symbolic deficit. The present thesis also adds evidence that formal arithmetic is founded on precise representations, rather than approximate.

    Delarbeid
    1. Cognitive mechanisms underlying third graders' arithmetic skills: Expanding the pathways to mathematics model.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Cognitive mechanisms underlying third graders' arithmetic skills: Expanding the pathways to mathematics model.
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 167, s. 369-387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A modified pathways to mathematics model was used to examine the cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic skills in third graders. A total of 269 children were assessed on tasks tapping the four pathways and arithmetic skills. A path analysis showed that symbolic number processing was directly supported by the linguistic and approximate quantitative pathways. The direct contribution from the four pathways to arithmetic proficiency varied; the linguistic pathway supported single-digit arithmetic and word problem solving, whereas the approximate quantitative pathway supported only multi-digit calculation. The spatial processing and verbal working memory pathways supported only arithmetic word problem solving. The notion of hierarchical levels of arithmetic was supported by the results, and the different levels were supported by different constellations of pathways. However, the strongest support to the hierarchical levels of arithmetic were provided by the proximal arithmetic skills.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2018
    Emneord
    Approximate quantitative pathway, Arithmetic, Linguistic pathway, Spatial processing pathway, Symbolic number processing, Verbal working memory pathway
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144197 (URN)10.1016/j.jecp.2017.11.010 (DOI)000423652300024 ()29232622 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2008-0238]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-01-10 Laget: 2018-01-10 Sist oppdatert: 2018-02-21
    2. Developmental dyscalculia: A deficit in the approximate number system or an access deficit?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Developmental dyscalculia: A deficit in the approximate number system or an access deficit?
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Cognitive development, ISSN 0885-2014, E-ISSN 1879-226X, Vol. 39, s. 154-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD), a pervasive learning difficulty, affects 5-6% of the population. The current study sought to identify the underlying deficits by contrasting third graders (10-year old) performance against predictions made by two main hypotheses; the preverbal ANS and/or OTS and the access deficit. Through a mathematical and general cognitive screening, identified DD children were compared to individually matched controls on experimental tasks containing non-symbolic and symbolic tasks. DD children showed impairment on almost all symbolic tasks. Results on the non-symbolic tasks showed that DD children had poorer ANS acuity and reduced subitizing range. Most of the results were in support of the defective preverbal ANS and OTS hypothesis. However, as the effect sizes for the symbolic tasks were greater than for the non-symbolic, results indicate that the DD group was more impaired on the symbolic tasks. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2016
    Emneord
    Dyscalculia; Approximate number system (ANS); Object tracking system (OTS); Access deficit; Non-symbolic and symbolic processing; Subitizing
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131713 (URN)10.1016/j.cogdev.2016.04.006 (DOI)000381955000014 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [Dnr 721-2011-2872]; Swedish Research Council [421-2007-1881]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-10-03 Laget: 2016-09-30 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-10
  • 232.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Developmental dyscalculia: A deficit in the approximate number system or an access deficit?2016Inngår i: Cognitive development, ISSN 0885-2014, E-ISSN 1879-226X, Vol. 39, s. 154-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD), a pervasive learning difficulty, affects 5-6% of the population. The current study sought to identify the underlying deficits by contrasting third graders (10-year old) performance against predictions made by two main hypotheses; the preverbal ANS and/or OTS and the access deficit. Through a mathematical and general cognitive screening, identified DD children were compared to individually matched controls on experimental tasks containing non-symbolic and symbolic tasks. DD children showed impairment on almost all symbolic tasks. Results on the non-symbolic tasks showed that DD children had poorer ANS acuity and reduced subitizing range. Most of the results were in support of the defective preverbal ANS and OTS hypothesis. However, as the effect sizes for the symbolic tasks were greater than for the non-symbolic, results indicate that the DD group was more impaired on the symbolic tasks. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 233.
    Parris, Leandra
    et al.
    Illinois State Univ, IL 61790 USA.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Varjas, Kris
    Georgia State Univ, GA 30303 USA.
    Meyers, Joel
    Georgia State Univ, GA 30303 USA.
    Grunewald, Stephanie
    Restorat Counseling, IL USA.
    Shriberg, David
    Indiana Univ, IN USA.
    Bullying bystander behaviors: The role of coping effectiveness and the moderating effect of gender2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have suggested that bystander behaviors and victim coping play an important role in counteracting the negative effects of bullying. The current study investigated the relationship between students ratings of coping effectiveness when addressing bullying and their behaviors as bystanders when witnessing bullying. Surveys were administered in a Midwestern, suburban school district. Some associations between perceptions of coping effectiveness and bystander behavior supported our hypotheses (e.g., constructive coping associated with defending bystander behaviors, externalizing associated with pro-bullying behaviors). However, some findings did not support hypothesized relationships. For example, higher ratings of effectiveness for cognitive distancing as a coping strategy were associated with increased defending behaviors as a bystander. Gender moderated some of these relationships. Pro-bullying bystander behavior was associated with increased ratings of cognitive distancing and decreased reports of constructive coping effectiveness for girls. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  • 234.
    Perini, Irene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Hamilton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kämpe, Robin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    The salience of self, not social pain, is encoded by dorsal anterior cingulate and insula2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 6165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The human neural correlates of social rejection have attracted significant research interest, but remain subject to vigorous debate. Specifically, it has been proposed that a matrix of brain regions overlapping with the classical pain matrix, and including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the anterior insular cortex (AI) is critical for processing of social rejection. The present study expands on this conceptualization, by showing that these areas are involved in processing of self-relevant social evaluation, irrespective of valence. Forty healthy adolescents (N = 20 females) were tested in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. We used a novel paradigm that balanced participants experience of rejection and acceptance. In addition, the paradigm also controlled for whether the social judgment was towards the participants or towards other fictitious players. By creating a "self" and "other" distinction, we show that right AI and dACC are involved in processing the salience of being judged by others, irrespective of the quality of this judgment. This finding supports the idea that these regions are not specific to social rejection or even to pain or metaphorically painful experiences, but activate to self-relevant, highly salient information.

  • 235.
    Persson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Löfberg, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Res, OR USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Variation in the mu-Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRM1) Does Not Moderate Social-Rejection Sensitivity in Humans2019Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 1050-1062Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Given previous findings from animal studies and small-scale studies in humans, variation in the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) has been proposed as a strong biological candidate for moderating sensitivity to social rejection. Using a substantially larger sample (N = 490) than previous studies, a prospective genotyping strategy, and preregistered analysis plans, we tested the hypotheses that OPRM1 variation measured by the functional A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) moderates (a) dispositional sensitivity to rejection and feelings of distress following social exclusion and (b) decision making involving social cognition. In three experimental tasks commonly used to assess altruism, reciprocity, and trust in humans, we found no evidence in favor of the hypotheses; nine main tests were preregistered, and all of them yielded small and statistically insignificant estimates. In secondary analyses, we used Bayesian inference and estimation to quantify support for our findings. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the link between OPRM1 A118G variation and social-rejection sensitivity is weaker than previously thought.

  • 236.
    Poloczek, Sebastian
    et al.
    Goethe University of Frankfurt, Germany; Centre Research Individual Dev and Adapt Educ Children Risk, Germany.
    Henry, Lucy A.
    City University of London, England.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Buettner, Gerhard
    Goethe University of Frankfurt, Germany; Centre Research Individual Dev and Adapt Educ Children Risk, Germany.
    Maehler, Claudia
    University of Hildesheim, Germany.
    Messer, David J.
    Open University, England.
    Schuchardt, Kirsten
    University of Hildesheim, Germany.
    van der Molen, Mariet J.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Strategic verbal rehearsal in adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities: A multi-centre European study2016Inngår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 58, s. 83-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a long-held view that verbal short-term memory problems of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) might be due to a deficit in verbal rehearsal. However, the evidence is inconclusive and word length effects as indicator of rehearsal have been criticised. Aim amp; method: The aim of this multi-site European study was to investigate verbal rehearsal in adolescents with mild ID (n = 90) and a comparison group of typically developing children matched individually for mental age (MA, n = 90). The investigation involved: (1) a word length experiment with non-verbal recall using pointing and (2) self-paced inspection times to infer whether verbal strategies were utilised when memorising a set of pictorial items. Results: The word length effect on recall did not interact with group, suggesting that adolescents with ID and MA comparisons used similar verbal strategies, possibly phonological recoding of picture names. The inspection time data suggested that high span individuals in both groups used verbal labelling or single item rehearsal on more demanding lists, as long named items had longer inspection times. Conclusions: The findings suggest that verbal strategy use is not specifically impaired in adolescents with mild ID and is mental age appropriate, supporting a developmental perspective. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 237.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Performance and Shared Understanding in Mixed C2-Systems2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This thesis had two purposes. The main one was to examine how mixed conditions affect a Command & Control (C2) system, particularly in terms of shared understanding, situation awareness (SA), performance and workload. Mixed conditions refer here to when subsystems of a larger C2-system differ in terms of capabilities, particularly those capabilities influencing the understanding of a situation e.g. sensors or communication, which could affect the C2-capabilities when working toward a common goal. The second purpose of this thesis was to investigate a newly developed tool for measuring shared understanding, Shared Priorities, in terms of validity and usefulness.

    METHOD: A number of hypotheses were constructed and investigated by a controlled experiment using a microworld, C3Fire, where two-man teams fought a simulated forest fire. The independent variable manipulated was the type of support system used. One condition used one computer interface per participant, the second was mixed conditions where one participant used the computer interface and one used a paper map, and the last condition was both participants using a paper map. Different questionnaires developed to measure SA, workload etc. was used to measure the dependent variables.

    RESULTS: The statistical analysis performed on the collected data showed that the performance and SA was comparatively better when both participants used the computer interface than the mixed condition, which in turn was better than when both participants used a paper map. For workload and teamwork, no differences between the mixed condition and the dual map condition were found. As for the Shared Priorities measurement, no differences were found between any of the conditions.

    CONCLUSION: A C2-system in which some additional capabilities are introduced for some but not all subsystems may not benefit in some regards, e.g. workload and teamwork, but could improve in others, e.g. SA and performance. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) shows that the theoretical constructs of SA, workload, teamwork and performance are related and affect each other, so that the workload of the system negatively affects the teamwork and SA, while the teamwork may affect SA positively and a high SA enables high performance.

  • 238.
    Quayle, Ethel
    et al.
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Cooper, Karen
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Traynor, James
    NCA CEOP Command, England.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Children in Identified Sexual Images - Who Are they? Self- and Non-Self-Taken Images in the International Child Sexual Exploitation Image Database 2006-20152018Inngår i: Child Abuse Review, ISSN 0952-9136, E-ISSN 1099-0852, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 223-238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Child sexual abuse and exploitation material has drawn concern and legislative attention since the turn of the century, and the work to identify children in the images has been a prioritised task through international cooperation. The International Child Sexual Exploitation Image Database (ICSE DB) includes more than 8000 identified victims from nearly 50 countries. The database contains considerable important information about child abuse image crimes. The general aim of this study was to quantify the characteristics of children in identified illegal images from the UK ICSE DB (n = 687) with the subsidiary aim to describe differences between cases of self-taken images and those whose images had been taken by others. The analysis showed an increase in identified victims during the study years 2006-2015. Almost two-thirds were female, the majority were white and 44.3 per cent of images were self-taken (34.4% taken in a coercive and 9.9% in a non-coercive relationship). Since 2010, the number of self-taken images each year has exceeded more than 40 per cent of the total number of images in the database. Although self-taken images may be perceived as less worrisome, two-thirds were classified as coercive. This is an important argument in favour of continuing to investigate these cases under victim identification programmes. The general aim of this study was to quantify the characteristics of children in identified illegal images from the UK ICSE DB Key Practitioner Messages The ICSE DB includes more than 8000 identified victims and contains important information about child abuse image crimes. A majority of the identified victims were female and white children. Almost half of all images were self-taken and had been taken in a coercive relationship. Parents and practitioners need to recognise that even if a child sends sexual images these should be considered worrisome and therefore investigated further.

  • 239.
    Rambusch, Jana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Riding a bike in Paperboy: A case study of embodied humancomputer game interaction2007Inngår i: The Virtual - Designing Digital Experience. No. 4., 2007, s. 144-151Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 240.
    Rambusch, Jana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Situated Play2008Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses computer game play activities from the perspective of embodied and situated cognition. From such a perspective, game play can be divided into the physical handling of the game and the players' understanding of it. Game play can also be described in terms of three different levels of situatedness "high-level" situatedness, the contextual "here and now", and "low-level" situatedness. Moreover, theoretical and empirical implications of such a perspective have been explored more in detail in two case studies.

    Delarbeid
    1. The embodied and situated nature of computer game play.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The embodied and situated nature of computer game play.
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Workshop on the cognitive science of games and game play. Vancouver, Canada, 26th july, 2006, s. 8 pp.-Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13086 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-26 Laget: 2008-03-26
    2. Situated play
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Situated play
    2008 (engelsk)Inngår i: Beyond the Brain: Embodied, Situated and Distributed Cognition / [ed] B. Hardy-Vallé & N. Payette, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008, s. 215-226Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive science faces a major methodological and conceptual change since the 90's. Whereas the brain was traditionally conceived as being the only seat of intelligence, many researches emphasize the entrenchment of the brain in body, context and culture. In 2006, a conference was held at the Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQAM) and allowed researchers from various fields to interact and discuss such issues. Cognitio 2006 was an occasion for philosophers, cognitive scientists and biologists to present the latest developments in their discipline, and this book aims at providing a general overview of current research on embodied, situated and distributed cognition.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13087 (URN)1-84718-598-3 (ISBN)978-1847-185-983 (ISBN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-26 Laget: 2008-03-26 Sist oppdatert: 2014-01-31bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Situated play: just a temporary blip
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Situated play: just a temporary blip
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 Conference: Situated Play, September 24-28, 2007, Tokyo, Japan, 2007, s. 730-735Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss how cognitive science may contribute to understanding the concepts of situatedness and situated play. While situatedness has become something of a catch-all term, it actually has several different meanings, ranging from “higher” social-cultural forms to “lower” sensori-motoric activities. We also discuss an often overlooked, but crucial aspect of situatedness, which is the use of external resources such as tools and their use. As will become apparent, a more thorough understanding of situatedness and tool use are key to understanding computer games and people’s everyday playing activities.

    Emneord
    situatedness, tool use, situated play, computer games
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13088 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-26 Laget: 2008-03-26
    4. The Challenge of Managing Real and Virtual Accordances in Computer Game Play
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Challenge of Managing Real and Virtual Accordances in Computer Game Play
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Game in' Action, June 13-15, Gothenburg University, Sweden, 2007, s. 13 pp.-Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13089 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-26 Laget: 2008-03-26
    5. Riding a bike in Paperboy: A case study of embodied humancomputer game interaction
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Riding a bike in Paperboy: A case study of embodied humancomputer game interaction
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: The Virtual - Designing Digital Experience. No. 4., 2007, s. 144-151Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13090 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-26 Laget: 2008-03-26 Sist oppdatert: 2013-08-15bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Exploring e-sports: A case study of gameplay in counter-strike
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Exploring e-sports: A case study of gameplay in counter-strike
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 Conference: Situated Play, September 24-28, 2007, Tokyo, Japan, 2007, s. 157-164Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13091 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-26 Laget: 2008-03-26
  • 241.
    Rambusch, Jana
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jakobsson, P.
    Pargman, D.
    Exploring e-sports: A case study of gameplay in counter-strike2007Inngår i: Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 Conference: Situated Play, September 24-28, 2007, Tokyo, Japan, 2007, s. 157-164Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 242.
    Rambusch, Jana
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    The Challenge of Managing Real and Virtual Accordances in Computer Game Play2007Inngår i: Game in' Action, June 13-15, Gothenburg University, Sweden, 2007, s. 13 pp.-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 243.
    Rasoal, Chato
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Empathy among students in engineeringprogrammes2012Inngår i: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 427-435Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineers face challenges when they are to manage project groups and be leaders for organisations becausesuch positions demand skills in social competence and empathy. Previous studies have shown that engineershave low degrees of social competence skills. In this study, the level of empathy as measured by the foursubscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, perspective taking, fantasy, empathic distress and empathicconcern, among engineering students was compared to students in health care profession programmes.Participants were undergraduate students at Linköping University, 365 students from four different healthcare profession programmes and 115 students from two different engineering programmes. When theempathy measures were corrected for effects of sex, engineering students from one of the programmes hadlower empathy than psychology and socialworker students on the fantasy and perspective-taking subscales.These results raise questions regarding opportunities for engineering students to develop their empathicabilities. It is important that engineering students acquire both theoretical and practical knowledge andskills regarding empathy.

  • 244.
    Rasoal, Chato
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hau, Stephan
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ethnocultural versus Basic Empathy: Same or Different?2011Inngår i: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 2, nr 9, s. 925-930Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ethnocultural empathy has been put forward as a variable that could explain tolerance between individuals and groups of different ethnic and cultural background. However, it is not clear if ethnocultural em-pathy is distinct from basic empathy. In this study we investigated the association between basic empathy, as measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983) and ethnocultural empathy, as measured by the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (Wang et al., 2003). We also explored the question of whether a set of back-ground variables would predict the two forms of empathy. We investigated if there were different predictors of ethnocultural and basic empathy, and if the two constructs are distinct. Results showed that the two forms of empathy were correlated and that largely similar predictors were found for the two constructs. A confirmatory factor analysis failed to confirm two separate constructs. Implications of the findings for the measurement of empathy are discussed.

  • 245.
    Reigstad, Amanda
    et al.
    Ubiversity of Bergen.
    Eirik, Strömland
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Extending the Cooperative Phenotype: Assessing the Stability of Cooperation across Countries2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 1990Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies whether individual cooperation is stable across settings and over time. Involving more than 7,000 subjects on two different continents, this study documents positive correlation in cooperative behavior across economic games in Norway, Sweden, Austria, and the United States. The game measures also correlate with a tendency to make deontological judgments in moral dilemmas, and display of general trust toward strangers. Using time-variation in the data, we test whether temporal stability of behavior is similar in the United States and Norway, and find similar stability estimates for both the American and Norwegian samples. The findings here provide further evidence of the existence of a stable behavioral inclination toward prosociality – a “cooperative phenotype,” as it has recently been termed. Also in line with previous research, we find that punishment and cooperation seem to be uncorrelated.

  • 246.
    Ritchie, Sophie
    et al.
    Univ Strathclyde, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Univ Strathclyde, UK.
    Sanford, Alison
    Univ Strathclyde, UK.
    Perceptions of cosmesis and function in adults with upper limb prostheses: A systematic literature review2011Inngår i: Prosthetics and orthotics international, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 332-341Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Technological developments in prosthesis design of upper limb devices are improving rapidly, and understandings of user's perceptions are important to reduce device abandonment and improve user satisfaction rates. Objectives: The purpose of this review was to establish what is known about adult user's perceptions of upper limb prostheses in terms of both cosmesis and function. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: A search of the literature between 1990 and 2010 identified over 600 possible citations; these were reduced to 15 citations based on selection criteria. Results: The main themes arising from the review were user satisfaction ratings with current prostheses, priorities for future design and the social implications of wearing a prosthetic limb. While users of cosmetic prostheses were mostly satisfied with their prostheses, satisfaction rates vary considerably across studies, due to variability in demographics of users and an ambiguity over the definitions of cosmesis and function. Design priorities also varied, though overall there is a slight trend toward prioritising function over cosmesis. The qualitative studies noted the importance users placed on presenting a 'normal' appearance and 'not standing out'. Conclusions: The reviewed studies mostly examine functionality and cosmesis as separate constructs, and conclusions are limited due to the disparity of user groups studied. Recommendations are made for further work to explore understandings of these constructs in relation to upper limb prosthesis use.

  • 247.
    Rodgers, Joseph
    et al.
    University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA.
    Wänström, Linda
    University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA.
    Identification of a flynn effect in the NLSY: Moving from the center to the boundaries2007Inngår i: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 187-196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Flynn Effect [Flynn, J.R. (1984). The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin 95, 29–51.] is an increase in IQ of around .33 points per year, observed in developed (and some developing) countries during the past century. It emerges from problem solving and other non-verbal components of IQ. The cause has been argued and theories proposed. Rodgers [Rodgers, J.L. (1998). A critique of the Flynn Effect: Massive IQ gains, methodological artifacts, or both? Intelligence 26, 337–356.] noted that the search for causes has preceded specification of the nature of the effect. Our study uses a national sample of U.S. children to test for the Flynn Effect in PIAT-Math, PIAT-Reading Recognition, PIAT-Reading Comprehension, Digit Span, and PPVT. An effect of the predicted magnitude was observed for PIAT-Math when maternal IQ was controlled. This finding in a large representative sample with thousands of variables supports more careful evaluation of the Flynn Effect, in demographic, geographic, environmental, and biological domains.

  • 248.
    Rodrigo, Alba Motes
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Ramirez Torres, Carlos Eduardo
    Univ Guanajuato, Mexico.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Univ Veracruzana, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hand Preferences in Two Unimanual and Two Bimanual Coordinated Tasks in the Black-Handed Spider Monkey (Ateles geoffroyi)2018Inngår i: Journal of comparative psychology (1983), ISSN 0735-7036, E-ISSN 1939-2087, Vol. 132, nr 2, s. 220-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spider monkeys are interesting to study with regard to hand preferences, as they are one of the few primate species that lack a thumb and, thus, are unable to perform a precision grip. Further, being platyrrhine primates, they also largely lack independent motor control of the digits and, thus, have only limited manual dexterity. It was therefore the aim of the present study to assess hand preferences in black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in 4 tasks differing in task demand: simple unimanual reaching for food and 3 versions of the widely used tube task, including 2 bimanual versions that differ from each other in the degree of fine motor control needed and a unimanual version that does not require coordinated action of the hands. We found that black-handed spider monkeys display significant hand preferences at the individual, but not at the population, level. This was true both in the 2 bimanual coordinated tasks and in the 2 unimanual tasks. Further, our results show that the majority of animals were consistent in the hand they preferred in these 4 tasks. Our findings only partially support the notion that task demand positively correlates with strength of hand preference. Finally, we found that the index finger was the most frequently used digit in all 3 tube tasks, although the animals also used other digits and 2- and 3-finger combinations to extract food from a tube. We conclude that limited manual dexterity does not prevent spider monkeys from displaying strong and consistent hand preferences at the individual level.

  • 249.
    Rosberg, Alice
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Arbetsgivarens behov vid sjukskrivningar på grund av psykisk ohälsa: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur arbetsgivaren upplever och kan hjälpas i sin roll i arbetet med sjukskrivning och att motverka psykisk ohälsa2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 poäng / 18 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökande sjukskrivningar och allt fler som lider av psykisk ohälsa är idag ett problem i Sverige. En aktör vars involvering kan förstärkas när det kommer till att främja hälsa är arbetsgivaren. Det övergripande syftet med denna studie var att få en djupare förståelse för hur arbetsgivaren kan hjälpas i sin roll i sjukskrivningsprocessen och för att motverka psykisk ohälsa. Detta gjordes i samverkan med digitalbyrån NetRelations i Stockholm för projektet Stöd för rätt sjukskrivning (SRS) som ägs av Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting. SRS har det övergripande målet att förbättra för alla inblandade i sjukskrivnings- och rehabiliteringsprocessen. Behoven som identifierats i denna studie togs fram för att vara till grund för hur SRS kan utvecklas med arbetsgiven som användare. En kvalitativ ansats valdes och en tematisk analys gjordes utifrån data från fem intervjuade chefer inom den privata sektorn i Sverige. Huvudresultatet är att arbetsgivaren för att kunna öka en individs arbetsförmåga och arbeta preventivt mot psykisk ohälsa har behov av (1) mer kunskap om sjukskrivning, (2) att enklare kunna identifiera när någon mår dåligt, (3) att få stöd för bedömning av insatser, (4) att få hjälp med kommunikation och samverkan och (5) att ha tillgång till verktyg och information riktad mot arbetsgivare. Behoven har stöd i tidigare forskning om vad som skapar en frisk arbetsplats och kan om tillgodosedda i framtiden innebära att anställdas arbetsförmåga ökar. För att arbetsgivare ska ta till sig information och stöd krävs utifrån resultatet att den är noga utformad för dessa som användare. Resultaten har en betydelse dels för det fortsatta arbetet inom SRS, men också för att visa på hur vi kan inkludera arbetsgivaren för att skapa ett friskare Sverige. 

  • 250.
    Rosenquist, Eric
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Wahlgren, Henric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Från insikt till handling: Prövning av Luhmanns systemteori på Miljödiplom i Jönköpings kommun2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att göra en teoriprövande fallstudie av hur Miljödiplom fungerar i Jönköpings kommun sett utifrån Luhmanns systemteorier om kommunikation. Miljödiplom ett alternativt miljöledningssystem skapat av Göteborgs Stad som riktar sig till små och medelstora företag då det ställer mindre krav på dokumentation och resurser, jämfört med ISO och EMAS, utan att göra avkall på kvalitet. Den metod som valts är teoriprövande fallstudie där de teorier som vi prövar därför är en del av metoden vi använder oss av.

    Niklas Luhmann (1927 – 1998) var utbildad jurist men studerade även sociologi, vilket han även doktorerade i, bland annat på Harvard University under Talcott Parsons. Luhmanns arbete har resulterat i en allmän social systemteori som innebär att den gör anspråk på att behandla ett allomfattande system där det finns generella delar och principer som är likadana för alla system. Genom att pröva Luhmanns systemteori på fallet Miljödiplom har vi försökt att ge en alternativ förklaring till de studerade företagens agerande vid deras miljöarbete. Med hjälp av Luhmanns teori kan vi förklara varför och hur små- och medelstora företag arbetar med Miljödiplom, utifrån de studerade företagen, då hans teori syftar till att förklara hur sociala system fungerar. Detta ger oss en frihet att agera därefter. Ett alltmer komplext samhälle har gett upphov till alltmer komplexa företag som måste utveckla sin kunskap för att vara fortsatt konkurrenskraftiga. Miljödiplom är ett verktyg för små- och medelstora företag att hantera den ökande komplexiteten utan att åsidosätta sin verksamhets mål.

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