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  • 201.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Van Passel, Steven
    University of Antwerp and Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Is enhanced landfill mining profitable?2018Inngår i: ISWA 2018 Book of Proceedings, 2018, s. 240-245Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift from linear to circular economy has steered the change in perception about landfills. From final to temporary waste storage, landfills are considered as technospheric stocks of resources that can be recovered through innovative technologies in the concept of enhanced landfill mining (ELFM). At present, most ELFM projects are in pilot-scale and it remains as a proof of concept. Economic feasibility is one of the primary considerations that must be satisfied prior to its full-scale realization. Several economic assessments were conducted in recent years but there is no systematic synthesis of these studies to date. The aim of this review is to compile various empirical insights of previous economic assessments of ELFM in relation to the employed methodological choices. With pre-defined exclusion criteria, 15 studies were selected in this review. For the empirical part, the identified main economic drivers for costs are separation and sorting, thermal treatment and transportation, while for benefits are material sales, recovered land and energy sales. In more than half of the studies, the costs exceeded the benefits concluding that ELFM is not profitable.  The few potentially profitable cases mainly depend on varying the system conditions defined by market prices and regulations. These require changes that are more radical, if not impossible. For the method part, costs and benefits are accounted at different levels of aggregation, scope and scale—that is from process to sub-process level, from private to societal economics, and from laboratory to pilot scale, respectively. As most studies are based on pilot scale, if not purely conceptual, data estimation mainly depends on extrapolation from these pilot projects or on direct adoption of secondary data. In spite of the expected uncertainties in model, scenario and parameter, less than half of the studies employed sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. With it being neglected, their results can be considered to have a weak reliability for practical use in a full-scale ELFM project implementation. A need for systematic framework for early-stage assessment is highlighted to capture both stochastic and epistemic uncertainties. Process and system upscaling with exploratory scenario development, and participatory data collection in ranges rather than in absolute terms are some of the suggested approaches to generate results with a certain level of confidence. In this way, the future economic assessments of ELFM can veer away from simple profitability assessments. Instead, it focuses on knowledge development despite the limited information that is inherent to emerging concepts. Most importantly, it provides reliable information that can be used as a decision-support for various stakeholders such as project managers, technology developers, and policy makers towards the advancement of ELFM.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 202.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Department of Engineering Management, Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, BE-2000 Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, BE-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    The economic and environmental performance of a landfill mining project from the viewpoint of an industrial landfill owner2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, 5-6 February, 2018, Mechelen, Belgium / [ed] Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium: University of Leuven , 2018, s. 389-396Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Commission’s circular economy strategy pushes for a higher recycling rate and a more long-term waste management practice.1 Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM) can contribute to this agenda as a better landfill management option, by shifting the landfill paradigm from dumping or as end-storage of waste to resource recovery or as temporary storage of resources.2-4 Through ELFM, landfills becomes a secondary source of both material (Waste-to-Material, WtM) and energy (Waste-to-Energy, WtE) with the use of innovative technologies.3,4

    Several studies explored the environmental and/or economic aspects of ELFM having different scopes and objectives. Some cover the entire process value chain while others additionally focused on comparing technological choices for WtE,5–7 WtM,8,9 and even ELFM waste valorisation.10 Furthermore, for the economic assessment, regulation-related costs and benefits as landfill taxes, gate fees and green certificates5,11,12 are also accounted for. Regarding the identification of economic hotspots, many of these studies concluded similar processes to be important. However, most of these studies were based on either hypothetical cases, or real cases but with small-scale excavation and separation using non-sophisticated set-ups, which are not likely to be used for large-scale processing. Hence, more uncertainty is expected from the lack of actual ELFM demonstration projects.

    The aim of this study is to analyse the main contributing factors that influence environmental and economic performance of ELFM, considering the landfill owner’s viewpoint. The study is based on a real case of excavation and subsequent separation in an existing stationary facility. Specifically, the influence of the prevailing system conditions is investigated as defined by the current legislation and the market situation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    The economic and environmental performance of a landfill mining project from the viewpoint of an industrial landfill owner
  • 203.
    Ewerlöf, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Modig, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Value Creation and Decreased Environmental Impact through Circular Economy-based Offerings: A Product-Service System Case Study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis answers how a circular economy-based offering can be designed for increased value creation and decreased environmental impact, compared to a current offering. The study concerns a case company and their current offering of a fire safety solution, namely a 6 kg powder fire extinguisher. The concept Product-Service Systems is used as a base for the research and a foundation of the result.Throughout the study, the method Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used as a tool to evaluate and compare the current and the suggested solution in the sense of environmental sustainability amongst different impact categories. It provides a holistic perspective within the study which has been proven by theory to be an important factor when providing a circular economy-based offering. Another important factor is customising the offering to the specific case. This is attended to through an investigation of the company characteristics, the current offering and provider and customer values to find opportunities for the suggested solution. Opportunities found was e.g. a demand for an environmentally sustainable solution and existing infrastructure which can create valuein the future.The process includes, apart from the LCAs, interviews, a workshop at the case company and a survey addressed to end users. The use of visualisation tools such as actors map and Product-Service Blueprint benefits the understanding of both current and suggested solution and provides insights, evaluation and possible improvements. A cost calculation is made to evaluate if the solution is financially making business sense to the provider. Through this thesis, a circular economy-based solution which designs out waste is found. It is proven through the study and LCAs that this solution decreases the investigated environmental impact categories compared to the current existing solution. The suggested solution is based on a refilling process for circulating material which is established through the thesis to be theoretically feasible, hence needs consideration in order to be implementable in reality and make business sense to the provider.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 204.
    Fager, Wilma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Engberg, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Causes of and solutions to reduce excess material in production processes: A study of electrical motors and generators at ABB Machines2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focus on the investigation of material usage in the production processes of electrical motors and generators at ABB Machines, a company based in Västerås, Sweden. The study aims to understand the reasons for the occurrence of excess material after the assembly of a motor or generator and explore possible solutions to minimize its occurrence. In this study, excess material is defined as the components which was intended to be used in the final assembly of a machine but that has for some reason not been used. The components which qualifies as being defined as excess materials are components which are in the same functioning state as when they were delivered from the supplier, in other words components which has not been processed nor damaged. Further, the components defined as excess materials are only the components, after a machine has been fully assembled, which has been gathered by the production personnel working at the final assembly in pallets. For example, this can be components like screws, tube fittings and cap nuts. 

    The research method employed in this study was a mix of different methodologies. Five methods, a literature review, registration of materials, interviews, observations and focus groups were used to collect information and data. Thereafter, the observations, interviews and focus groups results were processed through a thematic analysis. The collected quantitative data was analysed through a quantitative analysis. With the collected and summarized information, discussions were held and conclusions were drawn regarding the research questions. 

    The study reveals several reasons for the occurrence of excess material in manufacturing and these include: 

    • Substitution of material in production: Material substitutions during the production process contribute to the generation of excess material.
    • Errors in drawing material and deficiencies in concept generation: Mistakes in the design phase and concept generation lead to the generation of excess material.
    • Least possible order quantity exceeds the actual need: Ordering minimum quantities that exceed the actual requirements result in excess material.
    • Problems with steering in the ERP system: Issues with the Enterprise Resource Planning system affect material management and contribute to excess material.
    • Excess material is not a prioritized area: The management’s lack of focus on minimizing excess material leads to its occurrence.
    • Uncertainties in stock level: Lack of accurate stock level information causes overstocking and results in excess material. 

    The potential solutions to address excess material in the manufacturing of electrical motors and generators can be grouped into the following categories: storage, order quantity, goods arrival structure, preparations, and general routines. 

    • Storage: Include stocking frequently used materials, reducing the variety of items in stock to minimize substitutions, introducing specific storage locations for large projects, and implementing flexible warehousing.
    • Order quantity: Involve trimming order quantities, improving the handling of "Dummy purchases", and splitting materials upon arrival for multiple machines in a project.
    • Goods arrival structure: Focus on reviewing pick order sizes, establishing clearer loading systems, controlling material allocation, and synchronizing the release of pick orders.
    • Preparations: This solution include facilitating engineering changes in production groups, streamlining part number reduction, and limiting construction items within categories.
    • General routines: Involves checking the usability of remaining materials, collaborating with fitters and production staff to optimize processes and material choices, reporting material substitutions, and systematically tracing excess material in a database.
    • Uncertainties in stock level: Lack of accurate stock level information causes overstocking and results in excess material. 
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 205.
    Fagergren, Märta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Junebrink, Matilda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Applications of Printed and Organic Electronics: How printed and organic electronics can facilitate circular business models in the fashion industry through traceability2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Printed and organic electronics have been intensely researched in the past few years, and their potential low-cost and sustainability benefits combined with their unique form properties makes them interesting from a product design perspective. However, there has been a lack of product design with printed and organic electronics, which has created a gap between research and market. The aim of this thesis is to find an application of printed and organic electronics in a previously unexplored application area. The thesis includes interviews and workshops with relevant actors, a SWOT analysis, and idea generation through brainstorming. It is found that printed and organic traceability tags (RFID/NFC) have the potential to facilitate circular business models in the fashion industry if they are developed to fulfil the identified requirements. 

    Three concepts of how traceability tags can facilitate rental fashion are developed. The main identified potential benefits for the rental companies are reduced logistics costs and the possibility of data collection. The potentially low cost of printed and organic traceability tags would also enable rental companies with smaller profit margins to implement a digital traceability solution which would help the survival of these companies and accelerate the shift towards circular fashion. These findings contribute with a new possible application of printed and organic electronics. In order to reach the identified benefits, more research on printed and organic traceability tags is needed, as well as a full product development process of the three concepts. To really know whether this and other identified applications of POE could be viable on the market there is a need for economic and performance analysis to determine whether their applications can be successful. Further the authors also see a need for life cycle analyses on all types of POE applications to determine their environmental impact.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    ApplicationsofPrintedandOrganicElectronics_Fagergren_Junebrink
  • 206.
    Fakhri, Akram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Possibility of Integrated Product Service Engineering for a Swedish Utility Supplier toward Economic and Environmental Sustainability2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The energy demand of today, with increasing population and the price of fossil fuels in one hand and consequent environmental issues such as climate change and global warming on the other hand, has resulted in global consideration concerning increasing energy efficiency in distribution network. Integrated product/service engineering (IPSE) has been frequently applied to propose integrated product/service offering at different physical product manufacturing companies. However, it has not been utilized at utility providers. Therefore, this project applies IPSE, at a Swedish utility provider to introduce new ideas of business models with the aims of increasing energy efficiency in the distribution network with means of new technologies and energy policy instruments.

    Literature survey on IPSE methods to choose the most appropriate method was followed by literature review on smart grid and new technologies as means for utility provider to increase energy efficiency in distribution network. Different IPSE methods has been discussed and investigated recently. For this thesis, however, PSS Layer method was applied to answer the research questions such as customer needs, new technologies, involved actors, the flow of information and service between actors, life cycle activities, associated services, contracts and finances.

    Then, interviews with experts at Göteborg Energi AB were implemented to investigate customer demands, available new technologies, economic and technical opportunities and barriers.

    Five different integrated product/service proposals by providing the nine dimension of PSS Layer method were designed. In each model, new actors and technologies were introduced to increase value for both customer and utility provider.

    As discussion, first, it was shown that the findings in designing new business models at GBE could be generalized to the most of Swedish utility providers. Second, the five proposals with their impacts on GBE were presented and the main aspects of each integrated product/service proposals were discussed. Then, the keys to tackle the problem by designers were described. Finally, the feasibility of the results by PSS layer method was assessed by comparing the method with theory.

    Organizing workshops with the attendance of involved actors was recommended to add more details to the proposed business models. For further research, cost-benefit analysis and life cycle assessment were important to analyze the feasibility of proposals.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 207.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Towards a sustainable socio-technical system of biogas for transport: the case of the city of Linköping in Sweden2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 17-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the development of biogas for transport in the municipality of Linköping, Sweden, is studied in order to contribute to a better understanding of the conditions for socio-technical transitions towards sustainability. Linköping municipality, 1976 [kommunfullmäktige] Motion om utredning angående eldrivna fordon. Dnr 1976.278. Using concepts from multi-level perspectives and socio-technical perspectives on system builders, the study focuses on three time periods: During the first time period (1976–1994), a niche for biogas developed amongst dedicated actors in small networks representing energy and public transport within the municipality. That is, biogas was entirely connected to the vision of a ‘green’ public transport. Second, between the years of 1994 and 2001, the biogas producing company acted as a system builder and initiated a large-scale biogas production through close cooperation in networks with other actors. As a result, biogas reached a phase of technological maturity and also gained some support from national investment programs. Finally, from 2001 the expansion of biogas became clearer as the biogas production spread into a regional arena but also reached for new customers, like personal cars. Unforeseen spin-offs like the formation of new private companies and development of research were important results of the transition. Thereby, the transition is a move towards a new socio-technical regime. A conclusion from the study is that the development of biogas was highly influenced by national support and pressure, but was mainly driven by local actors – system builders – that could steer the processes and had endurance as well as capability to mobilize resources in order to fulfill their purposes.

  • 208.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    et al.
    ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome.
    Haber, Nicolas
    ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    PSS Modularization: A Customer Driven Integrated Approach2019Inngår i: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 57, nr 13, s. 4061-4077Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift from product ownership to integrated solutions (Product-Service Systems (PSSs)) is expected to lead to a highercustomer satisfaction in many cases compared to providing products and services separately. PSS providers are requiredto add more value to the products they offer, as well as to augment and diversify the services related to these products.To deal with this complex task, this paper proposes a practical methodology to support manufacturers in designingservices related to the proper functioning of their products fulfilling customers’ needs and expectations. This approach isbased on the synergic use of Quality Function Deployment for PSS (QFDforPSS), Axiomatic Design (AD) and theservice blueprint tools, providing a correlation between the customers’ expectations, the PSS components and the PSSmodules. The methodology was verified by means of a service modularisation for PSS at a company operating in thebiomedical sector. While the proposed approach needs to be validated through further studies in different contexts, itspositive results in reducing both the risk of overdesigning and the possibility of creating design conflicts can contributepractically to the scientific knowledge on the development of integrated solutions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 209.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    et al.
    Dept. Precision Engineering The University of Tokyo.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Coordinating Ecodesign Methods in Early Stages of Industrial Product Design2008Inngår i: International Journal of Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing, ISSN 1095-807X, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 35-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolution of the concept of environmental sustainability in the industrial world has brought to light the importance assigned to the first stages of the product development, i.e. the early-phase design activities. It is of common knowledge that decisions made in these phases allow the products- optimization from the performances point of view, as well as more competitiveness on the market, drastically reducing the costs related to subsequent modifications and corrections of the product during the manufacturing phases or even after its introduction in the market. Ecodesign certainly represents the most effective design approach for the achievement of such goals. A large number of tools proposed in the recent years is an indicator of the great attention paid to such problems. However, the use of such tools by designers is still partial or not well organized, particularly in SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises). The research work carried out is an attempt to the solution of these difficulties. This paper proposes a design procedure, consisting in the integration of several design tools in a framework of a general nature aimed at reducing the gap between theory and practice. The study, performed throughout the development of a case study, analyzed the -usability- of the Ecodesign methods, and underlined their efficiency and effectiveness when used in a synergic way.

  • 210.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering , “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uncovering differences and similarities among Quality Function Deployment based methods in Design for X: benchmarking in different domains2017Inngår i: Quality Engineering, ISSN 0898-2112, E-ISSN 1532-4222, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 690-712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability for a product or a service to meet customer needs and requirements efficiently before its market launch is a key-point in design and development activities. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) represents one of the most powerful design methods to achieve such a goal.This study investigates the QFD-based methods proposed in the last two decades, whose use in different ambits of Design for X (DfX) is reported to be effective.We selected most common QFD based methods, analysing how designers can implement and coordinate them in design activities effectively throughout their application to an identical case study.

  • 211.
    Fazle Rabbi, Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hossain, Rubayet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analyzing the gap between Swedish governmental export support programs and cleantech firm’s expectations2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Given the present situation of environmental problems, clean technologies or cleantech is considered a way of reaching global sustainability and at the same time also seen as an engine of economic growth and fulfilling commitments to social and environmental welfare. Under this background, Swedish cleantech sector have not achieved that much commercial success yet that they are supposed to be while maintaining a reputation of top technological innovative country. The Swedish cleantech sector is dominated by small medium-sized firms (SMEs) and often limited to resources at their disposition. Thus, the Swedish government has designed various policies and export support programs to promote this sector but somehow firms could not reach up to them. Hence, it has become necessary to study the Swedish cleantech firms in order to analyze the existing gap. The purpose of this study is to run an investigation about individual cleantech firms and analyze how they are experiencing Swedish governmental export support programs. On the other hand, this study has also tried to find out what firms really expect from these programs so that it will help to reduce the gap.

    Based on the study of four cases and one independent interview, the study has shown two different scenarios. In one hand, micro level SMEs specially which are in initial phase of their internationalization process cannot reach up to governmental export support programs due to high acquiring cost and inflexible pre-requirements. On the other hand, small level SMEs which are in mature phase of their internationalization process have faced completely reverse experience than initial phase micro firms but not satisfied with the provided service quality. The study has also revealed that firms with relatively new technology face problems to get support from governmental agencies due to uncertain market performance. The study has further showed, this is not always the high acquiring cost and inflexible conditions, participation in governmental export support programs is also depend on firm’s owns mindset and their business strategy. So, in order to reduce the gap between Swedish governmental export support programs and cleantech firms’ expectations, the studied firms have suggested to implement a proper business model that fits into each type of firms’ needs based on their position in the internationalization process, create a separate institution or agency and Science Park that only deals with cleantech firms issues, and co-operation among the different state cleantech firms and the universities.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 212.
    Feiz Aghaei, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moestedt, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Tekniska Verken and Linkoping AB Publ, Dept Technol and Syst, Box 1500, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nilsson Påledal, Sören
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Tekniska Verken and Linkoping AB Publ, Dept Technol and Syst, Box 1500, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Key performance indicators for biogas production: methodological insights on the life-cycle analysis of biogas production from source-separated food waste2020Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 200, artikkel-id 117462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The anaerobic digestion of food waste can not only enhance the treatment of organic wastes, but also contributes to renewable energy production and the recirculation of nutrients. These multiple benefits are among the main reasons for the expansion of biogas production from food waste in many countries. We present methodological insights and recommendations on assessing the environmental and economic performance of these systems from a life-cycle perspective. We provide a taxonomy of the value chain of biogas from food waste which describes major activities, flows, and parameters across the value chain with a relatively high detail. By considering the multiple functions of biogas production from food waste, we propose a few key performance indicators (KPI) to allow comparison of different biogas production systems from the perspectives of climate impact, primary energy use, nutrients recycling, and cost. We demonstrate the operational use of our method through an example, where alternatives regarding the heat supply of the biogas plant are investigated. We demonstrate how global and local sensitivity analyses can be combined with the suggested taxonomy and KPIs for uncertainty management and additional analyses. The KPIs provide useful input into decision-making processes regarding the future development of biogas solutions from food waste. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 213.
    Feiz Aghaei, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hagman, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ometto, Francesco
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The role of biogas solutions for enhanced nutrient recovery in biobased industries-three case studies from different industrial sectors2021Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 175, artikkel-id 105897Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed to what extent biogas solutions can improve the nutrient recovery of biobased industrial clusters in different sectors. Three cases representing the agricultural, marine and forest sectors were analysed quantitatively using mass flow analysis. Adding a biogas plant facilitated production expansion and development of collaborative waste management, e.g. a wheat processing biorefinery with a mill and agricultural actors, or a pulp and paper mill with the aquaculture industry. In the marine- and forest-based cases, this decreased the total nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) input by 18% while increasing the recovery rate; e.g. for P from 32 to 96% for the marine-based and from 52 to 91%, for the forest-based. The impact in the agro-based case was minor as the actors were already operating with a high nutrient recovery. For the marine-based case, the impact was due to a huge increase in P recovery for the aquaculture actor while for the forest-based case, N from the aquacultural sector could be reused in the wastewater treatment. For the agro- and marine-based cases, adding a biogas plant also resulted in less transports and more local nutrient recycling; the total transport of organic waste, by-products and biofertilizers (in km x tonne) was reduced by 40% and 90%, respectively. The results demonstrate that biogas solutions can stimulate the development of biobased industrial symbiosis with integrated waste management, and contribute to more efficient recycling of key resources, which is essential for the transition to a circular society.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 214.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Industrial Ecology and Development of Production Systems: Analysis of the CO2  Footprint of Cement2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This research is an attempt to create a comprehensive assessment framework for identifying and assessing potential improvement options of cement production systems.

    From an environmental systems analysis perspective, this study provides both an empirical account and a methodological approach for quantifying the CO2 footprint of a cement production system. An attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed to analyze the CO2 footprint of several products of a cement production system in Germany which consists of three dierent plants. Based on the results of the LCA study, six key performance indicators are dened as the basis for a simplied LCA model. This model is used to quantify the CO2 footprint of dierent versions of the cement production system.

    In order to identify potential improvement options, a framework for Multi-Criteria Assessment (MCA) is developed. The search and classication guideline of this framework is based on the concepts of Cleaner Production, Industrial Ecology, and Industrial Symbiosis. It allows systematic identication and classication of potential improvement options. In addition, it can be used for feasibility and applicability evaluation of dierent options. This MCA is applied both on a generic level, reecting the future landscape of the industry, and on a production organization level re ecting the most applicable possibilities for change. Based on this assessment a few appropriate futureoriented scenarios for the studied cement production system are constructed. The simplied LCA model is used to quantify the CO2 footprint of the production system for each scenario.

    By integrating Life Cycle Assessment and Multi-Criteria Assessment approaches, this study provides a comprehensive assessment method for identifying suitable industrial developments and quantifying the CO2 footprint improvements that might be achieved by their implementation.

    The results of this study emphasis, although by utilizing alternative fuels and more ecient production facility, it is possible to improve the CO2 footprint of clinker, radical improvements can be achieved on the portfolio level. Compared to Portland cement, very high reduction of CO2 footprint can be achieved if clinker is replaced with low carbon alternatives, such as Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) which are the by-products of other  industrial production. Benchmarking a cement production system by its portfolio product is therefore a more reasonable approach, compared to focusing on the performance of its clinker production.

    This study showed that Industrial Symbiosis, that is, over the fence initiatives for material and energy exchanges and collaboration with nontraditional partners, are relevant to cement industry. However, the contingent nature of these strategies should always be noted, because the mere exercise of such activities may not lead to a more resource ecient production system. Therefore, in search for potential improvements, it is important to keep the search horizon as wide as possible, however, assess the potential improvements in each particular case. The comprehensive framework developed and applied in this research is an attempt in this direction.

    Delarbeid
    1. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 272-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Cement production, Life Cycle Assessment, CO2 emissions, Modeling Performance indicators
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105939 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.083 (DOI)000356194300028 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 282-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    industrial ecology, cement, CO2 emissions, industrial symbiosis, environmental assessment framework, integrated assessment
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105940 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.103 (DOI)000356194300029 ()
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 145-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Cement, CO2 emissions, Life cycle assessment (LCA), Industrial symbiosis Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105941 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.086 (DOI)000356194300015 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Industrial Ecology and Development of Production Systems: Analysis of the CO2 Footprint of Cement
    Download (pdf)
    omslag
  • 215. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Systems Analysis for Eco-Industrial Development: Applied on Cement and Biogas Production Systems2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Our industrial systems are not sustainable—a major challenge which demands several types of responses. Eco-industrial development can be seen as such a response, with the goal to establish industrial systems that are both ecological and economical. Industrial Ecology is another closely related response. It is based on the idea that natural systems can be used to understand how to design sustainable industrial systems, for example, by shifting from linear industrial processes to cyclic systems, where waste streams can be avoided or minimized through utilization as raw materials for other processes. In this thesis, the possible contributions of industrial ecology/symbiosis to eco-industrial development are investigated through the use of systems analysis approaches. Two systems analysis methods are used: life-cycle assessment and multi-criteria analysis. These methods are applied on two types of industrial systems: cement and biogas.

    Cement is among the most used materials in the world with extensive resource consumption and environmental impact, manifested for example by the high levels of CO2 emissions. Multi-criteria analysis was used to identify, classify, and assess different measures to improve the climate performance of cement production, while life-cycle assessment was employed to quantify the CO2 emissions. Combined, multi-criteria analysis and life-cycle assessment were used for an integrated assessment of different eco-industrial development paths. Most of the feasible and resource-efficient improvement measures were related to utilization of secondary resources, for example minimizing the clinker content of the cement by replacing it with by-products from steel and iron manufacturing, or using refuse-derived fuels. Effective utilization of these secondary raw materials and fuels can be achieved through industrial symbiosis.

    Biogas is viewed as part of a larger transition towards a bio-based economy where resources—bio-materials and bio-energy—are used in a cascading, circular, and renewable manner. Multi-criteria analysis was used to assess the feasibility and resource efficiency of using different types of biomass as feedstock for biogas and biofertilizer production. In addition to aspects such as renewable energy and nutrient recycling, cost efficiency, institutional conditions, environmental performance, the potential per unit, and the overall potential were considered. In another study, life-cycle assessment was used to analyze the environmental performance of biogas production from source-sorted food waste using a dry digestion process. The study showed that the performance of this dry process is superior to most of the existing wet biogas processes in Sweden. The critical sources of uncertainty and their impact on the overall performance of the system were analyzed. Factors influencing methane production, as well as processes related to soil after the digestate is applied as biofertilizer on land, have the greatest influence on the performance of these systems.

    For both cement and biogas systems industrial symbiosis involving collaboration and better utilization of local/regional secondary resources, can result in resource-efficient eco-industrial development. Life-cycle assessment and multi-criteria approaches can serve as two complementary methods for investigating the feasibility, potential, and resource efficiency of different development paths. These approaches can provide input into decision-making processes and lead to more informed decisions.

    Delarbeid
    1. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 272-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Cement production, Life Cycle Assessment, CO2 emissions, Modeling Performance indicators
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105939 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.083 (DOI)000356194300028 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 282-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    industrial ecology, cement, CO2 emissions, industrial symbiosis, environmental assessment framework, integrated assessment
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105940 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.103 (DOI)000356194300029 ()
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 145-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Cement, CO2 emissions, Life cycle assessment (LCA), Industrial symbiosis Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105941 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.086 (DOI)000356194300015 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, s. 373-387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework is developed for assessing the suitability of producing biogas from different types of biomass (feedstocks). This framework allows learning about the limitations and opportunities for biogas development and more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. The framework is reasonably comprehensive, yet it is simple enough to be used by practitioners. It could help to minimize the risk of sub-optimization or neglecting important risks or opportunities. This article, the first of two associated articles, is focused on the framework itself. The framework is applied to assess the suitability of producing biogas from “stickleback”, which is a non-edible fish in the Baltic Sea region. In the companion article (Part II), four other feedstocks are assessed, namely ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste.

    This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2017
    Emneord
    multi-criteria analysis, biogas, biofertilizer, biomass, strategic decision-making, resource efficiency
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130775 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.019 (DOI)000401881300036 ()
    Prosjekter
    BRC-RP2 (system projects, multi-criteria analysis of biogas solutions)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
    Merknad

    At the time of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

    Funding agencies: Energy Agency of Sweden, Linkoping University

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-23 Laget: 2016-08-23 Sist oppdatert: 2017-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, s. 388-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2017
    Emneord
    multi-criteria analysis, biogas, ley crops, straw, blue mussel, food waste
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130776 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.020 (DOI)000401881300037 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
    Merknad

    At the time of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

    Funding agencies: Energy Agency of Sweden; Linkoping University

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-23 Laget: 2016-08-23 Sist oppdatert: 2017-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Life-Cycle Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Producing Biogas from Food Waste: A Case-Study of the First Dry-Process Biogas Plant in Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Life-Cycle Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Producing Biogas from Food Waste: A Case-Study of the First Dry-Process Biogas Plant in Sweden
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion of source-sorted food waste is increasing in Sweden. Traditionally, all large-scale co-digestion plants in Sweden, including the ones which digest food waste, are based on wet process. In this article life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used in order to investigate the environmental performance of the first dry-process biogas plant based on source-sorted municipal food waste in Sweden. The environmental performance of this plant is compared with existing typical plants which are based on wet process. Biogas production systems are complex, and there are knowledge gaps and large uncertainties regarding some of the processes. Most existing biogas LCA studies do not take into account these uncertainties and use single values in their life-cycle inventories. In this study uncertainty propagation in LCA of biogas production system is performed and the results are discussed in order to gain system-level insights on the main factors that influence the performance of producing biogas from food waste and the key uncertainties. An attributional process-based LCA model is used to study the global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, and non-renewable cumulative energy demand of producing biogas from food waste. A reference case is used which is based on an actual biogas plant in Sweden which uses dry process for treating source-sorted food waste. For the wet process, this case is altered using Swedish literature data on wet digestion systems. For uncertainty management, a combination of approaches, including possibility/fuzzy intervals and stochastic distributions are used. Possibility/fuzzy intervals are used for data collection, but they are translated into probability distributions and Monte Carlo simulation. A simple method for quantifying the uncertainties of the LCA results is used, so the critical uncertainties can be assessed, compared, and discussed. In addition, several key performance indicators were introduced to complement the LCA results.The results of the LCA and KPIs show that using dry process for processing of food waste has a better or comparable environmental performance compared to most existing (wet-process) biogas plants in Sweden. When uncertainties are considered, two systems are more comparable. Regardless of the choice of wet or dry process for treatment of food waste, there are large uncertainties in the non-technical parts of the system which are less dependent to the technical choices or scenario assumptions. Decision-makers who are interested in using biogas systems for treatment of source sorted food waste, should take dry process into consideration. From an energy and environmental perspective, dry process can have good or better performance compared to many existing plants which are based on the wet process. This is mainly due to simpler pretreatment and digestate management. Taking into account the uncertainties (knowledge gaps, and variabilities) in assessing and comparing the performance of biogas production from food waste, provides a more realistic picture of their strengths and weaknesses. Since some of the impacts (and benefits such as carbon sequestration) of using food waste for biogas production and its digestate as biofertilizer lies in areas with high uncertainties, communication of these benefits to wider socio-political actors can play an important role for the development of biogas from food waste in Sweden, because many of the benefits of biogas solutions are not visible when analyzed by LCA approaches that do not take into account these uncertainties.

    Emneord
    life-cycle assessment, key performance indicators, uncertainty analysis, food waste, biogas, dry process
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130774 (URN)
    Prosjekter
    BRC-RP3 (system quantification projects)-Biogas from Food waste
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-23 Laget: 2016-08-23 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
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  • 216.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach2017Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, s. 373-387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework is developed for assessing the suitability of producing biogas from different types of biomass (feedstocks). This framework allows learning about the limitations and opportunities for biogas development and more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. The framework is reasonably comprehensive, yet it is simple enough to be used by practitioners. It could help to minimize the risk of sub-optimization or neglecting important risks or opportunities. This article, the first of two associated articles, is focused on the framework itself. The framework is applied to assess the suitability of producing biogas from “stickleback”, which is a non-edible fish in the Baltic Sea region. In the companion article (Part II), four other feedstocks are assessed, namely ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste.

    This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

  • 217.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry: a case study of a German cement production cluster2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Industrial activities such as cement production are among the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and there are ongoing efforts to reduce the CO2 emissions attributed to them. In order to effectively improve climate performance of cement production, it is essential to systematically identify, classify, and evaluate various improvement measures and implement the most effective and feasible measures.

    This has been done in this article by developing an assessment framework based on concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis which creates an structure for seeking and evaluating the performance and feasibility of various CO2 improvement measures. The developed framework has a wide system perspective, takes a wide range of CO2 improvement measures, and treats all material, and energy flows within the industry as potentially useful resources. This framework is applied in practice for assessing the most feasible measures to apply within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX.

    Purpose

    Use the concepts of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis and develop an assessment framework for aggregating, categorizing, and evaluating various CO2 improvement measures for a given production system. In addition, apply this framework on an actual cement production system and summarize the results both in qualitative and quantitative terms.

    Theoretical framework

    The assessment framework developed in this article is based on the concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis: (1) study of the flows of material and energy in production systems is important, (2) emphasizing on the importance of studying industrial systems in integration with their surrounding systems, not as isolated entities, and (3) in an industrial ecosystem no material and energy stream should be treated as waste and all material and energy streams are potentially useful inputs for other industrial processes.

    Results

    The result is an assessment framework which can be used to systematically gather, classify and evaluate different CO2 improvement measures for cement production. This framework consists of two parts: (1) generic assessment and (2) site-specific assessment of CO2 improvement measures. The first part considers general aspects of the measures such as level of Industrial Symbiosis (i.e. degree of connectedness which is required for their implementation), the potential of each measure for reducing CO2 emissions, and their technological maturity. The second part assesses the feasibility of the measures regarding the conditions of a specific cement producing system. Aspects such as organizational applicability, technical and infrastructural applicability, and the existing level of implementation of each measure are considered.

    The framework is also applied on three cement plants in Germany (owned by CEMEX) referred to as the Cluster West and the results of the assessment are summarized.

    Conclusions

    As demonstrated in the case of Cluster West, the assessment framework developed in this article can be used by a cement producing companies such as CEMEX in order to systematically assess hundreds of measures and identify the most feasible and applicable ones for implementing on each of their cement production plants.

    Lessons learned during development of this assessment framework, may be used when approaching industrial systems other than cement production.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 218.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 282-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 219.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 272-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 220.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Utilizing LCA and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry: a case study of a cement production cluster in Germany2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with a rather linear production to more synergistic alternatives where byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    This article has two main aims, where the first is to carry out a LCA and compare three different cement products, involving both linear and synergistic ones to further explore this issue. This has been done from cradle to gate, focusing on climate impact, where the case is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany. The second aim is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to assess additional production alternatives based on the information of a few parameters.

    The more comprehensive LCA showed that cement products with a high share of byproducts, in this case granulated blast furnace slag from the steel industry, had the best climate performance. The difference between the best (CEM III/B) and worst (CEM I) cement product, regarding global warming potential, was about 66%. A simplified LCA model was developed and the research team could apply it to compare the present production with the situation in 1997 and also with possible future production systems. This simplified LCA model was based on 6 key performance indicators, instead of more than 50 parameters, which was the case for the comprehensive LCA model. For example, the simplified model showed that the CO2 emission related to a virtual average product of the production cluster was reduced about 49 % in the period from 1997 to 2009.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT1
  • 221.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Yufang, Guo
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Yonghui
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Liu, Yuxian
    Linköpings universitet. Guangzhou University Research Center on Urban Sustainable Development, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Masuda, Laura Shizue Moriga
    Institute of Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Fagen
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Biogas Potential for Improved Sustainability in Guangzhou, China: A Study Focusing on Food Waste on Xiaoguwei Island2019Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of rapid development in China and the growth of megacities, large amounts of organic wastes are generated within relatively small areas. Part of these wastes can be used to produce biogas, not only to reduce waste-related problems, but also to provide renewable energy, recycle nutrients, and lower greenhouse gases and air polluting emissions. This article is focused on the conditions for biogas solutions in Guangzhou. It is based on a transdisciplinary project that integrates several approaches, for example, literature studies and lab analysis of food waste to estimate the food waste potential, interviews to learn about the socio-technical context and conditions, and life-cycle assessment to investigate the performance of different waste management scenarios involving biogas production. Xiaoguwei Island, with a population of about 250,000 people, was chosen as the area of study. The results show that there are significant food waste potentials on the island, and that all studied scenarios could contribute to a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Several socio-technical barriers were identified, but it is expected that the forthcoming regulatory changes help to overcome some of them.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 222.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broström, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköpings University, Jönköping.
    Hultman, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lööf, Hans
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University och Ratio.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Avfall kan omvandlas till en ny resurs2016Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, , s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Om gruv- och stålindustrin menar allvar med att öka det egna medvetandet om vad som är cirkulärt, så måste omställningen börja nu. Det skriver debattörer i en slutreplik om kalkbrytningen på Gotland. Publicerad 29 januari 2016

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 223.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broström, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköpings University, Jönköping.
    Hultman, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lööf, Hans
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University och Ratio.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ojnareskogen en möjlighet för industrin2016Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, , s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett Natura 2000-område på Gotland – som sätter stopp för kalkbrytning – kan öppna upp för en omställning av svensk basindustri. Kalk är viktig för industrin. Men mineralerna behöver inte nödvändigtvis tas från jordskorpan, skriver nio forskare.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 224.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mejía Dugand, Santiago
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A corridor striving for sustainability - Reflecting upon PhD education at a Swedish University2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an overview of interdisciplinary research from Ph.D. students working at the Division of Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University, Sweden. Each of the Ph.D. students addresses the overall challenge of sustainability transitions in their research, although the themes and content of research varies considerably between individuals, encompassing research on actors, networks, products, materials, services and systems from the public and private sector, operating locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The scientific literature and methods used to frame and conduct studies varies considerably within the group, as does the individual focus on immediate issues of sustainability.

  • 225.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologisk och miljövetenskaplig modellering. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wretman, Johanna
    Project Management Consultant at AFRY (ÅF Pöyry), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Key factors for site-selection of biogas plants in Sweden2022Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 354, artikkel-id 131671Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production through anaerobic digestion is an integral part of the transition toward a biobased and circular economy and its expansion is foreseen in many parts of the world as well as in Europe. In Sweden, a governmental inquiry suggested biogas production to be increased from about 2 TWh today to 7 TWh by 2030. This rapid expansion would require installation of several new biogas plants across the country. However, the location of biogas plants can greatly affect its business performance and there are several geographic and socio-political factors that would limit the choice of location. Through dialogue with existing biogas producing companies and a few other related actors, we identified 12 factors that are commonly considered in the site-selection of biogas plants in Sweden or are considered to be important in the years to come. These factors are grouped into those related to supply and demand (feedstock supply, biogas demand, digestate demand, and carbon dioxide demand), infrastructure and synergies (available infrastructure, adjacent existing industries), land-use and zoning (nearby housing, zoning, and historic preservation sites), and socio-political context (political strategies and goals, organizational capability, and local social acceptance). We discuss how these factors can be used under rapidly transforming conditions in Sweden through different site-selection logics and highlight the importance of spatially explicit analysis for individual or coordinated decision making in future. Our method of enquiry and analysis, and to a certain degree the factors, can be also relevant for other countries, particularly in Europe. This study paves the way for more in-depth investigation of the question of site-selection of biogas plants in Sweden; both in the direction of detailed analysis at the local level, or screening analysis on the regional or national level for improved coordinated actions.

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  • 226.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Life-Cycle Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Producing Biogas from Food Waste: A Case-Study of the First Dry-Process Biogas Plant in SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion of source-sorted food waste is increasing in Sweden. Traditionally, all large-scale co-digestion plants in Sweden, including the ones which digest food waste, are based on wet process. In this article life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used in order to investigate the environmental performance of the first dry-process biogas plant based on source-sorted municipal food waste in Sweden. The environmental performance of this plant is compared with existing typical plants which are based on wet process. Biogas production systems are complex, and there are knowledge gaps and large uncertainties regarding some of the processes. Most existing biogas LCA studies do not take into account these uncertainties and use single values in their life-cycle inventories. In this study uncertainty propagation in LCA of biogas production system is performed and the results are discussed in order to gain system-level insights on the main factors that influence the performance of producing biogas from food waste and the key uncertainties. An attributional process-based LCA model is used to study the global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, and non-renewable cumulative energy demand of producing biogas from food waste. A reference case is used which is based on an actual biogas plant in Sweden which uses dry process for treating source-sorted food waste. For the wet process, this case is altered using Swedish literature data on wet digestion systems. For uncertainty management, a combination of approaches, including possibility/fuzzy intervals and stochastic distributions are used. Possibility/fuzzy intervals are used for data collection, but they are translated into probability distributions and Monte Carlo simulation. A simple method for quantifying the uncertainties of the LCA results is used, so the critical uncertainties can be assessed, compared, and discussed. In addition, several key performance indicators were introduced to complement the LCA results.The results of the LCA and KPIs show that using dry process for processing of food waste has a better or comparable environmental performance compared to most existing (wet-process) biogas plants in Sweden. When uncertainties are considered, two systems are more comparable. Regardless of the choice of wet or dry process for treatment of food waste, there are large uncertainties in the non-technical parts of the system which are less dependent to the technical choices or scenario assumptions. Decision-makers who are interested in using biogas systems for treatment of source sorted food waste, should take dry process into consideration. From an energy and environmental perspective, dry process can have good or better performance compared to many existing plants which are based on the wet process. This is mainly due to simpler pretreatment and digestate management. Taking into account the uncertainties (knowledge gaps, and variabilities) in assessing and comparing the performance of biogas production from food waste, provides a more realistic picture of their strengths and weaknesses. Since some of the impacts (and benefits such as carbon sequestration) of using food waste for biogas production and its digestate as biofertilizer lies in areas with high uncertainties, communication of these benefits to wider socio-political actors can play an important role for the development of biogas from food waste in Sweden, because many of the benefits of biogas solutions are not visible when analyzed by LCA approaches that do not take into account these uncertainties.

  • 227.
    Feizaghaei, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Improving climate performance of cement production: Developing an assessment framework and applying it to a CEMEX cement production cluster in Germany2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It is very likely that human being is contributing to the process of global warming. Industrial activities such as cement production are among the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, there are ongoing efforts to reduce the CO2 emissions attributed to the cement production. In order to be able to systematically identify, classify, and evaluate the most effective, applicable, and feasible CO2 improvement measures, it is essential to have an assessment framework, which has an environmental management perspective. Such a framework should be able to cover the widest range of potential CO2 improvement measures, therefore it has to have a wide system perspective and consider all material, and energy flows within the industry as useful resources.

    The first part of this thesis uses the concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis as the supporting theoretical concepts for developing such assessment framework. The framework has semi-qualitative approach for assessing different measures and is developed in two parts: (1) generic and (2) site-specific assessment. The first part considers general aspects of the measures such as level of Industrial Symbiosis (i.e. complexity of business approach), the potential of each measure for reducing CO2 emissions, and their technological maturity. The second part assesses the feasibility of the measures regarding the conditions of a specific cement producing system. Aspects such as organizational applicability, technical and infrastructural applicability, and the existing level of implementation of each measure are considered.

    In the second part of this thesis, the developed framework is applied on a selected cement production system which is a cluster composed of three cement plants in Germany (owned by CEMEX) referred to as the Cluster West. The result of the assessment provides insights about the state-of-the-art of CO2 improvement measures in cement industry in general and also demonstrates which of these measures are most (or least) suited for development in the Cluster West. The production system of the Cluster West has effectively applied CO2 improvement measures in areas such as producing blended cement products, using alternative fuels (and renewable fuels) for clinker production. In addition, its clinker production (the Kollenbach plant that is part of the Cluster West) has relatively good energy efficiency. According to the results of the assessment, CO2 improvement measures such as co-generation (producing electricity from excess heat of the plant), using renewable fuels, using alternative materials for clinker production, and increasing the usage of alternative fuels are among the most applicable choices for further implementation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 228.
    Feizaghaii, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Carraro, Giacomo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Brienza, Claudio
    Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Meers, Erik
    Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Verbeke, Marieke
    Flemish Coordination Centre for Manure Processing, Belgium (currently employed at Trevi Environmental Solutions), Belgium.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Systems analysis of digestate primary processing techniques2022Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 150, s. 352-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we performed technology assessment and systems analysis of primary digestate processing techniques to provide a comprehensive analysis of their environmental and cost performance. We compiled more than 100 observations from large-scale biogas plants and considered digestate based on manure, crops and agro-wastes, and food waste under the geographical contexts of Sweden and Belgium. Centrifuge, screw press, and rotary drum were identified as suitable primary processing techniques. We analyzed the climate impact, energy use, and operational cost of digestate management under these scenarios: no processing, partial processing (solid-liquid separation) and full processing (solid-liquid separation followed by ammonia stripping). As expected, the suitable digestate processing varied with the context, transport was often the most critical cost factor, and emissions from storage reduced the climate savings from the use of biofertilizers. However, treating liquid fraction became a main contributor to cost and climate impact under the Belgian conditions. Consequently, the possibility for local application of liquid fraction as biofertilizer could prevent costs and impacts associated with its further treatment. The main novelty of this work is in its integrative and comprehensive approach toward the choices and impacts of primary processing of digestate. We tried to bridge many individual case studies, drew from experiences of biogas plants in different geographical contexts, assessed suitable processing techniques for different digestate types, and analyzed the environmental impacts and cost of digestate management from a life cycle perspective. We believe that such integrated approaches would help decision-making for increased sustainability of the biogas sector. 

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  • 229.
    Feizaghaii, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moestedt, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Tekniska Verken & Linkoping Publ, Dept Technol & Syst, Box 1500, SE-58115 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Påledal, Sören Nilsson
    Tekniska Verken & Linkoping Publ, Dept Technol & Syst, Box 1500, SE-58115 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ometto, Francesco
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuel AB, Sweden.
    The biogas yield, climate impact, energy balance, nutrient recovery, and resource cost of biogas production from household food waste — A comparison of multiple cases from Sweden2022Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 378, artikkel-id 134536Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The depletion of natural resources, climate change and energy security are some of today's societal challenges. One way to address these is through anaerobic digestion of food waste, which provides multiple benefits such as waste treatment, nutrient recycling and renewable energy, such as biogas. Biogas solutions tend to vary, so to gain a holistic understanding of their pros and cons there is a need to use a common analytical approach and simultaneously consider several issues. This study has analysed the climate impact, primary energy use, nutrient recycling potential, and resource cost of producing biogas from food waste in three Swedish biogas plants with different setups. In addition, several scenarios representing changes in the existing systems were analysed. The study aims to provide insights into factors that affect the performance of biogas production from food waste. The method applied is based on life cycle analysis and key performance indicators (KPIs), which were used to compare and analyse the performance of the biogas systems. The analysis synthesises a large amount of information about the performance of these systems and their sub-systems. Despite significant differences between the studied cases, all led to the production of biomethane with a low climate impact (62–80% less climate impact in grCO2eq/MJ compared with the fossil reference), low non-renewable primary energy use (16–31% MJ per MJ delivered biomethane), and significant nutrient recovery (e.g., 52–86% of phosphorus content of food waste was delivered as biofertilizer). In addition to the collection system, the efficiency of pretreatment, the choice of energy system (e.g., for heating the biogas plant), and a suitable digestate treatment were found to be among the main factors that influence the overall performance of these systems.

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  • 230.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploring the state of the art in urban sustainability literature – what do recent articles reveal?Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the sustainable development of human settlements has emerged as a critical challenge. Urban sustainability has become a popular and widely-used term, reflecting the concept’s importance and relevance. This study presents a critical review of articles discussing urban sustainability published during 2011-2012.The study is exploratory and aims to stimulate discussion by examining the themes and content of recent articles to consider how the concept of urban sustainability is framed and used by scholars from different disciplines. The study provides insights into both the “real-world” practice of urban sustainability, as observed and reported by academics, and the academic practice of studying urban sustainability.The study proceeds as follows: a short Introduction presents background information motivating the study. Subsequently, the Method used to conduct the study is described, along with possible Limitations. The Results of the study follow. These illustrate the increasing number of articles discussing urban sustainability and present an overview of the approaches and analytical tools used by authors, along with (in general terms) the themes and topics addressed in their studies.The Results are followed by deeper Analysis of the texts and their contents, structured around four themes which emerge from the literature review. Following the Analysis, a Discussion reflects upon its findings and offers insights into the potential for future contributions that may enhance the study of urban sustainability, with particular reference to urban sustainability governance and the study of organizational aspects, processes and levels of participation. Specific research needs are summarised in the Conclusions.

  • 231.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    National infrastructure, small towns and sustainable mobility – experiences from policy and strategy in two Swedish municipalities2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, nr 9, s. 1660-1682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the implications of improved access to national rail and roadinfrastructure for urban planning and land use in two small Swedish towns. The promotion of sustainable mobility is considered a strategic objective at the municipal level, yet the study questions the extent to which national investments, and increased access to regional labour markets, support local efforts to increase sustainable mobility. The results indicate that municipalities struggle to adopt coherent approaches to increasing sustainable mobility and continue to develop physical plans that induce use of motor vehicles, a trend reinforced by national investments in road infrastructure in peri-urban areas.

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  • 232. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainability · Strategy · Space – exploring influences on governing for urban sustainability in municipalities2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The pursuit of urban sustainability is considered central to sustainable development and is a key objective of the global Sustainable Development Goals (2015) and the New Urban Agenda (2016). This thesis aims to contribute to debates on urban sustainability by providing insights as to the role of actors participating in processes of governing for urban sustainability, with particular focus on the municipal organisation.

    The thesis employs an interdisciplinary approach to illustrate divergent approaches to governing for urban sustainability, with reference to empirical studies of strategic planning processes in municipalities in selected North-western European countries – Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands.

    These studies address themes including climate change, sustainable transport and multi-level governance. The thesis provides a broad overview of theoretical discussions related to governing, strategy and planning, the role of actors in governing for urban sustainability, and the particular importance of climate change as a challenge for urban sustainability.

    A number of research gaps are identified and addressed in two research questions, focusing on the organisation and practice of processes of governing for urban sustainability, and the factors influencing actors participating in such processes. The thesis responds to these research questions with reference to five appended papers, which illustrate different dimensions of governing for urban sustainability.

    The first paper concerns the organisation of processes to develop energy and climate strategies in Swedish municipalities, and the second paper highlights the experiences of actors participating in such processes. The third paper presents results from a survey illustrating the expectations of stakeholders active in governing transport in the city of Norrköping, Sweden.

    In the fourth paper, the development and implementation of policies aiming for sustainable transport and urban sustainability in Basel, Switzerland, are discussed. In the final paper, cooperation through transnational municipal networks is explored with reference to the World Ports Climate Declaration, an initiative of the city of Rotterdam.

    The thesis confirms the presence of five factors – capacity, mandate, resources, scope and will – that shape the “strategy space” of actors and play an important role in conditioning the form and content of processes of governing for urban sustainability. The thesis suggests that the ways in which a municipal organisation perceive and mobilise the five factors will strongly determine the extent of its sustainability strategy space.

    In sum, municipal organisations and other actors participating in processes of governing for urban sustainability need to mobilise the five factors and expand their strategy space, in order to achieve vertical and horizontal alignment of strategic objectives and facilitate implementation that delivers transformative change.

    Delarbeid
    1. Sustainable energy and climate strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish municipalities
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sustainable energy and climate strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish municipalities
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 213-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities have traditionally had significant powers and played a major role in implementing national energy strategies. This paper describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. The questions raised in the paper are: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five municipalities, do these municipalities include stakeholders in the process, if so how, and do the stakeholders influence the content of strategies? Results suggest that a number of factors influence the development of municipal climate and energy strategies and their content. These include the importance of a clear, shared vision and engaged politicians; the size and organisational structure of the municipality and its willingness and capability to act; the organisation of the process and extent to which stakeholders not only have been involved but also felt included; the need for clarity about financial aspects, such as planned financing of implementation; and the need for greater clarity concerning selection of targets and their relevance to global climate and energy trends. The study and its results may be used to inform policy-makers on the national and local levels about factors influencing municipal energy planning and also contribute to a discussion on benefits and problems of involving stakeholders and citizens in the strategic work to reduce climate impacts and energy consumption.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Energy and climate strategies, municipalities, stakeholders, planning processes
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104464 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.001 (DOI)000356194300022 ()
    Prosjekter
    HEKSA - Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-02-17 Laget: 2014-02-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning – experiences from Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning – experiences from Sweden
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 272-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the factors influencing stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning, together with stakeholder experiences of participation in such processes. The article presents findings from a survey of 60 Swedish municipalities and detailed case studies of energy and climate planning in five Swedish municipalities to explore which stakeholders are involved, how and why they are involved, and the impacts of participation on both stakeholder experiences. The results of this study provide insight into the role of stakeholders in municipal energy and climate planning.The study proceeds as follows: the Introduction is followed by a discussion of theoretical perspectives on stakeholder participation and energy and climate planning. The Methods used to conduct the study are presented, followed by Results and Analysis. In the subsequent Discussion, the authors propose a conceptual approach that may assist municipalities in development of energy and climate strategies. The Analysis and Discussion inform Conclusions in which the authors advocate early and active stakeholder engagement in energy and climate strategy planning and emphasise the possible utility of their conceptual approach in supporting stakeholder participation.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Taylor & Francis, 2016
    Emneord
    Energy and climate strategies; municipalities; participation; stakeholders
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104465 (URN)10.1080/13549839.2014.946400 (DOI)000378168000002 ()
    Prosjekter
    HEKSA - Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-02-17 Laget: 2014-02-17 Sist oppdatert: 2018-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Contesting sustainability in urban transport — perspectives from a Swedish town
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Contesting sustainability in urban transport — perspectives from a Swedish town
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 15-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a document study, survey, and workshops held in a Swedish municipality. The empirical focus of the study is on the role of transport in municipal planning and transport's potential contribution to urban sustainability in the municipality. The case study highlights a problem familiar to many municipalities — a transport sector largely dependent on fossil fuel private vehicles that generates significant impacts on the climate and environment, along with other economic and social costs. However, despite awareness of these negative impacts, it is difficult to implement measures to reduce the use of private vehicles and enable a transition towards a sustainable transport sector. In Sweden, municipalities have exclusive planning monopolies and an extensive range of other powers. Despite this, many municipalities are struggling to reduce car dependency and enable sustainable mobility. This paper questions the extent to which the municipality and its governance processes are capable of contributing toward sustainable development, both locally and globally, in the absence of radical measures. In particular, the paper considers why, despite having adopted objectives to promote sustainable mobility, does the municipality struggle with the implementation of measures to enable sustainable mobility? Why is there a difference between words and actions?

    Emneord
    Municipalities; sustainable development; transport; mobility; decision-making; governance
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114291 (URN)10.1111/1477-8947.12061 (DOI)000351775600003 ()
    Prosjekter
    Hållbara Norrköping
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-02-17 Laget: 2015-02-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04
    4. Sustainable mobility as Swiss cheese?: Exploring influences on urban transport strategy in Basel
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sustainable mobility as Swiss cheese?: Exploring influences on urban transport strategy in Basel
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 143-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the development and implementation of strategies for sustainable mobility in Basel, Switzerland. Basel (Bâle, Basilea, Basle) has been identified as a ‘relatively successful’ practitioner of sustainable mobility, with an urban form that is not only conducive to walking and cycling, but also has an extensive public transport system and high levels of commuting using these sustainable modes of transport. With a low share of journeys by motor vehicles compared to many other European cities – combined with a legally-binding objective to reduce vehicle traffic by a further 10% from 2010 to 2020 – Basel appears to be a forerunner with regard to sustainable mobility policy and practice. Five years after this objective was passed into law – following a public vote, as Basel is part of the Swiss confederation and practices direct democracy – this study aims to assess the extent of policy implementation and reflect on challenges and opportunities for the future. The paper presents findings from a series of interviews with stakeholders in Basel on the theme of sustainable mobility. Key questions include: is it possible to develop coherent strategies and policies to further reduce the role of motor vehicles and in doing so, achieve a modal shift? How does participation in a direct democracy influence strategy and policy development and outcomes? Do compromises and trade-offs mean strategies and policies promoting sustainable mobility are, like Swiss cheese, riddled with holes? By illustrating challenges and opportunities when advancing sustainable mobility in a participative culture, the study provides insights for policymakers and researchers in other contexts. Among the conclusions is an emphasis on the importance of committed individuals capable of expanding the ‘strategy space’ of processes. Participation provides one such opportunity, yet may also generate divergent or contradictory trends causing incrementalism. A rapid transition to sustainable mobility is thus likely to require increased politicisation of the topic by both politicians and civil servants.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    John Wiley & Sons, 2016
    Emneord
    Sustainable mobility, governance, strategy, policy, participation, direct democracy, Canton Basel-Stadt
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129371 (URN)10.1111/1477-8947.12093 (DOI)000393051100002 ()
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Goteborg Energi; Riksbyggens Jubileumsfond Den Goda Staden; Vinnova (Verifiering for Samverkan)

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-06-17 Laget: 2016-06-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-28
    5. The role of port cities and transnational municipal networks in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on land and at sea from shipping - an assessment of the World Ports Climate Initiative
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The role of port cities and transnational municipal networks in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on land and at sea from shipping - an assessment of the World Ports Climate Initiative
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 75, s. 271-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, 55 of the world's largest ports voluntarily adopted the World Ports Climate Declaration (WPCD) and the International Association of Ports and Harbours committed to long-term work on implementation through the World Ports Climate Initiative (WPCI). This article assesses the work of WPCI since 2008 and makes five recommendations that, if implemented, could support efforts to reduce the climate and environmental impacts of port operations and international shipping. In particular, as the impetus for the WPCD came from a port city – Rotterdam – and their engagement with a transnational municipal network – the C40 Large Cities Climate Leadership Group – the paper considers the role of cities and transnational municipal networks in governance, and the potential for cities to play a more active and influential role in the maritime sector. The article presents an overview of literature on the role and function of transnational municipal networks, the background and development of the WPCD, analysis of the work of WPCI, and a discussion concerning the potential of cities and transnational municipal networks to support and add value to WPCI or similar initiatives in the maritime sector. This informs the conclusions and recommendations to marine policy-makers and port stakeholders.

    Emneord
    Ports; Shipping;Transnational municipal networks; Climate change; Governance
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123628 (URN)10.1016/j.marpol.2015.12.012 (DOI)000391904500032 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-01-01 Laget: 2016-01-01 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-10bibliografisk kontrollert
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  • 233.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainable mobility as Swiss cheese?: Exploring influences on urban transport strategy in Basel2016Inngår i: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 143-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the development and implementation of strategies for sustainable mobility in Basel, Switzerland. Basel (Bâle, Basilea, Basle) has been identified as a ‘relatively successful’ practitioner of sustainable mobility, with an urban form that is not only conducive to walking and cycling, but also has an extensive public transport system and high levels of commuting using these sustainable modes of transport. With a low share of journeys by motor vehicles compared to many other European cities – combined with a legally-binding objective to reduce vehicle traffic by a further 10% from 2010 to 2020 – Basel appears to be a forerunner with regard to sustainable mobility policy and practice. Five years after this objective was passed into law – following a public vote, as Basel is part of the Swiss confederation and practices direct democracy – this study aims to assess the extent of policy implementation and reflect on challenges and opportunities for the future. The paper presents findings from a series of interviews with stakeholders in Basel on the theme of sustainable mobility. Key questions include: is it possible to develop coherent strategies and policies to further reduce the role of motor vehicles and in doing so, achieve a modal shift? How does participation in a direct democracy influence strategy and policy development and outcomes? Do compromises and trade-offs mean strategies and policies promoting sustainable mobility are, like Swiss cheese, riddled with holes? By illustrating challenges and opportunities when advancing sustainable mobility in a participative culture, the study provides insights for policymakers and researchers in other contexts. Among the conclusions is an emphasis on the importance of committed individuals capable of expanding the ‘strategy space’ of processes. Participation provides one such opportunity, yet may also generate divergent or contradictory trends causing incrementalism. A rapid transition to sustainable mobility is thus likely to require increased politicisation of the topic by both politicians and civil servants.

  • 234.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sustainable mobility in the city – a study of Basel, Göttingen and Odense2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How can small-medium sized cities achieve high levels of walking, cycling and public transport whilst reducing use of cars? And how can such cities achieve further emission reductions by integrating renewable fuels and alternative forms of propulsion into their mobility strategies? This project makes use of qualitative research methods to explore how three European municipalities organise processes to devise strategies and plans to achieve sustainable mobility. Issues addressed by the research include the organisational processes and forms of participation used to develop strategies, select and implement measures, and gain political and societal support for transitions. What kind of methods or tools may be required to conduct research and draw meaningful conclusions from such analysis? Is it possible to compare apples and pears? And how can other small-medium sized cities, with lower performance in sustainable mobility, learn from these examples? 

  • 235.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The role of port cities and transnational municipal networks in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on land and at sea from shipping - an assessment of the World Ports Climate Initiative2017Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 75, s. 271-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, 55 of the world's largest ports voluntarily adopted the World Ports Climate Declaration (WPCD) and the International Association of Ports and Harbours committed to long-term work on implementation through the World Ports Climate Initiative (WPCI). This article assesses the work of WPCI since 2008 and makes five recommendations that, if implemented, could support efforts to reduce the climate and environmental impacts of port operations and international shipping. In particular, as the impetus for the WPCD came from a port city – Rotterdam – and their engagement with a transnational municipal network – the C40 Large Cities Climate Leadership Group – the paper considers the role of cities and transnational municipal networks in governance, and the potential for cities to play a more active and influential role in the maritime sector. The article presents an overview of literature on the role and function of transnational municipal networks, the background and development of the WPCD, analysis of the work of WPCI, and a discussion concerning the potential of cities and transnational municipal networks to support and add value to WPCI or similar initiatives in the maritime sector. This informs the conclusions and recommendations to marine policy-makers and port stakeholders.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 236.
    Fenton, Paul
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Busch, Henner
    Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies, Sweden.
    Identifying the "Usual Suspects" – Assessing Patterns of Representation in Local Environmental Initiatives2016Inngår i: Challenges in Sustainability, ISSN 2297-6477, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing body of literature explores the role of transnational municipal networks (TMNs) in governing sustainable development. As associations, one key task of TMNs is to represent their members through production and dissemination of information and knowledge concerning municipal action for sustainable development. Case studies, often emphasising best practice, are used by many TMNs to fulfil this task. Nevertheless, despite strong scrutiny concerning the use of case studies in ᅵpolicy mobilitiesᅵ research, there have been limited attempts to quantify the ways in which TMNs present and disseminate case studies and, by doing so, generate trends of presence and absence in literature on sustainable development. Assessing patterns of representation for continents, countries, municipalities and themes across nine international case study collections published by ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability since 1991, this study responds to this research gap and identifies the presence of ᅵusual suspectsᅵ in the ICLEI case study collections, along with notable absentees. By doing so, the study contributes to policy mobilities research and literature on TMNs, by encouraging reflection and further research concerning the representation patterns influencing which municipalities and what topics are presented in discourses on sustainable development.

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  • 237.
    Fenton, Paul
    et al.
    City of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chimenti, Gianluca
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The role of local government in governance and diffusion of Mobility-as-a-Service: exploring the views of MaaS stakeholders in Stockholm2020Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 63, nr 14, s. 2554-2576Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities around the world constitute an emerging market for Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). For local governments, MaaS may offer opportunities to reduce ownership and use of private cars for passenger transport, thereby easing pressures on urban space, the local environment and global climate. By drawing on literature related to socio-technical transitions and the diffusion of environmental innovations, this article analyses survey results of MaaS stakeholders in the City of Stockholm, where several initiatives to facilitate development of MaaS are underway. The results illustrate what stakeholders do and consider important, which kinds of barriers, opportunities and challenges are perceived, and what type of expectations stakeholders share about the role of the City administration in the development of MaaS in Stockholm. In sum, results indicate an important, yet delicate role for local governments in facilitating MaaS, whilst suggesting the need for regional or national regulatory solutions in the longer-term, to ensure legitimacy and transparency.

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  • 238.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Accelerating local transitions to sustainable mobility2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the challenge of developing policies and incentives to achieve sustainable mobility in urban areas. Urban transport systems must undergo a profound transition in order to contribute to sustainable urban development and improve quality of life for residents and other users of urban spaces. There is substantial knowledge about the range of policy options available to decision-makers, planners and other stakeholders, yet past research has focused less on the practical organisation and implementation of policies aiming for sustainable mobility. Although many municipalities have adopted policies that promote sustainable mobility, organisational hinders and other behavioural practices have obstructed progress towards goals. Transport planning remains highly normative, prioritising the use of cars, yet some European municipalities achieve much higher modal splits for walking, cycling and public transport than many others. Basel, Göttingen and Odense are examples of three cities with strong performance: attractive, competitive cities in which the modal split for cars is low and other forms of mobility thrive. How are these cities succeeding and what can other municipalities learn from their examples? What organisational processes, methods, activities and innovations have influenced their strong performance?

  • 239.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Contesting sustainability in urban transport – perspectives from a Swedish town2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from the study of a Swedish municipality, Norrköping. The empirical focus of the study is on the role of transport in municipal planning and transport’s potential contribution to urban sustainability in the municipality. The case study highlights a problem familiar to many municipalities – a transport sector largely dependent on fossil fuelled private vehicles generates significant impacts on the climate and environment, along with other economic and social costs. However, despite awareness of these negative impacts, it is difficult to generate consensus and implement measures to reduce use of private vehicles and enable transition towards a sustainable transport sector.

    In Sweden, municipalities have exclusive planning monopolies and an extensive range of other powers. Despite this, many Swedish municipalities are struggling to reduce car dependency and enable sustainable mobility. This paper uses perspectives from different disciplines to explore why, presenting results from a document study, survey, workshops and scenarios. The paper questions the extent to which the municipality and its governance processes are capable of contributing toward sustainable development, both locally and globally, in the absence of radical measures to promote sustainable urban development.

    In particular, the paper addresses a challenging question: why, despite having adopted objectives to promote sustainable mobility, does the municipality fail to implement measures enabling sustainable mobility? Why is there a difference between words and actions? Moreover, the study identifies comparable municipalities in other European countries with substantially higher performance in sustainable mobility than Norrköping, and considers, what would happen if Norrköping adopted similar targets and policies?

    This presentation seeks to inform an international audience about the contested nature of transportation in Swedish urban sustainability debates, and seeks input to help develop the paper and future research on this theme.  

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  • 240.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Five factors for urban sustainability - exploring influences on municipal strategic planning2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, there has been increasing consensus that sustainable urban development is critical to the future of human societies and planetary systems. The effects of population growth and the environmental impacts of human activities are evident around the world, observable not only in the rapid urbanisation of many large cities, but also in small-medium conurbations, rural communities, and even uninhabited areas. For this reason, sustainable urban development is the theme of this licentiate thesis.

    The thesis focuses on the role of municipal organisations, the ways in which processes to develop strategies and policies addressing urban sustainability are organised, and how other stakeholders participate in such processes. The thesis concludes by presenting a new conceptual framework that aims to inform such strategic processes - the “five factors” influencing strategic planning processes for urban sustainability in municipalities.

    The five factors concern the capacity of municipalities and others to act for urban sustainability; their mandate to do so; the resources available to them; the scope of their processes and intended outcomes; and their will, individually and collectively, to pursue urban sustainability. The “five factors” concept may aid future analysis of urban sustainability processes, both in planning and implementation. The “five factors” are based upon the findings of the three appended papers and the synthesis of their results in this thesis.

    The first and second papers present studies of energy and climate strategy planning processes in Swedish municipalities active in a national programme, the Sustainable Municipality (Uthållig kommun). Paper 1 focuses upon the organisation of processes to develop energy and climate strategies, whereas Paper 2 reflects upon the experiences of participating stakeholders in such processes. The two papers build upon existing theoretical frameworks and present empirical data from case studies of five municipalities, based on document studies, interviews and comparative analysis, in order to make conclusions about the advantages and disadvantages of variations in the form and composition of energy and climate planning (e.g. that early involvement of stakeholders results in more comprehensive strategies).

    In contrast, Paper 3 presents analysis of a multidisciplinary sample of academic journal articles addressing “urban sustainability” and published during the period 2011-2012. As such, this paper focuses on how urban sustainability is practiced, observed and represented in academic literature, and considers different issues that arise as a consequence (e.g. a lack of analysis of urban sustainability governance processes in municipalities). Whereas Papers 1 and 2 observe practice, making insights with reference to specific theoretical perspectives, Paper 3 provides overview and identifies wider challenges and opportunities for research on the theme of urban sustainability. Together, the three papers highlight a number of issues that influence the development of municipalities’ strategic work for urban sustainability – the five factors.

    Delarbeid
    1. Sustainable energy and climate strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish municipalities
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sustainable energy and climate strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish municipalities
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 213-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities have traditionally had significant powers and played a major role in implementing national energy strategies. This paper describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. The questions raised in the paper are: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five municipalities, do these municipalities include stakeholders in the process, if so how, and do the stakeholders influence the content of strategies? Results suggest that a number of factors influence the development of municipal climate and energy strategies and their content. These include the importance of a clear, shared vision and engaged politicians; the size and organisational structure of the municipality and its willingness and capability to act; the organisation of the process and extent to which stakeholders not only have been involved but also felt included; the need for clarity about financial aspects, such as planned financing of implementation; and the need for greater clarity concerning selection of targets and their relevance to global climate and energy trends. The study and its results may be used to inform policy-makers on the national and local levels about factors influencing municipal energy planning and also contribute to a discussion on benefits and problems of involving stakeholders and citizens in the strategic work to reduce climate impacts and energy consumption.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Energy and climate strategies, municipalities, stakeholders, planning processes
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104464 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.001 (DOI)000356194300022 ()
    Prosjekter
    HEKSA - Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-02-17 Laget: 2014-02-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning – experiences from Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning – experiences from Sweden
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 272-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the factors influencing stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning, together with stakeholder experiences of participation in such processes. The article presents findings from a survey of 60 Swedish municipalities and detailed case studies of energy and climate planning in five Swedish municipalities to explore which stakeholders are involved, how and why they are involved, and the impacts of participation on both stakeholder experiences. The results of this study provide insight into the role of stakeholders in municipal energy and climate planning.The study proceeds as follows: the Introduction is followed by a discussion of theoretical perspectives on stakeholder participation and energy and climate planning. The Methods used to conduct the study are presented, followed by Results and Analysis. In the subsequent Discussion, the authors propose a conceptual approach that may assist municipalities in development of energy and climate strategies. The Analysis and Discussion inform Conclusions in which the authors advocate early and active stakeholder engagement in energy and climate strategy planning and emphasise the possible utility of their conceptual approach in supporting stakeholder participation.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Taylor & Francis, 2016
    Emneord
    Energy and climate strategies; municipalities; participation; stakeholders
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104465 (URN)10.1080/13549839.2014.946400 (DOI)000378168000002 ()
    Prosjekter
    HEKSA - Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-02-17 Laget: 2014-02-17 Sist oppdatert: 2018-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Exploring the state of the art in urban sustainability literature – what do recent articles reveal?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Exploring the state of the art in urban sustainability literature – what do recent articles reveal?
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the sustainable development of human settlements has emerged as a critical challenge. Urban sustainability has become a popular and widely-used term, reflecting the concept’s importance and relevance. This study presents a critical review of articles discussing urban sustainability published during 2011-2012.The study is exploratory and aims to stimulate discussion by examining the themes and content of recent articles to consider how the concept of urban sustainability is framed and used by scholars from different disciplines. The study provides insights into both the “real-world” practice of urban sustainability, as observed and reported by academics, and the academic practice of studying urban sustainability.The study proceeds as follows: a short Introduction presents background information motivating the study. Subsequently, the Method used to conduct the study is described, along with possible Limitations. The Results of the study follow. These illustrate the increasing number of articles discussing urban sustainability and present an overview of the approaches and analytical tools used by authors, along with (in general terms) the themes and topics addressed in their studies.The Results are followed by deeper Analysis of the texts and their contents, structured around four themes which emerge from the literature review. Following the Analysis, a Discussion reflects upon its findings and offers insights into the potential for future contributions that may enhance the study of urban sustainability, with particular reference to urban sustainability governance and the study of organizational aspects, processes and levels of participation. Specific research needs are summarised in the Conclusions.

    Emneord
    Literature review; urban sustainability; sustainable development
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104467 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-02-17 Laget: 2014-02-17 Sist oppdatert: 2016-05-04bibliografisk kontrollert
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    Five factors for urban sustainability - exploring influences on municipal strategic planning
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  • 241.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Identifying the "Usual Suspects" – Assessing patterns of representation in ICLEI case study collections2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Case study narratives act as a functional and attractive tool for awareness-raising, exchange of ideas and capacity-building. However, recent literature has highlighted problems with the ways that case studies present concepts or information. Writers such as Bahia Schlee et al, 2012; Isendahl and Smith, 2012; Raco and Lin, 2012; and Smit and Parnell, 2012; note an imbalance in the presentation of “developed” and “developing” world narratives in academic literature, leading to over-representation of cases from Europe and North America. Recent work by Acuto (2013) and Fenton (forthcoming) suggests that the increasing volume of case studies in academic literature on urban sustainability may contribute to an over-representation of certain kinds of municipalities – e.g. cities of a certain size or in certain locations – at the expense of others.

     

    This paper will show that this trend is observed not only in academic literature, but also in practical settings, e.g. the preponderance and domination of certain cities within international municipal associations. The paper studies the continents, countries, municipalities and themes represented in six collections of case studies published by an international municipal association. The paper will assess the possible ways in which the case study collections, by representing certain types of activities in particular locations, influence the framing of the practice and study of sustainable development in municipalities. By doing so, the paper aims to contribute to literature on comparative urbanism, urban governance, knowledge production, municipalities, sustainable development, and international organisations.

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    Fenton Stadtkolloquium 2014
  • 242.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Identifying the "Usual Suspects": assessing patterns of representation in ICLEI case study collections2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Case study narratives act as a functional and attractive tool for awareness-raising, exchange of ideas and capacity-building. However, recent literature has highlighted problems with the ways that case studies present concepts or information. Various authors note an imbalance in the presentation of "developed" and "developing" world narratives in academic literature, leading to over-representation of cases from Europe and North America. Recent work suggests that the increasing volume of case studies in academic literature on urban sustainability may contribute to an over-representation of certain kinds of municipalities – e.g. cities of a certain size or in certain locations – at the expense of others.

    This paper shows that this trend is observed not only in academic literature, but also in practical settings, e.g. the preponderance and domination of certain cities within international municipal associations. The paper studies the continents, countries, municipalities and themes represented in six collections of case studies published by an international municipal association. The paper will assess the possible ways in which the case study collections, by representing certain types of activities in particular locations, influence the framing of the practice and study of sustainable development in municipalities. By doing so, the paper aims to contribute to literature on comparative urbanism, urban governance, knowledge production, municipalities, sustainable development, and international organisations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Identifying the "Usual Suspects": assessing patterns of representation in ICLEI case study collections
  • 243.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainable energy and sustainable transport: what can Swedish towns learn from municipalities in Denmark, Germany and Switzerland?2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report explores the varying ways in which three European cities attempt to increase levels of sustainable mobility, and the extent to which renewable fuels or alternative forms of propulsion are integrated within the cities’ strategic work for sustainable transportation. The report presents findings from document and interview studies in the three cities – Basel, Switzerland; Göttingen, Germany; and Odense, Denmark – in order to highlight approaches, experiences or lessons that may be of value to Swedish municipalities addressing these topics.

    The report indicates that there is a demonstrable need for municipalities across Europe to more explicitly and deliberately integrate strategies aiming for sustainable mobility with the use of renewable fuels and alternative forms of propulsion. Such integration will enable municipalities to increase levels of walking, cycling and public transport whilst reducing use of vehicles operating on fossil fuels. Where and when journeys by motor vehicles are unavoidable, municipalities should strive to ensure that such vehicles are electric or using high blends of renewable fuels. From a Swedish perspective, there is a need to recognize the important role of sustainable mobility in urban sustainable development and develop bolder and more coherent strategies and policies to reduce levels of vehicle use.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 244.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainable mobility in the low carbon city: digging up the highway in Odense, Denmark2017Inngår i: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 29, s. 203-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities around the world are facing the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting urban sustainability. If comprehensive low-carbon development of cities is to be possible, transportation, as a major contributor of greenhouse gas emissions, is a particularly important sector to address. Major changes to transport behaviour and systems will be required in order to secure a shift to sustainable modes of transport and removal of infrastructure that reinforces unsustainable patterns of transportation. This paper examines the links between low-carbon urban development and sustainable mobility, with reference to the case of Odense, Denmark. With a reputation as a city of cyclists, Odense has recently closed a highway that divided central districts of the city, and is constructing a new tramway in its place. Results from a qualitative study, including interviews with individuals active in local policy processes, provide insights into Odense’s experiences and inform analysis of the influences on municipal strategies and plans for sustainable mobility, questioning if climate change need be the primary focus when designing policies to enable low-carbon urban development.

  • 245.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainable mobility in the sustainable city – what can Swedish towns learn from municipalities in Denmark, Germany and Switzerland?: (Hållbar mobilitet i den hållbara staden - vad kan svenska städer lära från kommuner i Danmark, Schweiz och Tyskland?)2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The project addresses the challenge of developing policies and incentives to achieve sustainable mobility in urban areas. 

  • 246.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainable mobility in the sustainable city: a study of 11 large municipalities in Sweden. Final Report. Project 15-5492016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents findings from a qualitative study of strategy and policy processes for sustainable mobility and sustainable transport in eleven large municipalities in Sweden. The findings are presented thematically and with reference to interviews in each of the municipalities. The main conclusions of the report are that organisational design and the extent to which external stakeholders are involved in municipal processes are important influences on outcomes; political will and the presence of committed individuals is vitally important; and that municipalities are hamstrung by ineffective national planning processes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 247.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The intermediary role of transnational municipal networks in governance by diffusion2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the role of Transnational Municipal Networks (TMNs) in processes of “governance by diffusion” (Hakelberg, 2014; Feldman, 2012; Román, 2010). Feldman (2012) suggests the “three vital functions” of TMNs are knowledge creation and diffusion; policy evaluation; and enabling local action. In a similar vein, Bouteligier (2013) categorises the main services of TMNs as knowledge transfer; capacity-building; and representation. A typical function of TMNs is thus to facilitate understanding and integration of “outside-in” influences, whilst supporting members in their “inside-out” actions (Porter and Reinhardt, 2008); that is, to provide services that enhance the quality of processes within member municipal organisations, whilst increasing members’ access to and awareness of relevant generic or specific practices of other municipalities, thereby enabling members to think and work “beyond city limits” (Seitzinger et al., 2012).In many instances, TMNs act as intermediaries in wider processes of knowledge transfer, translating or adapting experiences from one context to another (Fenton, 2014a; Hamann and April, 2012). Literature from the field of organisational studies provides further insights into this role (see e.g. Langstrand, 2012; Lillrank 1995), as does recent literature on benchmarking and interorganisational learning in local government (Ammons and Roenigk, 2015). However, whilst there is considerable focus on the type of translation process (i.e. its intended purpose and focus), its nature as explicit or tacit knowledge, and the “translatability” of practices (Røvik, 2007; see also Langstrand, 2012; Lillrank, 1995), less attention has been paid to those factors influencing actors during translation. Fenton (2014b) introduces five factors informing and supporting strategic planning processes for urban sustainability in municipalities. This paper questions if and how this conceptual framework may contribute to supporting the role of TMNs in their role during processes of translation and “governance by diffusion”.

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    fulltext
  • 248.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The role of port cities and networks: reflections on the World Ports Climate Initiative2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how port cities and municipal networks can contribute to reducing the climate and environmental impacts of shipping. Specifically, the paper reflects on the process of developing the World Ports Climate Declaration during 2007-2008 and the work of the World Ports Climate Initiative (WPCI) in subsequent years.The Declaration was a voluntary undertaking, adopted by 55 of the world’s largest ports, to individually and jointly work to reduce the climate and environmental impacts of port operations, the global shipping industry and related sectors. To do so, the Declaration highlighted a number of themes. The International Association of Ports and Harbours adopted a resolution in support of the Declaration and committed to long-term work on implementation through the WPCI, with thematic working groups and support tools including biannual conferences and a dedicated website. These working groups have subsequently not just implemented measures with regard to particular topics (e.g. installed onshore power supply systems or hybrid cargo handling equipment, or adopted an index for green shipping), but also developed guidance documents and provided support to other ports attempting to begin work with such measures.The impetus for the initial Declaration came from the City of Rotterdam and their engagement in the C40 Large Cities Group. The author will reflect on the origins of the initiative and his personal involvement in development of the Declaration, in order to assess the progress made by participating WPCI ports in subsequent years. Moreover, the author will consider the questions: where did the cities go? What role can port cities and municipal networks play in further developing and expanding the scope of the WPCI or similar initiatives? How can municipalities work together to transform ports and shipping whilst avoiding first mover problems?

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 249.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    What does a review of literature on urban sustainability reveal about the study and practice of urban sustainability?2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, three influential phenomena - population growth, urbanization and the emerging Anthropocene - have renewed focus on the challenge of achieving sustainable development of human settlements. Urban sustainability has become a popular and widely-used term, reflecting the concept’s relevance across multiple disciplines.

    As the literature on urban sustainability increases in volume and diversity, so too does the need for interdisciplinary study of the theory and practice of urban sustainability. This paper aims to contribute to the literature by clarifying the ways in which the concept of urban sustainability is framed and used by academics from different disciplines.

    The paper presents results from a study of recent literature, published during the period 2011-2012. The study explores which types of literature are available; the role and purpose of literature; the methods or analytical tools used by authors; themes and topics addressed; and potential contributions that could enhance the study of urban sustainability.

    The paper relies on content analysis to provide insight into both the “real-world” practice of urban sustainability, as observed and reported by academics, and the academic practice of observing urban sustainability. The analysis highlights inconsistencies and contradictions which cause fragmentation and lead to trade-offs, both in the practice of urban sustainability and in the academic study of the concept.

    This forms the basis for a discussion on the study of urban sustainability and the identification of specific research needs, with particular reference to urban sustainability governance and the study of organizational aspects, processes and levels of participation. The paper raises a number of questions which may be addressed by future studies.

    For example, the paper argues that future research should focus on how to overcome factors such as inertia or inaction, which may occur as a consequence of past or current “urban sustainability” practice and in turn impede future implementation.  Such studies should focus not only on – or from the perspective of - municipalities and municipal politicians, but also on other stakeholders and with an awareness and sensitivity towards “invisible” interest groups, both locally and in other geographic locations.

  • 250.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Contesting sustainability in urban transport — perspectives from a Swedish town2015Inngår i: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 15-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a document study, survey, and workshops held in a Swedish municipality. The empirical focus of the study is on the role of transport in municipal planning and transport's potential contribution to urban sustainability in the municipality. The case study highlights a problem familiar to many municipalities — a transport sector largely dependent on fossil fuel private vehicles that generates significant impacts on the climate and environment, along with other economic and social costs. However, despite awareness of these negative impacts, it is difficult to implement measures to reduce the use of private vehicles and enable a transition towards a sustainable transport sector. In Sweden, municipalities have exclusive planning monopolies and an extensive range of other powers. Despite this, many municipalities are struggling to reduce car dependency and enable sustainable mobility. This paper questions the extent to which the municipality and its governance processes are capable of contributing toward sustainable development, both locally and globally, in the absence of radical measures. In particular, the paper considers why, despite having adopted objectives to promote sustainable mobility, does the municipality struggle with the implementation of measures to enable sustainable mobility? Why is there a difference between words and actions?

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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