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  • 201.
    Shin, Wan Seon
    et al.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlgaard-Park, Su Mi
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Kim, Min Gyu
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    A Quality Scorecard for the era of Industry 4.02018Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 29, nr 9-10, s. 959-976Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A Quality Scorecard (QSC) performance measurement model is proposed to evaluate the quality aspects of an organization in Industry 4.0. To design a QSC for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, we examined existing measures regarding costs of quality items. The measurement system was refined by simplifying duplicate measures and incorporating quality elements considered in recent international standard revisions. This paper explains the QSC system and its practical use. Two key results were obtained. First, the QSC measures were reduced from a total of 139 potential measures to 15, 30, and 60 for simple, general, and detailed models, respectively. Second, a so-called QSC wheel, a virtual tool to assess weaknesses in existing performance measurement systems, was developed. The QSC wheel may effectively be used in analysing existing performance measurement systems, and may also be applied to evaluate qualitative performance levels in Industry 4.0.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 202.
    Shin, Wan Seon
    et al.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    Seok Lee, Yong
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A pattern-based decision framework in the era of Industry 4.02019Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this paper is to identify human decision-making patterns that can be transformed into machine decision-making in the era of Industry 4.0. We first isolated 40 key decision attributes and 6 decision patterns based on a literature review. Subsequently, we conducted a survey study of a group of 550 respondents from 11 different industrial types to find out the importance of both the attributes and the decision patterns. The six different human decision patterns (emotion, vision, principle, information, prevention, creation) were analysed for decision problems in both the daily lives and the operational stages of a business. The principle-based decision pattern is preferred for people who work in either Industry 1.0 or 2.0, while the information-based pattern is preferred for Industry 3.0. In the era of Industry 4.0, it seems that creation- and prevention-based patterns are also considered important in addition to principle- and information-based patterns. The decision patterns proposed in this study may be applied to design machines decision-making as a way to represent human decision makers.

  • 203.
    Skolling, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Asad, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Automatisering vid högintensivt styckplock på lager – En fallstudie på Lyko Group AB2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of products sold online is increasing at record speed, which has meant a mixed blessing for e-commerce companies. Continuously increasing demand and a customer base that is discerning, disloyal and expects increasingly shorter lead times impose high logistics demands. One of the major differences between logistics within e-commerce and traditional store replenishment, which has a major impact on logistical requirements, is that e-commerce orders are more labour intensive. This is because e-commerce orders often consists of a few orderliness containing only a few pieces per line, which means that e-commerce companies has to pick, pack and ship thousands of orders in small packages of piece picked products. The increased demand and high logistical requirements within the e-commerce industry has resulted in that many of the warehouses that previously have managed well with manual labour feel the need to invest in warehouse automation to ensure capacity for continued growth.

    However, the decision to automate can be very complicated since automation often requires a high capital investment and it can therefore take a long time before the investment becomes profitable.  A calculation, that may be difficult to perform due to the many different financial factors that need to be taken into account, has to be performed before a decision can be made. There are also qualitative factors, that can be difficult to motivate economically but which can be crucial to consider in an automation decision.

    Lyko Group AB, one of Scandinavia’s largest actors within beauty and haircare, has for many years been heavily growing and forecasts to continuously do so during the upcoming years. Lyko Group AB has identified a need to invest in automation solutions in their warehouse to ensure that they have capacity to meet demand.

    In order to facilitate the automation decision, this study presents a model aims at comparing and generation decision making support on the profitability of various alternative automation solutions for high-intensity piece picking at a warehouse.

    A theoretical model, consisting of capacity requirements, qualitative- and quantative factors, was created based on a literature study. The model was tested through an application on Lyko Group AB and later modified based on the experience gained during the application, resulting in a reality-based model. The resulting model is iterative and enables multi-step feedback to the suppliers by identifing in which areas the performance of the different solutions differ. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 204.
    Smeds, Magdalena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Implementering av standardiserade vårdförlopp: En genväg in i cancervården2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien föranleddes av införandet av standardiserade vårdförlopp (SVF) inom cancervården. SVF innehåller riktlinjer för hur utredning och behandlingsrekommendationer av cancerpatienter ska göras med målet att korta väntetiderna från misstanke om cancer till start av behandling.

    Denna studie har bidra med att samla in kunskap om införandet av standardiserade vårdförlopp inom cancervården för att undersöka vilka faktorer som förenklat eller försvårat implementeringen. Kunskapen kan sedan återföras till organisationen, som i det här fallet är Region Östergötland (RÖ), för att bidra till den fortsatta utvecklingen av arbetet med SVF. Även förbättringsområden samt risker och möjligheter med SVF undersöks för att fördjupa kunskapen ytterligare.

    Den teoretiska bakgrunden, teoretiska referensramen, baseras på en litteraturstudie och forskningsansatsen är en fallstudie som utgår ifrån patientfall inom tre cancerdiagnoser. Under fallstudien samlas data in genom observationsstudier, dokumentstudier och intervjuer. Intervjuerna utgår ifrån implementeringsteori där vårdgivare berättar om sina erfarenheter och tankar kring implementeringen och hur det är att arbeta med SVF. Urvalet av vårdgivare är personer verksamma inom primärvård och specialistvård som genom sitt arbete kommer i kontakt med cancerpatienter.

    Riktlinjerna i SVF specificerar hur en cancerutredning ska gå till för varje cancerdiagnos. Till stor del innehåller riktlinjerna alarmsymptom för misstanke om cancer, utredningsprocessen och patientbemötande i processen. Införandet har motiverats av den fragmentering som tidigare tillskrivits vården samt att korta ner de långa väntetider som länge upplevts i cancervården. Implementeringen av riktlinjerna har i RÖ till stor del letts av två projektledare vars uppgift varit att implementera SVF i verksamheten. Uppdraget med implementeringen har utgjorts av införandet nystartad cancerutredningsenhet, Enheten för samordnad cancerutredning (ESCU) samt att stödja primärvården och specialistvården i sitt arbete med att implementera riktlinjerna. I och med införandet av SVF har RÖ valt att utveckla cancervården för att skapa en mer sammanhållen process kring patienten genom att från början göra en vårdprocess som utgår ifrån patientens behov.

    Studien visar att införandet av SVF på det stora hela inte har förändrat arbetssättet för de vårdgivare som arbetar i vårdprocesserna. De största förändringarna kan ses i processförändringar där tidiga delar av vårdkedjan samordnats och omstrukturerats för att skapa ett bättre flöde genom utredningen. Införandet av ESCU har bidragit till en samordnad remissgranskning där patienterna fångas upp för att på ett sömlöst sätt slussas ut till nästa enhet för fortsatt utredning. Införandet av stödverktyg som standardremisser och samtalsmallar har även lett till en ökad informationsspridning mellan vårdgivande enheter och underlättat informationsspridning till patienterna.

    De faktorer som framförallt underlättat implementeringen är att det funnits ett tydligt övergripande ansvar där projektledarna tagit en aktiv roll i implementeringen. De verksamhetsbesök och samtal som projektledarna haft med vårdgivande enheter samt de stimulansmedel som delats ut till regionen anses även ha underlättat implementeringen. Faktorer som istället har försvårat implementeringen är motsättningar från beslutsfattare inne i verksamheten och de inre strukturerna i verksamheten.

    De möjligheter som finns kopplade till implementeringen är ett ökat omhändertagande av patienten där mer jämlik vård, möjlighet att fånga upp svaga patientgrupper tidigt i utredningen och ett ökat patientdeltagande är viktiga delar. Riskerna som framförallt ses som angelägna handlar om undanträngning av andra patientgrupper till fördel för SVF-patienter och att patienter oroas i onödan i och med det tidiga beskedet om misstanke om cancer.

    Studien har även identifierat förbättringsområden där en omstrukturering av de interna IT-systemen, utvecklandet av ett mer standardiserat arbetssätt för de multidisciplinära konferenserna och att samarbeta med primärvården kring den standardiserade remissen är några exempel.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 205.
    Smeds, Magdalena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Managing care pathways for patients with complex care needs2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the central challenges for the healthcare system today is how to manage care for patients with complex needs. This patient group is not well-defined but covers patients with serious diseases and comorbidities, or with a limited ability to perform basic daily functions due to physical, mental or psychosocial challenges. This group has a high service and resource utilisation resulting in high costs for the healthcare system and, typically, poor health outcomes. To improve care for these patients, it is necessary to implement strategies to manage the differentiated care needs, the additional support needs, the uncertainty in care delivery, and the coordination needs of the involved providers and the patient.

    Care pathways are increasingly used internationally to make care more patient-centred and to structure and design care processes for individual patient groups. Important elements in care pathways include structuring care activities, by defining their content and sequence; coordinating between providers and professionals; and involving patients in their care process. In this thesis, care pathways are proposed as the overall strategy for managing care for patients with complex care needs.

    The purpose of this thesis is thus to contribute with knowledge on how care pathways can be managed for patients with complex care needs. This is achieved by analysing how the practices coordination, standardisation, customisation and personalisation can support management of care pathways and by discussing how these practices influence quality of care. The quality of care dimensions discussed are accessible, timely, equitable, and patient-centred care.

    The empirical context in this thesis is the Standardised Cancer Care Pathways (CCPs) which were implemented in Sweden from 2015 to 2018. CCPs is the umbrella term for the national initiative to shorten waiting times, decrease regional differences and reduce fragmentation in care processes. CCPs include elements such as diagnosis-specific pathways and guidelines, introduction of CPP coordinators, and mandatory reporting of waiting times. Focus has been on implementing care pathways for 31 cancer diagnoses in all Swedish healthcare regions.

    Both qualitative and quantitative research methods have been used. A case study was conducted to examine standardised and customised care pathways, and coordination and multidisciplinary work in care pathways. A document study of regional reports on CCPs was analysed to study effects of care pathways on accessibility, timeliness and equitability. Finally, a national survey was conducted to deepen the understanding of the role of coordination, as performed by coordinators, in care pathways.

    This thesis argues that standardised and customised care pathways should be combined to manage care for patients with complex care needs. The customised pathway in particular benefits patients with serious unspecific symptoms, unknown primary tumour or more complex care needs, while patients with care needs that can be treated independently of the main diagnosis benefit from following a standardised care pathway.

    Coordinators are an important means to manage coordination, customisation and personalisation in the care pathway. The coordinators’ role is twofold: the first role is to manage care pathways by customising the care pathway and coordinating involved providers; the second role is to support and guide patients through the care pathway. This can be achieved by adapting interpersonal communication with patients through personalisation.

    This thesis further argues that care pathways have most potential to positively influence accessibility, timeliness, equitability, and patient-centredness. Accessibility has been positively influenced, especially for patients with ambiguous symptoms where symptoms indicating cancer have improved their chances of accessing cancer diagnostics. A negative aspect of prioritising patients who follow CCPs has been the potentially longer waiting times for other patient groups in equal need of urgent care. Notwithstanding, prioritised access to care is perceived to positively influence timeliness for patients following CCPs. Care pathways are perceived to have positively influenced patient-centredness by shifting the focus from what to deliver to how to deliver it.

    Delarbeid
    1. The management of cancer care pathways in a coordination centre
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The management of cancer care pathways in a coordination centre
    2018 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeCoordination, patient centeredness and accessibility of care are important aspects for patients with complex care needs. Variations in symptoms, morbidity, care needs, and individual prerequisites are large within these patient groups which complicates diagnostics and treatment. New ways of organising health care is needed to handle these challenges and the use of solutions as multidisciplinary cancer centres and coordination centres are becoming more common.The purpose of this paper is to study how health care can be organised to care for patients with complex care needs. This is done by describing how one coordination centre works with management and coordination of care pathways in cancer care.

    Design/methodology/approachThis paper is based on a qualitative single case study where the implementation of CCPs was studied in the Region of Östergötland. Three main data collection methods were used: semi-structured interviews, observations and document studies. Sixteen interviews were held with three physicians, seven nurses, two care unit managers, two general practitioners and the coordination centres two project leaders. Ten observational studies in the form of participative and non-participative observations in meetings were conducted. A retrospective document study was also conducted where internal public documents were systematically reviewed. Pilot study reports and implementation reports, during the period 2014 to 2018 were read and analysed by conducting content analysis.

    FindingsThe UCCD was designed to take care of all potential cancer patients under ‘one roof’. This implied the need to find routines for handling a large amount of patients, with several different cancer diagnoses, and widely diverse care needs. The organisational design resulted in two diagnostic pathways: a standardised and a customised. The standardised diagnostic pathway works well for patients with clear symptoms and care needs with low complexity where the care can be standardised to follow rules and guidelines. The customised diagnostic pathway works well for patients with ambiguous symptoms care needs with high complexity where the care pathway need to be tailored and diagnostics are done by problem solving based on intuition and experience.

    Originality/Value of paperThis paper contributes with knowledge on how coordination centres can work with care pathways to improve health care coordination and quality for patients with complex care needs.

    Emneord
    Health care, cancer care pathways, coordination centre, patient centeredness, standardisation
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155094 (URN)
    Konferanse
    21st QMOD conference, Cardiff UK, 22-24 August, 2018
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-03-18 Laget: 2019-03-18 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-14
    2. The effects of cancer care pathways on waiting times
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The effects of cancer care pathways on waiting times
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 204-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The Swedish health-care system currently implements cancer care pathways (CCPs) for better and more timely cancer diagnostics. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate and define “crowding out” effects associated with the CCP implementation.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A document study based on implementation reports and action plans from Swedish county councils (n = 21) and a case study in one county council were conducted. Qualitative data collection and analysis were used to acquire more knowledge about the “crowding out” effects associated with the CCP implementation.

    Findings

    Three effects discussed under “crowding out” were defined. The first effect, called the push-out effect, occurs when other patients have to wait for care longer in favour of CCP patients. Another effect is the inclusion effect, whereby “crowding out” is reduced for vulnerable patients due to the standardised procedures and criteria in the referral process. The final effect is the exclusion effect, where patients in need of cancer diagnostics are, for some reason, not referred to CCP. These patients are either not diagnosed at all or diagnosed outside CCP by a non-standard process, with the risk of longer waiting times.

    Originality/value

    “Crowding out” effects are an urgent topic related to CCP implementation. While these effects have been reported in international research studies, no shared definition has been established to describe them. The present paper creates a common base to measure the “crowding out” effects and support further development of CCPs to avoid the negative effects on waiting times.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
    Emneord
    Health care, Standardisation, Patient care, Quality management, Health care management, Quality of health care
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154049 (URN)10.1108/IJQSS-04-2018-0041 (DOI)000479227600004 ()2-s2.0-85058658565 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-01-24 Laget: 2019-01-24 Sist oppdatert: 2019-08-27bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 206.
    Smeds, Magdalena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The management of cancer care pathways in a coordination centre2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeCoordination, patient centeredness and accessibility of care are important aspects for patients with complex care needs. Variations in symptoms, morbidity, care needs, and individual prerequisites are large within these patient groups which complicates diagnostics and treatment. New ways of organising health care is needed to handle these challenges and the use of solutions as multidisciplinary cancer centres and coordination centres are becoming more common.The purpose of this paper is to study how health care can be organised to care for patients with complex care needs. This is done by describing how one coordination centre works with management and coordination of care pathways in cancer care.

    Design/methodology/approachThis paper is based on a qualitative single case study where the implementation of CCPs was studied in the Region of Östergötland. Three main data collection methods were used: semi-structured interviews, observations and document studies. Sixteen interviews were held with three physicians, seven nurses, two care unit managers, two general practitioners and the coordination centres two project leaders. Ten observational studies in the form of participative and non-participative observations in meetings were conducted. A retrospective document study was also conducted where internal public documents were systematically reviewed. Pilot study reports and implementation reports, during the period 2014 to 2018 were read and analysed by conducting content analysis.

    FindingsThe UCCD was designed to take care of all potential cancer patients under ‘one roof’. This implied the need to find routines for handling a large amount of patients, with several different cancer diagnoses, and widely diverse care needs. The organisational design resulted in two diagnostic pathways: a standardised and a customised. The standardised diagnostic pathway works well for patients with clear symptoms and care needs with low complexity where the care can be standardised to follow rules and guidelines. The customised diagnostic pathway works well for patients with ambiguous symptoms care needs with high complexity where the care pathway need to be tailored and diagnostics are done by problem solving based on intuition and experience.

    Originality/Value of paperThis paper contributes with knowledge on how coordination centres can work with care pathways to improve health care coordination and quality for patients with complex care needs.

  • 207.
    Smeds, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Poksinska, Bozena Bonnie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The effects of cancer care pathways on waiting times2019Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 204-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The Swedish health-care system currently implements cancer care pathways (CCPs) for better and more timely cancer diagnostics. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate and define “crowding out” effects associated with the CCP implementation.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A document study based on implementation reports and action plans from Swedish county councils (n = 21) and a case study in one county council were conducted. Qualitative data collection and analysis were used to acquire more knowledge about the “crowding out” effects associated with the CCP implementation.

    Findings

    Three effects discussed under “crowding out” were defined. The first effect, called the push-out effect, occurs when other patients have to wait for care longer in favour of CCP patients. Another effect is the inclusion effect, whereby “crowding out” is reduced for vulnerable patients due to the standardised procedures and criteria in the referral process. The final effect is the exclusion effect, where patients in need of cancer diagnostics are, for some reason, not referred to CCP. These patients are either not diagnosed at all or diagnosed outside CCP by a non-standard process, with the risk of longer waiting times.

    Originality/value

    “Crowding out” effects are an urgent topic related to CCP implementation. While these effects have been reported in international research studies, no shared definition has been established to describe them. The present paper creates a common base to measure the “crowding out” effects and support further development of CCPs to avoid the negative effects on waiting times.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 208.
    Smeds, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Poksińska, Bozena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Push out, inclusion or exclusion? What are actually the effects of implementing cancer patient pathways in Sweden?2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 209.
    Smeds, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Poksińska, Bozena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The implementation and improvement science perspective on interventions in health care2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 210. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Snyder, Hannah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Health Care Customer Creativity2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Crafting and stimulating service innovation is considered a main research priority and remains a challenge for service providers. One suggested component of stimulating service innovation is customer creativity. Customers who adapt, modify and transform services or products to better suit themselves are increasingly being recognized as a source of competitive value and innovation. It has been proposed that understanding and supporting the customer’s value creating practices is the key to creating and sustaining value over time in health care. Health services directly address a customer’s well-being and have a significant impact on his or her quality of life. In these types of services, the service outcome is highly dependent on the activities of the individual customer. Health care services often require customers to participate extensively, over long periods of time, with limited support and control. Health services also stretch far beyond the particular service setting into the customer’s daily life. While research, policy, and legislation have all emphasized the active role of health care customers, such customers have traditionally had few opportunities to design their health care services. Nevertheless, health care customers solve health-related problems and engage in self-care and medical decision-making on a day-to-day basis, although this creativity is often unknown to the service provider.

    To understand how health care customers can enable service innovation, this thesis seeks to conceptualize and investigate the concept of customer creativity in health care. The thesis focuses on customer creativity, not only as an outcome, but also as a dynamic and contextualized process that can be enhanced. The thesis combines insights from health care research with service and innovation research to provide build a framework for health care customer creativity. Building on five papers, the research develops an understanding for health care customer creativity. The individual papers are based on systematic literature reviews as well as empirical data in the form of customers’ ideas for service innovation collected through diaries.

    The results of the thesis suggest that despite the negative nature of the service, health care customers are creative. Given the opportunity, health care customers can provide creative ideas and solutions on a multitude of aspects, both within and outside the health care setting. This provides the potential to view the health care experience through the customers’ eyes and take part in their creativity in spheres where the service providers have not traditionally had any access. This thesis contributes to the literature by providing a framework for health care customer creativity that recognizes the concept as a complex interplay of factors operating at the individual, contextual, and situational levels. The proposed framework specifies the health care specific factors upon which customer creativity depends, with the intention of positing potential research directions and developing an enriched theory of health care customer creativity.

    Delarbeid
    1. The Antecedents, Forms and Consequences of Patient Involvement: A Narrative Review of the literature
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Antecedents, Forms and Consequences of Patient Involvement: A Narrative Review of the literature
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 53, s. 351-378Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Despite the centrality of patient involvement in the policy and rhetoric of health care, the theoretical and empirical basis for patient involvement is lacking at the micro-level of practice. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview and synthesize the current empirical research related to patient involvement at the micro-level of health care.

    Design

    Narrative review

    Data sources: A database search was conducted (in Pubmed, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, EconLit and PsycINFO) for articles published between 1990 and April 2015 in the field of patient involvement in health care. Out of 4238 references, 214 articles were eligible for this review.

    Review methods We analyzed our sample using thematic analysis.

    Results

    The reviewed articles revealed nine themes for patient involvement, concerning enablers; empowerment, patient education, communication for involvement, staff training, service systems, types; decision making, delivery, development, and consequences of patient involvement. The themes were synthesized into a tentative model that described patient-involvement research.

    Conclusions

    Our narrative review includes a wide variety of empirical studies on patient involvement in decision-making, delivery and development, and provides an integrative perspective suggesting that patient involvement should be viewed not only as isolated activities, but also as a result of educating and preparing patients, staff and systems.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2016
    Emneord
    Patient involvement; Patient participation; Patient empowerment; Shared decision making; Self-management; Narrative review
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121591 (URN)10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015.09.008 (DOI)000366873100033 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-09-27 Laget: 2015-09-27 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-01bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Identifying categories of service innovation: A review and synthesis of the literature
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Identifying categories of service innovation: A review and synthesis of the literature
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, nr 7, s. 2401-2408Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Service innovation acts as society’s engine of renewal and provides the necessary catalyst for the service sector’s economic growth. Despite service innovation’s importance, the concept remains fuzzy and poorly defined. Building on an extensive and systematic review of 1046 academic articles, this research investigates and explores how service innovation is defined and used in research. Results identify four unique service innovation categorizations emphasizing the following traits: (1) degree of change, (2) type of change, (3) newness, and (4) means of provision. The results show that most research focuses inward and views service innovation as something (only) new to the firm. Interestingly, service innovation categorizations appear to neglect both customer value and financial performance.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2016
    Emneord
    Service innovation, Radical, Incremental, Value co-creation, Literature review
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125724 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.01.009 (DOI)000375812300010 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-01 Laget: 2016-03-01 Sist oppdatert: 2017-06-07bibliografisk kontrollert
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  • 211.
    Snyder, Hannah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Engström, Jon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Antecedents, Forms and Consequences of Patient Involvement: A Narrative Review of the literature2016Inngår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 53, s. 351-378Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Despite the centrality of patient involvement in the policy and rhetoric of health care, the theoretical and empirical basis for patient involvement is lacking at the micro-level of practice. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview and synthesize the current empirical research related to patient involvement at the micro-level of health care.

    Design

    Narrative review

    Data sources: A database search was conducted (in Pubmed, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, EconLit and PsycINFO) for articles published between 1990 and April 2015 in the field of patient involvement in health care. Out of 4238 references, 214 articles were eligible for this review.

    Review methods We analyzed our sample using thematic analysis.

    Results

    The reviewed articles revealed nine themes for patient involvement, concerning enablers; empowerment, patient education, communication for involvement, staff training, service systems, types; decision making, delivery, development, and consequences of patient involvement. The themes were synthesized into a tentative model that described patient-involvement research.

    Conclusions

    Our narrative review includes a wide variety of empirical studies on patient involvement in decision-making, delivery and development, and provides an integrative perspective suggesting that patient involvement should be viewed not only as isolated activities, but also as a result of educating and preparing patients, staff and systems.

  • 212.
    Snyder, Hannah
    et al.
    BI, Norway.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Competence Centre.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    The influence of place on health-care customer creativity2019Inngår i: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 53, nr 7, s. 1400-1422Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose When using a service, customers often develop their own solutions by integrating resources to solve problems and co-create value. Drawing on innovation and creativity literature, this paper aims to investigate the influence of place (the service setting and the customer setting) on customer creativity in a health-care context. Design/methodology/approach In a field study using customer diaries, 200 ideas from orthopedic surgery patients were collected and evaluated by an expert panel using the consensual assessment technique (CAT). Findings Results suggest that place influences customer creativity. In the customer setting, customers generate novel ideas that may improve their clinical health. In the service setting, customers generate ideas that may improve the user value of the service and enhance the customer experience. Customer creativity is influenced by the role the customer adopts in a specific place. In the customer setting customers were more likely to develop ideas involving active customer roles. Interestingly, while health-care customers provided ideas in both settings, contrary to expectation, ideas scored higher on user value in the service setting than in the customer setting. Research limitations/implications - This study shows that customer creativity differs in terms of originality, user value and clinical value depending on the place (service setting or customer setting), albeit in one country in a standardized care process. Practical implications - The present research puts customer creativity in relation to health-care practices building on an active patient role, suggesting that patients can contribute to the further development of health-care services. Originality/value As the first field study to test the influence of place on customer creativity, this research makes a novel contribution to the growing body of work in customer creativity, showing that different places are more/less favorable for different dimensions of creativity. It also relates customer creativity to health-care practices and highlights that patients are an untapped source of creativity with first-hand knowledge and insights, importantly demonstrating how customers can contribute to the further development of health-care services.

  • 213.
    Snyder, Hannah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. CTF, Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    CTF, Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden / Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    Fombelle, Paul
    D'Amore-McKim School of Business, Northeastern University, USA.
    Kristensson, Per
    CTF, Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Identifying categories of service innovation: A review and synthesis of the literature2016Inngår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, nr 7, s. 2401-2408Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Service innovation acts as society’s engine of renewal and provides the necessary catalyst for the service sector’s economic growth. Despite service innovation’s importance, the concept remains fuzzy and poorly defined. Building on an extensive and systematic review of 1046 academic articles, this research investigates and explores how service innovation is defined and used in research. Results identify four unique service innovation categorizations emphasizing the following traits: (1) degree of change, (2) type of change, (3) newness, and (4) means of provision. The results show that most research focuses inward and views service innovation as something (only) new to the firm. Interestingly, service innovation categorizations appear to neglect both customer value and financial performance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 214.
    Stenberg, Fanny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ständiga förbättringar genom Systematisk problemlösning: En fallstudie på AstraZenecas packningsavdelning PET Packning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    För att ett företag ska vara framgångsrikt krävs generellt att fokus ligger på att tillfredsställa företagets kunder. Intresset för hur kundtillfredsställelse kan uppnås har därför ökat. Det finns en rad olika tillvägagångssätt, metoder och filosofier för hur ett företag ska handla för att leva upp till sina kunders förväntningar. Kunders krav är även något som ständigt förändras och det är något företag måste kunna förhålla sig till för att behålla sina kunder. Därmed har även intresset för ständiga förbättringar ökat. Att ständiga förbättringar är något som en verksamhet bör applicera råder det inga tvivel om. Hur det ska appliceras däremot, finns det en mängd metoder för. Något som passar perfekt för ett företag kan vara tämligen omöjligt i ett annat. Vilken bransch företaget är nischad inom har visat sig spela stor roll när ständiga förbättringar ska implementeras. Inom läkemedelsbranschen skiljer sig förbättringsarbete till stor del från hur det genomförs i andra branscher. Det här beror bland annat på de regulatoriska krav som ställs på läkemedelsproducerande företag. Intresset för hur ständiga förbättringar kan genomföras inom ett läkemedelsföretag ligger till grund för den här rapporten som skrivits under ett examensarbete på läkemedelsföretaget AstraZeneca. Under examensarbetet har en av AstraZenecas förbättringsmetoder utvärderats genom en empirisk studie på deras packningsavdelning, PET Packning. I den empiriska studien har packningsprocesserna studerats i syfte att identifiera orsaker till varför det inträffar oplanerade stopp i packningsmaskinerna. Målet med projektet var att identifiera orsakerna så att de kan elimineras med förhoppning att kunna öka graden av värdeskapande aktiviteter för kunderna. Resultatet pekar på att variationer inom förpackningsmaterial är en av orsakerna till att oplanerade stopp inträffar. Studien av AstraZenecas förbättringsarbete visar på att företaget generellt är duktiga att arbeta med ständiga förbättringar. Medarbetare och ledning visar på gott engagemang men uppföljning av implementerade förbättringar kan förbättras. Utifrån den empiriska studien rekommenderas AstraZeneca att fokusera mer på att följa upp deras förbättringar så att lärdomar kan spridas inom verksamheten. Vidare rekommenderas ett närmare samarbete med materialleverantören så att urskiljbara orsaker till materialvariationer kan elimineras. 

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  • 215.
    Stenberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Larsson, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Optimizing the Supply Chain Performance at Ericsson AB: A Study of Lead Time Reduction and Service Level Improvement2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Ericsson has recently experienced difficulties to meet the customer demand, which has led to lost market shares. This is mainly due to the long and unpredictable lead times within their supply chains. Therefore, Ericsson seeks to increase their ability to meet the customer demand by reducing the customer order lead time. A shorter lead time would imply a greater responsiveness and improved service level towards the customers. A directive from the company was to base the study on the supply chain for the customer Algeria Telecom Mobile.

    The purpose of the study is to give recommendations for improvements that reduce the total lead time in a supply chain perspective in order to improve the customer service level. 

    To be able to fulfill the purpose, four objectives were distinguished and supported with existing frameworks for analyzing supply chains. The first step was to create a current state map, which was achieved by conducting 24 interviews with people working within the supply chain. The second step was to identify potentials for lead time reduction. This was done by categorizing the supply chain parts and the problems that were gathered during the current state mapping into meaningful groups, and thereafter prioritize the categories with the greatest potential. The third step was to generate alternative solutions by conducting a second literature review based on the potentials that was identified during the prior step. The general solutions were later modified in order to fit the current supply chain. It resulted in eight Ericsson specific solutions. The fourth step was to evaluate these solutions in combination, which led to a recommended combination of solutions that provided the greatest lead time reduction. Also the requirements for implementing these solutions were presented in this step. 

    The recommendation for Ericsson is to rearrange their current supply chain for the studied customer and use two different supply chains; the Regional supply chain and the Alternative supply chain. The two arrangements will both be based on the implementation of a supply hub, which implies a movement of the customer order decoupling point closer to the customer. The Regional supply chain will cover the main flow and be used when the customer orders products from a product portfolio that has been agreed within the region. The Alternative supply chain will act as a complement and cover the flow of products outside the regional product portfolio.  

    The estimated customer order lead time for the Regional supply chain is 17 days, which is a reduction of 80 % in the normal case for the studied supply chain. The lead time for the Alternative supply chain is more difficult to estimate precisely, but it will be reduced in comparison with the current situation. Moreover, the service level towards the customer will be increased for both the Regional and the Alternative supply chain. To summarize the recommendations that are forwarded to Ericsson, they are listed below: 

    • Implement a regional supply hub 

    • Agree on a regional product portfolio 

    • Implement time slots for inbound flows 

    • Use BPO as a payment method instead of Letter of Credit 

    • Use a CIP, DAP or DAT Incoterm 

    • Implement a product configurator and let the customer place orders on commercial descriptions or a solution id. 

    • Integrate processes and activities throughout the supply chain and establish a greater information exchange.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 216.
    Svensson Ulgen, Veronica
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linneuniversitetet.
    Inter-organizational supply chain: Interaction for sustainability- a systematic literature review2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 217.
    Svensson Ülgen, Veronica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Simm, Niklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Inter-Organizational supply chain interaction for sustainability: A systematic literature review2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 19, artikkel-id 5488Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on inter-organizational supply chain interaction (IOSCI) for sustainability can be described as fast-growing and fragmented. It is uncertain to what extent logistics and supply chain management (SCM) literature has been able to close research gaps regarding e.g., empirical scope and sustainability dimensions addressed. A systematic literature review (SLR) is carried out to synthesize the existing knowledge and ongoing trends, and to propose a research agenda. The trend analysis shows that the gap between the environmental and social dimension is increasing, that Asian studies grow nearly exponentially, and that the focal firm perspective gains more ground. The research agenda calls for participatory studies of multiple actors and for studies addressing, e.g., the invisible logistics service providers. This study provides an important complement to existing literature reviews on sustainable supply chain interaction, primarily by its focus on the development over time, the empirical scope, the focus on publications in logistics/SCM journals, and its narrow focus on the interaction among firms in supply chains.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 218.
    Thawesaengskulthai, Natcha
    et al.
    Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.
    Wongrukmit, Patcharin
    Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hospital service quality measurement models: patients from Asia, Europe, Australia and America2015Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, nr 9-10, s. 1029-1041Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how service quality in hospitals is perceived and measured among different groups of patients from four major continents (i.e. Asia, Europe, Australia and North America) who came to receive medical services in Thailand. Using stratified random sampling, data were collected from 2189 patients from 80 countries and four continents at six hospitals which provide healthcare services to international patients in Thailand. Four different models of measuring service quality based on different continents were developed with different numbers of quality dimensions and also a variation in the number of quality attributes. Asian patients provided a four-dimension model with 20 items; while a two-dimension model with 16 items was identified for European patients. Australian patients also revealed a two-dimension model but with 22 items, while patients from America provided a three-dimension model, also with 17 items. The study reveals that the development of service quality measurement models should not only consider context-specific items such as size and location, but should also include the nationality and demographic of the patient population. The findings also support that service quality has a significant impact on service satisfaction and the retention level of customers at the hospital. The concluded frameworks may guide healthcare providers to deliver better quality healthcare services and to sustain competitiveness.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 219.
    Tronje, Elena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Gan, Taotao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Evaluation of logistics suppliers for the distribution of spare parts: a study at Braathens Regional Airlines2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Braathens Regional Airlines is a result of a merger between multiple smaller, domestic airlines. As a result, the company has a large supply base for logistics services. This has lead to difficulties following up the operation and a complex supply structure. Therefore, in order to improve the overall logistics operations, the aim was to evaluate the current external transportation solution for the distribution of spare parts.

    The evaluation was accomplished through a comparison with two alternative scenarios: Supply base reduction and Third-party logistics (TPL). Supply base reduction meant removing suppliers from the current supply base, and Third-party logistics entailed outsourcing all external transportation to a single company. The comparison was based on five criteria: Transportation cost, Administrative workload, Delivery precision, Lead time and Flexibility.

    To be able to carry out a comparison, data regarding all the criteria was collected for all cases. This was done through extractions from enterprise systems from four of the case company's largest carriers, as well as through interviews with employees and a representative from a Third-party logistics service provider.

    After analyzing the provided data, the main conclusion was that both supply base reduction and TPL would improve the operation, where the case of TPL was expected to be slightly better. In order to further strengthen the analysis, the company has to develop its data collection procedures. In addition to the exact transportation solution, changes within the organization and its routines can improve the operations further.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 220.
    Tälle, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wiréhn, Lotten
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Ellström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindström, Tom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schmid Neset, Tina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Synergies and Trade-Offs for Sustainable Food Production in Sweden: An Integrated Approach2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id 601Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of food can have large impacts on sustainable development in relation to various socio-ecological dimensions, like climate change, the environment, animal welfare, livestock epidemiology, and the economy. To achieve a sustainable food production system in Sweden, an integrated approach that considers all five of these dimensions, and all parts of the food production chain, is necessary. This paper systematically reviewed the literature related to food production in Sweden, especially in association with resource distribution and recycling logistics, and identified potential sustainability interventions and assessed their effects according to the five dimensions. Participation of stakeholders across the food production chain contributed with the focus of the literature search and subsequent synthesis. In general, there were synergies between the sustainability interventions and their effect on climate change and the environment, while there often were trade-offs between effects on the economy and the other dimensions. Few interventions considered effects on animal welfare or livestock epidemiology and few studies dealt with resource distribution and recycling logistics. This indicates that there is a need for future research that considers this in particular, as well as research that considers the whole food production chain and all dimensions at once, and investigates effects across multiple scales.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 221.
    Wangwacharakul, Promporn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cross-Cultural Challenges in Product Realization Process2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    With increased global competition, companies need to diversify their product realization process to gain advantages offered by different geographical areas. However, different cultural backgrounds of people and companies situated around the world can lead to challenges in crosscultural collaboration. Taking into account the whole product realization process, this thesis focuses on the three main areas of the product realization research field: product development, product introduction, and production ramp-up/serial production. The aim is to identify crosscultural challenges in the product realization process and contribute to knowledge on possible strategies facilitating a cross-cultural collaboration.

    This thesis is based on a qualitative research approach. First, a systematic literature review was conducted to explore the research field and gain more understanding regarding challenges in cross-cultural human collaboration. Then, case study methodology was adopted to explore cross-cultural transfer of management concepts and possible strategies to facilitate crosscultural human collaboration.

    Results reveal that cross-cultural challenges exist both directly, when people from different cultural backgrounds work together, and indirectly, when management concepts are transferred across cultural contexts. In the case of human collaboration, different cultures lead to crosscultural challenges such as misunderstanding, tensions at work, difficulties in communication and knowledge transfer as well as a mismatch in resource planning and control. Regarding transfer of management concepts, there is a cultural imprint in management concepts causing challenges when they are implemented in a different culture. However, this is a two-way adaptation in which both the organization and some principles of the management concepts can be adapted to better fit with each other during the implementation process.

    The study also suggests that Quality Management is a possible strategy to mitigate crosscultural challenges in human collaboration. Quality Management may serve as a guideline to establish working procedures to facilitate collaboration and help employees overcome cultural boundaries.

    Delarbeid
    1. The Influences of National Culture on Product Development and Industrialization: A Systematic Literature Review
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Influences of National Culture on Product Development and Industrialization: A Systematic Literature Review
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased globalization provides both opportunities and challenges. It requires the development of new means of collaboration within cross-national functional groups, processes, and projects related to product development and industrialization (PD&I). The objective of this paper is to review the relevant research on national cultural issues in the context of multicultural collaborations in PD&I. Findings are reported concerning national cultures, cultural challenges, and key findings show that previous research is mostly a comparison of different national cultures in a specific phase of PD&I. The review reveals that most studies have looked at crosscultural issues related to product development rather than industrialization. Furthermore, Power Distance, Individual vs. Group Identity, and relation to time and environment are considered to be key cultural factors that influence global collaboration, as they have impact on the innovative knowledge transfer process. Further research is suggested to examine cultural issues in relation to all aspects of PD&I, especially the industrialization process, which has only been the subject of a few research studies. A need to further explore cultural effects in the PD&I research field has also been identified. Future research should address how to utilize, integrate, and operationalize culture research into a wide span of business practices in different phases of the PD&I.

    Emneord
    Cross-cultural, organizational performance, international collaboration, product realization
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122732 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-18 Laget: 2015-11-18 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-10bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Cultural Aspects when Implementing Lean Production and Lean Product Development: Experiences from a Swedish Perspective
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Cultural Aspects when Implementing Lean Production and Lean Product Development: Experiences from a Swedish Perspective
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 125-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lean principles and methods, originating in a Japanese cultural context, have spread to a large number of companies throughout the world. The aim of this case study research is to identify and compare national cultural aspects that influence Lean Production and Lean Product Development implementation in Swedish companies. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and an industrial workshop with Swedish Lean practitioners. The study shows that some sub-areas in Lean, such as value definition, control systems, leadership, team development, knowledge management, and strategies, are highly dependent on contextual factors related to human, cultural and organizational aspects. These are related to the national culture and should be considered to a higher extent for successful sustainable implementation of Lean in different cultural contexts. As for implementing Lean in Sweden, national cultural characteristics, such as individualism, autonomy and supportive management style fit well with Lean thinking.

    Emneord
    National cultural characteristics; organizational development; case study
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122733 (URN)10.12776/qip.v18i1.321 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-18 Laget: 2015-11-18 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-10bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Quality management – a means to bridge cultural differences?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Quality management – a means to bridge cultural differences?
    2014 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of the paper is to explore how quality management (QM) principles can be used to mitigate cross-cultural challenges in new product introduction across national borders.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – Data for this longitudinal case study were collected through semi-structured interviews in the planning phase, during and after a product introduction involving one Swedish and one Chinese company. In total, 35 interviews were conducted with employees and managers from several organizational functions in Sweden and China.

    Findings – Several challenges in the collaboration project were revealed that affected the product realization process. The study showed that QM dimensions may be used to handle the cross-cultural challenges. Strategy and leadership are essential in terms of top management support to set a high priority for the cross-cultural collaboration projects. The study demonstrated that lack of understanding of cultural differences negatively affected the product realization process and product quality, and that these outcomes could be mitigated by a QM approach. The means that may be used include continuous improvements, the development of measurement systems and the use of checklists. Employee development and involvement, finally, is an important QM dimension for cross-cultural management in order to set the same understanding and standards throughout the whole project.

    Practical implications – The results demonstrate the strong need to take a systematic approach to work on quality issues in cross-cultural collaboration contexts. Furthermore the study shows that specific attention needs to be paid to understanding cultural differences, as these may have significant impact on quality outcome. Knowledge about cultural characteristics should be integrated in the QM model and tools to mitigate cross-cultural challenges.

    Originality/Value of paper – This paper proposes the possibility of using quality management as a means to mitigate cultural challenges in cross-cultural product introduction.

    Emneord
    Cross-cultural, new product introduction, Sweden-China, QM
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122734 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-18 Laget: 2015-11-18 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-10bibliografisk kontrollert
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  • 222. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Wangwacharakul, Promporn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Managing Quality in Cross-cultural Settings2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As companies become multinational with subsidiaries in different countries and global customers, they face challenges in managing quality related to cultural diversity. During the past decades, cross-cultural quality management research has emerged, aiming to understand the link between culture and quality management, and to provide support for quality management in different cultural contexts. This research field becomes increasingly important considering global industries of today. Nevertheless, the first standpoint in identifying challenges in cross-cultural quality management in multinational companies remains to be an open question. This also leads to the need for developing an instrument to understand cultural diversity in quality management, from both an internal perspective related to employees and an external perspective related to customers.

    This thesis aims to provide an insight into managing quality in cross-cultural settings, focusing on both multinational companies and companies having global customers. Three studies have been conducted combining qualitative and quantitative research methods. First, case studies were employed to explore the research field and identify challenges in managing quality related to national cultural diversity in multinational companies. The second study developed an instrument based on anchoring vignettes survey to understand cultural diversity in quality management and applied it in two settings. The third study combined an interview-based study with a case study using mixed methods to further investigate and consolidate the results gained from the first two studies, leading to the suggestion of possible strategies to manage quality in multinational companies.

    The thesis findings identify three challenges in managing quality in multinational companies: 1) to translate and implement quality management approaches; 2) to motivate and engage employees in quality work; and 3) to establish shared perceptions of quality management values among employees. Further, an instrument based on anchoring vignettes is suggested to study quality management performance across subsidiaries and to measure customer satisfaction across borders. This instrument contributes to better understanding of cultural diversity and improves the comparability of survey results in quality management measurements. Regarding possible strategies, global integration is needed when a quality culture is weak. In the long-term, companies should promote technical aspects of quality management to form a ‘backbone’ of the quality management system and to set a basis for shared perceptions of quality management values and goals. Consequently, a strong quality culture can be established and companies can benefit from local adaptation of practices.

    Delarbeid
    1. Cultural Aspects when Implementing Lean Production and Lean Product Development: Experiences from a Swedish Perspective
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Cultural Aspects when Implementing Lean Production and Lean Product Development: Experiences from a Swedish Perspective
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 125-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lean principles and methods, originating in a Japanese cultural context, have spread to a large number of companies throughout the world. The aim of this case study research is to identify and compare national cultural aspects that influence Lean Production and Lean Product Development implementation in Swedish companies. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and an industrial workshop with Swedish Lean practitioners. The study shows that some sub-areas in Lean, such as value definition, control systems, leadership, team development, knowledge management, and strategies, are highly dependent on contextual factors related to human, cultural and organizational aspects. These are related to the national culture and should be considered to a higher extent for successful sustainable implementation of Lean in different cultural contexts. As for implementing Lean in Sweden, national cultural characteristics, such as individualism, autonomy and supportive management style fit well with Lean thinking.

    Emneord
    National cultural characteristics; organizational development; case study
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122733 (URN)10.12776/qip.v18i1.321 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-18 Laget: 2015-11-18 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-10bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Using anchoring vignettes to study quality management across cultures
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Using anchoring vignettes to study quality management across cultures
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, nr 3/4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162111 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-11-19 Laget: 2019-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-10
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  • 223.
    Wangwacharakul, Promporn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    Quality management to facilitate product introduction across bordersInngår i: International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, ISSN 1746-6474, E-ISSN 1746-6482Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 224.
    Wangwacharakul, Promporn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Using anchoring vignettes to study quality management across cultures2017Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, nr 3/4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 225.
    Wangwacharakul, Promporn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    Swerea IVF, Department of Product Realization, Mölndal, Sweden / Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Production Systems. Department of Product and Production Development, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Quality management – a means to bridge cultural differences?2014Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of the paper is to explore how quality management (QM) principles can be used to mitigate cross-cultural challenges in new product introduction across national borders.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – Data for this longitudinal case study were collected through semi-structured interviews in the planning phase, during and after a product introduction involving one Swedish and one Chinese company. In total, 35 interviews were conducted with employees and managers from several organizational functions in Sweden and China.

    Findings – Several challenges in the collaboration project were revealed that affected the product realization process. The study showed that QM dimensions may be used to handle the cross-cultural challenges. Strategy and leadership are essential in terms of top management support to set a high priority for the cross-cultural collaboration projects. The study demonstrated that lack of understanding of cultural differences negatively affected the product realization process and product quality, and that these outcomes could be mitigated by a QM approach. The means that may be used include continuous improvements, the development of measurement systems and the use of checklists. Employee development and involvement, finally, is an important QM dimension for cross-cultural management in order to set the same understanding and standards throughout the whole project.

    Practical implications – The results demonstrate the strong need to take a systematic approach to work on quality issues in cross-cultural collaboration contexts. Furthermore the study shows that specific attention needs to be paid to understanding cultural differences, as these may have significant impact on quality outcome. Knowledge about cultural characteristics should be integrated in the QM model and tools to mitigate cross-cultural challenges.

    Originality/Value of paper – This paper proposes the possibility of using quality management as a means to mitigate cultural challenges in cross-cultural product introduction.

  • 226.
    Wangwacharakul, Promporn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    Department of Production System Development, Swerea IVF, Mölnda l, Sweden.
    Gullander, Per
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Cultural Aspects when Implementing Lean Production and Lean Product Development: Experiences from a Swedish Perspective2014Inngår i: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 125-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean principles and methods, originating in a Japanese cultural context, have spread to a large number of companies throughout the world. The aim of this case study research is to identify and compare national cultural aspects that influence Lean Production and Lean Product Development implementation in Swedish companies. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and an industrial workshop with Swedish Lean practitioners. The study shows that some sub-areas in Lean, such as value definition, control systems, leadership, team development, knowledge management, and strategies, are highly dependent on contextual factors related to human, cultural and organizational aspects. These are related to the national culture and should be considered to a higher extent for successful sustainable implementation of Lean in different cultural contexts. As for implementing Lean in Sweden, national cultural characteristics, such as individualism, autonomy and supportive management style fit well with Lean thinking.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 227.
    Wangwacharakul, Promporn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gullander, Per
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden / Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Production Systems, Department of Product and Production Development, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Influences of National Culture on Product Development and Industrialization: A Systematic Literature ReviewManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased globalization provides both opportunities and challenges. It requires the development of new means of collaboration within cross-national functional groups, processes, and projects related to product development and industrialization (PD&I). The objective of this paper is to review the relevant research on national cultural issues in the context of multicultural collaborations in PD&I. Findings are reported concerning national cultures, cultural challenges, and key findings show that previous research is mostly a comparison of different national cultures in a specific phase of PD&I. The review reveals that most studies have looked at crosscultural issues related to product development rather than industrialization. Furthermore, Power Distance, Individual vs. Group Identity, and relation to time and environment are considered to be key cultural factors that influence global collaboration, as they have impact on the innovative knowledge transfer process. Further research is suggested to examine cultural issues in relation to all aspects of PD&I, especially the industrialization process, which has only been the subject of a few research studies. A need to further explore cultural effects in the PD&I research field has also been identified. Future research should address how to utilize, integrate, and operationalize culture research into a wide span of business practices in different phases of the PD&I.

  • 228.
    Wenchert, Jonn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    A Contemporary Six Sigma and Lean Integration: Towards the Ideal State2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A new reality, where human labor is replaced by automated machines is causing production management to rethink how they can steer the production to meet their customers demand. There is a gap of values, techniques and tools to communicate with the processes existing in the new modern factories, where data sometimes is the single output. This thesis purpose was to develop a model out of Lean and Six Sigma, as an answer to how modern factory could work with an information system, reaching the ideal state.

     

    Through a theoretical analysis, Lean and Six Sigma differences in values, techniques and tools were weighted by the ideal state and recommendations from literature. Through a unstructured interview and system design review with a logistic group at a Swedish Modern Factory (SMF) a concept of an information system was developed. A project to test the model was initialized, where Define, Measure and Analyze phase was conducted. The model was thereafter modified from the projects implications.

     

    The result was a Lean Six Sigma model which values are customer focus, ideal state, result orientation, committed leadership, education and involvement. The technique follow a DMAIC cycle and continuous improvements through a current to future state approach. The used techniques were considered Six Sigma heavy, where Leans principles are considered into the models values. The information system supports the model in setting the processes of the factory in either stability or potential state, where they differ in Measure and Analyze phase. The test at SMF developed several assignable causes to variation on the component As lead time. The model adapted after the test to involve a Measurement System Analysis (MSA), before setting the next current state of the process.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    A Contemporary Six Sigma and Lean Integration - Towards the Ideal State
  • 229.
    Wenner, Mathilda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Troung, Atimmy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Lagerstyrning av ett säsongsbetonat sortiment: Förslag på lagerstyrning för Bosch Thermoteknik ABs materialförsörjning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With increased competition, logistics has become a crucial part important and today it is an important competitive tool. An effective logistics setup means increased revenues and lower costs are obtained. Examples of costs items that are affected by the logistics are inventory carrying cost and warehousing cost. One way to of reducing these costs is to reduce the inventory levels. Another cost item is lost revenues which also can be reduced by effective logistics.

    Bosch Thermotechnology AB is a company that manufactures and sells heat pumps. To achieve cost savings, they want to work towards effective logistics. Bosch experience problems with their inventory control as the demand for heat pumps varies widely in the European market. The high season falls in August to November and the rest of the year the demand is evenly distributed. This is because the end customers need a heat source for winter and the heat pumps break more frequently when the load increases. The problem Bosch is experiencing with the seasonal variation is the safety stock, which the order point is based on, is not regulated by season which means that the inventory levels and the storage costs during low season are assumed to be unnecessarily high. Bosch wishes to review their inventory control, with the aim of reducing inventory costs, which can be done by reviewing articles that ties up capital.

    The reference framework covers inventory, forecasting, delivery service, inventory control, ABC-classification, total cost of logistics and model building and simulation. The four first areas aim of helping to build new inventory control models. The aim of the fifth area is to help with article classification. Furthermore, to evaluate the new inventory control models, total cost analysis were treated since the new inventory control has been implemented on the articles that has been selected with the help of the information from the preceding section. The final section of the reference framework covers model building and simulation since the models must be simulated before they can be evaluated.

    With the help from the reference framework and the empirical findings, main questions and sub questions were established to answer the purpose of this study.

    Methodology part in this study presents four phases, Planning phase, Selection phase, Implementation phase and Final phase. In the first phase, Planning phase, was about preparing the work by identifying the problem area, current situation, and then defining a purpose and specifying the task. Based on purpose, a literature search could be done. In the Selection phase, the literature from the previous phase then came to be compared and analyzed based on what emerged from the collection of empirical data. The next phase, Implementation phase, data was collected and simulation was performed. Based on the results from the simulations, an evaluation could then be carried out in terms of total cost and stock availability. The Final phase was the final phase of the study and here the results of the study will be presented and discussed.

    From eight developed models, two models were chosen, one for articles with long lead times and one for articles with short lead times. When to order and how much to order are the same for both models. When to order is determined like before, which is an ordering point system that consider demand during lead time. The ordering point system will therefore vary over time and depends on safety stock level and demand during lead time. The order quantity will be decided as current. This means there is a minimum order quantity but if this does not cover the demand for the next incoming delivery, a number of multiples to cover the need can also be purchased. What distinguishes the models is determination of the safety stocks. For articles with short lead times, this will be calculated with SERV1. SERV1 is also recommended for articles with long lead time, but the difference is the standard deviation which will be calculated for two different periods instead of an average standard deviation over one year. The models are summarized in the table below.

    Lead time

    When

    Quantity

    Uncertainty

    Long

    Ordering point –

    Adjusted demand during lead time

    MOQ and MLT

    SERV1

    Short

    Ordering point –

    Adjusted demand during lead time

    MOQ and MLT

    SERV1 – standard deviation per period

     

    There were several models that resulted in reduced total costs and an approved service level. However, the models mentioned above gave the best results with respect to the two assessment parameters.  These models were implemented to six articles, where two of them are products in Bosch and four of them are articles where the lead time has changed for the two previously mentioned articles. The results are shown in the table below:

    Lead time

    Current situation  (SEK)

    Alt. models

    (SEK)

    Cost saving

    (SEK)

    Cost saving

    (%)

    Stock availablity

    (%)

    Long

    15 130 736

    14 323 803

    806 933

    5

    99,96

    Short

    21 003 352

    9 170 918

    11 832 434

    56

    99,56

    Total

    36 134 088

    23 494 721

    12 639 367

    35

    99,76

    A sensitivity analysis was performed for the chosen models and showed that the models were robust with respect to ordering costs, inventory carrying charge, seasonal variation and changed safety stock for current situation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 230.
    Westerdahl, Robert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Yngemo, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    KPI-framtagning på ledningsnivå: Ett tillämpat arbete baserat på modellen Analytics for Management, anpassat efter SAAB Aeronautics2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this master thesis is to supply management at Saab Aeronautics with information and tools that allow for fast and effective insight into the manufacturing process. Additionally it aims to suggest improvements concerning measurements and the use of data for the internal workshops. The method of creating good performance indicators will also be part of the deliverables to Saab for future use. The master thesis is based on Analytics for Management by Tanima Chowhury and Louise Sandén, an earlier master thesis which describes a method for generating KPI:s. Furthermore the master thesis intends to answer some research questions, these questions are based around how well Analytics for Management can be adapted to a large organization like Saab and an evaluation of their previously used KPI:s. The main changes to the method as described in Analytics for Management are regarding differences in the data collection and the addition of a fourth phase. The new fourth phase uses the output from the previous three phases that are described in Analytics for Management, to assess which KPI:s are most suitable for top managerial use. The first phase utilizesthe company vision and strategy, to create suitable tactical goals. In this project, this translates to the company strategy getting linked to goals set up for the internal workshops at Saab Aeronautics. After this, in the second phase, the goals are used to produce KPI:s for the workshops. The output of phase two is therefore the chosen KPI:s that have been confirmed with management. The third phase uses the KPI:s and aims to evaluate the measurement system to either improve it or create it, if nonexistent. This part has been intentionally reduced in this report due to complexity. The fourth phase, evaluates out which KPI:s should be selected and how they should be visualized to create a good overview for management. The main result or output of the master thesis report consists of two parts, the method of generating KPI:s and the actual generated KPI:s. The KPI:s created during the master thesis are very similar to the KPI:s previously used, but improved. This indicates that the previous KPI:s is use at Saab were up to standard. However, the underlying data and traceability was not. These results generate good value for the future and the findings underline an important area. However, according to the authors, the main value should consist of highlighting the defective underlying data and solutions created to solve the problem

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 231.
    Wettrén, Freddie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Systematisk bearbetning, kommunikation och visualisering av mätutfall vid koordinatmätning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method of systematic visualization for coordinate measurements at Saab Aerostructures. The thesis begins with mapping the coordinate measuring process. After that, it is proposed to define key measurement points through quality standards as this will simplify the visualization of the measurements with a control chart through a Visual Management-system. 

    To stay in the forefront of the market and keep the relations with current customers, Saab wants to increase the quality of their products by reducing the amount of measurement deviations. The measurements are currently scarcely visualized to the employees. This is because of the complicated method which currently is being used to reflect which measurements that are deviating. The process of visualization should be definite and simple to use as this will lead to less deviations. Furthermore, it will contribute to continuous improvement for the process of measuring. 

    The methods used in this thesis include semi structured interviews, observations and studies of internal documents. These methods are then triangulated to be able to map the process in detail. However, no employees knew either the coordinate measuring process or the visualizing process by heart. This led to the author having to proceed with a Process Walk. The method helped map both the processes and through this, problems were identified in the process which would otherwise hinder the visualization of measurements. Moreover, a literature study was conducted of Quality Management Systems as these outline criteria for Saabs products. Visual Management-system was also studied with the likes of information boards as this fit Saab with their previous prerequisites of information boards. 

    From the mapping of today’s process, problems were identified that would hinder them from systematically visualize their coordinate measuring process. From the problems that were outlined, improvement suggestions were proposed. Firstly, it was conducted that too much data is hindering the transparency of the process. From Quality Standards it is proposed to clearly define key measurements points and document these. This is done through the means of a SIPOC and a FMEA. Furthermore, it is proposed to analyze which measurement data is to be saved as a major part of the data consists of irrelevant information. As the process of visualizing the coordinate measuring process was timed to 90 hours it was also proposed to clarify templates which systematically exports and sorts data in an Excel-format with the use of Saabs ERP-system, instead of converting from XML which is done today. These templates can then immediately be used by Excel to visualize the outcome of the coordinate measurements with the help of a Visual Management-system. The system makes use of bar diagrams to highlight which processes that are producing most deviations. The processes outcome is visualized in a control chart which enhances how the variation of the process is affecting the measurement outcome. The last improvement suggestion states that Saab should use the control chart as a way of stabilizing their processes as this will lead to qualitative processes where capability can be proven to their customers. 

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    fulltext
  • 232.
    Wiger, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Logistics management operationalised in a healthcare context: Understanding care chain effectiveness through logistics management theories and systems theory2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare improvements is constantly relevant and an important topic. Healthcare is frequently being called upon to be more cost-efficient and still fulfil demands regarding waiting times, quality and availability. Experience from structural changes in other contexts gives reason to be positive about the potential for logistics improvements in the healthcare sector as well. From a logistics perspective patients pass different care functions, units, organisations and health facilities. It is assumed that logistics management knowledge applied in healthcare can lead to lower costs, shorter waiting times, better patient service, shorter treatment times and increased capacity. This dissertation therefore presents an exploration of how logistics management theories can be operationalised in a healthcare context to understand care chain effectiveness.

    Theoretically, the operationalisation is done by systems theory creating compatibility between logistics management theories and the healthcare context. As a first step, features for a logistics system forms features for achieving care chain effectiveness. High care chain effectiveness is thus a desired condition and the care delivery system is the tool to achieve it. As the final step in the operationalisation the features for care chain effectiveness are in turn used to analyse today’s practices. Empirically, the research is based on qualitative data from a single case study with multiple units of analysis. It includes four care units at one of Sweden’s university hospitals, where the data is gathered through interviews, insight into management systems and document analysis. One of the main results is the 21 areas identified for analysing today’s practices by means of features for care chain effectiveness. Another main result is the four important concepts revealed through the operationalisation:

    • Lead time - the episode of care from order to delivery as the amount of time for patient cases between first contact with healthcare and the last.
    • Patient order fulfilment - fulfilment of patients’ needs, broken down into several smaller steps performed over time within different care units in one or several organisations, consisting of five sub-processes - order handling, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and discharge.
    • True demand – patients’ needs that is to be met and thus sets what care to deliver, i.e. the production plan and the subordinate resource plan.
    • System boundaries - defines which care units to include when focusing on the care delivery system’s performance as a whole and should be more important than the performance and productivity of each individual care unit.

    A number of direct suggestions for care chain improvement can also be found in the concluding remarks, for example that objectives linked to economic influx or penalty narrow the system and that lead time data on an aggregated level is needed to cover episodes of care. The theoretical contribution of the dissertation is to the field of logistics management through the methodological development of using these theories in a new context. The managerial contribution is to healthcare managers through providing opportunities to improve care chains primarily by means of a greater understanding of care delivery systems.

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    Logistics management operationalised in a healthcare context: Understanding care chain effectiveness through logistics management theories and systems theory
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  • 233.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. CTF, Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Snyder, Hannah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    CTF, Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden/BI-Norwegian School of Management, Norway.
    Fombelle, Paul
    College of Business Administration, Northeastern University, United States.
    Kristensson, Per
    CTF, Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Defining service innovation: A review and syntesis2016Inngår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, nr 8, s. 2863-2872Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on service innovation appears in several research disciplines, with important contributions in marketing, management, and operations research. Although the concept is widely used, few research papers have explicitly defined service innovation. This dearth of research is the motivation for the present study. Through a systematic review of 1301 articles on service innovation appearing in academic journals between 1979 and 2014, this article examines research defining service innovation. The study identifies the key characteristics within 84 definitions of service innovation in different perspectives (assimilation, demarcation and synthesis) and shows how the meaning of the concept is changing. The review suggests that the large variety in definitions limits and hinders knowledge development of service innovation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 234.
    Örnerheim, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Implementering i vården: En kunskapsöversikt om beslutsnivåer och professionsperspektiv2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälso- och sjukvården liksom socialtjänsten är under ständig förändring – medicinska framsteg skapar nya möjligheter till behandling samtidigt som behoven av hälso- och sjukvård och socialtjänst ökar i takt med att allt fler lever längre med kroniska sjukdomar. Socialtjänsten kommer att behöva stödja fler med långvariga och komplexa behov, vilket band annat kommer att ställa krav på ändrade arbetssätt. En fortsatt utveckling i vården och omsorgen är viktigt för att i dag och i framtiden kunna tillhandahålla en god vård och omsorg som patienter och brukare känner förtroende för.Samtidigt finns tecken på att utvecklingen och lärandet inte sker i den omfattning som behövs. I olika analyser har Vårdanalys genom åren visat att lärandet mellan olika verksamheter och huvudmän är begränsat. Orsakerna bakom det är flera.Hösten 2017 initierade vi ett forskningsuppdrag med ambitionen att utifrån litteraturen identifiera övergripande utmaningar när det gäller implementering i hälso- och sjukvården och socialtjänsten. Vi gav professor Mattias Elg och postdoktor Mattias Örnerheim vid institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI), Linköpings universitet, uppdraget att presentera en kunskapsöversikt på detta tema.Deras översikt har varit ett värdefullt bidrag till Vårdanalys arbeten under 2017 och 2018 som på olika sätt analyserat utvecklingsarbete och deras förutsättningar att bidra till långsiktig utveckling. Det är vår förhoppning att den här promemorian kan tjäna som ett kunskapsunderlag i den fortsatta diskussionen om hur vi kan skapa bättre förutsättningar till lärande och utveckling i vården och omsorgen.Den här promemorian är författarnas redovisning av forskningsuppdraget i sin helhet och de står själva för innehållet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    I mplementering i vården : En kunskapsöversikt om beslutsnivåer och professionsperspektiv
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