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  • 251.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Weise, Cornelia
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy for tinnitus distress2011In: CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW, ISSN 0272-7358, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 545-553Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus is defined as a sound in the ear(s) and/or head without external origin and is a serious health concern for millions worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing distress associated with tinnitus. Randomized, controlled trials that assessed the efficacy of CBT for tinnitus-related distress in adults were identified by searching electronic databases (PsychINFO, PubMed, the Cochrane Library), and by manual searches. Fifteen studies (total of 1091 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. CBT compared with a passive and active control at post-assessment yielded statistically significant mean effect sizes for tinnitus-specific measures (Hedgess g = 0.70. and Hedgess g = 0.44, respectively). The average weighted pre-to-follow-up effect size for the CBT group suggested that these effects were maintained over time. Smaller but yet statistically significant effects of CBT were found for mood outcome measures. Characteristics of the studies were unrelated to effect sizes. Methodological rigor, publication bias, and a series of sensitivity analyses did not influence the findings. The results suggest that CBT is an effective treatment of tinnitus distress. However, caution is warranted given that few large-scale, well-controlled trials were identified.

  • 252.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Weise, Cornelia
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Is CBT effective in the treatment of distress associated with tinnitus?: A systematic review and meta-analysis2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Westin, Vendela
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hayes, Steven
    University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Clients’ in-session acceptance and cognitive defusion behaviors in ACT treatment of tinnitus distress2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Westin, Vendela
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hayes, Steven C
    University of Nevada.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Clients' in-session acceptance and cognitive defusion behaviors in acceptance-based treatment of tinnitus distress.2009In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 523-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) is considered to be an effective treatment of distress associated with tinnitus (perception of internal noises without any outer auditory stimulation), but the processes by which the therapy works remain unclear. Mindfulness and acceptance is receiving increased attention in the treatment literature for chronic medical conditions. However, few studies have examined these and related processes with behavioral or observer measures. In the present study 57 videotapes (a total of 1710min) from 19 clients who participated in a controlled trial of an acceptance-based treatment for tinnitus distress, were coded for frequency and peak level of verbal behaviors expressing either acceptance or cognitive defusion. Frequency of cognitive defusion behaviors and peak level of cognitive defusion as well as peak level of acceptance rated in Session 2, predicted symptom reduction 6 month following treatment. These relationships were not accounted for by the improvement that had occurred prior to the measurement point of the process variables. Moreover, prior symptom changes could not predict process variables rated later in therapy (after most of the improvement in therapy had occurred). Thus, clients' in-session acceptance and cognitive defusion behaviors appear to play an important role in the reduction of negative impact of tinnitus.

  • 255.
    Hickson, Louise
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Worrall, Linda
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Scarinci, Nerina
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Oticon Med, Denmark.
    Individualised active communication education (I-ACE): another clinical option for adults with hearing impairment with a focus on problem solving and self-management2019In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 504-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This clinical note describes the Individualised - Active Communication Education (I-ACE) programme designed to improve problem solving and self-management in adults with hearing impairment. Design: The I-ACE was offered to adult clients seeking help for the first time and effects were measured for participants using self-report questionnaires: the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement (goal attainment), the Hearing Handicap Questionnaire (hearing disability), and the International Outcome Inventory - Alternative Interventions (outcomes) immediately after programme completion and 3 months later. Participants also provided qualitative feedback about I-ACE. Study sample: Twenty-three participants completed I-ACE, with 22 completing all self-report questionnaires and 23 participants providing qualitative feedback. Results: The participants reported positive outcomes and goal attainment, but no change in hearing disability post-programme. The effects were maintained 3 months later. Qualitative feedback indicated that I-ACE supported participants in recognising and increasing awareness of their hearing difficulties and in developing potential solutions to these difficulties. Participants also enjoyed the opportunity to involve communication partners. Conclusion: I-ACE is an appropriate option for adults with hearing impairment who wish to become more aware of their hearing difficulties and how to solve them.

  • 256.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Signs for Developing Reading: Sign Language and Reading Development in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading development is supported by strong language skills, not least in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. The work in the present thesis investigates reading development in DHH children who use sign language, attend Regional Special Needs Schools (RSNS) in Sweden and are learning to read. The primary aim of the present work was to investigate whether the reading skills of these children can be improved via computerized sign language based literacy training. Another aim was to investigate concurrent and longitudinal associations between skills in reading, sign language, and cognition in this population. The results suggest that sign language based literacy training may support development of word reading. In addition, awareness and manipulation of the sub-lexical structure of sign language seem to assist word reading, and imitation of familiar signs (i.e., vocabulary) may be associated with developing reading comprehension. The associations revealed between sign language skills and reading development support the notion that sign language skills provide a foundation for emerging reading skills in DHH signing children. In addition, the results also suggest that working memory and Theory of Mind (ToM) are related to reading comprehension in this population. Furthermore, the results indicate that sign language experience enhances the establishment of representations of manual gestures, and that progression in ToM seems to be typical, although delayed, in RSNS pupils. Working memory has a central role in integrating environmental stimuli and language-mediated representations, and thereby provides a platform for cross-modal language processing and multimodal language development.

    List of papers
    1. Evidence of an association between sign language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence of an association between sign language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children
    2016 (English)In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 48, p. 145-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

    Children with good phonological awareness (PA) are often good word readers. Here, we asked whether Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children who are more aware of the phonology of Swedish Sign Language, a language with no orthography, are better at reading words in Swedish.

    METHODS AND PROCEDURES:

    We developed the Cross-modal Phonological Awareness Test (C-PhAT) that can be used to assess PA in both Swedish Sign Language (C-PhAT-SSL) and Swedish (C-PhAT-Swed), and investigated how C-PhAT performance was related to word reading as well as linguistic and cognitive skills. We validated C-PhAT-Swed and administered C-PhAT-Swed and C-PhAT-SSL to DHH children who attended Swedish deaf schools with a bilingual curriculum and were at an early stage of reading.

    OUTCOMES AND RESULTS:

    C-PhAT-SSL correlated significantly with word reading for DHH children. They performed poorly on C-PhAT-Swed and their scores did not correlate significantly either with C-PhAT-SSL or word reading, although they did correlate significantly with cognitive measures.

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

    These results provide preliminary evidence that DHH children with good sign language PA are better at reading words and show that measures of spoken language PA in DHH children may be confounded by individual differences in cognitive skills.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Deafness; Handshape; Phonological awareness; Sign language; Word reading
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122930 (URN)10.1016/j.ridd.2015.10.008 (DOI)000367766100014 ()26561215 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008-0846
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]

    Available from: 2015-11-30 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model
    2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no 107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Ronnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into account. These results demonstrate that experience of sign language enhances the ability to imitate manual gestures once representations have been established, and suggest that the inherent motor patterns of lexical manual gestures are better suited for representation than those of non-signs. This set of findings prompts a developmental version of the ELU model, D-ELU.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2016
    Keywords
    imitation; sign language; manual gesture; representation; development
    National Category
    Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125800 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00107 (DOI)000370127400001 ()26909050 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]

    Available from: 2016-03-08 Created: 2016-03-04 Last updated: 2018-01-10
    3. Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children
    2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no 854Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is related to reading comprehension in hearing children. In the present study, we investigated progression in ToM in Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children who were learning to read, as well as its assocation with reading comprehension. Thirteen children at Swedish state primary schools for DHH children performed a Swedish Sign Language (SSL) version of the Wellman and Liu (2004) ToM scale, along with tests of reading comprehension, SSL comprehension, and working memory. Results indicated that ToM progression did not differ from that reported in previous studies, although ToM development was delayed despite age-appropriate sign language skills. Correlation analysis revealed that ToM was associated with reading comprehension and working memory, but not sign language comprehension. We propose that some factor not investigated in the present study, possibly represented by inference making constrained by working memory capacity, supports both ToM and reading comprehension and may thus explain the results observed in the present study.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Frontiers, 2016
    Keywords
    Deaf and hard-of-hearing, Theory of Mind, sign language, working memory, reading comprehension, Children
    National Category
    Psychology Specific Languages Clinical Medicine Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128253 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00854 (DOI)000377254900001 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]

    Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-24 Last updated: 2018-01-10
    4. Computerized Sign Language-Based Literacy Trainingfor Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computerized Sign Language-Based Literacy Trainingfor Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, E-ISSN 1465-7325, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 404-421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Strengthening the connections between sign language and written language may improve reading skills in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether computerized sign language-based literacy training improves reading skills in DHH signing children who are learning to read. Further, longitudinal associations between sign language skills and developing reading skills were investigated. Participants were recruited from Swedish state special schools for DHH children, where pupils are taught in both sign language and spoken language. Reading skills were assessed at five occasions and the intervention was implemented in a cross-over design. Results indicated that reading skills improved over time and that development of word reading was predicted by the ability to imitate unfamiliar lexical signs, but there was only weak evidence that it was supported by the intervention. These results demonstrate for the first time a longitudinal link between sign-based abilities and word reading in DHH signing children who are learning to read. We suggest that the active construction of novel lexical forms may be a supramodal mechanism underlying word reading development.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer and Information Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141161 (URN)10.1093/deafed/enx023 (DOI)000412206300006 ()28961874 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]; Swedish Hearing Foundation [B2015/480]

    Available from: 2017-09-25 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 257.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Computerized Sign Language-Based Literacy Trainingfor Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children2017In: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, E-ISSN 1465-7325, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 404-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strengthening the connections between sign language and written language may improve reading skills in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether computerized sign language-based literacy training improves reading skills in DHH signing children who are learning to read. Further, longitudinal associations between sign language skills and developing reading skills were investigated. Participants were recruited from Swedish state special schools for DHH children, where pupils are taught in both sign language and spoken language. Reading skills were assessed at five occasions and the intervention was implemented in a cross-over design. Results indicated that reading skills improved over time and that development of word reading was predicted by the ability to imitate unfamiliar lexical signs, but there was only weak evidence that it was supported by the intervention. These results demonstrate for the first time a longitudinal link between sign-based abilities and word reading in DHH signing children who are learning to read. We suggest that the active construction of novel lexical forms may be a supramodal mechanism underlying word reading development.

  • 258.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Evidence of an association between sign language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children2016In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 48, p. 145-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

    Children with good phonological awareness (PA) are often good word readers. Here, we asked whether Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children who are more aware of the phonology of Swedish Sign Language, a language with no orthography, are better at reading words in Swedish.

    METHODS AND PROCEDURES:

    We developed the Cross-modal Phonological Awareness Test (C-PhAT) that can be used to assess PA in both Swedish Sign Language (C-PhAT-SSL) and Swedish (C-PhAT-Swed), and investigated how C-PhAT performance was related to word reading as well as linguistic and cognitive skills. We validated C-PhAT-Swed and administered C-PhAT-Swed and C-PhAT-SSL to DHH children who attended Swedish deaf schools with a bilingual curriculum and were at an early stage of reading.

    OUTCOMES AND RESULTS:

    C-PhAT-SSL correlated significantly with word reading for DHH children. They performed poorly on C-PhAT-Swed and their scores did not correlate significantly either with C-PhAT-SSL or word reading, although they did correlate significantly with cognitive measures.

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

    These results provide preliminary evidence that DHH children with good sign language PA are better at reading words and show that measures of spoken language PA in DHH children may be confounded by individual differences in cognitive skills.

  • 259.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Imitation and language development in deaf and hearing schoolchildren2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Deaf signing children and hearing children reveal different developmental trajectories in several aspects of neurocognitive functioning; however, comparative studies of imitation across these groups are lacking. Imitation has been suggested to play a part in language and cognitive development, and the ability to imitate indicates multi-modal integration and analysis (e.g., Meltzoff & Williamson, 2013). Thus, understanding the function of imitation in typical and atypical groups is of theoretical interest, but may also have practical implications. Because sign language is gesture based, it is likely that deaf signing children can tap into existing linguistic representations during gesture imitation whereas only motor representations are available for nonsigning individuals. Thus, gesture imitation is likely to be supported by different cognitive skills in the signing and non-signing individuals. Importantly, imitation may expose qualities of generic mechanisms in the representational system. Method: Thirteen school-aged deaf users of Swedish Sign Language and 36 hearing nonsigning children, at similar levels of non-verbal cognitive ability and word reading skills, performed an experimental imitation task. The task involved spontaneous imitation of a set of manual gestures. Participants performed the task at two occasions, separated by 35 weeks. Tests of nonverbal intelligence, visual working memory, phonological awareness, word reading and reading comprehension were also administered. We investigated the precision of the imitative acts across groups and time, as well as relationships between imitative precision and cognitive and language skills in both groups. Results: A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that deaf signers imitate manual gestures with greater precision than hearing non-signing children. Further, improvement in imitative precision over time was greater for deaf than for hearing participants. Correlational patterns indicated that imitative precision was positively associated with language skills in both groups. Specifically, for deaf children, word reading skills at both assessment points and performance on a sign similarity judgment task at the second assessment were correlated positively with imitative precision. For the hearing participants, positive connections to word reading skills and performance on a rhyme task were observed at the second assessment point. In both groups, a significant connection between imitative precision and reading comprehension was observed at the second assessment point. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that sign language experience enhances the ability to imitate manual gestures longitudinally. They also show that imitation ability is linked to language skills in the non-manual, speech-related domain. We propose that the precision of imitative acts reflects the quality of linguistic and motor representations and the ability to employ them in language processing.

  • 260.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no 107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Ronnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into account. These results demonstrate that experience of sign language enhances the ability to imitate manual gestures once representations have been established, and suggest that the inherent motor patterns of lexical manual gestures are better suited for representation than those of non-signs. This set of findings prompts a developmental version of the ELU model, D-ELU.

  • 261.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sign language phonological awareness supports word reading in deaf beginning readers2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spoken language phonological awareness (PA) supports word reading development in hearing children; however, deaf children, who have non-functional levels of hearing and a signed language as their first language, seem to utilize their first language skills to learn to read. We developed a new phonological decision task that can be used to assess PA in both spoken and signed languages, and investigated how these skills were related to word reading in deaf beginning readers (Study 1). We also investigated the validity of our new task in hearing beginning readers (Study 2). Thirteen deaf beginning readers with a mean age of 10 years (SD=2.3) participated in Study 1; in Study 2, 36 normal hearing children with a mean age of 7.5 years (SD=0.3) took part. Groups were well matched on word reading, non-verbal intelligence, and gender distribution. The deaf children performed the new phonological decision task both as a sign similarity task and as a rhyme task; hearing children only performed a rhyme task. Participants also performed motor speed, cognitive speed, working memory, word decoding and lexical decision tasks; in addition, hearing children completed an established test of PA. Correlational analyses across studies indicated that the new task is a valid measure of PA, and that first language PA supports word reading, even when surface forms of first and reading language are completely different. Sign language PA may support word-to-sign mapping or some aspect of orthographic analysis; however, future studies should investigate what the exact function of this skill is.

  • 262.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    The effects of computerized sign language based literacy training in Deaf beginning readers2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no 854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is related to reading comprehension in hearing children. In the present study, we investigated progression in ToM in Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children who were learning to read, as well as its assocation with reading comprehension. Thirteen children at Swedish state primary schools for DHH children performed a Swedish Sign Language (SSL) version of the Wellman and Liu (2004) ToM scale, along with tests of reading comprehension, SSL comprehension, and working memory. Results indicated that ToM progression did not differ from that reported in previous studies, although ToM development was delayed despite age-appropriate sign language skills. Correlation analysis revealed that ToM was associated with reading comprehension and working memory, but not sign language comprehension. We propose that some factor not investigated in the present study, possibly represented by inference making constrained by working memory capacity, supports both ToM and reading comprehension and may thus explain the results observed in the present study.

  • 264.
    Hua, Hakan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish Institute Disabil Research, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Jan
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden .
    Widen, Stephen
    Swedish Institute Disabil Research, Sweden .
    Moller, Claes
    Swedish Institute Disabil Research, Sweden .
    Lyxell, Bjorn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Swedish Institute Disabil Research, Sweden .
    Quality of life, effort and disturbance perceived in noise: A comparison between employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing2013In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 642-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aims were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and hearing handicap between two groups of employees with normal hearing and aided hearing impairment (HI). HRQOL was also compared to a normative population. The second aim was to compare perceived effort (PE) and disturbance after completing a task in office noise between the two study groups. Design: A Swedish version of the short form-36 (SF-36) and the hearing handicap inventory for adults (HHIA) was used to determine HRQOL and hearing handicap. The Borg-CR 10 scale was used to measure PE and disturbance. Study sample: Hearing impaired (n = 20) and normally hearing (n = 20) participants. The normative sample comprised of 597 matched respondents. Results: Hearing-impaired employees report relatively good HRQOL in relation to the normative population, but significantly lower physical functioning and higher PE than their normally-hearing peers in noise. Results from the HHIA showed mild self-perceived hearing handicap. Conclusions: The current results demonstrate that physical health status can be negatively affected even at a mild-moderate severity of HI, and that a higher PE is reported from this group when performing a task in noise, despite the regular use of hearing aids.

  • 265.
    Hua, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Employees with Aided Hearing Impairment: An Interdisciplinary Perspective2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden 13% of the general adult population (16-84 years), with or without hearing aids (HAs), report that they have difficulties following a conversation when more than two people are involved. This means that more than one million people in Sweden (9 500 000 inhabitants in total) report subjective hearing difficulties. Observations further indicate that that people with hearing impairment (HI) have an unfavorable position in the labor market. Individuals with HI report poorer health more frequently and estimate their own health to be worse than their normally-hearing peers. Increased unemployment, early health-related retirement and sick leaves are also more common for people with hearing loss compared to the population at large.

    The focus of the present thesis is employees with mild-moderate aided HI in the labor market. The research project had three general aims: 1) to develop knowledge about how HI interacts with cognitive abilities, and different types of work-related sound environments and workrelated tasks, 2) develop tests and assessment methods that allow for the analysis and assessment of perceived problems in clinical settings and 3) to develop knowledge that enables the possibility to provide recommendations of room acoustics and work-related tasks for employees with HI. Four studies were carried out. The studies presented in papers I-III are quantitative laboratory studies focusing on health related quality of life, cognition and effort and disturbance perceived in different types of occupational noise (daycare, office and traffic). Paper IV is a qualitative interview study aiming at exploring the conceptions of working life among employees with mild-moderate aided HI.

    The results from papers I-IV clearly demonstrate that noise has negative effects on employees with mild-moderate aided HI. In addition to generating significantly greater effort and disturbance, it is further reported from the participants that noise at work in combination with a HI has an impact on daily life. This includes a sense of exposure during work hours, physical and mental fatigue after work, and withdrawal from social situations in the work environment and leisure activities. None of the participants with HI performed significantly worse on the visual working tasks employed in this project compared to their normallyhearing peers. This thesis shows that employees with HI objectively perform the employed  working tasks at a level similar to a well-matched normally-hearing control group. Instead, the findings of this thesis indicates that working in a noisy environment with a HI occurs at the expense of this group reporting significantly worse results on subjective measurements, including greater effort and disturbance, and lower physical health status. Interviews with these participants further confirm that these effects are indeed mostly due to noise at the workplace which could have a negative impact both physically, mentally and socially during and after work hours.

    The main findings of this thesis demonstrate that there is a need for extensive services for employees with HI even after a HA fitting. This thesis therefore emphasizes the importance of identifying the need for assistive listening devices, examining the room acoustics of the individual’s work setting and providing the workplace with information about the consequences of having a HI in order to facilitate communication at work. The latter is especially important as colleagues showing support and employers making adjustments at the workplace (technically or acoustically) are facilitating factors that would benefit both employees with HI and those with normal hearing. Additional research should focus on including and comparing other types of cognitive tests, work-related noises and working tasks. More research is also needed to unravel the complex area of research between factors such as cognitive processes, hearing and effort.

    List of papers
    1. Quality of life, effort and disturbance perceived in noise: A comparison between employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality of life, effort and disturbance perceived in noise: A comparison between employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 642-649Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aims were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and hearing handicap between two groups of employees with normal hearing and aided hearing impairment (HI). HRQOL was also compared to a normative population. The second aim was to compare perceived effort (PE) and disturbance after completing a task in office noise between the two study groups. Design: A Swedish version of the short form-36 (SF-36) and the hearing handicap inventory for adults (HHIA) was used to determine HRQOL and hearing handicap. The Borg-CR 10 scale was used to measure PE and disturbance. Study sample: Hearing impaired (n = 20) and normally hearing (n = 20) participants. The normative sample comprised of 597 matched respondents. Results: Hearing-impaired employees report relatively good HRQOL in relation to the normative population, but significantly lower physical functioning and higher PE than their normally-hearing peers in noise. Results from the HHIA showed mild self-perceived hearing handicap. Conclusions: The current results demonstrate that physical health status can be negatively affected even at a mild-moderate severity of HI, and that a higher PE is reported from this group when performing a task in noise, despite the regular use of hearing aids.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Informa Healthcare, 2013
    Keywords
    Health-related quality of life, labour market, mild-moderate hearing impairment, noise, perceived effort, self-perceived hearing handicap, work
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97237 (URN)10.3109/14992027.2013.803611 (DOI)000323108800008 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|pa AFA Insurance||

    Available from: 2013-09-05 Created: 2013-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. Cognitive skills and the effect of noise on perceived effort in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive skills and the effect of noise on perceived effort in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing
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    2014 (English)In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 16, no 69, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the following study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC), executive functions (EFs) and perceived effort (PE) after completing a work-related task in quiet and in noise in employees with aided hearing impairment (HI) and normal hearing. The study sample consisted of 20 hearing-impaired and 20 normally hearing participants. Measures of hearing ability, WMC and EFs were tested prior to performing a work-related task in quiet and in simulated traffic noise. PE of the work-related task was also measured. Analysis of variance was used to analyze within-and between-group differences in cognitive skills, performance on the work-related task and PE. The presence of noise yielded a significantly higher PE for both groups. However, no significant group differences were observed in WMC, EFs, PE and performance in the work-related task. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were only found between PE in the noise condition and the ability to update information for both groups. In summary, noise generates a significantly higher PE and brings explicit processing capacity into play, irrespective of hearing. This suggest that increased PE involves other factors such as type of task that is to be performed, performance in the cognitive skill required solving the task at hand and whether noise is present. We therefore suggest that special consideration in hearing care should be made to the individuals prerequisites on these factors in the labor market.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Medknow Publications, 2014
    Keywords
    Adverse conditions; cognitive skills; hearing impairment; labor market; normal hearing; perceived effort
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108180 (URN)10.4103/1463-1741.132085 (DOI)000336524500003 ()
    Available from: 2014-06-26 Created: 2014-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-05
    3. The impact of different background noises: Effects on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of different background noises: Effects on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 859-868Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health care professionals frequently meet employees with hearing impairment (HI) who experience difficulties at work. There are indications that the majority of these difficulties might be related to the presence of background noise. Moreover, research has also shown that high level noise has a more detrimental effect on cognitive performance and selfrated disturbance in individuals with HI than low level noise.

    Purpose: To examine the impact of different types of background noise on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance (PD) in employees with aided HI and normal hearing.

    Research Design: A mixed factorial design was conducted to examine the effect of noise under four experimental conditions.

    Study Sample: Forty participants (21 men and 19 women) were recruited to take part in the study .The study sample consisted of employees with HI (n =20) and normal hearing (n = 20). The group with HI had a mild-moderate sensorineural HI and they were all frequent hearing aid users.

    Intervention: The current study was conducted by employing four general work-related tasks (mental arithmetic, orthographic decoding, phonological decoding and serial recall) in four different background conditions: (1) quiet, (2) office noise at 56 dBA, (3) daycare noise at 73.5 dBA and (4) traffic noise at 72.5 dBA. Reaction time (RT) and the proportion of correct answers in the working tasks were used as outcome measures of cognitive performance. The Borg CR-10 scale was used to assess PD.

    Data Collection and Analysis: Data collection occurred on two separate sessions, completed within four weeks of each other. All tasks and experimental conditions were employed in a counterbalanced order. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to analyze the results. To examine interaction effects, pairwise t-tests were used. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between RT and proportion of correct answers, and cognitive performance and PD were also calculated to  examine the possible correlation between the different variables.

    Results: No significant between or within-group differences in cognitive performance were observed across the four background conditions. Ratings of PD showed that both groups rated PD according to noise level, where higher noise level generated a higher PD. The present findings also demonstrate that the group with HI was more disturbed by higher than lower levels of noise (i.e. traffic and daycare setting compared to the office setting). This pattern was observed consistently throughout four working tasks where the group with HI reported a significantly greater PD in the daycare and traffic setting compared to the office noise.

    Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that background noise does not impair cognitive performance in non-auditory tasks in employees with HI and normal hearing, but that PD is affected to a greater extent in employees with HI during higher level of background noise exposure. In addition, this study also supports previous studies regarding the detrimental effects high level noise has on employees with HI. We therefore emphasize the need of both self-rated and cognitive measurements in hearing care and occupational health services for both employees with normal hearing and HI.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Academy of Audiology, 2014
    Keywords
    Cognitive performance: labor market; hearing impairment; noise; perceived disturbance; work
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110365 (URN)10.3766/jaaa.25.9.8 (DOI)000344907000008 ()
    Available from: 2014-09-09 Created: 2014-09-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Conceptions of working life among employees with mild-moderate aided hearing impairment: A phenomenographic study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptions of working life among employees with mild-moderate aided hearing impairment: A phenomenographic study
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 873-880Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim was to explore the conceptions of working life among employees with mild-moderate aided hearing impairment (HI). Design: This study has a descriptive design, in which data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The text was analysed in accordance with the phenomenographic approach. Study sample: Fifteen participants with mild-moderate aided HI were recruited to the current study. Results: The analysis of the interviews resulted in four main categories describing the participants conceptions of working life: (1) diffiiculties in daily work, (2) communication strategies, (3) facilitating factors in work environment, and (4) impact on daily life. The four identified descriptive categories show that the effects of HI on the lives of working adults generate far-reaching psychosocial consequences for the individual. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that difficulties and impact of having a HI interact with strategies used by the individual and contextual facilitators made in the work environment. We argue that there is a need for extensive services in aural rehabilitation for this population. This includes identifying the need of assistive listening devices, teaching the individual with HI about communication strategies and informing stakeholders about the consequence of having a HI.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2015
    Keywords
    Conceptions; employees; fatigue; hearing impairment; labor market; noise; phenomenography; withdrawal
    National Category
    Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123811 (URN)10.3109/14992027.2015.1060640 (DOI)000366449600012 ()26140299 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|AFA Insurance.

    The previous status of this article was Manuscript and the working title was Being part of the labor market: conceptions among employees with aided hearing impairment.

    Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2018-01-10
  • 266.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Widen, Stephen
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Moller, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Örebro University, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Conceptions of working life among employees with mild-moderate aided hearing impairment: A phenomenographic study2015In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 873-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim was to explore the conceptions of working life among employees with mild-moderate aided hearing impairment (HI). Design: This study has a descriptive design, in which data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The text was analysed in accordance with the phenomenographic approach. Study sample: Fifteen participants with mild-moderate aided HI were recruited to the current study. Results: The analysis of the interviews resulted in four main categories describing the participants conceptions of working life: (1) diffiiculties in daily work, (2) communication strategies, (3) facilitating factors in work environment, and (4) impact on daily life. The four identified descriptive categories show that the effects of HI on the lives of working adults generate far-reaching psychosocial consequences for the individual. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that difficulties and impact of having a HI interact with strategies used by the individual and contextual facilitators made in the work environment. We argue that there is a need for extensive services in aural rehabilitation for this population. This includes identifying the need of assistive listening devices, teaching the individual with HI about communication strategies and informing stakeholders about the consequence of having a HI.

  • 267.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emilsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ellis, Rachel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Not Found:Linkoping Univ, Linnaeus Ctr HEAD, Swedish Inst Disabil Res, Orebro, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci and Learning, Orebro, Sweden .
    Widen, Stephen
    School of Health and Medical Sciences and Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    School of Health and Medical Sciences and Örebro University; Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Cognitive skills and the effect of noise on perceived effort in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing2014In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 16, no 69, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the following study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC), executive functions (EFs) and perceived effort (PE) after completing a work-related task in quiet and in noise in employees with aided hearing impairment (HI) and normal hearing. The study sample consisted of 20 hearing-impaired and 20 normally hearing participants. Measures of hearing ability, WMC and EFs were tested prior to performing a work-related task in quiet and in simulated traffic noise. PE of the work-related task was also measured. Analysis of variance was used to analyze within-and between-group differences in cognitive skills, performance on the work-related task and PE. The presence of noise yielded a significantly higher PE for both groups. However, no significant group differences were observed in WMC, EFs, PE and performance in the work-related task. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were only found between PE in the noise condition and the ability to update information for both groups. In summary, noise generates a significantly higher PE and brings explicit processing capacity into play, irrespective of hearing. This suggest that increased PE involves other factors such as type of task that is to be performed, performance in the cognitive skill required solving the task at hand and whether noise is present. We therefore suggest that special consideration in hearing care should be made to the individuals prerequisites on these factors in the labor market.

  • 268.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emilsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University.
    Widen, Stephen
    School of Health and Medical Sciences and Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    School of Health and Medical Sciences and Örebro University; Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    The impact of different background noises: Effects on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing2014In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 859-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health care professionals frequently meet employees with hearing impairment (HI) who experience difficulties at work. There are indications that the majority of these difficulties might be related to the presence of background noise. Moreover, research has also shown that high level noise has a more detrimental effect on cognitive performance and selfrated disturbance in individuals with HI than low level noise.

    Purpose: To examine the impact of different types of background noise on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance (PD) in employees with aided HI and normal hearing.

    Research Design: A mixed factorial design was conducted to examine the effect of noise under four experimental conditions.

    Study Sample: Forty participants (21 men and 19 women) were recruited to take part in the study .The study sample consisted of employees with HI (n =20) and normal hearing (n = 20). The group with HI had a mild-moderate sensorineural HI and they were all frequent hearing aid users.

    Intervention: The current study was conducted by employing four general work-related tasks (mental arithmetic, orthographic decoding, phonological decoding and serial recall) in four different background conditions: (1) quiet, (2) office noise at 56 dBA, (3) daycare noise at 73.5 dBA and (4) traffic noise at 72.5 dBA. Reaction time (RT) and the proportion of correct answers in the working tasks were used as outcome measures of cognitive performance. The Borg CR-10 scale was used to assess PD.

    Data Collection and Analysis: Data collection occurred on two separate sessions, completed within four weeks of each other. All tasks and experimental conditions were employed in a counterbalanced order. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to analyze the results. To examine interaction effects, pairwise t-tests were used. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between RT and proportion of correct answers, and cognitive performance and PD were also calculated to  examine the possible correlation between the different variables.

    Results: No significant between or within-group differences in cognitive performance were observed across the four background conditions. Ratings of PD showed that both groups rated PD according to noise level, where higher noise level generated a higher PD. The present findings also demonstrate that the group with HI was more disturbed by higher than lower levels of noise (i.e. traffic and daycare setting compared to the office setting). This pattern was observed consistently throughout four working tasks where the group with HI reported a significantly greater PD in the daycare and traffic setting compared to the office noise.

    Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that background noise does not impair cognitive performance in non-auditory tasks in employees with HI and normal hearing, but that PD is affected to a greater extent in employees with HI during higher level of background noise exposure. In addition, this study also supports previous studies regarding the detrimental effects high level noise has on employees with HI. We therefore emphasize the need of both self-rated and cognitive measurements in hearing care and occupational health services for both employees with normal hearing and HI.

  • 269.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Center for Health Care Sciences, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Widén, Stephen
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro Universitetssjukhus, audiologiskt forskningscentrum, Örebro Universitet.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Quality of life and self-perceived hearing handicap in employees with mild-moderate hearing impairment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aims were to compare health related quality of life (HRQOL) between two groups of employees with normal hearing and hearing impairment (HI) and the results were compared to a normative population. The second aim was to examine self-reported hearing handicap in employees with HI.Design: Data collection occurred in two separate sessions. A validated Swedish version of the Short form-36 (SF-36) was employed to determine HRQOL and The Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults (HHIA) was used to measure self-perceived hearing handicap.Study Sample: The study sample consisted of hearing-impaired (n = 20) and normally hearing (n = 20) participants. The normative sample comprised of 597 matched respondents.Results: Hearing-impaired employees do not report significantly different HRQOL in comparison with a normative population, nor do they report significantly different HRQOL than their normally hearing peers except in physical functioning (p = 0.04). Results from the HHIA showed mild self-perceived hearing handicap.Conclusions: Employees with mild-moderate HI report good HRQOL and mild self-perceived hearing handicap. However, physical health can be affected even at a mild-moderate HI. This study supports previous literature that HA use, having a job and severity of HI may play a vital role for this group’s well-being.

  • 270.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hörselskada i arbetslivet - Hälsorelaterad livskvalité och kognitiva förmågor2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hörselskadade i arbetslivet2012In: Audionomtidningen, ISSN 1403-1272, no 2, p. 7-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 272.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ny metod för att analysera bullerpåverkan2012In: Buller i arbetslivet, Stockholm: afa Försäkring , 2012, p. 27-29Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur ser samspelet ut mellan en individs hörförmåga, typ av arbetsuppgift, arbetsrelaterade ljudmiljöoch kognitiva förmåga? Det ville Linköpingsforskarna Björn Lyxell och Håkan Hua ta redapå i sin studie. Med sin breda approach utvecklade de en helt ny metod för att analysera kopplingenmellan arbete och buller.

  • 273.
    Hultman, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Barnperspektiv i barnavårdsutredningar: med barns hälsa och barns upplevelser i fokus2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to explore how the physical- and psychological health of children – as well as children’s own experiences – are represented in child welfare investigations. The results are discussed with reference to both legal regulations and theories, which identify children as subjects and social actors in their own right. The four studies show that there are limitations in how children’s health generally, along with their experiences more specifically, are described. The consequence is a diminishing of the chances to understand the child’s need for support. One reason for this might be that legal regulations for social welfare investigations do not automatically ascribe to children the status of subjects and social actors. Compared with previous research, results gathered in this thesis indicate that the child’s perspective has been strengthened in both law and in social welfare investigations. All the same, there is still a need for more developed analyses of children’s health as well as children’s experiences. Such an understanding requires that children be seen from their unique positions, ensuring moreover that social services take into account the specific needs of individual children.

    List of papers
    1. Vulnerable children's health as described in investigations of reported children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vulnerable children's health as described in investigations of reported children
    2013 (English)In: Child & Family Social Work, ISSN 1356-7500, E-ISSN 1365-2206, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 117-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether the social services weigh in health aspects, and what these may be, when investigating reported childrens life situation. Information about physical and psychological health aspects for 259 children in 272 investigations was included. Overall, information about childrens health was limited. Problematic emotions were the most commonly reported health aspect in the investigations, whereas suicidal thoughts, self-harm behaviour and gastrointestinal and renal diseases were mentioned least of all. A cluster analysis revealed that the low level of health information group included the largest sample of data and consisted of investigations with minimal information about childrens health. The three other cluster groups, Neurological diseases and psychosomatic symptoms, Emotional health and Physical and psychological health and destructive behaviour, consisted of investigations conducted mostly according to the model called Childrens Needs In Focus (BBIC, in Swedish, Barns Behov i Centrum). Although these investigations also produced limited information, they provided more than those assessed as having a low level of information about health aspects. The conclusion is that it is necessary to increase information about health aspects in investigations if social welfare systems are to be able to fulfil their ambition of supporting vulnerable childrens need of health care.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2013
    Keywords
    health, social service investigation, vulnerable children
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92695 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2206.2011.00807.x (DOI)000317068800002 ()
    Available from: 2013-05-16 Created: 2013-05-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Social workers’ assessments of children’s health when arguing for children’s needs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social workers’ assessments of children’s health when arguing for children’s needs
    2015 (English)In: Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, ISSN 0738-0151, E-ISSN 1573-2797, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 301-308Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, child-related social services constitute an institutional body that conducts both preventive and supportive work for children in need of health support. However, in the social services Act (2001:453) there are few concrete statements about how social workers should assess children’s health. In this study we therefore explore how social workers in Sweden adapt to the task of assessing children’s health. Specifically, we investigate the ways in which children’s health is explained in the context of reaching conclusions about the concrete needs of children. Inspired by a social constructionist and discursive analytical approach we analysed 60 written investigations where health concerns were expressed at the point of initiating an investigation. The findings are that social workers limited their assessments of children’s health, using only a few words when mentioning health aspects. There was a difference in how they described physical- and psychological health problems. When they did pay attention to children’s psychological health this was mostly carried out with the use of one single explanation for the cause of the health condition; parental misbehaviour. Besides, this explanation fitted the suggested support. Signs of children’s psychological problems were described by their own destructive behaviour. Physical health was only briefly mentioned and the recommendations for child support involved external assistance. This means that social workers could use a simplified explanatory model lacking descriptions of each child’s life situation. This way of limiting assessment may hinder a deeper understanding of causes and consequences and thereby impose limits on specifying the particular support the child needs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer US, 2015
    Keywords
    Social services written assessment; children’s ill-health; limited information; simplified explanatory model
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102182 (URN)10.1007/s10560-014-0371-3 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Representations of Children’s Voices about their health in Social Services arguments in support of their decision
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Representations of Children’s Voices about their health in Social Services arguments in support of their decision
    2014 (English)In: International Journal of Social Science Studies, ISSN 2324-8033, E-ISSN 2324-8041, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research points to the importance of involving children in social investigations, since their perception of their own situation and needs may differ from what others take to be the case. There is however no specific recommendation of how children’s voices should be inscribed in such investigations. This study explores if and how children’s voices are represented in the final part of the social investigations where social workers argue in support of their decision. It has a specific focus on how children’s voices about their health are included when, at the point of initiating an investigation, concerns have been raised about their physical and psychological well-being. Inspired by a social constructionist and discursive analytical approach we analyzed 60 arguments in as many social investigations. The findings are that children’s psychological-, physical health or general well- being was mentioned in 46 of the 60 argumentations. The child’s own thoughts about his or her health were represented in 12 of these 46 arguments. Instead, children’s health was mostly represented by referrals to other persons. In those 12 arguments where children’s views are presented they were reported in different ways. Their view could, for example, be sparingly reported and be used in order to confirm a previous statement or opinion. Two of the cases go more into details about what the children actually have said about their health. We conclude that if the representation of the child’s own voice is excluded it is difficult to understand if and how a children’s perspective of their health has been taken into consideration in the decision process.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Redfame Publishing Inc., 2014
    Keywords
    Social welfare investigations, social workers arguments for decision, children’s voices about their health
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102183 (URN)
    Note

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    4. How Social Workers Portray Children’s Perceptions When Constructing Their Identities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Social Workers Portray Children’s Perceptions When Constructing Their Identities
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Social Science Studies, ISSN 2324-8033, E-ISSN 2324-8041, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 73-81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Constructions of institutional identities are necessary when assessing children’s needs and making intervention decisions. To be able to make holistic descriptions of children’s identities, social workers have to listen to children’s perceptions of themselves and their surroundings. In this study we explore how social workers construct children’s identities when portraying the children’s perceptions in social investigations conducted according to the BBIC model when concerns have been expressed about the children’s health.  Inspired by a discursive analytical approach, we focused on the language used.

    We analysed descriptions of children’s perceptions in 35 written investigations. We found that in terms of words used, the children’s perceptions were given greater attention than those of parents and others (e.g. teachers, doctors). When focusing on the quality of these constructions, the main patterns found were that social workers more frequently submitted non-explanatory rather than explanatory descriptions.

    We also found that social workers differ in the way they handle the task of reporting children’s voices. These findings indicate that the use of the BBIC manual needs to be developed to ensure children are not just listened to and their perceptions described, but also that children are constructed as agents of their life. To obtain a holistic view of children’s life-world, there is a need of identity descriptions that include details of how children understand their problems, what they experience as positive and what is acceptable support for them.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Redfame Publishing Inc., 2013
    Keywords
    Social service investigations, identity construction, children’s perception, non-explanatory descriptions
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102184 (URN)10.11114/ijsss.v1i2.130 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 274.
    Hultman, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alm, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Cederborg, Ann-Christin
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Vulnerable children's health as described in investigations of reported children2013In: Child & Family Social Work, ISSN 1356-7500, E-ISSN 1365-2206, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 117-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether the social services weigh in health aspects, and what these may be, when investigating reported childrens life situation. Information about physical and psychological health aspects for 259 children in 272 investigations was included. Overall, information about childrens health was limited. Problematic emotions were the most commonly reported health aspect in the investigations, whereas suicidal thoughts, self-harm behaviour and gastrointestinal and renal diseases were mentioned least of all. A cluster analysis revealed that the low level of health information group included the largest sample of data and consisted of investigations with minimal information about childrens health. The three other cluster groups, Neurological diseases and psychosomatic symptoms, Emotional health and Physical and psychological health and destructive behaviour, consisted of investigations conducted mostly according to the model called Childrens Needs In Focus (BBIC, in Swedish, Barns Behov i Centrum). Although these investigations also produced limited information, they provided more than those assessed as having a low level of information about health aspects. The conclusion is that it is necessary to increase information about health aspects in investigations if social welfare systems are to be able to fulfil their ambition of supporting vulnerable childrens need of health care.

  • 275.
    Hultman, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cederborg, Ann-Christin
    Department of Child and Youth Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    How Social Workers Portray Children’s Perceptions When Constructing Their Identities2013In: International Journal of Social Science Studies, ISSN 2324-8033, E-ISSN 2324-8041, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 73-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructions of institutional identities are necessary when assessing children’s needs and making intervention decisions. To be able to make holistic descriptions of children’s identities, social workers have to listen to children’s perceptions of themselves and their surroundings. In this study we explore how social workers construct children’s identities when portraying the children’s perceptions in social investigations conducted according to the BBIC model when concerns have been expressed about the children’s health.  Inspired by a discursive analytical approach, we focused on the language used.

    We analysed descriptions of children’s perceptions in 35 written investigations. We found that in terms of words used, the children’s perceptions were given greater attention than those of parents and others (e.g. teachers, doctors). When focusing on the quality of these constructions, the main patterns found were that social workers more frequently submitted non-explanatory rather than explanatory descriptions.

    We also found that social workers differ in the way they handle the task of reporting children’s voices. These findings indicate that the use of the BBIC manual needs to be developed to ensure children are not just listened to and their perceptions described, but also that children are constructed as agents of their life. To obtain a holistic view of children’s life-world, there is a need of identity descriptions that include details of how children understand their problems, what they experience as positive and what is acceptable support for them.

  • 276.
    Hultman, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cederborg, Ann-Christin
    Department of Child and Youth Studies, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Representations of Children’s Voices about their health in Social Services arguments in support of their decision2014In: International Journal of Social Science Studies, ISSN 2324-8033, E-ISSN 2324-8041, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research points to the importance of involving children in social investigations, since their perception of their own situation and needs may differ from what others take to be the case. There is however no specific recommendation of how children’s voices should be inscribed in such investigations. This study explores if and how children’s voices are represented in the final part of the social investigations where social workers argue in support of their decision. It has a specific focus on how children’s voices about their health are included when, at the point of initiating an investigation, concerns have been raised about their physical and psychological well-being. Inspired by a social constructionist and discursive analytical approach we analyzed 60 arguments in as many social investigations. The findings are that children’s psychological-, physical health or general well- being was mentioned in 46 of the 60 argumentations. The child’s own thoughts about his or her health were represented in 12 of these 46 arguments. Instead, children’s health was mostly represented by referrals to other persons. In those 12 arguments where children’s views are presented they were reported in different ways. Their view could, for example, be sparingly reported and be used in order to confirm a previous statement or opinion. Two of the cases go more into details about what the children actually have said about their health. We conclude that if the representation of the child’s own voice is excluded it is difficult to understand if and how a children’s perspective of their health has been taken into consideration in the decision process.

  • 277.
    Hultman, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cederborg, Ann-Christin
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Social workers’ assessments of children’s health when arguing for children’s needs2015In: Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, ISSN 0738-0151, E-ISSN 1573-2797, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 301-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, child-related social services constitute an institutional body that conducts both preventive and supportive work for children in need of health support. However, in the social services Act (2001:453) there are few concrete statements about how social workers should assess children’s health. In this study we therefore explore how social workers in Sweden adapt to the task of assessing children’s health. Specifically, we investigate the ways in which children’s health is explained in the context of reaching conclusions about the concrete needs of children. Inspired by a social constructionist and discursive analytical approach we analysed 60 written investigations where health concerns were expressed at the point of initiating an investigation. The findings are that social workers limited their assessments of children’s health, using only a few words when mentioning health aspects. There was a difference in how they described physical- and psychological health problems. When they did pay attention to children’s psychological health this was mostly carried out with the use of one single explanation for the cause of the health condition; parental misbehaviour. Besides, this explanation fitted the suggested support. Signs of children’s psychological problems were described by their own destructive behaviour. Physical health was only briefly mentioned and the recommendations for child support involved external assistance. This means that social workers could use a simplified explanatory model lacking descriptions of each child’s life situation. This way of limiting assessment may hinder a deeper understanding of causes and consequences and thereby impose limits on specifying the particular support the child needs.

  • 278.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Student’s second-language grade may depend on classroom listening position2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This experiment explored whether position, close to or at a distance from the sound source, in the classroom, and the reverberation time in the classroom, influenced Swedish speaking participants’ score on a test for second-language (English) listening comprehension. The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 133 upper school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects and classroom reverberation time was varied between subjects. The results showed that English listening comprehension decreased with the distance from the sound source. Participants with higher proficiency scores for English were less susceptible to this effect. Classroom reverberation time had no significant main effect and it did not interact with listening position. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores – and hence students’ grade in English – may depend on their classroom listening position.

  • 279.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Education, Health and Social Science, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Ljung, Robert
    Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden .
    Hygge, Staffan
    Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden .
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Students Second-Language Grade May Depend on Classroom Listening Position2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores-and hence students grade in English-may depend on students classroom listening position.

  • 280.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Keidser, Gitte
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. National Acoustic Laboratories, Australia.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    The effect of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory: evidence from the UK Biobank resource: a longitudinal follow up2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent study (Rönnberg, Hygge, Keidser & Rudner, 2014) we reported cross-sectional epidemiological data from the UK Biobank, which in total contains >500,000 individuals in the UK. The focus in that study was on the effects of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory. Our selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138,098 participants after discarding extreme values.

    A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task) and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task), with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task.

    Close to 20,000 of the original (>500,000) participants recently went through the very same test battery a second time, 2-7 years after the first time. In the present study, we will scrutinize in which respects the addition of extra years in the longitudinal analysis is commensurable with extra years from our previous cross-sectional analysis, for the same sets of original moderators and mediators.

  • 281.
    Håkan, Hua
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Johansson, Björn
    Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Lennart
    Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Ellis, Rachel J.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Speech Recognition and Cognitive Skills in Bimodal Cochlear Implant Users2017In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 60, no 9, p. 2752-2763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine the relation between speech recognition and cognitive skills in bimodal cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid users.

    Method: Seventeen bimodal CI users (28-74 years) were recruited to the study. Speech recognition tests were carried out in quiet and in noise. The cognitive tests employed included the Reading Span Test and the Trail Making Test (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980; Reitan, 1958, 1992), measuring working memory capacity and processing speed and executive functioning, respectively. Data were analyzed using paired-sample t tests, Pearson correlations, and partial correlations controlling for age.

    Results: The results indicate that performance on some cognitive tests predicts speech recognition and that bimodal listening generates a significant improvement in speech in quiet compared to unilateral CI listening. However, the current results also suggest that bimodal listening requires different cognitive skills than does unimodal CI listening. This is likely to relate to the relative difficulty of having to integrate 2 different signals and then map the integrated signal to representations stored in the long-term memory.

    Conclusions: Even though participants obtained speech recognition benefit from bimodal listening, the results suggest that processing bimodal stimuli involves different cognitive skills than does unimodal conditions in quiet. Thus, clinically, it is important to consider this when assessing treatment outcomes.

  • 282.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lunds universitet.
    The relationship between language, working memory and reading in Swedish children with prelingual deafness and CI2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Ighe, Anna
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Application of the 2012 systemic lupus international collaborating clinics classification criteria to patients on a Regional Swedish systemic lupus erythematosus register2015In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 17, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    In 2012, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) network presented a new set of criteria (SLICC-12) to classify systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study is the first to evaluate the performance of SLICC-12 in an adult European study population. Thus, SLICC-12 criteria were applied to confirmed SLE cases in our regional SLE register as well as to individuals with a fair suspicion of systemic autoimmune disease who were referred to rheumatology specialists at our unit.     

    Methods

    We included 243 confirmed SLE patients who met the 1982 American College of Rheumatology (ACR-82) classification criteria and/or the Fries ‘diagnostic principle’ (presence  of antinuclear antibodies on at least one occasion plus involvement of at least two defined organ systems) and 55 controls with possible systemic autoimmune disease, including the presence of any SLE-related autoantibody.     

    Results

    SLICC-12 showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 94% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90 to 0.96) compared with 90% (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.93) for the updated set of ACR criteria from 1997 (ACR-97), whereas ACR-82 failed to identify every fifth true SLE case. However, the disease specificity of SLICC-12 reached only 74% (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.84) and did not change much when involvement of at least two different organs was required as an indicator of systemic disease. In addition, SLICC-12 misclassified more of the controls compared to ACR-82, ACR-97 and Fries.     

    Conclusions

    Establishing a standard definition of SLE continues to challenge lupus researchers and clinicians. We confirm that SLICC-12 has advantages with regard to diagnostic sensitivity, whereas we found the diagnostic specificity to be surprisingly low. To accomplish increased sensitivity and specificity figures, a combination of criteria sets for clinical SLE studies should be considered.

  • 284.
    Ingo, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climbing up the hearing rehabilitation ladder2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing impairment is a major public health problem, affecting communication and participation, and is associated with a range of health problems. Most individuals with perceived hearing impairment do not seek help, do not opt for rehabilitation (hearing aids), and do not use prescribed hearing aids adequately. Reducing the impact of hearing impairment and supporting healthy aging are important public health goals. Motivation, access to hearing health care, and poor societal awareness about hearing impairment, consequences, and rehabilitation options influence help-seeking. Offering online hearing screening has been proposed to improve hearing help-seeking, access to hearing health care, and to increase public knowledge about hearing and hearing impairment. Applying theories from health psychology (i.e. the Stages of change model) could help audiologists and other hearing health care professionals understand the psychological barriers that prevent people with hearing problems to seek help and take up rehabilitation. The overarching aim of this thesis was to investigate behaviors related to hearing rehabilitation (help-seeking, hearing aid uptake, and hearing aid use) in adults who fail an online hearing screening. A second aim was to explore the usefulness of the Stages of change model in predicting hearing rehabilitation related behavior in a self-selected online hearing screening sample. Studies I–IV show tentative support for offering online hearing screening and for supplementary interventions for increasing help-seeking and provide tentative support for Stages of change as a useful classification tool to indicate individual needs for further information and guidance. Future studies should contemplate integrating screening for multiple health-related factors associated with hearing impairment and to provide a clear and tailored pathway for each participant (e.g. referral to adequate health care or equivalent online intervention).

    List of papers
    1. Stages of change in audiology: comparison of three self-assessment measures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stages of change in audiology: comparison of three self-assessment measures
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 516-520Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In a clinical setting, theories of health behaviour change could help audiologists and other hearing health care professionals understand the barriers that prevent people with hearing problems to seek audiological help. The transtheoretical (stages of change) model of health behaviour change is one of these theories. It describes a persons journey towards health behaviour change (e.g. seeking help or taking up rehabilitation) in separate stages: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and, finally, maintenance. A short self-assessment measure of stages of change may guide the clinician and facilitate first appointments. This article describes correlations between three stages of change measures of different lengths, one 24-item and two one-item. Design: Participants were recruited through an online hearing screening study. Adults who failed the speech-in-noise recognition screening test and who had never undergone a hearing aid fitting were invited to complete further questionnaires online, including the three stages of change measures. Study sample: In total, 224 adults completed the three measures. Results: A majority of the participants were categorised as being in one of the information- and help-seeking stage of change (contemplation or preparation). The three stages of change measures were significantly correlated. Conclusions Our results support further investigating the use of a one-item measure to determine stages of change in people with hearing impairment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2017
    Keywords
    Hearing screening; motivation; stages of change
    National Category
    Other Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139671 (URN)10.1080/14992027.2017.1309466 (DOI)000404938300009 ()28420270 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2009-0055]

    Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Measuring motivation using the transtheoretical (stages of change) model: A follow-up study of people who failed an online hearing screening.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring motivation using the transtheoretical (stages of change) model: A follow-up study of people who failed an online hearing screening.
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    2016 (English)In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 55, no Suppl 3, p. S52-S58Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Acceptance and readiness to seek professional help have shown to be important factors for favourable audiological rehabilitation outcomes. Theories from health psychology such as the transtheoretical (stages-of-change) model could help understand behavioural change in people with hearing impairment. In recent studies, the University of Rhode Island change assessment (URICA) has been found to have good predictive validity.

    DESIGN: In a previous study, 224 Swedish adults who had failed an online hearing screening completed URICA and two other measures of stages of change. This follow-up aimed to: (1) determine prevalence of help-seeking at a hearing clinic and hearing aid uptake, and (2) explore the predictive validity of the stages of change measures by a follow-up on the 224 participants who had failed a hearing screening 18 months previously.

    STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 122 people (54%) completed the follow-up online questionnaire, including the three measures and questions regarding experience with hearing help-seeking and hearing aid uptake.

    RESULTS: Since failing the online hearing screening, 61% of participants had sought help. A good predictive validity for a one-item measure of stages of change was reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Staging algorithm was the stages of change measure with the best ability to predict help-seeking 18 months later.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2016
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130826 (URN)10.1080/14992027.2016.1182650 (DOI)000381035200007 ()27206679 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2009-0055]

    Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-08-26 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
  • 285.
    Ingo, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Brännström, K Jonas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon a/S, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon a/S, Denmark.
    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon a/S, Denmark.
    Measuring motivation using the transtheoretical (stages of change) model: A follow-up study of people who failed an online hearing screening.2016In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 55, no Suppl 3, p. S52-S58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Acceptance and readiness to seek professional help have shown to be important factors for favourable audiological rehabilitation outcomes. Theories from health psychology such as the transtheoretical (stages-of-change) model could help understand behavioural change in people with hearing impairment. In recent studies, the University of Rhode Island change assessment (URICA) has been found to have good predictive validity.

    DESIGN: In a previous study, 224 Swedish adults who had failed an online hearing screening completed URICA and two other measures of stages of change. This follow-up aimed to: (1) determine prevalence of help-seeking at a hearing clinic and hearing aid uptake, and (2) explore the predictive validity of the stages of change measures by a follow-up on the 224 participants who had failed a hearing screening 18 months previously.

    STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 122 people (54%) completed the follow-up online questionnaire, including the three measures and questions regarding experience with hearing help-seeking and hearing aid uptake.

    RESULTS: Since failing the online hearing screening, 61% of participants had sought help. A good predictive validity for a one-item measure of stages of change was reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Staging algorithm was the stages of change measure with the best ability to predict help-seeking 18 months later.

  • 286.
    Ingo, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Brännström, K. Jonas
    Department of logopedics, phoniatrics and audiology, Lund University, Sweden and Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV), The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Stages of change in audiology: comparison of three self-assessment measures2017In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 516-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In a clinical setting, theories of health behaviour change could help audiologists and other hearing health care professionals understand the barriers that prevent people with hearing problems to seek audiological help. The transtheoretical (stages of change) model of health behaviour change is one of these theories. It describes a persons journey towards health behaviour change (e.g. seeking help or taking up rehabilitation) in separate stages: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and, finally, maintenance. A short self-assessment measure of stages of change may guide the clinician and facilitate first appointments. This article describes correlations between three stages of change measures of different lengths, one 24-item and two one-item. Design: Participants were recruited through an online hearing screening study. Adults who failed the speech-in-noise recognition screening test and who had never undergone a hearing aid fitting were invited to complete further questionnaires online, including the three stages of change measures. Study sample: In total, 224 adults completed the three measures. Results: A majority of the participants were categorised as being in one of the information- and help-seeking stage of change (contemplation or preparation). The three stages of change measures were significantly correlated. Conclusions Our results support further investigating the use of a one-item measure to determine stages of change in people with hearing impairment.

  • 287.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bergin, D.
    Swedish Athlet Assoc, Sweden.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development, Department of Health and Care Development.
    Nyce, J. M.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Injuries in youth track and field are perceived to have multiple-level causes that call for ecological (holistic-developmental) interventions: A national sporting community perceptions and experiences2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 348-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engaging in competitive sports as a youth can have many health benefits, but recent studies also report a high risk for injury. The long-term purpose of this Swedish research program is to develop a framework for safe track and field training for young athletes (aged 12-15years). The aim of this study was to establish what is perceived to contribute and cause injuries in youth track and field by compiling the best available experiential knowledge about the underlying factors and use this knowledge to identify appropriate areas to handle these in practical ways. Nine focus group interviews with in total 74 participants and confirming interviews with five individuals were performed in seven Swedish regions. Qualitative research methods were used for data analysis. Injuries in youth athletes were not considered to be strictly the result of individual factors but rather the result of the interactions between factors at different levels. Three major factors emerged as follows: Insufficient knowledge for athletic development in daily practice; shortsighted communities of practice and sports policies not adjusted to youth; and societal health behaviors. The experiential knowledge in the national sporting community suggests that if effective and sustainable injury prevention processes are to be implemented for youth track and field, an ecological (holistic-developmental) approach to injury prevention is needed. Such an approach allows a longitudinal development-focused strategy for prevention that spans an athletes entire career.

  • 288.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Sverker
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Renström, Per
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Injury patterns in Swedish elite athletics – part 1: annual incidence and injury types2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To estimate the incidence, type and severity of musculoskeletal injuries in youth and adult elite athletics athletes and to explore risk factors for sustaining injuries. Design Prospective cohort study conducted during a 52-week period. Setting Male and female youth and adult athletics athletes ranked in the top 10 in Sweden (n=292). Results 199 (68%) athletes reported an injury during the study season. Ninety-six per cent of the reported injuries were non-traumatic (associated with overuse). Most injuries (51%) were severe, causing a period of absence from normal training exceeding 3 weeks. Log-rank tests revealed risk differences with regard to athlete category (p=0.046), recent previous injury (>3 weeks time-loss; p=0.039) and training load rank index (TLRI; p=0.019). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that athletes in the third (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.78) and fourth TLRI quartiles (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.74) had almost a twofold increased risk of injury compared with their peers in the first quartile and interaction effects between athlete category and previous injury; youth male athletes with a previous serious injury had more than a fourfold increased risk of injury (HR=4.39; 95% CI 2.20 to 8.77) compared with youth females with no previous injury. Conclusions The injury incidence among both youth and adult elite athletics athletes is high. A training load index combing hours and intensity and a history of severe injury the previous year were predictors for injury. Further studies on measures to quantify training content and protocols for safe return to athletics are warranted.

  • 289.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Sverker
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Renström, Per
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Injury patterns in Swedish elite athletics – part 2: risk indicators2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the risk indicators associated with sustaining musculoskeletal injuries in youth and adult elite athletics athletes competing at national and international levels.

    Design: Prospective cohort study conducted during a 52-week period starting in March 2009. A web-based athlete electronic diary was administrated every week by email to athletes for self-reporting of data on training, competition and injuries.

    Setting: Male and female youth and adult athletics athletes ranked in the top 10 in Sweden (n=292).

    Results: One-hundred ninety-nine (68%) athletes reported an injury during the study season. The median time to first injury was 101 days (95% confidence interval (CI) 75–127). Univariate log-rank tests revealed risk differences with regard to athlete category (P=0.046), serious injury (>3 weeks time loss) during the previous season (P=0.039) and training load rank index (TLRI) (P=0.019). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that athletes in the third (hazard ratio (HR) 1.79; 95% CI 1.54–2.78) and fourth TLRI quartile (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.16–2.74) had almost a twofold increased risk of injury compared with their peers in the first quartile and interaction effects between athlete category and previous injury; youth male athletes with a previous serious injury had more than a fourfold increased risk of injury (HR=4.39; 95% CI 2.20–8.77) compared with youth females with no previous injury.

    Conclusions: A training load index combing hours and intensity and a history of severe injury the previous year are predictors for injury risk among elite athletic athletes. Future studies on measures to quantify training content and protocols for safe return to athletics are warranted.

  • 290.
    Janda, Carolyn
    et al.
    Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Department of Psychology , Philipps University , Marburg , Germany.
    Kues, Johanna N.
    Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Department of Psychology , Philipps University , Marburg , Germany.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kleinstäuber, Maria
    Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Department of Psychology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany.
    Weise, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Department of Psychology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany.
    A symptom diary to assess severe premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder2017In: Women & health, ISSN 0363-0242, E-ISSN 1541-0331, Vol. 57, no 7, p. 837-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The differentiation between premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) has been widely discussed. PMDD is listed as a mental disorder in the DSM-5, whereas PMS is not considered as a mental disorder in any diagnostic manual. Consequently, PMS is operationalized in different ways. Keeping a symptom diary is required to diagnose PMDD but is also recommended for PMS. The aim of our study was, therefore, to operationalize PMS and PMDD within a DSM-5-based symptom diary. We developed a symptom-intensity-score (SI-score) and an interference-score (INT-score) to evaluate the symptom diary. Ninety-eight women (aged 20-45 years) completed a symptom diary over two menstrual cycles, a retrospective screening for premenstrual symptoms, and answered additional impairment questionnaires from August 2013 to August 2015. The scores revealed moderate to good reliability (Cronbachs a = 0.83-0.96). Convergent validity was shown by significant correlations with a retrospective screening, the Pain Disability Index, and the German PMS-Impact Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was indicated by low correlations with the Big Five Inventory-10. These scores may facilitate the evaluation of prospective symptom ratings in research and clinical practice. Future research should focus on continuing to validate the scores (e.g., in an ambulatory setting).

  • 291.
    Janda, Carolyn
    et al.
    University of Marburg, Germany.
    Kues, Johanna N.
    University of Marburg, Germany.
    Kleinstaeuber, Maria
    University of Marburg, Germany.
    Weise, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. University of Marburg, Germany.
    A Therapeutic Approach to Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Modularized Treatment Program2015In: Verhaltenstherapie (Basel), ISSN 1016-6262, E-ISSN 1423-0402, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 294-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The paper presents a modularized treatment approach for women with premenstrual symptoms. Many women of reproductive age suffer from physical and/or mental premenstrual complaints, which can significantly reduce the quality of everyday life. Current studies showed positive effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy and lifestyle interventions. Overall, there is a lack of effective treatment approach. Method: The present approach addresses women with a severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). It consists of a detailed psychoeducation, cognitive interventions regarding PMS-related dysfunctional cognitions, strategies to change dysfunctional behaviors, and targets lifestyle issues such as stress, relaxation, balanced diet, and sports. Results: First results of the efficacy as well as the contentment with the treatment program were reported within a case study. Conclusion: The paper presents newly developed treatment guidelines, which can be integrated both, in research and therapeutic practice. The treatment guidelines should be used in further research to optimize the treatment of premenstrual burden.

  • 292.
    Jarrold, Christopher
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Wang, Xiaoli
    University of Bristol, England; North West Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Absolute and proportional measures of potential markers of rehearsal, and their implications for accounts of its development2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of the development of phonological similarity and word length effects in children have shown that these effects are small or absent in young children, particularly when measured using visual presentation of the memoranda. This has often been taken as support for the view that young children do not rehearse. The current paper builds on recent evidence that instead suggests that absent phonological similarity and word length effects in young children reflects the same proportional cost of these effects in children of all ages. Our aims are to explore the conditions under which this proportional scaling account can reproduce existing developmental data, and in turn suggest ways that future studies might measure and model phonological similarity and word length effects in children. To that end, we first fit a single mathematical function through previously reported data that simultaneously captures absent and negative proportional effects of phonological similarity in young children plus constant proportional similarity effects in older children. This developmental function therefore provides the benchmark that we seek to re-produce in a series of subsequent simulations that test the proportional scaling account. These simulations reproduce the developmental function well, provided that they take into account the influence of floor effects and of measurement error. Our simulations suggest that future empirical studies examining these effects in the context of the development of rehearsal need to take into account proportional scaling. They also provide a demonstration of how proportional costs can be explored, and of the possible developmental functions associated with such an analysis.

  • 293.
    Jasper, Kristine
    et al.
    Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany .
    Weise, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Philipps University Marburg, Germany.
    Conrad, Isabell
    Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hiller, Wolfgang
    Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany .
    Kleinstaeuber, Maria
    Philipps University Marburg, Germany.
    Internet-based guided self-help versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic tinnitus: a randomized controlled trial2014In: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, ISSN 0033-3190, E-ISSN 1423-0348, Vol. 83, no 4, p. 234-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects of conventional face-to-face group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) and an Internet-delivered guided self-help treatment (Internet-based CBT, ICBT) on tinnitus distress.

    METHODS:

    A total of 128 adults with at least mild levels of chronic tinnitus distress were randomly assigned to GCBT (n = 43), ICBT (n = 41), or a web-based discussion forum (DF) that served as a control condition (n = 44). Standardized self-report measures [the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (Mini-TQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire] were completed at the pre- and post-assessments and at the 6-month follow-up.

    RESULTS:

    Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed significant time × group interaction effects on the primary outcomes (THI and Mini-TQ scores) in favor of both CBT interventions compared with the DF at post-assessment (0.56 ≤ g ≤ 0.93; all p ≤ 0.001). There were no significant differences between GCBT and ICBT (all p > 0.05) and the treatment effects remained stable at the 6-month follow-up.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    This study provides evidence that ICBT might be an equally effective alternative to conventional CBT in the management of chronic tinnitus. Despite encouraging results, further research is necessary to determine the actual potential of ICBT as a viable alternative to CBT, and under which circumstances it is effective.

  • 294.
    Jasper, Kristine
    et al.
    Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany.
    Weise, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Philipps-University Marburg, Germany.
    Conrad, Isabell
    Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Hiller, Wolfgang
    Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany.
    Kleinstäuber, Maria
    Philipps-University Marburg, Germany.
    The working alliance in a randomized controlled trial comparing Internet-based self-help and face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for chronic tinnitus2014In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 49-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    This study (ID: NCT01205906) compared the impact of the working alliance between the therapist and the client on treatment outcome in a group and an Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (GCBT vs. ICBT) for chronic tinnitus.

    Methods

    The Working Alliance Inventory — Short Revised (WAI-SR, scale range: 1–5) was administered to 26 GCBT and 38 ICBT participants after treatment weeks 2, 5, and 9, and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) before and after the treatment.

    Results

    High alliance ratings were found in both ICBT (WAI-SR total scores at week 9: M = 3.59, SD = 0.72) and GCBT (WAI-SR total scores at week 9: M = 4.20, SD = 0.49), but significantly higher ratings occurred in GCBT on most WAI-SR scales (ps < .01). Significant time × group interactions for most WAI-SR scales indicated differences in alliance growth patterns between the treatments (ps < .001). Residual gain scores for the therapy outcome measure ‘tinnitus distress’ were significantly correlated with the agreement on treatment tasks between therapist and client in ICBT (r = .40, p = .014) and with the affective therapeutic bond in GCBT (r = .40, p = .043) at mid-treatment (week 5).

    Conclusion

    More time was needed to build a strong alliance in ICBT although GCBT yielded generally higher alliance ratings. Moreover, different aspects of the therapeutic alliance might be important for treatment success in ICBT versus GCBT.

  • 295.
    Jensen, Josefine Juul
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark; Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Callaway, Susanna L.
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Orebro Univ, Sweden; Eriksholm Res Ctr, Denmark.
    Wendt, Dorothea
    Eriksholm Res Ctr, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Measuring the Impact of Tinnitus on Aided Listening Effort Using Pupillary Response2018In: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 22, article id 2331216518795340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus can have serious impact on a persons life and is a common auditory symptom that is especially comorbid with hearing loss. This study investigated processing effort required for speech recognition in a group of hearing-impaired people with tinnitus and a control group (CG) of hearing-impaired people without tinnitus by means of pupillary response. Furthermore, the relationship between the pupillary response, self-rating measures of tinnitus severity, and fatigue was examined. Participants performed a speech-in-noise task with a competing four-talker babble at two speech intelligibility levels (50% and 95%) with either an active or inactive noise-reduction scheme while the pupillary response was recorded. Tinnitus participants showed significantly smaller time-dependent pupil dilations and significantly higher fatigue ratings. No correlation was found for the tinnitus severity and pupillary response, but a significant correlation was found between the tinnitus severity and fatigue. As participants with tinnitus generally reported higher fatigue and showed smaller task-evoked pupil dilations, it was speculated that this may suggest an increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system, which governs the bodily response during rest. The finding that tinnitus participants showed higher fatigue has clinical implications, highlighting the importance of taking steps to decrease the risk of developing long-term fatigue. Finally, the tinnitus participants showed reduced pupillary responses when noise reduction was activated, suggesting a reduced effort from hearing aid signal processing.

  • 296.
    Jiang, Wen
    et al.
    Affiliated Hospital Xuzhou Medical Coll, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Fei
    Cardiff Metropolitan University, Wales; Sun Yat Sen University, Peoples R China.
    Guderley, Nicola
    Guys and St Thomas Hospital, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Lamar University, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Daily music exposure dose and hearing problems using personal listening devices in adolescents and young adults: A systematic review2016In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 197-205Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This systematic review aimed to explore the evidence on whether the preferred listening levels (PLLs) and durations of music listening through personal listening devices (PLDs) in adolescents and young adults exceed the current recommended 100% daily noise dose; together with the impact on hearing and possible influential factors of such listening behaviours. Design: A systematic search was conducted using multiple online bibliographic databases. Study sample: The 26 studies were included on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The results showed that up to 58.2% of participants exceeded the 100% daily noise dose, particularly in the presence of background noise. Significantly positive correlations were found among background noise levels and mean PLLs, as well as the proportion of participants exceeding the 100% daily noise dose. Moreover, significantly worse hearing thresholds were found in PLD users using audiometry, and significantly poor results in otoacoustic emission (OAE), even in the participants with self-reported normal hearing. Conclusion: It is crucial to develop appropriate standards and safe recommendations for daily music exposure dose in future studies. Providing an essential guide and effective education to adolescents and young adults will help raise awareness, increase knowledge, and consequently change attitudes and listening habits.

  • 297.
    Johansen Lundervold, Astri
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway .
    Beate Walhovd, Kristine
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundet, Kjetil
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    Editorial Material: New perspectives in neuropsychology2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 187-188Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 298.
    Johansson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Human evaluation of extraction based summaries2012In: Proceedings of the Fourth Swedish Language Technology Conference, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Johansson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alehagen, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Effect of selenium and Q10 on the cardiac biomarker NT-proBNP2013In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 281-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To investigate whether the effect of 48-month usage of coenzyme Q10 and selenium on cardiac function was different for participants with different levels of cardiac wall tension as measured by plasma levels of N-terminal natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at baseline. Methods. A 48-month randomized double-blind controlled trial in a cohort of community-dwelling elderly (mean age 78 years) was carried out. A total of 443 participants were given coenzyme Q10 combined with selenium, or a placebo. NT-proBNP measured at baseline and 48 months was used to evaluate the cardiac wall tension. Results. After 48 months, supplementation of coenzyme Q10 and selenium had varying impacts depending on the severity of impairment of cardiac function. Analyses of the responses in the different quintiles of baseline NT-proBNP showed that those with active supplementation, and a plasma level of NT-proBNP in the second to fourth quintiles demonstrated significantly reduced NT-proBNP levels (p = 0.022) as well as cardiovascular mortality after 48 months (p = 0.006). Conclusion. Long-term supplementation of coenzyme Q10/selenium reduces NT-proBNP levels and cardiovascular mortality in those with baseline NT-proBNP in the second to fourth quintiles indicating those who gain from supplementation are patients with mild to moderate impaired cardiac function.

  • 300.
    Johansson, Peter
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alehagen, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.