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  • 201.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Henry, Lucy
    City University of London, England.
    Messer, David
    Open University, England.
    Carney, Daniel P. J.
    London S Bank University, England.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Developmental delays in phonological recoding among children and adolescents with Down syndrome and Williams syndrome2016Ingår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 55, s. 64-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the development of phonological recoding in short-term memory (STM) span tasks among two clinical groups with contrasting STM and language profiles: those with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Phonological recoding was assessed by comparing: (1) performance on phonologically similar and dissimilar items (phonological similarity effects, PSE); and (2) items with short and long names (word length effects, WLE). Participant groups included children and adolescents with DS (n = 29), WS (n = 25) and typical development (n = 51), all with average mental ages around 6 years. The group with WS, contrary to predictions based on their relatively strong verbal STM and language abilities, showed no evidence for phonological recoding. Those in the group with DS, with weaker verbal STM and language abilities, showed positive evidence for phonological recoding (PSE), but to a lesser degree than the typical group (who showed PSE and WLE). These findings provide new information about the memory systems of these groups of children and adolescents, and suggest that STM processes involving phonological recoding do not fit with the usual expectations of the abilities of children and adolescents with WS and DS. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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    fulltext
  • 202.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen
    University of Toronto, Department of Psychology .
    Dupuis, Kate
    Baycrest Health Sciences, Rotman Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Modeling the effect of early age-related hearing loss on cognition and participation in social leisure activities2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There are well-known age-related declines in hearing, cognition and social participation. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hearing loss is associated with both cognitive decline and increased risk for social isolation and that engagement in social leisure activities is related to cognitive decline. However, it is unclear how the three concepts and age relate to each other. In the current study, behavioral measures of hearing and memory were examined in relation to self-reported participation in social leisure activities. Data from two different samples were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The first consisted of 297 adults from Umeå, Sweden, who participated in the Betula longitudinal study. The second consisted of 273 older adults who volunteered for lab-based research on aging in Toronto, Canada. Structural equation modeling yielded two models with similar statistical properties for both samples. The first model suggests that age contributes to both hearing and memory performance, hearing contributes to memory performance, and memory (but not hearing) contributes to participation in social leisure activities. The second model also suggests that age contributes to hearing and memory performance and that hearing contributes to memory performance, but that age also contributes to participation in social leisure activities, which in turn contributes to memory performance. The models were confirmed in both samples, indicating robustness in the findings, especially since the samples differed on background variables such as years of education and marital status. Few participants in both samples were candidates for hearing aids, but most of those who were candidates used them. This suggests that even early stages of hearing loss can increase demands on cognitive processing that may deter participation in social leisure activities.

  • 203.
    Davis, M.H.
    et al.
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit.
    Ford, M.A.
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit.
    Kherif, F.
    University of Lausanne.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Queen's University.
    Does semantic context benefit speech understanding through top-down processes? Evidence from time-resolved sparse fMRI.2011Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 23, nr 12, s. 3914-3932Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When speech is degraded, word report is higher for semantically coherent sentences (e.g., her new skirt was made of denim) than for anomalous sentences (e.g., her good slope was done in carrot). Such increased intelligibility is often described as resulting from “top–down” processes, reflecting an assumption that higher-level (semantic) neural processes support lower-level (perceptual) mechanisms. We used time-resolved sparse fMRI to test for top–down neural mechanisms, measuring activity while participants heard coherent and anomalous sentences presented in speech envelope/spectrum noise at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The timing of BOLD responses to more intelligible speech provides evidence of hierarchical organization, with earlier responses in peri-auditory regions of the posterior superior temporal gyrus than in more distant temporal and frontal regions. Despite Sentence content × SNR interactions in the superior temporal gyrus, prefrontal regions respond after auditory/perceptual regions. Although we cannot rule out top–down effects, this pattern is more compatible with a purely feedforward or bottom–up account, in which the results of lower-level perceptual processing are passed to inferior frontal regions. Behavioral and neural evidence that sentence content influences perception of degraded speech does not necessarily imply “top–down” neural processes.

  • 204.
    Davis, Paul
    et al.
    Univ Umea, Sweden.
    Halvarsson, Anton
    Univ Umea, Sweden.
    Lundstrom, Wictor
    Univ Umea, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Alpine Ski Coaches and Athletes Perceptions of Factors Influencing Adaptation to Stress in the Classroom and on the Slopes2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 1641Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research examining the student-athlete experience proposes a number of factors that can be both sources of stress and/or support. The dual career pathway offers a number of potential positive outcomes including psychological, social, and financial benefits; however, challenges including time management, fatigue, and restricted social activities are well documented. In consideration of the multidimensional student-athlete experience and the numerous factors that influence the complexity of potential stress, a mixed methods research study design was used in the study. First, data collected from surveys completed by 173 elite junior alpine skiers were analyzed to identify the degree to which athletes report experiencing stress associated with specific aspects pertaining to training, life, and organizational factors. These factors were then explored through semi-structured interviews with six coaches at the associated national elite sport schools. Taken collectively, athletes reports of psychophysiological training stress on the Multidimensional Training Distress Scale were low. Scores on the college studentathletes life stress scale revealed very low levels of general life stress; although the subscales associated with "performance demand" and "academic requirements" scored marginally higher. Scores on the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers indicated low levels of organizational stress. The interviews with coaches elucidated the underlying factors potentially influencing athletes positive adaptations to stress as they reported programming a number of strategies to reduce negative outcomes. Coaches aimed to teach athletes self-awareness and regulation strategies through the use of the training diaries and ongoing communication to promote positive adaptation to stress. A number of coaches also worked with sport psychology consultants to optimize athletes training and study situations. Traditionally, research has noted high levels of stress in student-athletes due to co-occurring demands (school amp; sport); however, the data in the present study suggests that optimizing support mechanisms across domains can promote positive adaptations to potential sources of stress.

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  • 205.
    Davis, Paul
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Halvarsson, Anton
    Umeå University.
    Lundström, Wictor
    Umeå University.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    EXAMINING ALPINE COACHES’ AND ATHLETES’ PERCEPTIONS OF ADAPTATIONS TO STRESS IN THE CLASSROOM AND ON THE SLOPES2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 206.
    Dear, Blake
    et al.
    Department of Psychology eCentreClinic, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Silfvernagel, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Fogliati, Vincent
    Department of Psychology eCentreClinic, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for older adults with anxiety and depression2016Ingår i: Guided internet-based treatments in psychiatry / [ed] Lindefors, N. & Andersson, G., Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2016, s. 219-234Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety and depression are prevalent among older adults and are associated increased disability, reduced quality of life and poorer physical health. Effective psychological treatments such as cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) are known to be effective and acceptable for older adults. However, as with younger adults, research indicates relatively few older adults access these treatments in their traditional face-to-face format. However, highlighting the potential of newer internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) approaches for increasing access to treatment, a large proportion of older adults are online and the overall proportion online is only likely to grow over time. Several clinical trials have now been conducted examining ICBT for older adults and the nature and finding of these emerging studies are reviewed in this chapter. Future directions for research focused in this area are also discussed.

  • 207.
    Dedic, Helena
    et al.
    Vanier College and Centre for Study of Learning and Performance, Concordia University, Canada.
    Rosenfield, Steven
    Vanier College and Centre for Study of Learning and Performance, Concordia University, Canada.
    Rosenfield, Eva
    Champlain College, USA.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Attracting and Retaining Science Students2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This research addresses an issue raised in recent reports that demonstrate that Quebec andSweden lag behind countries with emerging economies in the number of science graduates, asmeasured by the proportion of degrees earned in the sciences. Our objective was to investigate aset of factors that might, directly and/or indirectly, impact on student achievement andperseverance in science studies. We aimed to assess cultural (Quebec vs. Sweden) and genderdifferences in students’ scores on these factors, and in the strength of the relationships that thesefactors have to achievement and perseverance. Participants (N=2184) were recruited from twopopulations: students who enrolled in one of the four public Anglophone CEGEPs in Montrealthe Fall 2007 and Swedish students who attended twelfth grade in high schools in Linköping andStockholm in the school year 2007-2008. With the consent of students, demographic,achievement and enrollment data were acquired from the databases of the Quebec and Swedishministries of education. Data on independent variables: parental support (for autonomy,competence and science acculturation); teacher support (for autonomy, competence, relatednessand science acculturation); and, cognitive style (systemizing and empathizing) were collected viasurveys. Similarly, data on mediating variables: self-efficacy; five sub-scales of motivation; and,academic emotions (boredom, anxiety and enjoyment) were also collected via surveys. Data onperseverance were exclusively collected via survey in the Swedish sample. We used both surveysand information provided by college registrars to assess perseverance of Quebecers.Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to validate instruments used in this study. ANOVA andCORRELATION were statistics used to assess differences and strengths of relationships betweenvariables. We have found that Swedish students persevere more than their Quebec counterparts.Furthermore, female students persevere less than their male peers although their achievement isnot significantly different and the achievement was found to be the most important factor inperseverance. We have also found several promising factors that might be at the root of thegender differences in perseverance, namely, female students have: higher negative emotions(anxiety and boredom); lower self-efficacy; and lower systemizing cognitive style. All of thesevariables were shown to influence perseverance. We determined that parental support for scienceacculturation is very low. Thus, teacher support for science acculturation, which influencesstudent intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy, which in turn influence perseverance, is animportant part of teachers’ classroom role. Increasing teacher support for science acculturationmay impact positively on students with lower systemizing cognitive style, encouraging them topersevere in the pursuit of a career in the sciences.

  • 208.
    Deserno, Lorenz
    et al.
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Germany; Free Univ Berlin, Germany; Humboldt Univ, Germany; Berlin Inst Hlth, Germany; Max Planck Inst Human Cognit and Brain Sci, Germany; Max Planck UCL Ctr Computat Psychiat and Ageing Res, England; UCL, England.
    Böhme, Rebecca
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Charite Univ Med Berlin, Germany; Free Univ Berlin, Germany; Humboldt Univ, Germany; Berlin Inst Hlth, Germany.
    Mathys, Christoph
    Max Planck UCL Ctr Computat Psychiat and Ageing Res, England; UCL, England; Scuola Internazl Super Avanzati, Italy; Univ Zurich, Switzerland; Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Katthagen, Teresa
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Germany; Free Univ Berlin, Germany; Humboldt Univ, Germany; Berlin Inst Hlth, Germany.
    Kaminski, Jakob
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Germany; Free Univ Berlin, Germany; Humboldt Univ, Germany; Berlin Inst Hlth, Germany.
    Stephan, Klaas Enno
    Max Planck Inst Metab Res, Germany; UCL, England; Univ Zurich, Switzerland; Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Heinz, Andreas
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Germany; Free Univ Berlin, Germany; Humboldt Univ, Germany; Berlin Inst Hlth, Germany; Charite Univ Med Berlin, Germany; Bernstein Ctr Computat Neurosci, Germany.
    Schlagenhauf, Florian
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Germany; Free Univ Berlin, Germany; Humboldt Univ, Germany; Berlin Inst Hlth, Germany; Bernstein Ctr Computat Neurosci, Germany; Max Planck Inst Human Cognit and Brain Sci, Germany.
    Volatility Estimates Increase Choice Switching and Relate to Prefrontal Activity in Schizophrenia2020Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, ISSN 2451-9022, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 173-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Reward-based decision making is impaired in patients with schizophrenia (PSZ), as reflected by increased choice switching. The underlying cognitive and motivational processes as well as associated neural signatures remain unknown. Reinforcement learning and hierarchical Bayesian learning account for choice switching in different ways. We hypothesized that enhanced choice switching, as seen in PSZ during reward-based decision making, relates to higher-order beliefs about environmental volatility, and we examined the associated neural activity. METHODS: In total, 46 medicated PSZ and 43 healthy control subjects performed a reward-based decision-making task requiring flexible responses to changing action-outcome contingencies during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Detailed computational modeling of choice data was performed, including reinforcement learning and the hierarchical Gaussian filter. Trajectories of learning from computational modeling informed the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. RESULTS: A 3-level hierarchical Gaussian filter accounted best for the observed choice data. This model revealed a heightened initial belief about environmental volatility and a stronger influence of volatility on lower-level learning of action-outcome contingencies in PSZ as compared with healthy control subjects. This was replicated in an independent sample of nonmedicated PSZ. Beliefs about environmental volatility were reflected by higher activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of PSZ as compared with healthy control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that PSZ inferred the environment as overly volatile, which may explain increased choice switching. In PSZ, activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was more strongly related to beliefs about environmental volatility. Our computational phenotyping approach may provide useful information to dissect clinical heterogeneity and could improve prediction of outcome.

  • 209.
    Duong, Alicia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Alkohol & föräldrastress: -Finns det något samband?2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett flertal undersökningar har individer skattat att de dricker i följd till stress, vilket har visats bero på att människor dricker i försök till att hantera ekonomisk stress, stress på jobbet och/eller föräldrastress (Pohorecky, 1991). Ju svårare stressen är desto högre är alkoholkonsumtionen (Pohorecky, 1991). I denna studie studeras alkohol och föräldrastress genom självskattningsenkäter tagna ur projektet Alla Barn i Sydöstra Sverige (ABIS) 8-årsuppföljning.

    Resultatet visar på att det inte finns några signifikanta skillnader i föräldrastressen hos alkoholkonsumtionens olika riskgrupper varken hos mödrarna eller fäderna, då de själva skattat sin alkoholkonsumtion. Detta resultat visar på att man inte med säkerhet kan säga att mängden alkohol som konsumeras hos föräldrar tenderar att bero på att deras föräldraskapskrav inte räcker till för deras personliga resurser. Resultatet kunde inte heller säkert visa tendenser till att alkoholen skulle kunna reducera föräldrastressen hos föräldrarna.

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  • 210.
    Durisala, N.
    et al.
    Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya Kumar Channapatna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lamar University, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Granberg, S.
    Örebro University, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Moeller, K.
    Örebro University, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Determination and classification of the problems experienced by adults with single-sided deafness using ICF classification: an exploratory study using 26 participants2017Ingår i: Clinical Otolaryngology, ISSN 1749-4478, E-ISSN 1365-2273, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 748-752Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 211.
    Dävelid, Iza
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Ledin, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen (CATS): En psykometrisk studie i svensk normgrupp2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att psykometriskt undersöka den svenska versionen av Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen (CATS) för att skapa tillgång till ett självsvarsinstrument för barn och ungdomar som screenar för både traumahistorik och traumasymtom utifrån aktuellt diagnossystem DSM-5. För detta syfte undersöktes reliabilitet och evidens för validitet med hjälp av två sample; en normgrupp med 591 svenska skolelever i åldrarna 10 till 17 år samt en test-retestgrupp med 90 svenska skolelever i åldrarna 13 till 17 år. En pilotstudie med 38 svenska skolelever i åldrarna 15 till 19 år användes för metodvägledning inför studiens genomförande.

     

    Reliabiliteten undersöktes med estimering av intern konsistens med Cronbachs α i normgrupp samt temporal stabilitet med ICC och Cohens k i test-retestgrupp. För att erhålla evidens för kriterievaliditet användes robust enkel regressionsanalys för att undersöka huruvida antalet traumahändelser kunde predicera symtomutfall.  För att erhålla evidens för konvergent och diskriminant validitet beräknades Pearsons r mellan CATS symtomskala och de sex subskalorna i Trauma Symtom Checklist for Children (TSCC). Cramérs V användes för evidensprövning av konvergent validitet mellan CATS skala för traumahistorik och LYLES.  Evidens för validitet undersöktes även med analys av formulärets interna struktur med konfirmatorisk faktoranalys (CFA) utifrån DSM-5s fyrfaktormodell för PTSD. CFA utfördes med estimeringsmetoden bootstrap Maximum-likelihood till följd av bristfällig uni- och multivariat normalitet. Oberoende t-test användes för att undersöka eventuella gruppskillnader avseende traumahistorik och traumasymtom uppmätt med CATS.

     

    CATS symtomskala uppvisade god intern konsistens på samtliga fyra subskalor (Cronbachs α = .73-.89) och moderat temporal stabilitet (ICC = .57-.68). Temporal stabilitet för CATS totalskala för traumahistorik var god (ICC = .84) och sett till varje item var överensstämmelsen mellan test- och retestmätningar varierande från liten till nästintill perfekt (k = .34-.87). Robust enkel regressionsanalys påvisade att antalet traumahändelser predicerar symtomutfall där 32% av variansen i symtomuttryck kunde härledas till antalet traumahändelser. Måttliga till starka korrelationer återfanns mellan CATS symtomskala och TSCC symtomskalor med starkast korrelation med subskalan posttraumatisk stress (r = .82) och svagast korrelation med subskalan för sexuella bekymmer (r = .44). CATS skala för traumahistorik korrelerade måttligt med LYLES (V = .45).  DSM-5s fyrfaktormodell för PTSD indikerade god passform, reliabilitet och konvergent validitet. Modellen uppvisade bristande intern diskriminant validitet vilket kunde förklaras med prövning av en second-ordermodell med PTSD som högre ordnad faktor.

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  • 212.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin Univ, Australia; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Viewpoints of pedestrians with and without cognitive impairment on shared zones and zebra crossings2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikel-id e0203765Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Shared zones are characterised by an absence of traditional markers that segregate the road and footpath. Negotiation of a shared zone relies on an individuals ability to perceive, assess and respond to environmental cues. This ability may be impacted by impairments in cognitive processing, which may lead to individuals experiencing increased anxiety when negotiating a shared zone. Method Q method was used in order to identify and explore the viewpoints of pedestrians, with and without cognitive impairments as they pertain to shared zones. Results Two viewpoints were revealed. Viewpoint one was defined by "confident users" while viewpoint two was defined by users who "know what [they] are doing but drivers might not". Discussion Overall, participants in the study would not avoid shared zones. Pedestrians with intellectual disability were, however, not well represented by either viewpoint, suggesting that shared zones may pose a potential barrier to participation for this group.

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  • 213.
    Ebadi, Roya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Eriksson, Ylva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Grupphandledning och utvecklandet av terapeutisk relation: En kvalitativ studie om psykoterapeutstuderandes upplevelser2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykoterapihandledning i grupp är en viktig del i utbildningen till psykoterapeut. Det finns dock inte mycket forskning om detta och framför allt inte om hur den terapeutiska relationen påverkas av grupphandledningen. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka grupphandledningens upplevda påverkan på den terapeutiska relationen utifrån de handledda terapeutstudenternas perspektiv. Metoden som har använts i studien är en kvalitativ ansats utifrån Grundad Teori. Resultatet visar att handledarens stil har stor betydelse för upplevelsen av grupphandledningen. Den har inflytande på trygghet i gruppen, kreativitet, lärande, konflikthantering och kritiskt tänkande. Allt detta upplevs återspegla sig i den terapeutiska relationen som terapeuten etablerar med sin klient. Man kan se detta som ett indicium för betydelsen av utbildningshandledningen för den blivande terapeutens kapacitet att etablera och vidmakthålla en god terapeutisk allians med sina klienter.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 214.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Alehagen, Siw
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för omvårdnad och reproduktiv hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Mörelius, Evalotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för omvårdnad och reproduktiv hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus Linköping/Motala. Edith Cowan Univ, Australia.
    Johansson, AnnaKarin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för omvårdnad och reproduktiv hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Rytterström, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för omvårdnad och reproduktiv hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Should the PBL tutor be present?: A cross-sectional study of group effectiveness in synchronous and asynchronous settings2020Ingår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION, Vol. 20, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The tutorial group and its dynamics are a cornerstone of problem-based learning (PBL). The tutor’s support varies according to the setting, and it is pertinent to explore group effectiveness in relation to different settings, for example online or campus-based. The PBL groups’ effectiveness can partly be assessed in terms of cognitive and motivational aspects, using a self-report tool to measure PBL group effectiveness, the Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument (TGEI).

    This study’s aim was to explore tutor participation in variations of online and campus-based tutorial groups in relation to group effectiveness. A secondary aim was to validate a tool for assessing tutorial group effectiveness in a Swedish context.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional study was conducted with advanced-level nursing students studying to become specialised nurses or midwives at a Swedish university. The TGEI was used to measure motivational and cognitive aspects in addition to overall group effectiveness. The instrument’s items were translated into Swedish and refined with an expert group and students. The responses were calculated descriptively and compared between groups using the Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests. A psychometric evaluation was performed using the Mokken scale analysis. The subscale scores were compared between three different tutor settings: the tutor present face-to-face in the room, the tutor present online and the consultant tutor not present in the room and giving support asynchronously.

    Results

    All the invited students (n = 221) participated in the study. There were no differences in motivational or cognitive aspects between students with or without prior PBL experience, nor between men and women. Higher scores were identified on cognitive aspects (22.6, 24.6 and 21.3; p < 0.001), motivational aspects (26.3, 27 and 24.5; p = 002) and group effectiveness (4.1, 4.3, 3.8, p = 0.02) for the two synchronously tutored groups compared to the asynchronously tutored group. The TGEI subscales showed adequate homogeneity.

    Conclusions

    The tutor’s presence is productive for PBL group effectiveness. However, the tutor need not be in the actual room but can provide support in online settings as long as the tutoring is synchronous.

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  • 215.
    Edvardsson Stiwne, Elinor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vad betyder gruppen i ett föränderligt nätverkssamhälle2000Ingår i: Studies of groups and change, 2000Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 216.
    Ehlers, Anke
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, England; Oxford Hlth NHS Fdn Trust, England; Kings Coll London, England; South London and Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Wild, Jennifer
    Univ Oxford, England; Oxford Hlth NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Warnock-Parkes, Emma
    Univ Oxford, England; Oxford Hlth NHS Fdn Trust, England; Kings Coll London, England; South London and Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Grey, Nick
    Sussex Partnership NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Murray, Hannah
    Univ Oxford, England; Oxford Hlth NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Kerr, Alice
    South London and Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Beierl, Esther T.
    Univ Oxford, England; Oxford Hlth NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Tsiachristas, Apostolos
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Perera-Salazar, Rafael
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Clark, David M.
    Univ Oxford, England; Oxford Hlth NHS Fdn Trust, England; Kings Coll London, England; South London and Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    A randomised controlled trial of therapist-assisted online psychological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (STOP-PTSD): trial protocol2020Ingår i: TRIALS, Vol. 21, nr 1, artikel-id 355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Over the last few decades, effective psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been developed, but many patients are currently unable to access these treatments. There is initial evidence that therapist-assisted internet-based psychological treatments are effective for PTSD and may help increase access, but it remains unclear which of these treatments work best and are most acceptable to patients. This randomised controlled trial will compare a trauma-focussed and a nontrauma-focussed therapist-assisted cognitive behavioural Internet treatment for PTSD: Internet-delivered cognitive therapy for PTSD (iCT-PTSD) and internet-delivered stress management therapy (iStress-PTSD). Methods/design The study is a single-blind, randomised controlled trial comparing iCT-PTSD, iStress-PTSD and a 13-week wait-list condition, with an embedded process study. Assessors of treatment outcome will be blinded to trial arm. Two hundred and seventeen participants who meet DSM-5 criteria for PTSD will be randomly allocated by a computer programme to iCT-PTSD, iStress-PTSD or wait-list at a 3:3:1 ratio. The primary assessment point is at 13 weeks, and further assessments are taken at 6, 26, 39 and 65 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the severity of PTSD symptoms as measured by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Secondary measures of PTSD symptoms are the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Other symptoms and well-being will be assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), WHO (Five) Well-Being Index, Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), Endicott Quality of Life Scale (QoL), and Insomnia Sleep Index (ISI). Health economics analyses will consider quality of life, productivity, health resource utilisation, employment status and state benefits, and treatment delivery costs. Process analyses will investigate candidate mediators and moderators of outcome. Patient experience will be assessed by interview and questionnaire. Discussion This study will be the first to compare the efficacy of a trauma-focussed and nontrauma-focussed therapist-assisted online cognitive behavioural treatment for people with posttraumatic stress disorder.

  • 217.
    Einarsson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Is the Grass Greener in the Other Group? Students’ Experiences of Group-Work2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Group-work is used as one type of working method in higher education in Sweden today. Working with others in a group project may have many advantages and may also facilitate learning. But group-work has never been able to work its magic for everyone. Some students find group-based working methods as a high-quality and enjoyable way to learn whereas other find working in group as a waste of time, or even pointless. Sometimes group-members may think and speak about other groups, the processes and the work of the other groups. Students may compare their own group to other groups in their course. As teachers we receive spontaneous comments about how students experience the group-work. Through course evaluations we also have the opportunity to receive annotations about how students consider group-work as working method. Even though a large number of studies have been presented on group-work very little attention has been paid to the students’ experience of the working method. Do students appreciate group projects or do they find it boring and even as a waste of time? Would some students rather prefer to work alone, or in “the other group”?

    The aim of this paper presentation is to address students’ experiences of group-work as a working method in higher education. We want to focus on and elucidate the students’ point of view and how they assess working in groups.

    Data was collected via structured questionnaire with multiple choice and open ended questions. The questionnaire was distributed to students on different study programmes.

    This study is part of a lager research project on group-work at higher education and we will present some of the results from the questionnaire. In the presentation we will focus on students’ positive and negative experiences of group-work. We will also focus on their conceptions of how their own group works compared to other groups in their study program.

     

     

  • 218.
    Ekeblad, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    A Randomized Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder: Predictors of process and outcome2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Interpersonell Psykoterapi (IPT) och Kognitiv Beteendeterapi (KBT) är båda evidensbaserade psykoterapier för egentlig depression. Flera direkta jämförelser mellan dessa terapimetoder har gjorts, de flesta i USA. Det finns dock ett behov av fler studier i olika socio-kulturella kontexter och behandlingsmiljöer. Denna avhandling är baserad på en randomiserad kontrollerad studie av KBT och IPT för egentlig depression på en psykiatrisk öppenvårdsmottagning. Behandlingsutfall och förändring i mentaliseringsförmåga jämfördes mellan metoderna. Dessutom studerades betydelsen av mentaliseringsförmågan före behandlingen som prediktor för allians och utfall. Nittiosex patienter, varav ca hälften med personlighetsstörning, randomiserades till 14 sessioner med IPT eller KBT. Hypotesen var att IPT inte skulle ha sämre utfall än KBT, vilket bekräftades. KBT hade signifikant högre grad av terapiavbrott. Initial mentaliseringsförmåga predicerade allians och utfall, både i IPT och KBT. Mentaliseringsförmågan ökade i IPT men inte i KBT.

    Delarbeten
    1. Reflective Functioning as Predictor of Working Alliance and Outcome in the Treatment of Depression
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Reflective Functioning as Predictor of Working Alliance and Outcome in the Treatment of Depression
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0022-006X, E-ISSN 1939-2117, Vol. 84, nr 1, s. 67-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Although considerable attention has been paid to the concept of mentalization in psychotherapy, there is little research on mentalization as predictor of psychotherapy process and outcome. Using data from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy for depression, we studied mentalization in 85 outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It was hypothesized that patients showing lower capacity for mentalization would experience poorer quality of alliance and worse outcome. Method: Depressive symptoms were measured each session using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mentalization was measured as reflective functioning (RF) on a slightly shortened version of the Adult Attachment Interview. A measure of depression-specific reflective functioning (DSRF), measuring mentalization about depressive symptoms, was also used. The Working Alliance Inventory-Short Form Revised was completed after each session by both therapist and patient. Longitudinal multilevel modeling was used to analyze data. Results: The patients had on average very low RF (M = 2.62, SD = 1.22). Lower pretreatment RF/DSRF predicted significantly lower therapist-rated working alliance during treatment. RF did not affect patient-rated alliance, but lower DSRF predicted lower patient-rated alliance across treatment. Patients with higher RF/DSRF had better outcomes on self-rated depression. Conclusions: The findings showed lower than normal capacity for mentalization in patients with MDD. Lower RF/DSRF predicted worse treatment outcome. More research is needed to understand how RF affects psychotherapy response and how RF is affected after recovery from depression.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC, 2016
    Nyckelord
    psychotherapy process; mentalization; reflective functioning; working alliance; major depression
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicinska och farmaceutiska grundvetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124490 (URN)10.1037/ccp0000055 (DOI)000367426900006 ()26594944 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Rehsam Fund [2010/013]; Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2013-0203]; L. J. Boethius Research Fund; Emil Andersson Research Fund

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-02 Skapad: 2016-02-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-10
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  • 219.
    Eklinder Björnström, Laura
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hills, Charlotte
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Hanif, Hashim
    University of British Columbia, Canada .
    Barton, Jason
    University of British Columbia, Canada .
    Visual word expertise: a study of inversion and the word-length effect, with perceptual transforms2014Ingår i: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 43, nr 5, s. 438-450Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The word-length effect may indicate whether reading is proceeding in an efficient whole-word fashion or by serial letter processing. If it is an index of an orientation-dependent expert reading mechanism, then it should show an inversion effect, with a large difference between upright and upside-down text that is specific for normally configured text. We measured response time of healthy subjects reading 3- to 9-letter words presented in normal configuration, in mirror reflection or spelt backward, in either upright or inverted orientation. The word-length effect showed an inversion effect specific for normal text, as it was not seen for either backward or mirrored text, a result that differed from that for simple mean response times. Also, the word-length effect was smaller for backward than for mirrored text, suggesting that reading of transformed text uses primarily local letters rather than global word forms. We conclude that the word-length effect is a suitable index of expert reading, and reveals that reading under perceptually difficult conditions relies on a sublexical letter-based strategy.

  • 220.
    Ekselius, Karl Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Namibian Student's Time Perspective: Investigating TP Comparing ZTPI Scores and Conducting Focus Groups2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines cultural differences in time perspective (TP). Two groups of psychology students were compared using the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). One group was Swedish (n=125) and the other was Namibian (n=105). Students from Namibia also participated in focus groups discussing aspects affecting their TP. Results show Swedish students are more past positive, less past negative, less present hedonistic, less present fatalistic and less future negative compared to Namibian students. Focus groups findings reveal that economic aspects are important to the Namibian students view of the past and the future. They believe it is not possible to have a positive past or future if basic needs, like food and shelter, are not met. Other important aspects include family and freedom. The students also discuss the importance of finding a balance between appreciating the present and investing in the future. 

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    Ekselius_Thesis
  • 221.
    El Alaoui, Samir
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Jan
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Predictors and moderators of internet- and group-based cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. e79024-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) can be equally effective as traditional face-to-face cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for treating panic disorder (PD). However, little is known about the predictors and moderators of outcome of ICBT when delivered in psychiatric outpatient settings. This study investigated a selection of outcome predictors and moderators of ICBT for panic disorder based on data from a randomised controlled trial where therapist-guided ICBT was compared with group CBT (GCBT) for panic disorder. Participants (N = 104) received 10 weeks of ICBT or GCBT and were assessed before and after treatment, and after six months. Multiple regression analyses were used to test for significant predictors of treatment outcome. Predictors of positive treatment response for both modalities were having low levels of symptom severity and work impairment. In addition, anxiety sensitivity was found to have a small negative relationship with treatment outcome, suggesting that anxiety sensitivity may slightly enhance treatment response. Treatment modality had a moderating effect on the relationship between domestic impairment and outcome and on the relationship between initial age of onset of panic symptoms and treatment outcome, favouring ICBT for patients having had an early onset of PD symptoms and for patients having a high domestic functional impairment. These results suggest that both ICBT and GCBT are effective treatment modalities for PD and that it is possible to predict a significant proportion of the long-term outcome variance based on clinical variables.

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  • 222.
    Ellis, Rachel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Molander, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Predicting speech-in-noise perception using the trail making task: Results from a large-scale internet study2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of an internet-based version of the trail making test (TMT) to predict performance on a speech-in-noise perception task. Computerised versions of the tests were completed, via the internet, by a large (1500+) sample of listeners aged between 18 and 91 years old, both with and without hearing loss. The results show that better performance on both the simple and complex versions of the TMT are associated with better speech-in-noise recognition scores. The findings suggest that the relation between performance in the TMT and speech recognition test may be due to the capacity of the TMT to index perceptual speed, as opposed to the more complex cognitive abilities also implicated in TMT performance.

  • 223.
    Elmerstig, Eva
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Being "Good in Bed"Body Concerns, Self-Perceptions, and Gender Expectations Among Swedish Heterosexual Female and Male Senior High-School Students2017Ingår i: Journal of sex & marital therapy, ISSN 0092-623X, E-ISSN 1521-0715, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 326-342Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated gender differences regarding body perceptions, self-perceptions, values and expectations in sexual situations, and factors associated with expectations, among Swedish heterosexual female and male high-school students. A total of 2,765 students (aged 18 to 22) completed questionnaires. Women reported lower satisfaction with themselves and their body appearance (p amp;lt; 0.001), and felt more inferior to their partner (p amp;lt; 0.001). Men felt more superior to their partner, and felt higher expectations (p amp;lt; 0.001). Male sex, difficulty saying no to sex, dissatisfaction with the body, feeling inferior or superior to partner, and considering partners satisfaction as more important, were all associated with feeling expectations during sex.

  • 224.
    Elwér, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Specifika läsförståelseproblem2009Ingår i: Dyslexi och andra svårigheter med skriftspråket / [ed] Stefan Samuelsson, Stockholm: Natur & Kultur , 2009, 1, s. 162-182Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 225.
    Englund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Mobbning betraktas som moraliskt fel – ändå sker det: Hur olika mekanismer inom moraliskt disengagemang sammanhänger med mobbning2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens första syfte var att bidra med en analys av huruvida mekanismer inom moraliskt disengagemang sammanhänger med olika mobbningsformer (mobbning, direkt mobbning och indirekt mobbning) bland elever på högstadienivå (årskurs 7) när de inkluderas i samma modeller. Ett andra syfte med studien var att undersöka om det förelåg könsskillnader i hur relationerna såg ut mellan mobbningsformerna och de olika mekanismerna inom moraliskt disengagemang. Studien hade en tvärsnittsdesign och resultatet baserades på 1726 elevers självskattningar av påståenden om olika mobbningsformer och mekanismer inom moraliskt disengagemang. Multipla regressionsanalyser visade att mobbning sammanhängde positivt med moraliskt rättfärdigande, förskönande omskrivning, ansvarsförskjutning, dehumanisering och skylla på offret. Resultatet visade även att moraliskt rättfärdigande, förskönande omskrivning och dehumanisering sammanhängde positivt med mobbning och direkt mobbning hos både tjejer och killar. Indirekt mobbning sammanhängde positivt med moraliskt rättfärdigande, förskönande omskrivning, dehumanisering och skylla på offret hos tjejer, men endast med moraliskt rättfärdigande och dehumanisering hos killar. Resultatet indikerade att tjejer använde fler, och i större utsträckning, mekanismer inom moraliskt disengagemang vid mobbningssituationer än killar.

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  • 226.
    Engman-Bredvik, S
    et al.
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Sciences , Umeå University , Umeå , Sweden..
    Carballeira, Suarez N
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Sciences , Umeå University , Umeå , Sweden..
    Levi, Richard
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation , Umeå University , Umeå , Sweden..
    Nilsson, K
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Sciences , Umeå University , Umeå , Sweden..
    Multi-family therapy in anorexia nervosa-A qualitative study of parental experiences.2016Ingår i: Eating Disorders, ISSN 1064-0266, E-ISSN 1532-530X, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 186-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study from northern Sweden investigated experiences of multi-family therapy (MFT) in 12 parents of children with anorexia nervosa (AN). The main reported benefit was the opportunity to talk to others in a similar situation, thereby sharing experiences and struggles. MFT resulted in new perspectives and insights that improved family dynamics and enabled new constructive behaviors. In conclusion, MFT seems to be a useful therapeutic modality in the treatment of AN in a northern European setting.

  • 227.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Medicinsk radiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Neurologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Neurologiska kliniken.
    Craig, A. D. (Bud)
    Atkinson Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ.
    Mental energy – an fMRI investigation of the anterior insular and the anterior cingulate network2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 228.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Medicinsk radiologi.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Neurologi.
    Craig, A. D. (Bud)
    Atkinson Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ.
    Mental energy: graded co-activation of the anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortices during challenging working memory,  visual perception and motor speed tasks.Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 229.
    Engström, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Gudsrelation som samtalstema i terapi2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien avser att ge en bild av hur samtal om gudsrelation hanteras i psykoterapi. Data samlades in genom en fokusgrupp och 13 intervjuer. Urvalet bestod av terapeuter och själavårdare med erfarenhet av att samtala om gudsrelation med konfidenter. Materialet analyserades med en modifierad version av Consensual Qualitative Research. Analysen gav sju kategorier som beskrivs ingående: Förekomst, Initiering, Samtalens karaktär och behandlarens förhållningssätt, Behandlarens strategier och arbetssätt, Relevans, Möjliga vinster och risker samt Metanivå. Slutsatserna sammanfattas på följande sätt: Samtal om gudsrelation i terapi kan beskrivas som sällsynta, känsliga och fruktbärande. Etiska frågeställningar som aktualiserats av temat diskuteras.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 230.
    Eriksson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Eriksson, Mimmi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Bland platta paddor och smarta äpplen: Förskolebarns kognitiva förmåga i relation till digital media2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersökte relationen mellan förskolebarns kognitiva förmåga och vilken typ av rörligmedia och mobila spel som barnen ägnade sig åt, samt relationen mellan föräldrarnas användningav mobila enheter och barnens kognitiva förmåga. Kognitiv förmåga undersöktes medtestbatteriet WPPSI-IV och medievariablerna undersöktes med en webbaserad enkät.

    Sammantaget visade resultaten att det fanns positiva samband mellan pojkars kognitiva förmågoroch att titta på viss typ av rörlig media, medan det för flickor fanns negativa sambandför viss rörlig media respektive spelande på mobila enheter. Gällande förälderns användningav mobila enheter hade flickorna bättre generell kognitiv förmåga och språklig förmåga omföräldern använde sådana i närvaro av barnet.

    Resultaten gick delvis mot och delvis i linje med tidigare forskning. Eftersom studien fannolika resultat för flickor och pojkar, bör detta undersökas mer noggrant i kommande studierför att bättre kunna uttala sig om relationen mellan digital media och barns kognitiva förmåga.

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  • 231.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Malardalen University, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Procedural priming of a numerical cognitive illusion2016Ingår i: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 205-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy activated in one task may be transferred to subsequent tasks and prevent activation of other strategies that would otherwise come to mind, a mechanism referred to as procedural priming. In a novel application of procedural priming we show that it can make or break cognitive illusions. Our test case is the 1/k illusion, which is based on the same unwarranted mathematical shortcut as the MPG illusion and the time-saving bias. The task is to estimate distances between values of fractions on the form 1/k. Most people given this task intuitively base their estimates on the distances between the denominators (i.e., the reciprocals of the fractions), which may yield very poor estimations of the true distances between the fractions. As expected, the tendency to fall for this illusion is related to cognitive style (Study 1). In order to apply procedural priming we constructed versions of the task in which the illusion is weak, in the sense that most people do not fall for it anymore. We then gave participants both "strong illusion" and "weak illusion" versions of the task (Studies 2 and 3). Participants who first did the task in the weak illusion version would often persist with the correct strategy even in the strong illusion version, thus breaking the otherwise strong illusion in the latter task. Conversely, participants who took the strong illusion version first would then often fall for the illusion even in the weak illusion version, thus strengthening the otherwise weak illusion in the latter task.

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  • 232.
    Eriksson, Oskar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Konformitet på Internet: Hur vi påverkas av andra2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersökte det gruppsykologiska fenomenet konformitet på Internet. Deltagare var 941 personer från tio olika communities och forum. Av deltagarna var 58,9% kvinnor och åldern varierade mellan 12 och 88 år med en medelålder på drygt 30 år. Konformitet undersöktes genom en webbenkät där deltagarna utifrån födelsemånad fördelades på en konformitets- och en kontrollgrupp. Enkätfrågorna rörde allmänbildning, logisk förmåga samt attityder. Till skillnad från kontrollgruppen fick konformitetsgruppen ta del av diagram med fabricerade siffror över andras svar. Resultaten visade att konformitet förekom d = 0.57,p < .001. Av deltagarna konformerade 52,8% på minst en kritisk fråga. I genomsnitt konformerade cirka 14-15% av deltagarna per kritisk fråga. Konformiteten ökade när uppgiften var svår samt den fabricerade majoriteten var stor. Ingen könsskillnad fanns i graden av uppvisad konformitet. Resultaten stämmer i stort bra överens med tidigare konformitetsforskning. Slutsatsen är att människor även på Internet i hög grad påverkas av andras åsikter och konformerar till majoriteten. Detta innebär att Internet inte befriar människor från gruppsykologiska fenomen. Denna studie är extra viktig då det inte finns så mycket forskning om konformitet på Internet, särskilt inte i Sverige. Vidare forskning krävs för att närmare undersöka exakt vilka mekanismer som ligger bakom konformiteten på Internet.

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  • 233.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Choice-justifications after allocating resources in helping dilemmas2017Ingår i: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 60-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How do donors reason and justify their choices when faced with dilemmas in a charitable context? In two studies, Swedish students were confronted with helping dilemmas based on the identifiable victim effect, the proportion dominance effect and the ingroup effect. Each dilemma consisted of two comparable charity projects and participants were asked to choose one project over the other. They were then asked to provide justifications of their choice by stating the relative importance of different types of reasons. When faced with an identified victim dilemma, participants did not choose the project including an identified victim more often than the project framed statistically, but those who did emphasized emotional reasons (e.g., "Because I had more empathic feelings"), but not any other reasons, more than those choosing the statistical project. When faced with a Proportion dominance dilemma, participants more often chose the project with a high rescue proportion (e.g., you can save 100% out of 30) than the project with a low rescue proportion (e.g., you can save 4% out of 800), and those who did emphasized efficacy reasons (e.g., "Because my money can make a greater difference there"), but no other reasons, more than those favoring the low recue proportion project. Finally, when faced with an Ingroup dilemma, participants more often chose the project that could help ingroup-victims over the project that could help outgroup victims, and those who did emphasized responsibility reasons (e.g., "Because I have a greater obligation"), but no other reasons, more than those favoring outgroup projects. These results are consistent with and extend previous findings about how different helping effects are related to different psychological processes.

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  • 234.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Emotional reactions, perceived impact and perceived responsibility mediate the identifiable victim effect, proportion dominance effect and in-group effect respectively2015Ingår i: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, ISSN 0749-5978, E-ISSN 1095-9920, Vol. 127, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated possible mediators of the identifiable victim effect (IVE), the proportion dominance effect (PDE), and the in-group effect (IGE) in helping situations. In Studies 1–3, participants rated their emotional reactions (distress and sympathy toward the victims), perceived impact of helping, perceived responsibility to help, and helping motivation toward four versions of a helping situation. Gradually increasing victim identifiability in the helping situations primarily affected emotional reactions and sympathy completely mediated the IVE. Gradually making the reference-group smaller primarily affected perceived impact, and impact completely mediated the PDE. Gradually increasing in-groupness primarily affected perceived responsibility, and responsibility completely mediated the IGE. Study 4 included real monetary allocations and largely replicated the results using a between-subject design. Together, the results shed light on how contextual factors trigger help motivation, and indicate that different helping effects are primarily mediated by different mechanisms.

  • 235.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Perceived Utility (not Sympathy) Mediates the Proportion Dominance Effect in Helping Decisions2014Ingår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 37-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion dominance effect (PDE) refers to a higher motivation to help when the victims are part of a small (you can help 56 out of 60) rather than a large (you can help 56 out of 560) reference group. In two studies using different experimental paradigms, we investigated possible mediators of the PDE. Study 1 (N = 168) was conducted in three separate steps in order to test each link of the mediator model independently. Students read six vignettes where it was possible to help a fixed number of victims but where the size of the reference group was either small or large. When the reference group was small, helping motivation and perceived utility were higher, whereas sympathy toward the victims and perceived rights were not. A within‐subject mediation analysis showed that perceived utility mediated the PDE. Study 2 (N = 36) presented four versions of a single helping situation in a joint evaluation mode where the size of the reference group became gradually smaller in each version. All participants compared and responded to each version. Helping motivation increased as the reference group became smaller, and this effect was mediated by perceived utility rather than by distress, sympathy, or perceived responsibilities. Our results suggest that unlike, for example, the identifiability and singularity effects, which have been suggested to be mediated by emotional reactions, the PDE is mediated by perceived utility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 236.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Sweden.
    Jungstrand, Amand A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Anticipated Guilt for Not Helping and Anticipated Warm Glow for Helping Are Differently Impacted by Personal Responsibility to Help2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, nr 1475Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One important motivation for people behaving prosocially is that they want to avoid negative and obtain positive emotions. In the prosocial behavior literature however, the motivations to avoid negative emotions (e.g., guilt) and to approach positive emotions (e.g., warm glow) are rarely separated, and sometimes even aggregated into a single mood-management construct. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anticipated guilt if not helping and anticipated warm glow if helping are influenced similarly or differently when varying situational factors related to personal responsibility to help. Helping scenarios were created and pilot tests established that each helping scenario could be formulated both in a high-responsibility version and in a low-responsibility version. In Study 1 participants read high-responsibility and low-responsibility helping scenarios, and rated either their anticipated guilt if not helping or their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., separate evaluation). Study 2 was similar but here participants rated both their anticipated guilt if not helping and their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., joint evaluation). Anticipated guilt was clearly higher in the high-responsibility versions, but anticipated warm glow was unaffected (in Studies 1a and 1b), or even higher in the low-responsibility versions (Study 2). In Studies 3 (where anticipated guilt and warm glow were evaluated separately) and 4 (where they were evaluated jointly), personal responsibility to help was manipulated within-subjects. Anticipated guilt was again constantly higher in the high-responsibility versions but for many types of responsibility-manipulations, anticipated warm glow was higher in the low-responsibility versions. The results suggest that we anticipate guilt if not fulfilling our responsibility but that we anticipate warm glow primarily when doing over and beyond our responsibility. We argue that future studies investigating motivations for helping should measure both anticipated negative consequences for oneself if not helping, and anticipated positive consequences for oneself if helping.

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  • 237.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Moyner Hohle, Sigrid
    Simula Res Lab, Norway.
    Lohre, Erik
    Simula Res Lab, Norway.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Res, OR USA.
    The rise and fall of scary numbers: The effect of perceived trends on future estimates, severity ratings, and help-allocations in a cancer context2018Ingår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 48, nr 11, s. 618-633Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistical information such as death risk estimates is frequently used for illustrating the magnitude of a problem. Such mortality statistics are however easier to evaluate if presented next to an earlier estimate, as the two data points together will illustrate an upward or downward change. How are people influenced by such changes? In seven experiments, participants read mortality statistics (e.g., number of yearly deaths or expert-estimated death risks) made at two points of time about various cancer types. Each cancer type was manipulated to have either a downward trajectory (e.g., the estimated death risk was 37% in 2012, and was adjusted downward to 22% in 2014), an upward trajectory (e.g., 7% -amp;gt; 22%), or a flat trajectory (e.g., 22% -amp;gt; 22%). For each cancer type, participants estimated future mortality statistics and rated the perceived severity. They also allocated real money between projects aimed at preventing the different cancer types. Participants responses indicated that they thought that a trend made out of two data points would continue in the future. People also perceived cancer types with similar present mortality statistics as more severe and allocated more money to them when they had an upward trajectory compared to a flat or downward trajectory. Although there are boundary conditions, we conclude that peoples severity ratings and helping behavior can be influenced by trend information even when such information is based on only two data points.

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  • 238.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Arthur
    Lund University, Department of Psychology, Lund, Sweden.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, United States of America.
    Bullshit-sensitivity predicts prosocial behavior2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikel-id e0201474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullshit-sensitivity is the ability to distinguish pseudo-profound bullshit sentences (e.g. “Your movement transforms universal observations”) from genuinely profound sentences (e.g. “The person who never made a mistake never tried something new”). Although bullshit-sensitivity has been linked to other individual difference measures, it has not yet been shown to predict any actual behavior. We therefore conducted a survey study with over a thousand participants from a general sample of the Swedish population and assessed participants’ bullshit-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven bullshit sentences) and profoundness-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven genuinely profound sentences), and used these variables to predict two types of prosocial behavior (self-reported donations and a decision to volunteer for charity). Despite bullshit-receptivity and profoundness-receptivity being positively correlated with each other, logistic regression analyses showed that profoundness-receptivity had a positive association whereas bullshit-receptivity had a negative association with both types of prosocial behavior. These relations held up for the most part when controlling for potentially intermediating factors such as cognitive ability, time spent completing the survey, sex, age, level of education, and religiosity. The results suggest that people who are better at distinguishing the pseudo-profound from the actually profound are more prosocial.

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  • 239.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Attitudes and donation behavior when reading positive and negative charity appeals2018Ingår i: Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, ISSN 1049-5142, E-ISSN 1540-6997, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 444-474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article tries to clarify whether negative charity appeals (i.e., advertisements emphasizing the bad consequences of not helping) or positive charity appeals (i.e., advertisements emphasizing the good consequences of helping) are more effective. Previous literature does not provide a single answer to this question and we suggest that one contributing reason for this is that different studies have operationalized appeal effectiveness in different ways (e.g., actual behavior, self-rated helping intentions, or expressed attitudes about the ad or the organization). Results from four separate studies suggest that positive appeals are more effective in inducing favorable attitudes toward the ad and toward the organization but that negative appeals are more effective (in studies 1A and 1B) or at least equally effective (in studies 1C and 1D) in eliciting actual donations. Also, although people’s attitude toward the appeal (i.e., liking) was a good predictor for the expected effectiveness in increasing donation behavior (in Study 2), it was a poor predictor of actual donation behavior in all four main studies. These results cast doubt on marketing theories suggesting that attitudes toward an advertisement and toward the brand always lead to higher purchase behavior.

  • 240.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Sundfelt, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Argument-inconsistency in charity appeals: Statistical information about the scope of the problem decrease helping toward a single identified victim but not helping toward many non-identified victims in a refugee crisis context2016Ingår i: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 56, s. 126-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that both the characteristics of the victims one can help and the existence of victims one cannot help influence economic helping decisions in suboptimal ways. The aim of this study was to systematically test if these two aspects interact with each other. In Studies 1 and 2, we created hypothetical charity appeals related to the Syrian refugee crisis and factorially manipulated characteristics of victims possible to help (one identified child/nine non-identified children) and presence of statistical information about the scope and nature of the problem (information-box absent/present). We found a significant interaction effect both when using self-rated helping intention (Study 1), and when using actual donation behavior as the dependent variable (Study 2). Statistical information decreased helping intentions toward a single identified child but had no, or even a small positive effect on helping nine non-identified children. In Study 3, non-student participants reading a charity appeal with both a story about one identified child and statistical information donated less often than participants reading appeals with either only a story about one identified child or only statistical information. We suggest that both emotional arguments (e.g., a story and picture of an identified child in need) and analytical arguments (e.g., detailed statistical information about the scope and nature of the problem) can make us more motivated to help refugees, but that mixing different argument-types can make charity appeals internally inconsistent and decrease donations. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 241.
    Ermagan, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    AD/HD och känslomässigt undvikande: En naturalistisk pilotstudie om effekten av ISTDP för vuxna med AD/HD2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: AD/HD innebär en funktionsnedsättning med kärnsymptom som ouppmärksamhet, hyperaktivitet och impulsivitet. Personer med AD/HD har också ofta problem med känsloreglering. Intensiv dynamisk korttidsterapi (ISTDP) syftar till att hjälpa patienter till ökad förmåga att uppleva komplexa känslor genom att medvetandegöra dem. Terapiformens utgångspunkt är att många patienters problem skapas av känslomässigt undvikande och den betonar värdet av upplevelse av känslor i terapirummet.

    Studien syftade till att undersöka effekten av ISTDP på symtomen hos patienter med AD/HD som ett komplement till sedvanlig medicinbehandling. Frågan var om behandling riktad mot känsloreglering påverkar den globala symptombilden för personer med AD/HD.

    Metod: Studien är en naturalistisk pilotstudie med sex patienter som fick 10 sessioners behandling med ISTDP. Utfallsmåtten var Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, Adult ADHD Self Report Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory och Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Primärt utfallsmått var Adult ADHD Self Report Scale. Patientens problem mättes vid 4 tillfällen, vid första, fjärde, sjunde och sista veckan av behandlingen.

    Resultat: Patienterna förbättrades signifikant på Inventory of Interpersonal Problems och Adult ADHD Self Report Scale och på Beck Anxiety Inventory. Det fanns dock en stor variation inom gruppen. Vissa patienter förbättrades tydligt, andra förblev oförändrade och någon försämrades.

    Slutsatser: ISTDP som ett komplement till sedvanlig medicinbehandling och kan hjälpa vissa personer med AD/HD att fungera bättre interpersonellt. Det fanns också tecken på minskning av symptomen på AD/HD samt visar tendenser till reducerad ångest. Ingen följsamhetskattning till ISTDP gjordes. Detta samt det låga deltagarantalet och avsaknaden av kontrollgrupp gör att det är svårt att generalisera resultaten. De ska snarare ses som indikationer på vikten av ytterligare forskning.

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  • 242.
    Ermstål, Isabella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Perfektionism och self-compassion - En experimentell studie om hur perfektionism och self-compassion påverkar uppsatsskrivande och korrekturläsning i olika affektiva situationer.2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna experimentella studie var att öka kunskapen om perfektionism genom att undersöka huruvida perfektionism går att påverka, hur perfektionism påverkar prestation samt hur olika perfektionismdimensioner tar sig uttryck i olika situationer. För att undersöka detta skapades ett internetexperiment innehållande en kort version av Pennebaker’s essay writing procedure (uppsatsskrivande-uppgift), en korrekturläsningsuppgift samt självskattningsformulär för olika perfektionismdimensioner och self-compassion. Deltagarna i studien randomiserades till två olika betingelsegrupper som fick skriva om en gång då de lyckats (pos. betingelsegrupp) eller en gång då de misslyckats (neg. betingelsegrupp). Resultatet visade på ett signifikant samband mellan perfektionismdimensionen perfectionist strivings och antalet ändringar i texten hos den negativa betingelsegruppen samt ett signifikant samband mellan self-compassion och antal skrivna ord i uppsatsskrivande-uppgiften före ändring i den positiva betingelsegruppen. Resultaten visade även på signifikanta korrelationsskillnader både mellan perfektionismdimensionen perfectionist strivings och antalet ändringar i texten samt mellan self-compassion och antalet skrivna ord i uppsatsskrivande-uppgiften. Resultaten tyder på att olika perfektionismdimensioner och self-compassion blir mer framträdande samt påverkar prestation på olika sätt beroende på om situationen är positiv eller negativ.

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  • 243.
    Espelage, Dorothy L.
    et al.
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Hong, Jun Sung
    Wayne State University, USA.
    Rao, Mrinalini A.
    Yale University, USA.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Understanding ecological factors associated with bullying across the elementary to middle school transition in the United States2015Ingår i: Perspective on bullying / [ed] R. D. Maiuro, New York: Springer, 2015, s. 31-48Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 244.
    Estling, Fanny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Jakobsson, Ebba
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    NOVA-projektet: – effekten av ett internetbaserat självhjälpsprogramm med e-poststöd vid behandling av ångeststörningar2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studies syfte var att undersöka behandlingseffekten av ett Internetbaserat självhjälpsprogram med e-poststöd, för personer med olika typer av ångestproblematik. Ett ytterligare syfte var att undersöka behandlingsresultaten när deltagaren själv fick förfoga över behandlingens upplägg och innehåll. Huvudkomponenten i behandlingen utgjordes av sammanlagt 16 moduler hämtade från tidigare Internetbehandlingar riktade mot social fobi, paniksyndrom, generaliserat ångestsyndrom samt depression.

    Behandlingsgruppen utgjordes av 27 individer som varit kontrollgrupp i en tidigare behandlingsstudie. För samtliga deltagare pågick behandlingen tio veckor. Beroendevariabler utgjordes av självskattningsformulären Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale – Self Rated, Quality Of Life Inventory, resultat på SCID-intervjuer samt kodning av totala symtom. Beroende t-test visade att behandlingsgruppen förbättrades signifikant på samtliga beroendevariabler, vilket innebär att denna KBT-behandling har lett till minskad grad av ångest, nedstämdhet samt ökat välmående, funktion och livskvalitet för deltagarna. Genomsnittlig effektstorlek inom gruppen var Cohens d=0.88.

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  • 245.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Samtalscentrum Unga Vuxna, Nyköping, Sweden .
    Does psychotherapy for young adults in routine practice show similar results as therapy in randomized clinical trials?2010Ingår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 181-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that patients treated with psychotherapy in the community do not stay in treatment long enough to achieve clinically significant change. Because the average patient seeking treatment at a community center may not be as informed and motivated for change as the average patient participating in a research trial, the authors compared outcome among all patients presenting to a mental health clinic (n=416) and a subgroup of patients who started psychotherapy at the same clinic (n=101). Outcome was assessing using the Symptom Checklist-90, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and Global Assessment of Functioning. Results confirmed that outcome among all patients seeking the centre was worse than in an average clinical trial. However, patients who started psychotherapy after assessment achieved results comparable to those in RCT studies.

  • 246. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Capacity for Self-Observation in Psychotherapy2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förmågan till självmedvetande och självobservation brukar sägas vara unik för människan, och frågor om hur den uppstår och utvecklas har engagerat filosofer och andliga tänkare genom historien. Under de senaste årtiondena har detta även kommit att intressera psykologer, psykoterapeuter och forskare inom olika kliniska psykologiinriktningar. I denna avhandling utforskades konceptuella frågor och empiriska mätmetoder relaterade till självobservationsförmåga. De fyra studierna tog sig an detta från olika utgångspunkter: I Studie I användes främst kvalitativ metod för att undersöka processer relaterade till fortsatt klinisk förbättring efter avslutning av längre psykoterapeutisk behandling. Beskrivningar av självanalys var relaterade till fortsatt förbättring efter avslutad terapi, men i kontrast till vår hypotes syntes ingen skillnad mellan psykoterapi och den mer intensiva psykoanalysen ur denna aspekt. I Studie II prövades mätning av medveten närvaro (mindfulness) genom självrapport på ett urval erfarna Buddhistiska meditatörer. Resultaten bekräftade samband mellan medveten närvaro och psykologiskt välmående, men visade på osäkerhet kring instrumentens känslighet för förändring. I Studie III jämfördes olika metoder för mätning av teoretiskt relaterade självobservationsbegrepp: medveten närvaro, mentalisering och affektmedvetenhet. Resultaten visade på förvånansvärt liten gemensam varians mellan affektmedvetenhet och mentalisering/medveten närvaro. Slutligen visade resultaten i Studie IV att hos patienter diagnostiserade med klinisk depression predicerade mentalisering om depressiva symptom aspekter av den initiala psykoterapiprocessen bättre än det vanliga måttet på mentalisering utifrån anknytningsintervju. Sammantaget visar dessa studier på komplexiteten i fenomenet självobservationsförmåga och dess utforskande. Relationerna mellan variabler relaterade till självobservation, mätning av dem och samband med psykoterapiprocessen tycks mer komplexa än förväntat utifrån nuvarande teorier. En tentativ modell för samband mellan typer av självobservation i den psykoterapeutiska förändringsprocessen presenteras.

    Delarbeten
    1. Self-analysis and post-termination improvement after psychoanalysis and long-term psychotherapy
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Self-analysis and post-termination improvement after psychoanalysis and long-term psychotherapy
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, ISSN 0003-0651, E-ISSN 1941-2460, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 629-674Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term follow-up studies of long-term psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy or psychoanalysis are extremely rare, and few have focused on the post-treatment process itself. In the Stockholm Outcome of Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy project, one of the results was that patients in psychoanalysis continued to improve after termination to a higher degree than patients in long-term psychotherapy. In this study 20 patients selected from the project were interviewed on two occas ions, one and two years after termination, in order to explore how they described their post-treatment processes. The interviews were studied qualitatively using a multiple case study design, and categories of different types of post-treatment development were created from these case studies. Results indicate that the variation within treatment groups is large, and that development may continue in several ways after termination. The most striking difference between psychoanalysis and psychotherapy was not, as hypothesized, in the self-analytic function, but in various self-supporting strategies described by former analysands but not by former psychotherapy patients. However, only self-analysis was significantly correlated with post-termination improvement across both treatments. Three patients improving after termination and three deteriorating are described in detail as illustrations. Some methodological constraints of the design limit the generalizeability of results.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-48012 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-11 Skapad: 2009-10-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    2. Studying mindfulness in experienced meditators: A quasi-experimental approach
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Studying mindfulness in experienced meditators: A quasi-experimental approach
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, ISSN 0191-8869, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 305-310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Self-report measures were used to study mindfulness and well-being in experienced meditators in a quasi-experimental intervention study. Seventy-six experienced meditators were studied, 48 who were participating in an intensive meditation retreat in the Vipassana (insight meditation) tradition and 28 who did not. Retreat participants had scheduled meditation practice from early morning to late at night, and were encouraged to practice mindfulness throughout the whole day. The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) were used to measure mindfulness, and the General Population version of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (GP-CORE) was used to measure well-being. Correlation analyses in the pre-intervention data showed that self-reported mindfulness was strongly related to well-being, with the exception for the observe subscale of FFMQ, Only the acceptance subscales were associated with meditation experience. Mindfulness increased after the retreat, but the increase was not significantly larger for retreat participants than for the control group. However. well-being increased more in the retreat group than the control group, and increase in mindfulness was associated with increase in well-being across both groups. Results are discussed in relation to previous research and methodological aspects.

    Nyckelord
    Mindfulness, Meditation, Measurement, Vipassana
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54252 (URN)10.1016/j.paid.2009.10.022 (DOI)000274678000009 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-03-05 Skapad: 2010-03-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-09-28
    3. Reflective Functioning, Affect Consciousness, and Mindfulness: Are These Different Functions?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Reflective Functioning, Affect Consciousness, and Mindfulness: Are These Different Functions?
    Visa övriga...
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Psychoanalytic psychology, ISSN 0736-9735, E-ISSN 1939-1331, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 26-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Concepts of mentalization, affect consciousness, and mindfulness have been increasingly emphasized as crucial in psychotherapy of diverse orientations. Different measures have been developed that purportedly measure these concepts, but little is known about their interrelationships. We discuss conceptual overlaps and distinctions between these three concepts, and present results from a preliminary empirical study comparing their measures.

    Methods: To study the relationships between these concepts, data from a group of psychotherapy students (N = 46) was used. Mentalization operationalized as Reflective Functioning (RF) was rated on transcripts of a brief version of the Adult Attachment Interview, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) was used to measure mindfulness, and the Affect Consciousness Interview-Self/Other version (ACI-S/O) to measure affect consciousness.

    Results: There was a small but statistically significant relationship between RF and FFMQ, but surprisingly no relationship between AC-S/O and RF or FFMQ. A post-hoc analysis showed a relationship between consciousness of others’ affects and a reduced version of the RF scale.

    Discussion: Results confirm that mentalization and mindfulness share some  common variance, but contrary to expectations affect consciousness seems to be more different from RF and mindfulness than expected. A possible explanation for the counterintuitive finding of no relationship between RF and affect consciousness is that affect consciousness measures a mature capacity for mentalized affectivity, while RF (especially at the high end) is largely a buffer against trauma and adversity. Low or absent findings for the FFMQ are explained more in terms of different methods variance.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    American Psychological Association, 2014
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-82029 (URN)10.1037/a0034049 (DOI)000331876500003 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-09-28 Skapad: 2012-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Patient Reflective Functioning as Predictor of Early Psychotherapy Process in the Treatment of Depression
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Patient Reflective Functioning as Predictor of Early Psychotherapy Process in the Treatment of Depression
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Despite considerable clinical attention to the concept of mentalization in psychotherapy, research on mentalization and the psychotherapy process is virtually absent. Using data from two ongoing randomized controlled trials of psychotherapy for depression, we studied mentalization in 45 patients diagnosed with DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder. The initial psychotherapy process was hypothesized to be experienced as more difficult with patients showing lower capacity for mentalization because of their difficulty understanding behavior in terms of mental states.

    Methods: Mentalization was measured as Reflective Functioning (RF) on the Adult Attachment Interview, conducted before therapy start. Additionally, a measure of Depression-Specific Reflective Functioning (DSRF) measuring mentalization about depressive symptoms was tested. Psychotherapy process was measured by the Working Alliance Inventory – Short form (WAI-S) and the Feeling Checklist (FC), which were completed after each session by both therapist and patient.

    Results: Pre-treatment RF on the AAI was on average low (M = 3.1), but variation in RF did not predict any aspect of the initial (first four sessions) psychotherapy process. Higher DSRF predicted better working alliance and more positive feelings as rated by the patient. RF on the AAI did not predict any process measure significantly.

    Discussion: The low RF in depression replicates two previous studies, and may help explaining why maternal depression is a risk factor for infant developmental problems. If the results for DSRF are replicated, this measure might be used for identifying patients who are not easy candidates for psychotherapy.

    Nyckelord
    Psychotherapy process, mentalization, reflective functioning, alliance, depression
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-82031 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-09-28 Skapad: 2012-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-09-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    The Capacity for Self-Observation in Psychotherapy
    Ladda ner (pdf)
    omslag
  • 247.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ekeblad, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sandell, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Patient Reflective Functioning as Predictor of Early Psychotherapy Process in the Treatment of DepressionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Despite considerable clinical attention to the concept of mentalization in psychotherapy, research on mentalization and the psychotherapy process is virtually absent. Using data from two ongoing randomized controlled trials of psychotherapy for depression, we studied mentalization in 45 patients diagnosed with DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder. The initial psychotherapy process was hypothesized to be experienced as more difficult with patients showing lower capacity for mentalization because of their difficulty understanding behavior in terms of mental states.

    Methods: Mentalization was measured as Reflective Functioning (RF) on the Adult Attachment Interview, conducted before therapy start. Additionally, a measure of Depression-Specific Reflective Functioning (DSRF) measuring mentalization about depressive symptoms was tested. Psychotherapy process was measured by the Working Alliance Inventory – Short form (WAI-S) and the Feeling Checklist (FC), which were completed after each session by both therapist and patient.

    Results: Pre-treatment RF on the AAI was on average low (M = 3.1), but variation in RF did not predict any aspect of the initial (first four sessions) psychotherapy process. Higher DSRF predicted better working alliance and more positive feelings as rated by the patient. RF on the AAI did not predict any process measure significantly.

    Discussion: The low RF in depression replicates two previous studies, and may help explaining why maternal depression is a risk factor for infant developmental problems. If the results for DSRF are replicated, this measure might be used for identifying patients who are not easy candidates for psychotherapy.

  • 248.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Finkel, Steven
    University of Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Sandell, Rolf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rubel, Julian A.
    University of Trier, Germany.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dynamic Models of Individual Change in Psychotherapy Process Research2017Ingår i: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0022-006X, E-ISSN 1939-2117, Vol. 85, nr 6, s. 537-549Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There is a need for rigorous methods to study the mechanisms that lead to individual-level change (i.e., process-outcome research). We argue that panel data (i.e., longitudinal study of a number of individuals) methods have 3 major advantages for psychotherapy researchers: (1) enabling microanalytic study of psychotherapeutic processes in a clinically intuitive way, (2) modeling lagged associations over time to ensure direction of causality, and (3) isolating within-patient changes over time from between-patient differences, thereby protecting against confounding influences because of the effects of unobserved stable attributes of individuals. However, dynamic panel data methods present a complex set of analytical challenges. We focus on 2 particular issues: (1) how long-term trajectories in the variables of interest over the study period should be handled, and (2) how the use of a lagged dependent variable as a predictor in regression-based dynamic panel models induces endogeneity (i.e., violation of independence between predictor and model error term) that must be taken into account in order to appropriately isolate within-and between-person effects. Method: An example from a study of working alliance in psychotherapy in primary care in Sweden is used to illustrate some of these analytic decisions and their impact on parameter estimates. Results: Estimates were strongly influenced by the way linear trajectories were handled; that is, whether variables were "detrended" or not. Conclusions: The issue of when detrending should be done is discussed, and recommendations for research are provided. What is the public health significance of this article? This article provides recommendations on how to study psychotherapy processes using dynamic panel data models to strengthen causal inferences. Accurate estimates of what drives individual development in psychotherapy are needed to generate recommendations on what therapists should focus on in therapy. Using the alliance-outcome association as an example, we show that estimated effect sizes may vary greatly depending on which modeling approach is used, with the decision on whether to remove time-trends from the outcome variable making the largest difference.

  • 249.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Grant, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Review of organizational effects on the outcome of mental health treatments2018Ingår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 76-90Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: As there are theoretical, clinical, and "common sense" reasons to expect a relationship between organizational factors and outcome in clinics providing psychotherapy and other mental health treatments, a review of empirical research in this area was undertaken with the aim of finding empirical evidence for organizational effects. Methods: A structured search for studies on organizational differences in patient mental health outcomes was performed using EBSCO host, Cochrane Library Database, and the Health Systems Evidence database at McMasters University. Finished studies published in English were included if they presented data from more than one mental health service and used change in symptom, level of functioning, or quality of life as outcome. Results: The search yielded not more than 19 studies fulfilling inclusion criteria. All studies showed some evidence for organization effects, and there was some evidence for organizational climate and culture explaining differences in outcome. Conclusion: Given that mental health treatments are likely to be especially susceptive to organizational effects, it is remarkable that not more research has been devoted to this. Clearly, more research is needed to study the consequences of work organization for the outcome of psychotherapy. Methodological issues in organizational studies are discussed.

  • 250.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Holmqvist Larsson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    The Working Alliance: From Global Outcome Prediction to Micro-Analyses of Within-Session Fluctuations2017Ingår i: Psychoanalytic inquiry, ISSN 0735-1690, E-ISSN 1940-9133, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 167-178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The working alliance, originally a psychoanalytic concept, is probably the most empirically studied psychotherapy process variable. There are many studies showing that a better alliance predicts better outcomes (e.g., Horvath et al., 2011), although the causal direction of this relationship is still debated (Barber et al., 2000; DeRubeis, Brotman, and Gibbons, 2005; Falkenstrom, Granstrom, and Holmqvist, 2013). Additionally, most of the empirical research on the working alliance is limited in clinical utility because of the relative simplicity of the research. Specifically, most empirical research on the working alliance has aimed to link patient-therapist dyads overall level of working alliance with global treatment outcomes. In actual clinical practice, therapists may be most interested in the fluctuations in the alliance from one session to the next, or even from one moment to the next within a session. There is a rich tradition in psychoanalysis of evaluating the results of therapeutic interventions by examining the patients responses. With the help of modern statistical methods, we believe the impact of a single intervention or series of interventions on factors such as working alliance, symptomatic improvement, or emotional experiences can be studied. Although this research is still in its infancy, we believe it is the future of scientific investigation of the talking cure.

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