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  • 201.
    Sjömander-Magnusson, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    van der Merwe, B.
    Environmental Engineering Services, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Context driven policy design in urban water management: A case study of Windhoek, Namibia2005Ingår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 151-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban water management in the southern cities of Namibia is composed through both a formal and an informal system. In the formal system, controlling demand is the key issue, and in the informal system, an improved accessibility to water is fundamental. The main issue raised in this paper is how authorities can support an ever-increasing poor population with water and at the same time keep demand among households with private water connections at a reasonable level. To decrease the demand for water in Windhoek, a thorough water demand management strategy (WDM) was launched in 1994. Water managers showed a high level of adaptability to the alarming water situation. One of the lessons learned from the implementation in Windhoek is that dedicated people with active involvement and vision are important for successful WDM. The budget must be allocated on a continuous basis for the implementation of certain WDM measures and a degree of flexibility among water users is important for the strategy to be successful. The dual situation experienced in cities in the South where both a need to expand services, and at the same time control demand, calls for a new approach in urban water management. Strategies need to be socially specific and flexible to changing pre-conditions. Therefore, a context driven policy design is advocated.

  • 202.
    Skoog, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bodin-Sköld, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nutrients and runoff in a small catchment during spring 20102010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is an increasing problem in the Baltic Sea and is caused by an excess of nutrients in the water which are primarily transported with the runoff from cultivated land. The peninsula Vikbolandet in Östergötland is dominated by arable land and has stream outflows to the bays of Bråviken and Slätbaken. In this study five streams of Vikbolandet have been sampled during the spring flood period with the aim of connecting concentrations of nutrients in the streams with turbidity and runoff in the catchment. This analysis has then been related to the land use in the small catchment of Vadsbäcken in order to investigate the impact of land uses with areal losses of phosphorus. The results indicate that there are increasing concentrations of phosphorus downstream in the sites of Vadsbäcken and that the transported amounts of phosphorus increases with the spring flood and at a rainstorm event. It is shown that the distribution of agricultural blocks in the catchment of Vadsbäcken has a major impact on the nutrient leakage. There is a co-variation between turbidity and runoff during a rainstorm event and between particulate-bound phosphorus and runoff over time. A further aim has been to investigate possibilities for use of an easily managed, cost-effective environmental monitoring method for nutrient measurements in watercourses. Within four out of five streams at Vikbolandet there is a significant co-variation between turbidity and total phosphorus. Using field measurements of turbidity for environmental monitoring could provide a viable alternative for environmental monitoring of watercourses but will need further investigations of co-variation before being brought into use. Further, this study shows that the transport of phosphorus is underestimated in environmental monitoring

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  • 203.
    Soares, Ana R. A.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Lapierre, Jean-Francois
    Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindström, Göran
    Swedish Meteorol and Hydrol Inst, Sweden.
    Berggren, Martin
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Controls on Dissolved Organic Carbon Bioreactivity in River Systems2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 14897Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inland waters transport, transform and retain significant amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that may be biologically reactive (bioreactive) and thus potentially degraded into atmospheric CO2. Despite its global importance, relatively little is known about environmental controls on bioreactivity of DOC as it moves through river systems with varying water residence time (WRT). Here we determined the influence ofWRT and landscape properties on DOC bioreactivity in 15 Swedish catchments spanning a large geographical and environmental gradient. We found that the short-term bioreactive pools (0-6 d of decay experiments) were linked to high aquatic primary productivity that, in turn, was stimulated by phosphorus loading from forested, agricultural and urban areas. Unexpectedly, the percentage of long-term bioreactive DOC (determined in 1-year experiments) increased with WRT, possibly due to photo-transformation of recalcitrant DOC from terrestrial sources into long-term bioreactive DOC with relatively lower aromaticity. Thus, despite overall decreases in DOC during water transit through the inland water continuum, DOC becomes relatively more bioreactive on a long time-scale. This increase in DOC bioreactivity with increasing WRT along the freshwater continuum has previously been overlooked. Further studies are needed to explain the processes and mechanisms behind this pattern on a molecular level.

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  • 204.
    Strombäck, Lena
    et al.
    SMHI, Hydrologi.
    Foster, Kean
    SMHI, Hydrologi.
    Rosberg, Jörgen
    SMHI, Hydrologi.
    Data and Provenance Management for Climate Effect Studies. Adaption of Climate Data with Distribution Based Scaling for Hydrological Simulations.2013Ingår i: Proceedings of DBKDA 2013, Seville, Spain., 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 205.
    Strombäck, Lena
    et al.
    SMHI, Hydrologi.
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Eriksson Bram, Lena
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Lewau, Per
    SMHI.
    Vattenwebb: A Transparent Service to Support Decision Makers in Achieving Improved Water Status2013Ingår i: ISESS 2013, IFIP AICT 413: Information Systems and Applications / [ed] J. Hřebíček et al, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing , 2013, s. 669-678Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The vattenwebb.smhi.se service provides simulated as well as measured data on water flow and water quality for Sweden. The available data is used by the water authorities and decision makers in Sweden. The development of the site has been driven by the needs of the users and resulting in a site that is very appreciated by its users. An important aim in the development has been to make the data transparent for the end users, i.e. to explain the model assumptions and data quality in a way that is easy accessible. Therefore the site contains explanations about the model setup, how this data has been computed and information about the performance of the model. In this paper we will describe the service and its features with an emphasis on features used for achieving transparency

  • 206.
    Strömbäck, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Arheimer, Berit
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Lindström, Göran
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, David
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    The Importance of Open Data and Software for Large Scale Hydrological Modelling2013Ingår i: Open water Journal, ISSN 2472-0259, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikel-id 32Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An important goal for hydrological research at SMHI in Sweden is large scale hydrological modelling. The goal of this work is to simulate hydrological conditions over large geographical areas, such as Europe and the Arctic region. Our most important tool is the HYPE model, which is designed to enable simulation over large areas. However, another important prerequisite for these large scale models is the availability of open data, which enables us to collect the information required for the model setup. In this paper we will give an overview over the work and focus on the aspects that make large scale modelling possible. In particular we will describe the HYPE model, the use of open data sources for modelling, how data is adapted to the models and how we feed results back to the community. In the end of the paper we give an overview of future perspectives and make an overview of the new EU project SWITCH-ON.

  • 207.
    Strömbäck, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Pers, Charlotta
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Strömqvist, Johan
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Lindström, Göran
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Jens
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden; Gustavsson Consulting AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    A web based analysis and scenario tool for eutrophication of inland waters for Sweden and Europe2019Ingår i: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 111, s. 259-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication of inland water is a serious problem in large parts of the world. Mitigation actions for improved water status are important but often costly to implement. Therefore, tools for estimating the plausible effect of mitigation scenarios are needed to plan which actions are most effective. In this paper we implement a web based interactive tool that allows quick exploration of several alternative mitigation scenarios. In the paper we motivate and describe the method of deriving the tool from more complex modelling systems. We implement tools for Sweden and Europe based on the hydrological simulation models S-HYPE and E-HYPE. S-HYPE is used as one important source of information for Sweden's reporting of water status within the European Union Water Framework Directive. We evaluate the approach by showing that hypothetical changes in load and realistic scenarios have good agreement with full model simulation.

  • 208.
    Ståhlberg, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Local Cooperation in Water Management: A Minor Field Study from South India2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Decentralized development approaches have in recent years gained wide acceptance in policy circles. In India the national and the state

    governments have for a long time undertaken the primary responsibility for water management. In recent years however, there has been a clear shift of policy towards increased reliance on the local communities. This thesis deals with the capacity of rural communities in India to manage their water resources in a sustainable way.

    Through a case study of water management in a South Indian village opportunities and barriers for rural communities in India to manage their water resources in a sustainable way is analysed. The thesis deals with both formal and informal institutions involved in the water management.Factors that can promote and obstruct locals’ contribution in water management are discussed. Also the role of external actors such as NGOs, the Panchayats and the government is dealt with, and how they may facilitate a development towards sustainability and increased locals’ contribution in order to achieve a sustainable community bases water management.

    Theories on collective action and the commons have been used in the analysis. These theories deal with how to get people to cooperate regarding the management of common resources such as water in order to achieve higher collective benefits. The study is primarily based on 66 semistructured qualitative interviews with local water users in a village in Andhra Pradesh.

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  • 209.
    Ståhlberg, Carina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mineralisation of organic matter in coastal sediments at different frequency and duration of resuspension2006Ingår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, Vol. 70, nr 1-2, s. 317-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal sediments represent sites of major importance for many biogeochemical processes, including organic matter mineralisation. These sediments are frequently subjected to intermittent physical forcing resulting in resuspension, which potentially influences sediment processes. In this study we investigated how the frequency and duration of resuspension events affect organic matter mineralisation rates, by creating conditions where the resuspension effect was as isolated as possible from other factors possibly affecting the mineralisation rate. Results show that continuous resuspension or resuspension in 12 h intervals double the mineralisation rates compared to sediments not subjected to water turbulence (2.0 ± 0.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.3 μmol ΣCO2 (g d.w.)−1 d−1). However, when subjected to short resuspension events (5 s) once every 24 or 48 h the sediment mineralisation rate were enhanced even more, to 5.2 ± 0.3 μmol ΣCO2 (g d.w.)−1 d−1. Longer intervals between resuspension events (72–96 h) did not affect the mineralisation rate compared to no water turbulence. This indicates that resuspension enhances mineralisation rates, and that even very short resuspension events can influence sediment carbon and nutrient cycling to a large extent if occurring often enough. Hence, sediment mineralisation rate measurements without resuspension may significantly underestimate mineralisation rates. However, given our results, it is possible that continuous low-level shear stress in coastal areas may be enough to stimulate mineralisation, and then specific events with increased shear stress and resuspension may not cause any additional enhancement. Therefore, to illuminate potential effects of resuspension on mineralisation under field conditions, more information about the level of shear stress that is required to affect mineralisation rates is needed.

  • 210. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Chlorine Transport in a Small Catchment2006Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste decenniernas forskning har påvisat att en omfattande bildning och nedbrytning av klororganiska föreningar sker i mark. Bildning av sådana föreningar sker genom att klorid binds in i organiskt material. Denna naturliga bildning har rönt uppmärksamhet dels för att många klorerade ämnen är giftiga och dels för man tidigare trott att alla klororganiska ämnen uteslutande kommer från mänsklig verksamhet. Huvudmålet för föreliggande avhandling var att (i) uppskatta transporten av klorerade föreningar i nederbörd och avrinningsvatten, (ii) diskutera de klorerade föreningarnas ursprung med utgångspunkt från hur deras förekomst varierar i avrinningsvatten, (iii) undersöka hur transporten av klorid (salt) påverkas av olika faktorer och (iv) studera hur frisättningen av flyktiga klorerade föreningar från mark påverkas av kväve.

    Avhandlingen bygger på en klorbudget som konstruerats utifrån fältstudier som genomförts i ett litet skogsbeklätt avrinningsområde i sydöstra Sverige. Dessutom har laboratoriestudier genomförts med jord som inhämtats från samma område. Resultaten visar att lagret av klor i marken är betydligt större än flödena och att det främst består av organiska ämnen medan flödet domineras av klorid (salt). Detta tyder på att en stor del av kloriden deltar i en biogeokemisk cykel vilket strider mot gängse uppfattning att klorid rör sig opåverkat genom mark. Hypotesen är att de översta marklagren fungerar som en sänka för klorid genom att omvandlas till organiskt bundet klor. De djupare jordlagren fungerar däremot som en kloridkälla genom att det klorerade organiska materialet transporterats med regnvatten från de ytligare till de djupare liggande lagren för att så småningom brytas ner, varvid klorid frisätts. Ovan beskrivna hypotes stöds av laboratoriestudierna där man kunnat notera att det sker såväl en fastläggning som en frisättning av klorid i mark. Resultaten från avhandlingen tillsammans med resultat från tidigare studier tyder på att en stor del av den klorid som finns i avrinningsvatten kommer från förmultnande organiskt material och att klorid med andra ord inte följer regnvattnets väg genom marken, vilket man tidigare trott. Studierna tyder alltså på att klorid till viss del ”gör en omväg” med en tidsfördröjning på troligen åtskilliga upp till hundratals år. Vidare tyder studierna på att flyktiga klorerade föreningar som kloroform och tetraklormetan bildas i mark och att tillsats av kväve orsakar en minskning av kloroform och en ökning av tetraklormetan.

    Avhandlingen visar tydligt att det är nödvändigt att rikta uppmärksamhet mot klors biogeokemi i mark och då inte minst mot de processer som påverkar transporten av klor från de övre marklagren till grundvatten och ytvatten om vi ska öka förståelsen av hur klorerade ämnen som tillförts naturen genom mänskliga aktiviteter beter sig.

    Delarbeten
    1. The role of organic matter bound chlorine in the chlorine cycle: a case study of the Stubbetorp catchment, Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The role of organic matter bound chlorine in the chlorine cycle: a case study of the Stubbetorp catchment, Sweden
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    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, Vol. 75, nr 2, s. 241-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to construct a balanced chlorine budget for a small forested catchment, focusing on the interaction between chloride (Clinorg) and organic-matter-bound chlorine (Clorg). Data from the actual catchment are combined with secondary data from other sites to elucidate more clearly which parts of the cycle are fairly well known and which are more or less unknown. The budget calculations show that the principal input and output fluxes of Cl in the catchment are inorganic but that the main pool is Clorg in the soil. In addition, the budget calculations suggest that a considerable portion of Clinorg in soil is transformed to Clorg and subsequently leached to deeper soil layers, that net mineralization of Clorg takes place in soil, preferably in deeper soil layers, and that degrading organic matter is a major source of Clinorg in runoff. The loss of Clorg through runoff is small to negligible in relation to other fluxes. It appears as if dry deposition of Clinorg is at risk of being underestimated if Clinorg is assumed to be conservative in soil. The pool of organic-matter-bound chlorine in soil is considerably larger than the annual flux of chloride through the system. The estimates suggest that the amount of Clorg in the upper 40 cm of the soil at the investigated site is approximately twice as large as the Clinorg. Furthermore, the amount of Clorg biomass is small in relation to the occurrence of Clorg in soil. Finally, the estimates indicate that the transport of volatile Clorg from the soil to the atmosphere may influence the chlorine cycle.

    Nyckelord
    Biogeochemistry, Chloride, Cycling, Organic chlorine
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13819 (URN)10.1007/s10533-004-7259-9 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-04-21 Skapad: 2006-04-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    2. Chlorine transport in a small catchment in southeast Sweden during two years
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Chlorine transport in a small catchment in southeast Sweden during two years
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 181-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have revealed that chlorine participates in a complex biogeochemical cycle in soil, which suggests that the transport of chloride through catchments may also be influenced. The present study is based on field observations of organic carbon, chloride (Clin), and chlorinated organic carbon (Clorg) in precipitation, soil, and runoff over a 2-year period from a small, forested catchment in southeast Sweden. The study reveals that (1) the soil pool is dominated by Clorg, (2) the input via wet deposition and output of Clin via runoff is 30 times smaller than the total storage of chlorine (Clin + Clorg) in soil, and (3) the transport is dominated by Clin. The organic matter that entered the outlet of the catchment was more chlorinated in the autumn than during the rest of the year, and rain events taking place in low-flow periods had a greater influence on TOC, Clorg, and Clin than did rain events taking place in high-flow periods. The seasonal pattern in combination with the low-flow versus high-flow pattern and previous findings of increasing chlorine-to-carbon ratios with soil depth suggests that the chlorine-to-carbon ratio variation in the leached organic matter is due that water preferentially comes from deeper layers in low-flow conditions. This study provides well-founded estimates of Clorg and Clin storage and fluxes for the studied catchment; however, the processes underlying the observed seasonal Clorg variations and transportation processes need further study.

    Nyckelord
    Catchment, chloride, chlorine, organic chlorine, soil, water, watershed
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-38911 (URN)10.1007/s10533-006-9062-2 (DOI)46101 (Lokalt ID)46101 (Arkivnummer)46101 (OAI)
    Anmärkning

    The previous status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-10 Skapad: 2009-10-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Chloroform in runoff water: a two-year study in a small catchment in southeast Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Chloroform in runoff water: a two-year study in a small catchment in southeast Sweden
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 139-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Chloroform concentrations were observed and input and output fluxes estimated over a 2-yr period in a small coniferous catchment (0.22 km2) in southeast Sweden. Water discharge was measured daily, and runoff water was sampled bi-weekly for chloroform analysis. An approximate chloroform budget was calculated, which indicated that the annual output of 6 μg m−2 yr−1 was approximately six times higher than the input, inferring an internal source of chloroform in the catchment. To the best of our knowledge, neither flux estimates nor mass balances have previously been made for chloroform on a catchment scale, nor have data regarding natural runoff variation with time been gathered. Concentrations of chloroform in runoff were found to be generally high during wet periods, such as spring, but also peaked during summer rain events. The observed pattern suggests that chloroform is formed in surface soil layers and transported to the outlet under high-flow conditions and during dry-period rain events; it is lost through degradation or evaporation during drier periods due to longer soil water residence times. The data suggest that the variation among replicates increases with concentration; this emphasizes the need to know what the degree of on-site variation is, so one can collect a sufficient number of replicates to permit detection of spatial or temporal changes.

    Nyckelord
    Biogeochemistry, Catchment, Chloroform, Water, VOCl
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13821 (URN)10.1007/s10533-006-9059-x (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-04-21 Skapad: 2006-04-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Chloride retention and release in a boreal forest soil: effects of soil water residence time and nitrogen and chloride loads
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Chloride retention and release in a boreal forest soil: effects of soil water residence time and nitrogen and chloride loads
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    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, nr 9, s. 2977-2982Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The common assumption that chloride (Cl-) is conservative in soils and can be used as a groundwater tracer is currently being questioned, and an increasing number of studies indicate that Cl- can be retained in soils. We performed lysimeter experiments with soil from a coniferous forest in southeast Sweden to determine whether pore water residence time and nitrogen and Cl- loads affected Cl- retention. Over the first 42 days there was a net retention of Cl- with retention rates averaging 3.1 mg Cl- m-2 d-1 (68% of the added Cl- retained over 42 days). Thereafter, a net release of Cl- at similar rates was observed for the remaining experimental period (85 d). Longer soil water residence time and higher Cl- load gave higher initial retention and subsequent release rates than shorter residence time and lower Cl- load did. Nitrogen load did not affect Cl transformation rates. This study indicates that simultaneous retention and release of Cl- can occur in soils, and that rates may be considerable relative to the load. The retention of Cl- observed was probably due to chlorination of soil organic matter or ion exchange. The cause of the shift between net retention and net release is unclear, but we hypothesize that the presence of O2 or the presence of microbially available organic matter regulates Cl- retention and release rates.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13822 (URN)10.1021/es0523237 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-04-21 Skapad: 2006-04-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-10-05Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Influence of nitrogen on the release of volatile organochlorines from coniferous forest soil: a laboratory study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Influence of nitrogen on the release of volatile organochlorines from coniferous forest soil: a laboratory study
    Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13823 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-04-21 Skapad: 2006-04-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-01-13
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  • 211.
    Svensson, Teresia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of British Columbia, Aquatic Ecosystem Research Laboratory, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Chloroform in runoff water: a two-year study in a small catchment in southeast Sweden2007Ingår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 139-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloroform concentrations were observed and input and output fluxes estimated over a 2-yr period in a small coniferous catchment (0.22 km2) in southeast Sweden. Water discharge was measured daily, and runoff water was sampled bi-weekly for chloroform analysis. An approximate chloroform budget was calculated, which indicated that the annual output of 6 μg m−2 yr−1 was approximately six times higher than the input, inferring an internal source of chloroform in the catchment. To the best of our knowledge, neither flux estimates nor mass balances have previously been made for chloroform on a catchment scale, nor have data regarding natural runoff variation with time been gathered. Concentrations of chloroform in runoff were found to be generally high during wet periods, such as spring, but also peaked during summer rain events. The observed pattern suggests that chloroform is formed in surface soil layers and transported to the outlet under high-flow conditions and during dry-period rain events; it is lost through degradation or evaporation during drier periods due to longer soil water residence times. The data suggest that the variation among replicates increases with concentration; this emphasizes the need to know what the degree of on-site variation is, so one can collect a sufficient number of replicates to permit detection of spatial or temporal changes.

  • 212.
    Svidén, John
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    En jämförelse av två transportsystem: Kanaler och järnvägar i Östergötland 1832–19022001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Relativt mycket forskning har genomförts om Sveriges inrikes sjöfart, och järnvägstransporter var och en för sig och i ett nationellt perspektiv. Däremot verkar regionala studier där samspelet och konkurrensen mellan olika transportsystem vara ovanligare.

    Det är lätt att ett efterhandsperspektiv resulterar i ett förnumstigt utpekande av historiens vinnare och förlorare, eller en dom i termer av bra och dåligt istället för att uteslutande fokusera på varför-frågorna. Syftet med denna rapport är att analysera två olika transportsystems historiska utveckling med hjälp av Thomas P. Hughes teori om stora tekniska systems gemensamma utvecklingsmönster. Varför utvecklades kanal- och järnvägssystemen olika i Östergötland under tidsperioden 1832-1902? I samband med detta kommer även kanalernas och järnvägarnas regionalekonomiska nytta att beröras i korthet.

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    En jämförelse av två transportsystem : Kanaler och järnvägar i Östergötland 1832–1902
  • 213.
    Todd, Martin
    et al.
    n/a.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hughes, Denis
    n/a.
    Kniveton, Dominic
    n/a.
    Layberry, Russell
    n/a.
    Murray-Hudson, Mike
    n/a.
    Savenije, Hubert
    n/a.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wolski, Piotr
    n/a.
    Simulating climate impacts on water resources: Experiences from the Okavango River, Southern Africa2008Ingår i: Hydrological Modelling and the Water Cycle / [ed] Soroosh Sorooshian,Kuo-lin Hsu ,Erika Coppola ,Barbara Tomassetti, Berlin Heidelburg: Springer , 2008, 1, s. 243-265Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This collected work reports on the state of the art of hydrological model simulation, as well as the methods for satellite-based rainfall estimation. Mainly addressed to scientists and researchers, the contributions have the structure of a standard paper appearing in most cited hydrological, atmospheric and climate journals. Several already-known hydrological models and a few novel ones are presented, as well as the satellite-based precipitation techniques. As the field of hydrologic modeling is experiencing rapid development and transition to application of distributed models, many challenges including overcoming the requirements of compatible observations of inputs and outputs are addressed.

    The many contributing authors, who are well established in this field, provide readers with a timely overview of the ongoing research on these topics. The level of interest and active involvement in the discussions clearly demonstrate the importance the scientific community places on challenges related to the coupling of atmospheric and hydrologic models.

  • 214.
    Tonderski, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI, Sweden.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Sweden.
    St Cyr, Rasmus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schoenberg, Ronny
    University of Tubingen, Germany.
    Taubald, Heinrich
    University of Tubingen, Germany.
    Assessing the use of delta O-18 in phosphate as a tracer for catchment phosphorus sources2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 607Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Procedures for source apportionment of nutrients transported in rivers and streams are often uncertain and difficult to validate. In this study, we investigated if the oxygen isotope ratios in stream dissolved phosphate delta O-18(P)) can be used to distinguish between the phosphorus (P) originating from agricultural runoff and from rural sewage, at different periods of the year. Water was collected from septic tanks, drainage wells and the stream outlet in a small 7.3 km(2)) agricultural catchment to capture variations in the isotope signature at different flowevents. The d18OP signature in septic tank effluent (+ 13.2 to + 14.5%) was significantly different from that in drainage water (+ 9.0 to + 15.7%). Four different septic tanks had surprisingly similar isotope signature when 24 h composite samples were collected. Most of the water samples were not in oxygen isotope equilibrium. In three drainage wells, the d18OP signature varied from + 7.8 up to + 15.7% with higher values in periods with a larger contribution of superficial streamflow generation. A rainfall soon after manure had been spread resulted in a d18OP of 15.7% in a drainage well, and was also reflected in a similar value at the catchment outlet. This implies that the source isotope signal may be conserved during moderate or high flows. A three end-member model including the geological background would be a useful start to quantify the P contribution from diverse sources. Temporal differences in biological activity and the predominant transport pathways through soil profiles must be considered along with information about fertilisation. In combination with hydrological modelling of water pathways, this may considerably improve our understanding of catchment P losses. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 215.
    Uren, Ryan
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa.
    van der Lingen, Carl
    Department of the Environment, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Concentrations and relative compositions of metallic elements differ between predatory squid and filter-feeding sardine from the Indian and South Atlantic oceans2020Ingår i: Regional Studies in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2352-4855, Vol. 35, artikel-id 101137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although metallic elements occur naturally, they can occur or accumulate in organisms at levels toxic to the organism and/or their consumers. Concentrations of twenty-nine metallic elements in muscle tissue from sardine Sardinops sagax and chokka squid Loligo reynaudii from South Atlantic and Indian Ocean waters off South Africa were established, for the first time, using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chokka showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of B, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Cd, and Tl and significantly lower concentrations of V, Mn, Ti, and Mo compared to sardine. There were also significant differences in some metallic elements between the two oceans. Multivariate analyses indicated possible population structure of both species, suggesting that these analyses may be useful as a stock discrimination tool. Only two sardine samples contained quantifiable Hg. Based on South African estimated daily intake, total hazard quotient, and European Union limits for Hg, Cd, and Pb, we consider tissues from sardine and chokka in South African waters to be safe for human consumption.

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  • 216.
    Valle, Juliana
    et al.
    German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Analytical Biogeochemistry (BGC), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Harir, Mourad
    German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Analytical Biogeochemistry (BGC), Neuherberg, Germany; Technische Universit€at München, Chair Analytical Food Chemistry, Freising, Weihenstephan, Germany.
    Gonsior, Michael
    University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, USA.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Botany, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
    German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Analytical Biogeochemistry (BGC), Neuherberg, Germany; Technische Universit€at München, Chair Analytical Food Chemistry, Freising, Weihenstephan, Germany.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hertkorn, Norbert
    German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Analytical Biogeochemistry (BGC), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Molecular differences between water column and sediment porewater SPE-DOM in ten Swedish boreal lakes2020Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 170, artikel-id 115320Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal lakes are considered hot spots of dissolved organic matter (DOM) processing within the globalcarbon cycle. This study has used FT-ICR mass spectrometry and comprehensive data evaluation to assessthe molecular differences of SPE-DOM between lake column water SPE-DOM and sedimentary porewater SPE-DOM in 10 Swedish boreal lakes of the Malingsbo area, which were selected for their largediversity of physicochemical and morphological characteristics. While lake column water is well mixedand fairly oxygenated, sedimentary pore water is subject to depletion of oxygen and to confinement ofmolecules. Robust trends were deduced from molecular compositions present in all compartments andin all 10 lakes (“common compositions”) with recognition of relative abundance. Sedimentary pore waterSPE-DOM featured higher proportions of heteroatoms N and S, higher average H/C ratios in presence ofhigher DBE/C ratios, and higher average oxygenation than lake column water SPE-DOM. These trendswere observed in all lakes except Ljustj€arn, which is a ground water fed kettle lake with an unique lakebiogeochemistry. Analogous trends were also observed in case of single or a few lakes and operated alsofor compounds present solely in either lake column water or sedimentary pore water. Unique compoundsdetected in either compartments and/or in a few lakes showed higher molecular diversity thanthe “common compositions”. Processing of DOM molecules in sediments included selective preservationfor polyphenolic compounds and microbial resynthesis of selected molecules of considerable diversity.

  • 217.
    van der Schyff, Veronica
    et al.
    Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    du Preez, Marinus
    Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Blom, Karin
    Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Choong Kwet Yive, Nee Sun
    Department of Chemistry, University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Merven, Julian
    Raphael Fishing Co. Ltd, Port Louis, Mauritiu.
    Raffin, Jovani
    Shoals Rodrigues, Marine Non-governmental Organisation, Rodrigues Island, Mauritius.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Impacts of a shallow shipwreck on a coral reef: A case study from St. Brandon’s Atoll, Mauritius, Indian Ocean.2020Ingår i: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 156, artikel-id 104916Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow shipwrecks can have severe ecological and toxicological impacts on coral atolls. In 2012, a tuna longliner ran aground on the reef crest of St Brandon’s Atoll, Mauritius, broke up into three pieces which was moved by currents and storms into the lagoon. In the months following the grounding, the coral around the wreck became dead and black. Down-current from the wreck, a dense bloom of filamentous algae (Ulva sp.) attached to coral occurred. To determine the ecological effects of the wreck on the system, the marine biota around the wreck, in the algal bloom, and fish reference zones were counted in 2014. Metal concentrations in reference and affected coral was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). A pronounced difference was seen in the metal concentration pattern between coral from the wreck- and algal zones, and the coral reference zone. While the wreck zone contained the highest abundance of fish, the fish reference zone had the highest species diversity but with fewer fish. We also counted eleven Critically Endangered hawksbill sea turtles Eretmochelys imbricata and significantly more sea cucumbers in the algal zone than the reference zones. The effects of shipwrecks on coral reefs must be considered a threat over periods of years and should be studied further.

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  • 218.
    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.
    et al.
    Earth System Science Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Research and Development – Hydrology, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Strömbäck, Lena
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Research and Development – Hydrology, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Capell, Réne
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Research and Development – Hydrology, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Ludwig, Fulco
    Earth System Science Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    European scale climate information services for water use sectors2015Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 528, s. 503-513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates a climate information service for pan-European water use sectors that are vulnerable to climate change induced hydrological changes, including risk and safety (disaster preparedness), agriculture, energy (hydropower and cooling water use for thermoelectric power) and environment (water quality). To study the climate change impacts we used two different hydrological models forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected general circulation model (GCM) output for both the lowest (2.6) and highest (8.5) representative concentration pathways (RCP). Selected indicators of water related vulnerability for each sector were then calculated from the hydrological model results. Our results show a distinct north-south divide in terms of climate change impacts; in the south the water availability will reduce while in the north water availability will increase. Across different climate models precipitation and streamflow increase in northern Europe and decrease in southern Europe, but the latitude at which this change occurs varies depending on the GCM. Hydrological extremes are increasing over large parts of Europe. The agricultural sector will be affected by reduced water availability (in the south) and increased drought. Both streamflow and soil moistures droughts are projected to increase in most parts of Europe except in northern Scandinavia and the Alps. The energy sector will be affected by lower hydropower potential in most European countries and reduced cooling water availability due to higher water temperatures and reduced summer river flows. Our results show that in particular in the Mediterranean the pressures are high because of increasing drought which will have large impacts on both the agriculture and energy sectors. In France and Italy this is combined with increased flood hazards. Our results show important impacts of climate change on European water use sectors indicating a clear need for adaptation. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 219.
    Vogt, Jason
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Investigating the Social-Ecological Resilience of Water Management Practices within Ethnic Minority Hill Tribes of Northern Thailand2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience is an essential and highly desired characteristic of a social-ecological system’s ability to adapt and adjust to various stresses and shocks that cause disruption. As social and ecological systems are intertwined and continually experiencing changes and disturbances, a major challenge appears revolving around the ways in which this resilience can be built and investigated. Social-ecological resilience can be defined as the amount of stress or disturbance that a particular system can tolerate, while still maintaining the same functions and identity. This paper uses social-ecological resilience concepts as a research framework, and examines three main themes that allow for the building of water management resilience to occur. These themes include learning to live with change, nurturing the ability to adapt/adjust to changes, and also on creating opportunities for self-organization. Two ethnic minority villages in Northern Thailand were chosen as research sites, in which the village water management practices were studied within a specific time period. Varying degrees of quantity and quality water issues within both villages have brought about stress and disturbances within their water management practices and increased the need to deal with these problems. Research was conducted at a community scale and resilience analysis pertains only to this specific level. Through the utilization of focus groups and interviews, qualitative data was collected and analyzed within a SE resilience context. This paper sets out to explore how social-ecological resilience has been built or not, and to what degree this has occurred within these two villages water management practices. The analysis indicates how complex and interconnected the social and ecological systems are and how the water management practices of these two communities play a role in this complex, dynamic process. Conclusions drawn are not limited to these two communities, but can be applied to the wider Northern Thailand region.

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  • 220.
    von Arnold, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hånell, Björn
    Department of Silviculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Botanical Institute, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Greenhouse gas fluxes from drained organic forestland in Sweden2005Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 400-411Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution of drained organic forestlands in Sweden to the national greenhouse gas budget. Drained organic forestland in Sweden collectively comprises an estimated net sink for greenhouse gases of -5.0 Mt carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents year-1 (range -12.0 to 1.2) when default emission factors provided by the Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry are used, and an estimated net source of 0.8 Mt CO2 equivalents year-1 (range -6.7 to 5.1) when available emission data for the climatic zones spanned by Sweden are used. This discrepancy is mainly due to differences in the emission factors for heterotrophic respiration. The main uncertainties in the estimates are related to carbon changes in the litter pool and releases of soil CO2 and nitrous oxide.

  • 221.
    von Arnold, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, M.
    Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hånell, Björn
    Department of Silviculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Weslien, P.
    Botanical Institute, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Botanical Institute, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained organic soils in deciduous forests2005Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 1059-1071Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined net greenhouse gas exchange at the soil surface in deciduous forests on soils with high organic contents. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were measured using dark static chambers for two consecutive years in three different forest types; (i) a drained and medium productivity site dominated by birch, (ii) a drained and highly productive site dominated by alder and (iii) an undrained and highly productive site dominated by alder. Although the drained sites had shallow mean groundwater tables (15 and 18 cm, respectively) their average annual rates of forest floor CO2 release were almost twice as high compared to the undrained site (1.9±0.4 and 1.7±0.3, compared to 1.0±0.2 kg CO2 m−2 yr−1). The average annual CH4 emission was almost 10 times larger at the undrained site (7.6±3.1 compared to 0.9±0.5 g CH4 m−2 yr−1 for the two drained sites). The average annual N2O emissions at the undrained site (0.1±0.05 g N2O m−2 yr−1) were lower than at the drained sites, and the emissions were almost five times higher at the drained alder site than at the drained birch site (0.9±0.35 compared to 0.2±0.11 g N2O m−2 yr−1). The temporal variation in forest floor CO2 release could be explained to a large extent by differences in groundwater table and air temperature, but little of the variation in the CH4 and N2O fluxes could be explained by these variables. The measured soil variables were only significant to explain for the within-site spatial variation in CH4 and N2O fluxes at the undrained swamp, and dark forest floor CO2 release was not explained by these variables at any site. The between-site spatial variation was attributed to variations in drainage, groundwater level position, productivity and tree species for all three gases. The results indicate that N2O emissions are of greater importance for the net greenhouse gas exchange at deciduous drained forest sites than at coniferous drained forest sites.

  • 222.
    von Arnold, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Weslien, P.
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, c/o Botanical Institute, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, M.
    Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Botanical Institute, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained coniferous forests on organic soils2005Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, Vol. 210, nr 1-3, s. 239-254Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were measured during two to three years at four sites, located within an area of 9 km2 in southern Sweden, using dark static chamber techniques. Three of the sites were drained coniferous forests on moist organic soils that differed in forest productivity and tree species. The fourth site was an undrained tall sedge mire. Although the drained sites were all moist, with average groundwater levels between 17 and 27 cm below the soil surface, the mean annual dark forest floor CO2 release rate was significantly higher at the drained sites, (0.9–1.9 kg m−2 y−1) than at the undrained mire site (0.8 to 1.2 kg m−2 y−1). CH4 emissions were significantly lower from the drained sites than from the undrained mire (0.0 to 1.6 g m−2 y−1, compared to 10.6 to 12.2 g m−2 y−1), while N2O emissions were significantly lower from the undrained site than from the drained sites (20 to 30 mg m−2 y−1, compared to 30 to 90 mg m−2 y−1). There were no clear effects of site productivity or tree species on the soil fluxes of any of the gases. The annual net primary production of the forests was modeled. All drained sites were net sinks, while the undrained mire was a net source of greenhouse gases. The estimated net greenhouse gas exchange of the drained sites was correlated with productivity: the most productive site was the largest net sink and the least productive the smallest net sink for greenhouse gases. The results indicate that, to mitigate the increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases, drained forest sites, which have been unsuccessfully drained or rewetted due to subsidence, should be managed in a way that keeps the groundwater level at a steady state.

  • 223.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Audet, Joachim
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Kokic, Jovana
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Lundin, Erik
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Teutschbein, Claudia
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Grabs, Thomas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Carbon dioxide and methane emissions of Swedish low-order streams-a national estimate and lessons learnt from more than a decade of observations2018Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 156-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-order streams are suggested to dominate the atmospheric CO2 source of all inland waters. Yet, many large-scale stream estimates suffer from methods not designed for gas emission determination and rarely include other greenhouse gases such as CH4. Here, we present a compilation of directly measured CO2 and CH4 concentration data from Swedish low-order streams (&gt; 1600 observations across &gt; 500 streams) covering large climatological and land-use gradients. These data were combined with an empirically derived gas transfer model and the characteristics of a ca. 400,000 km stream network covering the entire country. The total stream CO2 and CH4 emission corresponded to 2.7 Tg C yr(-1) (95% confidence interval: 2.0-3.7) of which the CH4 accounted for 0.7% (0.02 Tg C yr(-1)). The study highlights the importance of low-order streams, as well as the critical need to better represent variability in emissions and stream areal extent to constrain future stream C emission estimates.

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  • 224.
    Ward, Nicholas D.
    et al.
    Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, WA 98382 USA; Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA; Univ Florida, FL 32611 USA.
    Bianchi, Thomas S.
    Univ Florida, FL 32611 USA.
    Martin, Jonathan B.
    Univ Florida, FL 32611 USA.
    Quintero, Carlos J.
    Univ Florida, FL USA.
    Sawakuchi, Henrique
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Cohen, Matthew J.
    Univ Florida, FL 32611 USA.
    Pathways for Methane Emissions and Oxidation that Influence the Net Carbon Balance of a Subtropical Cypress Swamp2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Earth Science, E-ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 8, artikel-id 573357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the major pathways for methane emissions from wetlands to the atmosphere at four wetland sites in the Big Cypress National Preserve in southwest Florida. Methane oxidation was estimated based on the delta C-13-CH4 of surface water, porewater, and bubbles to evaluate mechanisms that limit surface water emissions. Spatially-scaled methane fluxes were then compared to organic carbon burial rates. The pathway with the lowest methane flux rate was diffusion from surface waters (3.50 +/- 0.22 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Microbial activity in the surface water environment and/or shallow oxic sediment layer oxidized 26 +/- 3% of the methane delivered from anerobic sediments to the surface waters. The highest rates of diffusion were observed at the site with the lowest extent of oxidation. Ebullition flux rates were 2.2 times greater than diffusion and more variable (7.79 +/- 1.37 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Methane fluxes from non-inundated soils were 1.6 times greater (18.4 +/- 5.14 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) than combined surface water fluxes. Methane flux rates from cypress knees (emergent cypress tree root structures) were 3.7 and 2.3 times higher (42.0 +/- 6.33 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) than from surface water and soils, respectively. Cypress knee flux rates were highest at the wetland site with the highest porewater methane partial pressure, suggesting that the emergent root structures allow methane produced in anaerobic sediment layers to bypass oxidation in aerobic surface waters or shallow sediments. Scaled across the four wetlands, emissions from surface water diffusion, ebullition, non-inundated soils, and knees contributed to 14 +/- 2%, 25 +/- 6%, 34 +/- 10%, and 26 +/- 5% of total methane emissions, respectively. When considering only the three wetlands with cypress knees present, knee emissions contributed to 39 +/- 5% of the total scaled methane emissions. Finally, the molar ratio of CH4 emissions to OC burial ranged from 0.03 to 0.14 in the wetland centers indicating that all four wetland sites are net sources of atmospheric warming potential on 20-100 yr timescales, but net sinks over longer time scales (500 yr) with the exception of one wetland site that was a net source even over 500 yr time scales.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 225.
    Westrell, Therese
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Microbial risk assessment and its implications for risk management in urban water systems2004Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Infectious disease can be transmitted via various environmental pathways, many of which are incorporated into our water and wastewater systems. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can be a valuable tool in identifying hazard exposure pathways and estimating their associated health impacts. QMRA can be applied to establish standards and guidelines and has been adopted by the World Health Organisation for the management of risks from water-related infectious diseases. This thesis aims at presenting a holistic approach for the assessment of microbial health risks in urban water and wastewater systems. The procedure of QMRA is presented, together with the data collected for the case studies, and the results are discussed in a risk management framework.

    Decentralised drinking water treatment with membranes was shown to be competitive with centralised conventional treatment regarding environmental impacts and health. To attain sufficient die-off of pathogens in order to reduce risks to acceptable levels, facilities that permit the long-term storage of locally collected faeces are required. Issues of operation and mangement are likely to determine the health risks in decentralised systems. While failures in distribution are more likely to result in detectable waterborne disease outbreaks, the number of people at risk of becoming infected with pathogens passing normal treatment, calculated on a yearly basis, can be larger. Site-specific pathogen monitoring of source waters was identified as an important factor for the accurate estimation of risk. Noroviruses, an emerging waterborne pathogen, were shown to have fluctuating concentrations in surface water, with significant peaks during the wintertime. Time series analysis has potential as an early warning system if complemented by regular monitoring to discriminate peaks from random fluctuations. Groups already sensitive to infection, i.e. the elderly, the sick and children, were shown to consume higher volumes of cold tap water than the rest of the population, which may call for special atention in the risk management of drinking water systems. Microbial health risks associated with the handling and reuse of wastewater and sludge were shown to be successfully addressed within the management system Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP). Most exposure points identified could be controlled through easy measures.

    Delarbeten
    1. A systems analysis comparing drinking water systems – central physical-chemical treatment and local membrane filtration
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A systems analysis comparing drinking water systems – central physical-chemical treatment and local membrane filtration
    2002 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water Science & Technology: Water Supply, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 11-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a first attempt at an integrated systems analysis of drinking water systems using Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) and Material Flow Analysis (MFA) with focus on the comparison of central physical-chemical treatment (conventional system) and local membrane filtration. The MFA shows that energy use is the most significant environmental impact of the three studied drinking water systems, but there are no considerable differences in energy use comparing central physical-chemical treatment and local membrane filtration. According to the MRA, the conventional system might not reduce the microbial risks sufficiently, but such a reduction can not confidently be achieved in a one-step ultrafiltration system either, since membrane filter integrity can hardly be guaranteed over the service life of the equipment. A quite costly two-step membrane filtration system, where water for all household purposes passes microfiltration and further reverse osmosis for drinking and cooking, seems to fulfil this criterion. On the other hand, this system does not reduce the microbial risks from ingestion of water from showers compared with the one-step ultrafiltration alternative. In order to achieve drinking water systems with sufficient microbial barriers and with reasonable costs for operation, a promising solution seems to be a combination of one-step membrane filtration and other methods e.g. biological treatment.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13457 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2004-12-19 Skapad: 2004-12-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    2. A theoretical approach to assess microbial risks due to failures in drinking water systems
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A theoretical approach to assess microbial risks due to failures in drinking water systems
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, ISSN 0960-3123, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 181-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A failure in treatment or in the distribution network of a surface water-works could have serious consequences due to the variable raw water quality in combination with an extended distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the theoretical impact of incidents in the drinking water system on the annual risk of infection in a population served by a large water treatment plant in Sweden. Reported incidents in the system were examined and a microbial risk assessment that included three pathogens, Cryptosporidium parvum, rotavirus and Campylobacter jejuni, was performed. The main risk incidents in water treatment were associated with sub-optimal particle removal or disinfection malfunction. Incidents in the distribution network included cross-connections and microbial pollution of reservoirs and local networks. The majority of the annual infections were likely to be due to pathogens passing treatment during normal operation and not due to failures, thus adding to the endemic rate. Among the model organisms, rotavirus caused the largest number of infections. Decentralised water treatment with membranes was also considered in which failures upstream fine-pored membranes would have little impact as long as the membranes were kept intact.

    Nyckelord
    Microbial Risk Assessment, Drinking Water Treatment, Distribution, Risk Incidents, Pathogens
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13458 (URN)10.1080/0960312031000098080 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2004-12-19 Skapad: 2004-12-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    3. Short- and long-term variations of norovirus concentrations in the Meuse river during a 2-year study period
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Short- and long-term variations of norovirus concentrations in the Meuse river during a 2-year study period
    Visa övriga...
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, Vol. 40, nr 14, s. 2613-2620Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Faecally impacted surface waters used for drinking water production may encompass risk for norovirus infections. To be able to assess a possible health risk, noroviruses should be quantified and fluctuations identified. In 2001, norovirus concentrations in the river Meuse displayed a seasonal distribution with high peaks during wintertime as determined by RT-PCR on serially diluted RNA. An intensified day-by-day sampling scheme in the winter of 2002/2003 revealed that the winter peak consisted of several peaks of varying duration and magnitude, possibly due to contamination events in the catchment. The highest estimated concentration was 1700 PCR-detectable units per litre (95% CI 250–8000), which if coinciding with failing treatment could lead to significant numbers in drinking water. Adaptive dynamic filtering was shown to adequately predict subsequent sample concentrations. If valid, such analyses could prove to be useful as early warning systems in risk management of water sources.

    Nyckelord
    Noroviruses; Surface water; Seasonal distribution; Peaks; Adaptive dynamic filtering
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13459 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2006.05.019 (DOI)
    Anmärkning

    On the day of the defence date the title of this article was Short and Long Term Flucturations of Norovirus Concentrations in Surface Water and their Implications for Publich Health.

    Tillgänglig från: 2004-12-19 Skapad: 2004-12-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    4. Drinking water consumption patterns in Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Drinking water consumption patterns in Sweden
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Water and Health, ISSN 1477-8920, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 511-522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates on drinking water consumption are necessary in risk assessments on microbial hazardsin drinking water. Large differences in consumption habits between countries have beenreported. In order to establish estimates for the Swedish population, water consumption datafrom a waterborne outbreak investigation (157 people), a small water consumption study(75 people) and a large study on health and environmental factors (10,957 people) were analysed.A lognormal distribution for the daily direct/cold water intake in litres with m¼20.299 ands ¼ 0.570 was fitted to the quantitative data, representing the general population. The averagedaily consumption of tap water as plain drinking water and as heated tap water, e.g. in coffeeand tea, was 0.86 ^ 0.48 l and 0.94 ^ 0.69 l, respectively. Women consumed more cold tap waterthan did men, while men appeared to have a higher consumption of heated tap water. Cold tapwater intake was highest in the oldest age group, ($70 years). The consumption of bottled waterwas very low (mean 0.06 l/d) when compared to other countries.

    Nyckelord
    demographic variables, drinking water consumption, probability distribution, risk assessment, tap water, water intake
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13460 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2004-12-19 Skapad: 2004-12-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    5. Microbial risk assessment of local handling and reuse of human faeces
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Microbial risk assessment of local handling and reuse of human faeces
    Visa övriga...
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Water and Health, ISSN 1477-8920, E-ISSN 1996-7829, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 117-128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Dry urine-diverting toilets may be used in order to collect excreta for the utilisation of nutrients. A quantitative microbial risk assessment was conducted in order to evaluate the risks of transmission of infectious disease related to the local use of faeces as a fertiliser. The human exposures evaluated included accidental ingestion of small amounts of faeces, or a mixture of faeces and soil, while emptying the storage container and applying the material in the garden, during recreational stays to the garden, and during gardening. A range of pathogens representing various groups of microorganisms was considered. Results showed that 12-months' storage before use was sufficient for the inactivation of most pathogens to acceptable levels. When working or spending time in the garden the annual risk of infection by Ascaris was still slightly above 10-4 in these scenarios, although the incidence rate for Ascaris is very low in the population in question. Measures to further reduce the hygienic risks include longer storage, or treatment, of the faeces. The results can easily be extended to other regions with different incidence rates.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    I W A Publishing, 2007
    Nyckelord
    excreta, faeces, microbial risk assessment, pathogens, sanitation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13461 (URN)10.2166/wh.2006.049 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2004-12-19 Skapad: 2004-12-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-30
    6. QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) and HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) for management of pathogens in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and reuse
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) and HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) for management of pathogens in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and reuse
    2004 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 23-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) was applied for identifying and controlling exposure to pathogenic microorganisms encountered during normal sludge and wastewater handling at a 12,500 m3/d treatment plant utilising tertiary wastewater treatment and mesophilic sludge digestion. The hazardous scenarios considered were human exposure during treatment, handling, soil application and crop consumption, and exposure via water at the wetland-area and recreational swimming. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), including rotavirus, adenovirus, haemorrhagic E. coli, Salmonella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was performed in order to prioritise pathogen hazards for control purposes. Human exposures were treated as individual risks but also related to the endemic situation in the general population. The highest individual health risk from a single exposure was via aerosols for workers at the belt press for sludge dewatering (virus infection risk = 1). The largest impact on the community would arise if children ingested sludge at the unprotected storage site, although in the worst-case situation the largest number of infections would arise through vegetables fertilised with sludge and eaten raw (not allowed in Sweden). Acceptable risk for various hazardous scenarios, treatment and/or reuse strategies could be tested in the model.

    Nyckelord
    HACCP; pathogens; quantitative microbial risk assessment; reuse; sewage sludge; wastewater
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13462 (URN)10.2166/wst.2004.0079 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2004-12-19 Skapad: 2004-12-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-10-27
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 226.
    Westrell, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Department of Epidemiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden.
    Stenström, Thor-Axel
    Department of Parasitology, Mycology & Water Microbiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden.
    Drinking water consumption patterns in Sweden2006Ingår i: Journal of Water and Health, ISSN 1477-8920, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 511-522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates on drinking water consumption are necessary in risk assessments on microbial hazardsin drinking water. Large differences in consumption habits between countries have beenreported. In order to establish estimates for the Swedish population, water consumption datafrom a waterborne outbreak investigation (157 people), a small water consumption study(75 people) and a large study on health and environmental factors (10,957 people) were analysed.A lognormal distribution for the daily direct/cold water intake in litres with m¼20.299 ands ¼ 0.570 was fitted to the quantitative data, representing the general population. The averagedaily consumption of tap water as plain drinking water and as heated tap water, e.g. in coffeeand tea, was 0.86 ^ 0.48 l and 0.94 ^ 0.69 l, respectively. Women consumed more cold tap waterthan did men, while men appeared to have a higher consumption of heated tap water. Cold tapwater intake was highest in the oldest age group, ($70 years). The consumption of bottled waterwas very low (mean 0.06 l/d) when compared to other countries.

  • 227.
    Westrell, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bergstedt, O.
    Water Environment Transport, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Heinicke, G.
    Water Environment Transport, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kärrman, E.
    Scandiaconsult Sverige AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A systems analysis comparing drinking water systems – central physical-chemical treatment and local membrane filtration2002Ingår i: Water Science & Technology: Water Supply, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 11-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a first attempt at an integrated systems analysis of drinking water systems using Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) and Material Flow Analysis (MFA) with focus on the comparison of central physical-chemical treatment (conventional system) and local membrane filtration. The MFA shows that energy use is the most significant environmental impact of the three studied drinking water systems, but there are no considerable differences in energy use comparing central physical-chemical treatment and local membrane filtration. According to the MRA, the conventional system might not reduce the microbial risks sufficiently, but such a reduction can not confidently be achieved in a one-step ultrafiltration system either, since membrane filter integrity can hardly be guaranteed over the service life of the equipment. A quite costly two-step membrane filtration system, where water for all household purposes passes microfiltration and further reverse osmosis for drinking and cooking, seems to fulfil this criterion. On the other hand, this system does not reduce the microbial risks from ingestion of water from showers compared with the one-step ultrafiltration alternative. In order to achieve drinking water systems with sufficient microbial barriers and with reasonable costs for operation, a promising solution seems to be a combination of one-step membrane filtration and other methods e.g. biological treatment.

  • 228.
    Westrell, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bergstedt, O.
    Water Environment Transport, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Stenström, Thor-Axel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ashbolt, N. J.
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales. Sydney, Australia.
    A theoretical approach to assess microbial risks due to failures in drinking water systems2003Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, ISSN 0960-3123, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 181-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A failure in treatment or in the distribution network of a surface water-works could have serious consequences due to the variable raw water quality in combination with an extended distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the theoretical impact of incidents in the drinking water system on the annual risk of infection in a population served by a large water treatment plant in Sweden. Reported incidents in the system were examined and a microbial risk assessment that included three pathogens, Cryptosporidium parvum, rotavirus and Campylobacter jejuni, was performed. The main risk incidents in water treatment were associated with sub-optimal particle removal or disinfection malfunction. Incidents in the distribution network included cross-connections and microbial pollution of reservoirs and local networks. The majority of the annual infections were likely to be due to pathogens passing treatment during normal operation and not due to failures, thus adding to the endemic rate. Among the model organisms, rotavirus caused the largest number of infections. Decentralised water treatment with membranes was also considered in which failures upstream fine-pored membranes would have little impact as long as the membranes were kept intact.

  • 229.
    Westrell, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Environmental Microbiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Schönning, C.
    Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Environmental Microbiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Stenström, T. A.
    Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Environmental Microbiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Ashbolt, N. J.
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) and HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) for management of pathogens in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and reuse2004Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 23-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) was applied for identifying and controlling exposure to pathogenic microorganisms encountered during normal sludge and wastewater handling at a 12,500 m3/d treatment plant utilising tertiary wastewater treatment and mesophilic sludge digestion. The hazardous scenarios considered were human exposure during treatment, handling, soil application and crop consumption, and exposure via water at the wetland-area and recreational swimming. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), including rotavirus, adenovirus, haemorrhagic E. coli, Salmonella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was performed in order to prioritise pathogen hazards for control purposes. Human exposures were treated as individual risks but also related to the endemic situation in the general population. The highest individual health risk from a single exposure was via aerosols for workers at the belt press for sludge dewatering (virus infection risk = 1). The largest impact on the community would arise if children ingested sludge at the unprotected storage site, although in the worst-case situation the largest number of infections would arise through vegetables fertilised with sludge and eaten raw (not allowed in Sweden). Acceptable risk for various hazardous scenarios, treatment and/or reuse strategies could be tested in the model.

  • 230.
    Westrell, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Teunis, Peter
    Computerization and Methodological Consultancy Unit, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    van den Berg, Harold
    Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Lodder, Willemijn
    Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Ketelaars, Henk
    Waterwinningsbedrijf Brabantse Biesbosch (WBB), Werkendam, The Netherlands.
    Stenström, Thor-Axel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    de Roda Husman, Ana Maria
    Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Short- and long-term variations of norovirus concentrations in the Meuse river during a 2-year study period2006Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, Vol. 40, nr 14, s. 2613-2620Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecally impacted surface waters used for drinking water production may encompass risk for norovirus infections. To be able to assess a possible health risk, noroviruses should be quantified and fluctuations identified. In 2001, norovirus concentrations in the river Meuse displayed a seasonal distribution with high peaks during wintertime as determined by RT-PCR on serially diluted RNA. An intensified day-by-day sampling scheme in the winter of 2002/2003 revealed that the winter peak consisted of several peaks of varying duration and magnitude, possibly due to contamination events in the catchment. The highest estimated concentration was 1700 PCR-detectable units per litre (95% CI 250–8000), which if coinciding with failing treatment could lead to significant numbers in drinking water. Adaptive dynamic filtering was shown to adequately predict subsequent sample concentrations. If valid, such analyses could prove to be useful as early warning systems in risk management of water sources.

  • 231.
    Wihlborg, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Catching Mercury: Mercury in Lake Vänern and Swedish catchments2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vänern och dess sediment har under 1900-talet varit en av Sveriges mest kvicksilver (Hg) kontaminerade miljöer. 47 sedimentprofiler tagna 2001 analyserades for total Hg och temporala och spatiala mönster påvisades. Av den direkta Hg tillförseln 1918-2001 återfinns c:a 30 ton i bottensedimenten. Idag återstår hög atmosfärsbelastning, vilken är huvudanledningen till att 100 kg Hg per år fastläggs i bottensedimenten. Avrinningsområdet fungerar som en effektiv Hg sänka där minst 90% av den totala belastningen fastläggs.

    Inom Gullspångsälvens avrinningsområde uppvisar många sjösediment förhöjda Hg koncentrationer, aven i områden med obetydliga punktkällor. Eftersom den dominerande atmosfärsbelastningen effektivt fastläggs i uppströms avrinningsområden är effekten av mindre antropogena källor synbar.

    Retentionen av atmosfäriskt Hg varierar mellan 55-93 % i större avrinningsområden. Retentionen är högre i skogsmark och i områden med stor sjöareal. Områden med berg eller tunt jordtäcke samt våtmarker minskar retentionen. Den specifika Hg retentionen, som är starkt påverkad av storleken på den atmosfäriska Hg belastningen, varierar mellan ~ 4-15 g Hg km -2yr -1. Framtida klimatförändringar kan öka mobiliseringen av den stora mängd Hg som är fastlagd inom Sveriges avrinningsområden.

  • 232.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    An ontology for flow thinking based on decoupling points - unravelling a control logic for lean thinking2018Ingår i: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 433-469Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous flow is the guiding star for lean thinking and considered the ideal state for value streams. Despite this objective, it is seldom possible to obtain a state of continuous flow in a wider context. Decision makers face dynamic environments, and variable internal preconditions require a flow-thinking approach that provides support in response to these challenges. In the present study, the underlying logic of flow thinking is first identified as the key management layer, and thereafter the effectiveness of flow is targeted. The vision of continuous flow is challenged by different exogenous requirements that result in flow discontinuities. Flow thinking is then used to identify 10 decision categories based on these discontinuities, each related to a type of decoupling point and classified as time-based (exogenous) or conversion-based (endogenous). The flow-thinking approach is finally applied in three different contexts: a time-phased product structure, a modularized approach for planning and control, and a mixed-model value stream.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 233.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Wolski, Piotr
    Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre (HOORC), Maun, Botswana.
    Kgathi, Donald
    Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre (HOORC), Maun, Botswana.
    Ringrose, Susan
    Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre (HOORC), Maun, Botswana.
    Vanderpost, Cornelius
    Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre (HOORC), Maun, Botswana.
    Chang­ing flow in the Okavango basin: Upstream developments and downstream effects2010Ingår i: Integrated Watershed Management: Perspectives and Problems: Perspectives and Problems / [ed] Beheim, E., Rajwar, G.S., Haigh, M. and Krecek, J., Springer and Capital Publishing Company , 2010, 1, s. 99-112Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Headwaters are fragile environments threatened by anthropogenic actions. The regeneration of headwaters calls for a practical approach through integrated environmental management. This book discusses various issues concerning headwater regions of the world under wide-ranging themes: climate change impacts, vegetal cover, sub-surface hydrology, catchment and streamflow hydrology, pollution, water quality and limnology, remote sensing and GIS, environmental impact assessment and mitigation, socio-economic impacts, public participation, education and management, and integrated watershed management. This book aims to bring about an awareness in sustainable regeneration of headwater regions and particularly highlighting the problems of environmental management in highlands and headwaters. These regions consist of great reserves of natural resources which need to be exploited and managed sustainably.

  • 234.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Wittgren, Hans-Bertil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Adapting Water Management to Climate Change2009Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 235.
    Wintermeyer, Niklas
    et al.
    Mathematisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Köln, Germany.
    Winters, Andrew Ross
    Mathematisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Köln, Germany.
    Gassner, Gregor J
    Mathematisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Köln, Germany.
    Warburton, Timothy
    Department of Mathematics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA.
    An entropy stable discontinuous Galerkin method for the shallow water equations on curvilinear meshes with wet/dry fronts accelerated by GPUs2018Ingår i: Journal of Computational Physics, ISSN 0021-9991, E-ISSN 1090-2716, Vol. 375, s. 447-480Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend the entropy stable high order nodal discontinuous Galerkin spectral element approximation for the non-linear two dimensional shallow water equations presented by Wintermeyer et al. [N. Wintermeyer, A. R. Winters, G. J. Gassner, and D. A. Kopriva. An entropy stable nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for the two dimensional shallow water equations on unstructured curvilinear meshes with discontinuous bathymetry. Journal of Computational Physics, 340:200-242, 2017] with a shock capturing technique and a positivity preservation capability to handle dry areas. The scheme preserves the entropy inequality, is well-balanced and works on unstructured, possibly curved, quadrilateral meshes. For the shock capturing, we introduce an artificial viscosity to the equations and prove that the numerical scheme remains entropy stable. We add a positivity preserving limiter to guarantee non-negative water heights as long as the mean water height is non-negative. We prove that non-negative mean water heights are guaranteed under a certain additional time step restriction for the entropy stable numerical interface flux. We implement the method on GPU architectures using the abstract language OCCA, a unified approach to multi-threading languages. We show that the entropy stable scheme is well suited to GPUs as the necessary extra calculations do not negatively impact the runtime up to reasonably high polynomial degrees (around N = 7). We provide numerical examples that challenge the shock capturing and positivity properties of our scheme to verify our theoretical findings.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    An entropy stable discontinuous Galerkin method for the shallow water equations on curvilinear meshes with wet/dry fronts accelerated by GPUs
  • 236.
    Yang, P.
    et al.
    Fujian Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lai, D. Y. F.
    Chinese University of Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Jin, B. S.
    Fujian Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Mou, X. J.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Tong, C.
    Fujian Normal University, Peoples R China; Fujian Normal University, Peoples R China; Fujian Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Yao, Y. C.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Effects of coastal marsh conversion to shrimp aquaculture ponds on CH4 and N2O emissions2017Ingår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 199, s. 125-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we compared the CH4 and N2O fluxes from a tidal brackish Cyperus malaccensis marsh ecosystem and nearby shrimp ponds, converted from C malaccensis marsh in the last 3-4 years, in the Min River estuary of southeast China over the aquaculture period of the year. Significant differences in CH4 and N2O fluxes were observed in space (between brackish marsh and shrimp ponds) and in time (between sampling occasions that were distributed over the aquaculture period). CH4 fluxes from the shrimp ponds were on an average 10-fold higher than from the brackish marsh. N2O emissions, on the other hand, were lower from the shrimp pond (25% of the emissions from the brackish marsh). Accessory data indicates that these patterns were primarily linked to water level variability and temperature (all fluxes), sediment porewater sulfate concentrations (CH4 flux) and total nitrogen concentrations (N2O flux). Our research demonstrates that the coastal marsh ecosystem converted to aquaculture ponds considerably alter emissions of CH4 and N2O and provides input to the global discussion on how to account for emissions from various types of flooded land in greenhouse gas inventories. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 237.
    Yang, Ping
    et al.
    Fujian Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Lai, Derrick Y. F.
    Chinese University of Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Baoshi
    Fujian Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tan, Lishan
    Fujian Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Tong, Chuan
    Fujian Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Dynamics of dissolved nutrients in the aquaculture shrimp ponds of the Min River estuary, China: Concentrations, fluxes and environmental loads2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 603, s. 256-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved inorganic nutrients (NO2--N, NO3--N, NH4+-N, and PO43--P) play a critical role in the effective management ofwater quality and prevention of fish and shrimp diseases in aquaculture systems. In this study, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations in the water column and sediment porewater, and the fluxes across the sediment-water interface (SWI) were investigated in three intensive shrimp ponds with zero water exchange to examine nutrient cycling during the different growth stages of shrimps. Distinct changes in the dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations in both the water column and sediment porewater were observed among the three growth stages. Average NO2--N, NO3--N, NH4+-N, and PO43--P concentrations in the sediment porewater were 3.53, 2.81, 29.68, and 6.44 times higher, respectively, than those in the water column over the study period, indicating that the pond sediment acted as a net source of nutrients to the water column. This was further supported by the net release of nutrients from the sediments to the water column observed during the incubation experiment. Nutrient fluxes were dominated by NH4+-N, while NOx--N (NO2--N and NO3--N) and PO43--P fluxes remained low. The high rates of NH4+-N release from the sediment highlight the need of taking into account the biogeochemical role of sediments in mitigating the problem of water quality degradation in coastal shrimp ponds. Based on a total water surface area of mariculture ponds and a total mariculture production of 2.57 x 10(6) ha and 2.30 x 10(9) kg, respectively, we estimated conservatively that approximately 4.77 x 10(4) tons of total nitrogen and 3.75 x 10(3) tons of total phosphorus are being discharged annually from the mariculture ponds into the adjacent coastal zones across China. Results demonstrated the importance of aquaculture pond effluent as amajor contributor ofwater pollution in the coastal areas of China, and called for actions to properly treat these effluents in alleviating the eutrophication problem in the Chinese coastal zones. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 238.
    Árnason, Þorvardur
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nature in Medieval Icelandic and Nordic Literature2005Ingår i: Environmental History, ISSN 1084-5453, E-ISSN 1930-8892Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 239.
    Árnason, Þorvardur
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sigfús Eymundsson 1837-1911: Icelandic Landscape Photography1999Ingår i: History of Photography, ISSN 0308-7298, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 18-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 240.
    Árnason, Þorvardur
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Views of Nature and Environmental Concern in Iceland2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concern in contemporary societies is a complex phenomenon which is shaped and influenced by a host of different factors. One of the most important of these is the interplay between culture and nature that has taken place during the course of a nation’s history and the various ‛views of nature’ that such interplay has generated. Such views can e.g. manifest themselves in aesthetic judgments of natural scenery or, more generally, in the values that nature is seen to contain or carry. They form the base from which contemporary ideas, conceptions, and evaluations of nature are generated and debated.

    The five studies that together comprise this thesis explore the socio-cultural background of Icelandic environmentalism from a number of different perspectives. The first study concerns the depiction(s) of nature that can be found in the oldest literary works that have survived in Iceland. The second study deals with the first attempts by an Icelander to visualize nature in his homeland, using photographic media. The third study seeks to compare contemporary views of nature amongst Icelanders, e.g. concerning the appreciation of natural beauty, with those of Swedes and Danes. The fourth study reports the results of an extensive survey which probed the environmental values, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of present

    day Icelanders. The fifth study builds on this same survey but focuses on the public understanding and perceptions of sustainable development, and also on the connections between attitudes toward environmental and developmental issues.

    This overall thesis project was multi-disciplinary in nature, combining theory drawn from environmental philosophy, especially ethics and aesthetics, with the theories and methods of environmental sociology, politics and history. The empirical studies employed, furthermore sought to operationalize certain key theoretical constructs relating to views of nature, such as environmental value orientations and aesthetic appreciation of nature, and thus ‛build bridges’ between the concerns, theories and methods of the humanities, on one side, and those of the social sciences, on the other.

    Delarbeten
    1. Nature in Medieval Icelandic and Nordic Literature
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Nature in Medieval Icelandic and Nordic Literature
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environmental History, ISSN 1084-5453, E-ISSN 1930-8892Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13396 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-11-14 Skapad: 2005-11-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    2. Sigfús Eymundsson 1837-1911: Icelandic Landscape Photography
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sigfús Eymundsson 1837-1911: Icelandic Landscape Photography
    1999 (Engelska)Ingår i: History of Photography, ISSN 0308-7298, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 18-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13397 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-11-14 Skapad: 2005-11-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    3. Views of Nature in Iceland: A Comparative Approach
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Views of Nature in Iceland: A Comparative Approach
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13398 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-11-14 Skapad: 2005-11-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    4. Environmental Concern in Iceland: Values, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Environmental Concern in Iceland: Values, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors
    2005 (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13399 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-11-14 Skapad: 2005-11-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Sustainable Development in Iceland: Public Perceptions, Understanding, and Awareness
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sustainable Development in Iceland: Public Perceptions, Understanding, and Awareness
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environment, Development and Sustainabilty, ISSN 1573-2975Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13400 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-11-14 Skapad: 2005-11-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 241.
    Árnason, Þorvardur
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Þórðarson, Einar M.
    Environmental Concern in Iceland: Values, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors2005Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 242.
    Árnason, Þorvardur
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Þórðarson, Einar M.
    Sustainable Development in Iceland: Public Perceptions, Understanding, and Awareness2005Ingår i: Environment, Development and Sustainabilty, ISSN 1573-2975Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 243.
    Árnason, Þorvarður
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Views of Nature in Iceland: A Comparative Approach2005Ingår i: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 244.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Holm, Mats
    Local Forest Administration, Östergötland, Sweden.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Parikka, Matti
    Department of Bioenergy, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The role of organic matter bound chlorine in the chlorine cycle: a case study of the Stubbetorp catchment, Sweden2005Ingår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, Vol. 75, nr 2, s. 241-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to construct a balanced chlorine budget for a small forested catchment, focusing on the interaction between chloride (Clinorg) and organic-matter-bound chlorine (Clorg). Data from the actual catchment are combined with secondary data from other sites to elucidate more clearly which parts of the cycle are fairly well known and which are more or less unknown. The budget calculations show that the principal input and output fluxes of Cl in the catchment are inorganic but that the main pool is Clorg in the soil. In addition, the budget calculations suggest that a considerable portion of Clinorg in soil is transformed to Clorg and subsequently leached to deeper soil layers, that net mineralization of Clorg takes place in soil, preferably in deeper soil layers, and that degrading organic matter is a major source of Clinorg in runoff. The loss of Clorg through runoff is small to negligible in relation to other fluxes. It appears as if dry deposition of Clinorg is at risk of being underestimated if Clinorg is assumed to be conservative in soil. The pool of organic-matter-bound chlorine in soil is considerably larger than the annual flux of chloride through the system. The estimates suggest that the amount of Clorg in the upper 40 cm of the soil at the investigated site is approximately twice as large as the Clinorg. Furthermore, the amount of Clorg biomass is small in relation to the occurrence of Clorg in soil. Finally, the estimates indicate that the transport of volatile Clorg from the soil to the atmosphere may influence the chlorine cycle.

2345 201 - 244 av 244
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