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  • 201.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Phenomenology, cosmetic surgery, and complicity2014Ingår i: Feminist phenomenology and medicine / [ed] Kristin Zeiler & Lisa Folkmarson Käll, Albany: State University of New York, 2014, s. 81-99Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 202.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kultur och estetik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Replik till Marcus Agnafors: "En rimlig samvetsklausul"2017Ingår i: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, nr 2, s. 33-38Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 203.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Reproductive choice, enhancement, and the moral continuum argument2014Ingår i: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, ISSN 0360-5310, E-ISSN 1744-5019, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 41-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often argued that it does not matter morally whether biomedical interventions treat or prevent diseases or enhance nondisease traits; what matters is whether and how much they promote well-being. Therapy and enhancement both promote well-being, the argument goes, so they are not morally distinct but instead continuous. I provide three reasons why this argument should be rejected when it is applied to choices concerning the genetic makeup of future people. First, it rests on too simple a conception of the badness of disease. Second, it wrongly assumes that disease avoidance and enhancement can proceed with similar accuracy. Third, it overlooks that disease avoidance tends to be more urgent than enhancement from the point of view of distributive justice. Although none of these reasons establishes a firm therapy-enhancement distinction, they show that a continuum model is not an attractive alternative.

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  • 204.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Taking advantage of injustice2013Ingår i: Social Theory and Practice, ISSN 0037-802X, E-ISSN 2154-123X, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 557-580Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What, if anything, is wrong with taking advantage of people’s unjust circumstances when they both benefit from and consent to the exchange? The answer, some believe, is that such exchanges are wrongfully exploitative. I argue that this answer is incomplete at best, and I elaborate a different one: to take advantage of injustice is to become complicit in its reproduction. I also argue that the case for third-party interference with mutually beneficial and consensual exchanges, while normally considered weak, is strengthened once these exchanges are understood as implicated in broader unjust structures.

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  • 205.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Towards a phenomenology of complicity with dubious social norms: The case of cosmetic surgery2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 206.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Transnational commercial surrogacy, exploitation and the non-worseness claim2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 207.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Franssen, Trijsje
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Heracles or Icarus: Mythological References in the Human Enhancement Debate2017Ingår i: Future-human.life / [ed] Vincent Menuz, Johann Roduit, Daniel Roiz, Alexandre Erler, Natalia Stepanova, Geneva: neohumanitas.org , 2017, s. 52-61Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 208.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Szigeti, András
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kultur och estetik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund Gothenburg Responsibil Project, Sweden.
    Exploitation and Joint Action2019Ingår i: Journal of social philosophy, ISSN 0047-2786, E-ISSN 1467-9833, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 280-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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  • 209.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Szigeti, András
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kultur och estetik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Exploitation and Remedial Duties2019Ingår i: Journal of Applied Philosophy, ISSN 0264-3758, E-ISSN 1468-5930Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of exploitation and potentially exploitative real-world practices are the subject of increasing philosophical attention. However, while philosophers have extensively debated what exploitation is and what makes it wrong, they have said surprisingly little about what might be required to remediate it. By asking how the consequences of exploitation should be addressed, this article seeks to contribute to filling this gap. We raise two questions. First, what are the victims of exploitation owed by way of remediation? Second, who ought to remediate? Our answers to these questions are connected by the idea that exploitation cannot be fully remediated by redistributing the exploiters gain in order to repair or compensate the victims loss. This is because exploitation causes not only distributive but also relational harm. Therefore, redistributive measures are necessary but not sufficient for adequate remediation. Moreover, this relational focus highlights the fact that exploitative real-world practices commonly involve agents other than the exploiter who stand to benefit from the exploitation. Insofar as these third parties are implicated in the distributive and relational harms caused by exploitation, there is, we argue, good reason to assign part of the burden of remediation to them.

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  • 210.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zeiler, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Concluding reflections: Bodily exchanges as sharing2016Ingår i: Bodily Exchanges, Bioethics and Border Crossing: Perspectives on Giving, Selling and Sharing Bodies / [ed] Erik Malmqvist, Kristin Zeiler, London and New York: Routledge, 2016, s. 197-207Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 211.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zeiler, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Introduction2016Ingår i: Bodily Exchanges, Bioethics and Border Crossing: Perspectives on Giving, Selling and Sharing Bodies / [ed] Erik Malmqvist, Kristin Zeiler, London and New York: Routledge, 2016, s. 1-18Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 212.
    Mannsdorff Djurberg, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för studier av samhällsutveckling och kultur, Avdelningen för Kultur, samhälle, mediegestaltning – KSM.
    Arbetsmoral som val: En innehållsanalys av intervjuer med fem arbetsgivare om deras syn på den icke-arbetande2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Employers can be viewed as a center of a so called work ideology. This ideology is at least as old as the ancient greeks and effects how we view people who work, and people who for different reasons do not work. Work ethic as a choice is a content analysis of interviews with five employers regarding work and leisure. This study shows that the interviewed employers speak about labour as something everybody must, and will at some point in life, do. People who are on sick leave are to be respected, and all decisions regarding the persons use of their time should be decided by their doctor. No one should get money without first contributing to society by working in a wage paying job. Work is however something healthy and makes people feel good, mostly because of the social context and the feeling of being part of something; of contributing. The work ideology is highly present in the interviewees language and differs between them in accordance with difference in class and economic, social and cultural capital.

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  • 213.
    Martinez Orozco, Camilo Eduardo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik.
    Ruling Allowing Induced Abortion in Colombia: a Case Study2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to present and examine the ruling on which the Colombian Constitutional Court declared the blanket criminalization of induced abortion to be unconstitutional: ruling C-355/061; all of this based in the understanding I have achieved of the Courts’ reasoning.

    In the first section I will present the norms that constituted the blanket prohibition of abortion, as well as the likely situation of its practice, both by the time the Constitutional Court took up the analysis of the former. This will provide a good understanding of the importance of the ruling and its starting point. In the second section I will put forth the general nature of the Court and its rulings, inscribed in the Colombian social, political and legal transformation brought by the 1991 constitutional change. I will also bring in the specific decisions the Court made regarding the conditioned constitutionality of induced abortion and the unconstitutionality of the legal expression that equated an abortion performed on a woman less than fourteen years of age to an abortion without consent, thus punishing it harder than a consented one. Such verdict is the starting point of an effort to trace, present and examine the ethical arguments the Court has woven to reach it, all of which will be undertaken in the third section.

    In the fourth section I shall elaborate on two of the common ethical elements that work as corner stones for the Court’s arguments: human dignity and the belief that fundamental rights and constitutional protected goods are not absolute; I will particularly point out how they play a role in the Court’s argumentation. As a conclusion I will offer a final general appraisal of the Court’s work.

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  • 214.
    Martinsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Physician behavior and conditional altruism: the effects of payment system and uncertain health benefit2019Ingår i: Theory and Decision, ISSN 0040-5833, E-ISSN 1573-7187, Vol. 87, nr 3, s. 365-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper experimentally investigates the altruistic behavior of physicians and whether this behavior is affected by payment system and uncertainty in health outcome. Subjects in the experiment take on the role of physicians and decide on the provision of medical care for different types of patients, who are identical in all respects other than the degree to which a given level of medical treatment affects their health. We investigate physician altruism from the perspective of ethical principles, by categorizing physicians according to how well their treatment decisions align with different principles for priority setting. The experiment shows that many physicians are altruistic toward their patients but also that the degree of altruism varies across patients with different medical needs. We find a strong effect of payment system that is overall unaffected by the introduction of risk and ambiguity in patients health outcomes. There is, however, substantial heterogeneity across individuals, in particular under the capitation payment system where physicians responses to the introduction of uncertainty in patient health are modulated by their own generic risk and ambiguity preferences.

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  • 215.
    Mattsson, Nils-Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för religion och kultur.
    Den moderata rationalismen: Kommentarer, preciseringar och kritik av några begrepp och teser som framlagts av Laurence Bonjour i dennes In Defense of Pure Reason2005Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The paper contains comment, clarification and criticism, even constructive criticism, of some theses that have been put forward by Laurence Bonjour in his In Defense of Pure Reason.

    It presents a concept of experience that deals with the relation between cognizer and object of experience that has a great similarity to that of Bonjour. Through analysis it is shown that the concept of a priori entails that Bonjour has two concepts of a priori, a narrow and a broad one. The narrow one is, in my own words: According to moderate rationalism a proposition p is a priori justified if and only if you apprehend that p must be true in every possible world. This doesn’t mean that Bonjour doesn’t believe in an epistemological, metaphysical and semantic realm. The broad one does not mention anything about possible worlds.

    Casullo in his A priori justification rejects Bonjour’s argument against Quine’s coherentism. A defense is put forward with the concept ‘an ideal of science for apparent rational insights’. The concept of axiomatic system and foundationalism is used. If we assume that the colour proposition ‘nothing can be red all over and green all over at the same time’ has the meaning that we, in this very moment, are representing a property in the world, thus we have an argument of superposition for the correctness of the proposition. The ground for this argumentation relies on the identification of colours with superposing electromagnetic waves.

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  • 216. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Mehrabi, Tara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Genus. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Making Death Matter: A Feminist Technoscience Study of Alzheimer's Sciences in the Laboratory2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling utgör ett bidrag till feministiska laboratoriestudier och är en kritisk analys av naturvetenskaperna. Närmare bestämt är det en feministisk studie av forskning om Alzheimers sjukdom, dess biokemiska verkningar och dödliga relationer utifrån ett års fältarbete som labbtekniker i ett fluglabb. Naturvetenskaperna har under decennier fascinerat genusforskare. Dessa discipliner formar kunskapen om vad som räknas som natur och naturligt, hälsa och sjukdom, normalt eller inte, och de har gjort så med stor samhällelig auktoritet genom Europeisk modernitet. Forskare inom feministiska teknovetenskapliga studier har länge hävdat att vetenskap också är social praktik med politiska implikationer. Begrepp som natur, djur, mänskligt eller kropp, kön och livet självt kan inte tas för givna utan formas också i laboratoriets naturkultur. Med utgångspunkt i sådana feministiska teknovetenskaplig teoribildningar och metodologiska utgångspunkter bearbetar denna avhandling frågor om hur vetenskapliga fakta om Alzheimers sjukdom skapas i laboratoriet idag. Vilka kroppar, verkligheter och etisk-politiska förhållningssätt aktualiseras? Vem får leva och vem får dö i vardagliga laboratoriepraktiker? Teoretiskt bygger avhandlingen framför allt på Karen Barads agentiella realism när den diskuterar sammanvävningen mellan mänskligt och icke-mänskligt, samt det som kallas posthumanistisk performativitet, i relation till Alzheimers sjukdom som den förkroppsligas i transgena fruktflugor (Drosophila melanogaster) i laboratoriet. I särskilt fokus står relationerna som skapas inom den biokemiska forskningen kring död, biologiskt avfall och kroppslighet.

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  • 217.
    Mokkila Granlund, Edward
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Avdelningen för filosofi, historia, konst och religion.
    Musik, mening och Merleau-Ponty2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Är upplevelsen av musik meningsfull och på vilket sätt är det möjligt för ett musikstycke att gestalta en yttre värld? I denna uppsats undersöker jag lite kort vad inom musiken skulle kunna förstås som en mening. Genom att se till olika förhållanden av meningsfullhet och musikalisk upplevelse går det att förstå dess breda förklaringssvårigheter. Meningen ter sig subjektiv men kan också bidra till en kollektiv samstämmighet om ett musikstyckes meningsfullhet. Upplevelsen av musik i sin tur kan hjälpa en kompositör eller artist att gestalta en omvärld för sig själv. Denna gestaltning bebor inte musiken på liknande sätt som en manual beskriver ett tillvägagångssätt utan med hjälp av medlet musik kan artisten uttrycka något som en vokabulär inte möjligtvis är kapabelt till. Med kroppen som länk mellan den yttre världen och subjektets vilja används vanan av att bruka ett instrument som en förlängning för kroppen. Att utgå från kroppen som en medvetandehorisont är något som är nära besläktat till Merleau-Pontys existentiella fenomenologi i Phenomenology of Percetion och utgör en bra grund för denna uppsats. Även om jag inte kommer fram till ett svar ifall musik besitter en mening så har upplevelsen av musik utforskats genom olika musikaliska verk och hur musikalisk gestaltning kan användas för varseblivning.

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  • 218.
    Monnoyeur-Broitman, Francoise
    St John's College, Annapolis, USA.
    Discourse on the Method versus Orientation in Thinking2008Ingår i: Enhet i mangfold: Festskrift til Johan Arnt Myrstad i anledning 60-årsdagen / [ed] Anita Leirfall og Thor Sandmel, Oslo, Norway: Unipub , 2008, s. 367-375Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Opposition between Kant and Descartes about method and orientation in thinking.

  • 219.
    Monnoyeur-Broitman, Francoise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kulturvetenskaper, KVA. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Indefinite within Descartes' Mathematical Physics2013Ingår i: EIDOS, ISSN 1692-8857, E-ISSN 2011-7477, nr 19, s. 12-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Descartes' philosophy contains an intriguing notion of the infinite, a concept labeled by the philosopher as indefinite. Even though Descartes clearly defined this term on several occasions in the correspondence with his contemporaries, as well as in his Principles of Philosophy, numerous problems about its meaning have arisen over the years. Most commentators reject the view that the indefinite could mean a real thing and, instead, identify it with an Aristotelian potential infinite. In the first part of this article, I show why there is no numerical infinity in Cartesian mathematics, as such a concept would be inconsistent with the main fundamental attribute of numbers: to be comparable with each other. In the second part, I analyze the indefinite in the context of Descartes' mathematical physics. It is my contention that, even with no trace of infinite in his mathematics, Descartes does refer to an actual indefinite because of its application to the material world within the system of his physics. This fact underlines a discrepancy between his mathematics and physics of the infinite, but does not lead a difficulty in his mathematical physics. Thus, in Descartes' physics, the indefinite refers to an actual dimension of the world rather than to an Aristotelian mathematical potential infinity. In fact, Descartes establishes the reality and limitlessness of the extension of the cosmos and, by extension, the actual nature of his indefinite world. This indefinite has a physical dimension, even if it is not measurable.

  • 220.
    Monsen, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik.
    Overlapping Consensus in Malaysia2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    An empirical study of how Malaysian pluralism is understood through Islam Hadhari, Article 11 and the Inter-faith Commission against the backdrop of current Malaysian political and social history, coupled with a theoretical analysis through John Rawls' Political Liberalism, with particular emphasis on the idea of Overlapping Consensus.

    The thesis is an attempt at applying Rawls' theory on the practical case of Malaysia, as a plural society, while at the same time using the practical case of Malaysia to highlight parts of Rawls' own theory.

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  • 221.
    Moula, Payam
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation.
    Virtue Ethics and right action2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates some arguments made against the conceptions of right action within virtue ethics. I argue that the different accounts of right action can meet the objections raised against them. Michael Slote‘s agent-based and Rosalind Hursthouses agent-focused account of right action give different judgments of right action but there seems to be a lack of real disagreement between the two accounts. I also argue that the concept of right action often has two important parts, relating to action guidance and moral appraisal, respectively, and that virtue ethics can deal with both without a concept of right action.

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  • 222.
    Murano, Maria Cristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kultur och estetik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    A Disability Bioethics Reading of the FDA and EMA Evaluations on the Marketing Authorisation of Growth Hormone for Idiopathic Short Stature Children2020Ingår i: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, s. 1-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The diagnosis of idiopathic short stature (ISS) refers to children who are considerably shorter than average without any identified medical reason. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorised marketing of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) for ISS in 2003, while the European Medicines Agency (EMA) refused it in 2007. This paper examines the arguments for these decisions as detailed in selected FDA and EMA documents. It combines argumentative analysis with an approach to policy analysis called ‘What’s the problem represented to be’. It argues that the FDA presents its approval as an argument for equity of access to the treatment (given that hGH was already authorised for other indications), describing short stature as a potential disadvantage, and assuming that height normalisation is a clinically meaningful result. The EMA, instead, refuses marketing authorisation with an argument that there is an imbalance of risks and benefits, describing ISS as a healthy condition, and arguing that hGH should provide some psychosocial and/or quality of life benefits to children with ISS other than height gain. This paper then discusses how these arguments could be read through different models of disability, particularly through the medical model of disability and the relational, experiential, and cultural understandings of disability.

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    A Disability Bioethics Reading of the FDA and EMA Evaluations on the Marketing Authorisation of Growth Hormone for Idiopathic Short Stature Children
  • 223. Muñoz, José Esteban
    et al.
    Haritaworn, Jinthana
    Hird, Myra
    Jackson, Zakiyyah Iman
    Puar, Jasbir K.
    Joy, Eileen
    McMillan, Uri
    Stryker, Susan
    TallBear, Kim
    Weinstein, Jami
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Genus. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Halberstam, Jack
    Theorizing Queer Inhumanisms2015Ingår i: GLQ - A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, ISSN 1064-2684, E-ISSN 1527-9375, Vol. 21, nr 2-3, s. 209-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 224.
    Ndukwe, Cajetan Okechukwu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik.
    Cyber Medicine: An Ethical Evaluation2005Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    It is self evident that our society is an information one. This is true from the things we see around us.The world is now a global village.It just take seconds for communication to be established from one part of the globe to another.What a tremendous achievement for information technology.Among the recent developments of information technology is the scientific wizardary of cyber medicine.The internet has definitely revolutionalised the healthcare industry. Many people in developed countries of the world seek medical information, advice or even buy drugs via the internet.So many websites rise every now and then claiming to provide various medical assistance to patients. But the application of information technology to medicine poses some ethical problems today. It is because of this that cyber medicine attracts my attention in this research.With this research, I hope to offer some recommendations for a morally acceptable cyber medicine .This will help to some extent in solving this all important problem ofcyber medicine for the good of the health care industry and the society at large.

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  • 225.
    Njoku, Stanislaus Ikenna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik.
    An Exposition of The Morality of Abortion (A Catholic Church Position)2005Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    In this modern period, societal and religious groups are strongly divided regarding the acceptability of abortion. Despite so many attempts by various groups to find a middle ground, the debate on abortion still remains largely polarized, at its most dramatic point with the extreme conservatives claiming abortion to be the moral equivalent of murder and the extreme liberals see it as devoid of moral import. And this polarization is due to the legal battle that continues to shadow moral discussions. An acceptance of an ethical nuance will here play as a concession on the deeply contested question of whether abortion should be a legally protected option for a woman, and to an extent blame for the continued crudeness which can be laid at the doorstep of a moral theory itself. Apparently, the ethical literature on abortion has focused almost exclusively on the tiniest moral assessment on whether and when abortion is morally permissible. This question is a crucial one indeed and its answer is desperately sought in this thesis by exposing the position of the Catholic Church.

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  • 226.
    Nordell, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik.
    Who should decide, and about what?: Reflections on reprogenetic choices and the scope of parental autonomy2004Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the scope and limits of reprogenetic choices - refering to reproductive applications of genetics made in the medical context - is adressed.

    Through posing four analytical questions concerning who should cecide about what in reprogenetics an analysis of possible answers is made. The method consists of an analysis of texts of ethicists Robertson, Strong, Davis, Murray, Peters and Buchanan et al, chosen to reflect a diversity concerning the scope of reproductive autonomy and what values that need to be taken into consideration.

    The most justified position found, concerning a possible policy of reprogenetic choices, is that there are several good reasons for leaving the reprogenetic choices with the parents, foremost since reproduction indeed is central to individuals identity, dignity and meaning of life. There are also good reasons to avoid governmental steering. This for instance since steering risks promoting perfectibilism, which would threaten human dignity. But also the reprogenetic choices cannot be left unrestricted. It is then argued that restrictions of parental reproductive autonomy should serve to protect the childs right to an open future, and that choices that reflect a search for perfectibilism should be cautioned. Autonomous reprogenetic choices should mean qualified choices - where relevant information is given and also an opportunity to make more than one choice is fostered.

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  • 227.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Action, capacité et santé2012Ingår i: Philosophie de la médecine: Santé, maladie pathologie / [ed] È. Giroux et M. Lemoine, Paris: Librarie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2012, 1, s. 265-296Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 228.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    CZym jest zdrowie2008Ingår i: Krytyka Lekarska, Vol. 1, s. 45-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 229.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Die Begriffe der Gesundheit und der Erkrankung: Eine erneute Betrachtung2012Ingår i: Krankheitstheorien / [ed] Thomas Schramme, Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag, 2012, 1, s. 223-238Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 230.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Filosofi och medicin: från Platon till Foucault2012 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 231.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Five Studies in Action Theory1984Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The essays presented in this collection were written over a long period. The first two : "On the Classification of Verbs and Actions" and "On von Wright's Theory of Action" constitute steps in my preparation for the book Events, Actions, and Ordinary Language, Lund 1977. Much of the contents of the former paper was carried over to the book, whereas the analyses in the latter paper were more or less completely left out. These papers have not been published before .

    "On Various Forms of Interaction" is a development of soroe ideas in Events, Actions, and Ordinary Language. This paper was previously published in Swedish in Henschen-Dahlqvist A-M ed. Filosofiska smulor, Festskrift tillägnad Kon rad Marc- Wogau på hans 75-årsdag, Uppsala 1977.

    "Action- Explanations Reconsidered" was wri t ten in 1981 and has not been previously published . It is a short presentation of a basic idea in my dissertation Explanation of Human Actions, Uppsala 1974, as well as a commentary on sorne criticisrns that could be (and partly have been) directed against it .

    "On Not Being Able To Act", finally, is a slightly modified version of a paper previously published in Pauli T. ed <320311>, Philosophical essays dedicated to Lennart Åqvist on his fiftieth birthday, Uppsala 1982. The analysis sketched in this paper has been more fully developed in my Disabilities and Their Classification, Linköping 1983.

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    Five Studies in Action Theory
  • 232.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Tema hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Health as natural function2003Ingår i: Dimensions of health and health promotion / [ed] Per-Erik Liss och Lennart Nordenfelt, Amsterdam: Rodopi publishers , 2003, s. 37-54Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This book contains scholarly contributions to several current debates in the philosophy of medicine and health care regarding the nature of health and health promotion, concepts and measurements of mental illness, phenomenological conceptions of health and illness, allocation of health care resources, criteria for proper medical science, the clinical meeting, and ethical constraints in such a meeting.

    With one exception, the authors in this book are or have been teachers or graduate students at the interdisciplinary Department of Health and Society (Tema H) at Linköping University, Sweden. While all the texts have a philosophical focus, many other disciplines have influenced the choice of specific perspectives. The university backgrounds of the authors range from medicine, psychology, sociology, and religion to philosophy. What binds the authors together is their deep interest in the theory of medicine and in the pursuit of a philosophy of humanistic medicine and health care.

  • 233.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Tema hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Holistic theories of health as applicable to non-human living beings2007Ingår i: Establishing medical reality: essays in the metaphysics and epistemology of biomedical science / [ed] Harold Kincaid and Jennifer McKitrick, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2007, s. 23-34Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Medicine raises numerous philosophical issues. This volume approaches the philosophy of medicine from the broad naturalist perspective. This holds that philosophy must be continuous with, constrained by, and relevant to empirical results of the natural and social sciences. The upshot is a unique volume that ties medicine to contemporary issues in philosophy of science and metaphysics.

  • 234.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Om Ingemar Hedenius: Vördad filosof och älskad inspektor2009Ingår i: Vestrogothica, Vol. 25, s. 59-73Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 235.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    On Concepts and Theories of Addiction2010Ingår i: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, ISSN 1071-6076, E-ISSN 1086-3303, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 27-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article "A Liberal Account of Addiction" is a good piece of analytic philosophy applied to psychiatry. It is well-informed both with regard to empirical matters and philosophical conceptualization. The arguments are often—but, as I will show, not always—quite convincing. The conclusions of the paper also have crucial consequences for practice, for the treatment of patients, and for social policy.

    The authors argue that current scientific understandings of the problem of addiction are fundamentally flawed. They distinguish between two main positions in science: The Disease View and the Willpower View. According to the Disease View, drug-seeking behavior is the direct result of some physiological change in the drug seeker's brain. According to the Willpower View, the addict is no longer rational; he or she uses drugs as a result of a fundamentally non-voluntary process.

    The authors dismiss the Disease View in the following way. They first note that drug addicts are in many ways rational planners. The addicts may have to think a lot to find the best ways to find the heroin, cigarettes, or alcohol, and they normally act according to this planning. They are not in any simple sense "caused" to act in a particular way. Moreover, referring to recent neurological literature, the authors note that the changes caused by drug addiction—which have to do with activating reward pathways in the brain—are identical with the outcomes of many other human activities that we do not call addiction. "In fact, any pleasurable experience causes dopamine to be released within the brain, activating these reward pathways" (Foddy and Savulescu 2010, 4). These experiences can be the result of coffee drinking, sexual activity, and physical exercise. Thus, the physical changes in the brain are not effects peculiar to the pharmacology of the drugs; they are instead the effects of the pleasure that the subject has experienced.

  • 236.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Philosophy of Medicine; 5 Questions2011Ingår i: Philosophy of Medicine; 5 Questions / [ed] Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen Friis, Peter Rossel; Michael Slot Norup, Milton Keynes UK: Automatic press , 2011, s. 143-162Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Philosophy of Medicine: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on five provoking questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in field. They present us with their views on philosophy of medicine, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of philosophy of medicine and how their work fits in these respects. Interviews with Vilhjálmur Árnason, Daniel Callahan, Arthur L. Caplan, Ruth Chadwick, Bill (KVM) Fulford, Henk ten Have, Bjørn Hofmann, Søren Holm, Ingvar Johansson, Niels Lynøe, Ruth Macklin, Lennart Nordenfelt, Onora O'Neill, Peter Rossel, Udo Schuklenk

  • 237.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kulturvetenskaper, KVA. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    First-in-human trials on genome editing: Strategies for handling uncertainty about benefit and uncertainty about harm2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human genome editing can be carried out on somatic cells as well as on the germline. In this paper I discuss first-in-human trials on both types of editing. At first sight, risk and risk/benefit assessment might seem to be key issues in such trials. However, according to decision theory, risk presupposes numerical values. In ‘decision-making under risk’, decisionmakers have sufficient information to assign probabilities to alternative outcomes. This is not the case in first-in-human trials. These trials are rather characterized by ‘decision-making under uncertainty’. My overall objective is to clarify the implications of uncertainty about benefit and uncertainty about harm in first-in-human trials on genome editing. A special aim is to analyse strategies for handling uncertainty.

  • 238.
    Nordin, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kritik och pseudovetenskap i klimatfrågan2009Ingår i: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 31-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 239.
    Nordin, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rationalitet utan tro2011Ingår i: Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-1943, E-ISSN 1504-2901, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 31-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 240.
    Nordin, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kulturvetenskaper, KVA. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Relativistisk sannolikhet2017Ingår i: Från Skaradjäkne till Uppsalaprofessor: Festskrift till Lars-Göran Johansson i samband med hans pensionering / [ed] George Masterton, Keizo Matsubara, Kim Solin, Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2017, 1, s. 138-158Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att analysera sannolikhetsbegreppet i realistiskt tolkade naturvetenskapliga teorier. Här utvecklas också ett sannolikhetsbegrepp som är mer generellt än de hittills förekommande

  • 241.
    Nordin, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Science fiction och filosofi2010Ingår i: Möjliga Världar: Tekniken, vetenskapet och science fiction / [ed] Michael Godhe och Jonas Ramsten, Stockholm: Carlssons , 2010, 1, , s. 15s. 101-115Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad har Harry Martinsons Aniara gemensamt med filmen Blade runner? Båda ingår i genren science fiction, en genre som har vuxit till en av vår tids mest vitala och populära uttrycksformer. Redan på 20-talet uppkom sf-klubbar inom vilka fans brevväxlade och även träffades på riktigt. det dröjde dock länge innan science fiction kom att uppmärksammas i den akademiska världen. Genren ansågs länge mestadels vara en oseriös och spekulativ verklighetsflykt. Sakta men säkert börjar nu science fiction bli accepterad som forskningsfält inom den akademiska världen. Den används bland annat för att illustrera filosofiska frågor, för att diskutera hur vetenskapliga teorier fungerar eller för att problematisera den teknovetenskapliga utvecklingens betydelse för samhälle och kultur. I den här antologin visar 12 forskare från skilda ämnesområden på hur rikt och fruktsamt science fiction är som forskningsfält. Boken är indelad i fyra delar: Vad är science fiction? De eviga frågorna, Nya perspektiv, och framtiden. Bokens redaktörer Mikael Godhe och Jonas Ramsten är båda verksamma vid Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet och undervisar vid Kultur, samhälle och mediegestaltning

  • 242.
    Nordin, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sydenham och Locke2012Ingår i: Filosofi och medicin: från Platon till Foucault / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Stockholm: Thales, 2012, s. 91-108Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Filosofi och medicin tar upp den medicinska ska filosofins centrala frågeställningar som de behandlas av några framträdande läkare, filosofer och andra tänkare från Platon till Foucault.

  • 243.
    Nordin, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Technology and Goodmans' Paradox2009Ingår i: Philosophy of science (East Lansing), ISSN 0031-8248, E-ISSN 1539-767X, Vol. 76, nr 3, s. 345-354Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Goodmans paradox gives rise to a cluster of problems, problems that are in need of different answers. I will discuss some variants of the grue hypothesis applied to the technological context. One conclusion in this paper is that there is room for rational decisions, and that solutions to the paradoxes in technology can be found in the practical choice situation.

  • 244.
    Nordin, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kulturvetenskaper, KVA. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Using Knowledge: On the Rationality of Science, Technology, and Medicine2017 (uppl. 1)Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book the author analyses the philosophical problems and nature of science, technology and medicine. It is argued that the goal of basic science (truth) makes it important to distinguish it from other types of research. The methodology of science can be viewed as a useful tool for scientific research and it should therefore be evaluated with respect that goal. But the main focus of the book is on the structure and dynamics of technological change. What implications do the goals of technology have for its rationality? How can the pragmatic problem of induction be solved within a fallibilist and skeptical context? The social context is shown to be of vital importance for the goal of technology (usefulness) and its rational development. This has important consequences for how to design a techno policy in society. A rational technological development needs technological pluralism since knowledge of what is useful is scattered among millions of users. The central themes and conclusions of this discussion can also be applied in analyzing the structure and dynamics of medicine. What is the goals and means of medicine? How can we increase the rationality of medical decisions and make use of all available knowledge, not just medical and scientific knowledge? How should we make a distinction between rational medicine and quackery?

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    presentationsbild
  • 245.
    Nordin, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Varför måste vi tro på något?2010Ingår i: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 35-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 246.
    Nordin, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kulturvetenskaper, KVA. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vetenskapens verktyg2014Ingår i: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 52-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 247.
    Nwaishi, Casmir Chibuike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik.
    The Intimate Connection Between Autonomy and Decision-Making in Applied Health Care Ethics2004Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The intimate connection between autonomy and decision-making in applied health care, especially in various kinds of consent and refusal has taken center stage in medical ethics since the Salgo decision in 1957. Prior to that time, the physician’s supposedly moral duty to provide appropriate medical care typically surpassed the legal obligation to respect patient’s autonomy. The Salgo decision concluded that physicians have a legal duty to provide facts necessary for the patient to make an informed decision. "The doctor knows best" long ago was replaced with "The doctor proposes; the patient disposes." There is no legal obligation for the patient’s choice to be palatable to anyone, other than that patient himself/herself. Although Beauchamp and Childress justified the obligation to solicit decisions from patients and potential research subjects by the principle of respect for autonomy, they however, acknowledged that the principle’s precise demands remain unsettled and open to interpretations and specification. This thesis addresses a current debate in the bioethical community on the four-principle approach. Using Tom Beauchamp and James Childress as case study, to discuss mainly the principle of respect for autonomy, I go on to explain their central arguments concerning this principle in relation to decision making in health care ethics. Rather than focus on their respective weaknesses, which many theorist and health care professionals do, I emphasis instead on the contribution the principle of respect for autonomy can make in the process of ethical decision making in health care situation.

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  • 248.
    Nygren, Karl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kulturvetenskaper, KVA. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Actuality-dependence, Natural Kind Terms and Reference Failures2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates Haukioja's (2010) notion of actuality-dependence. This notion is an attempt to explain the rigid behaviour of some kind terms; in particular natural kind terms like “water” and “tiger”. A definition of rigidity for kind terms has to take in account speakers' semantic intentions. This, together with the fact that actuality-dependence can only be applied successfully to a kind term if the members of its extension all share an underlying, non-trivial property, makes the notion of actuality-dependence face the problem of reference failures. A speaker's intention for a certain term to be actuality-dependent might fail, in the sense that the members of the kind picked out by the term in question lack underlying properties of the right sort. Three ways to solve this issue are shown to be unsatisfactory, ultimately leading to the conclusion that actuality-dependence cannot be the semantic feature that single out natural kind terms as semantically special.

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    actuality-dependence, natural kind terms and reference failures
  • 249.
    Nygren, Karl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kulturvetenskaper, KVA.
    The Possibility of Norm-Violation in Deontic Logics for Action Types: An Analysis of Bentzen's Action Type Deontic Logic and a New Semantics2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper, Bentzen proposes a semantically characterised logic called Action Type Deontic Logic, where normative concepts are applied to action expressions, rather than propositional statements. The logic offers solutions to many of the paradoxes of deontic logic. In particular, Bentzen's semantics solves many puzzles involving the interaction of permission with conjunction and disjunction. One of the reasons for these positive results is the assumption that agents always act according to norm. This assumption means that only agents with ideal behaviour are modelled; there is no possibility for norm-violation. In this thesis, proof techniques and decision procedures for Action Type Deontic Logic in the style of semantic tableau are investigated, and soundness, completeness and termination results are obtained. In order to account for the possibility of norm-violation, a new semantics based on a generalisation of Action Type Deontic Logic models is proposed. The new semantics keeps the possibility of norm-violation open, while many of the virtues of Action Type Deontic Logic remain.

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    fulltext
  • 250.
    Okonkwo, Cyril Chigozie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik.
    Paternalism:The Conflict Between Autonomy And Beneficence In The Case Of The Temporarily Mentally Ill Patients2005Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The health care formulation of the principle of autonomy can be expressed as follows; ‘you shall not treat a patient without the informed consent of the patient, or his or her lawfulsurrogate, except in narrowly defined emergencies’. The principle of beneficence refers to a moral obligation to act for the benefit of others. In heath care, the good or benefit in question is the restoration of the health of the patient. In fulfilling this obligation of beneficence, the physician sometimes intentionally overrides the patient’s preferences or actions for the purpose of benefiting the patient. This is called paternalism. It therefore amounts to a violation of the principle of autonomy and hence there arises a tension or conflict between autonomy and beneficence.

    The principle of autonomy claims to be pre-eminent to the principle of beneficence and vice versa. Both have their arguments as well as their limitations. However, there is the need for at least weak paternalism for the mentally ill patients because of their diminished autonomy. But in the case of the temporarily mentally ill patient whose autonomy is both restored and diminished following the periodic and intermittent occurrence of his or her mental illness, there is a need to go deeper to find justification for paternalistic intervention.

    Both act and rule utilitarianism will find justification for paternalism in this case because the consequence of the action will be greater good for both the patient and the society. Kantianism will give it support from the point of view that the intention is to restore the autonomy of the patient by not using him or her as a means but as and end in himself or herself. Beauchamp and Childress will equally throw their weight behind the justification since prima facie obligations could be overridden in a conflict situation and since restricting a short term autonomy to protect and advance long term autonomy will appeal to common morality.

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    FULLTEXT01
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