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  • 251. Karimipanah, T
    et al.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    On the performance of confluent jets ventilation system in office space2007In: 10th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 252.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Experimental evaluation of airflow in a low-energy building2006In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 239-248Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on tracer gas measurements of the ventilation flow within a low-energy building. Constant-concentration, decay and homogenous tracer gas emission methods were used. Low-energy buildings are airtight constructions; effective ventilation is thus very essential for the indoor climate. The results of this study show an airflow rate between 0.42 and 0.68 air exchanges per hour (ac/h), which should be compared to the minimum requirements in Sweden of 0.5 ac/h. It was found that the airflow changes with time and that the local mean age of air was different on different floors of the building and, to some extent, different at different heights.

  • 253. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Multi-dimensional approach used for energy and indoor climate evaluation applied to a low-energy building2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector alone accounts for almost 40% of the total energy demand and people spend more than 80% of their time indoors. Reducing energy demand in buildings is essential to the achievement of a sustainable built environment. At the same time, it is important to not deteriorate people’s health, well-being and comfort in buildings. Thus, designing healthy and energy-efficient buildings is one of the most challenging tasks. Evaluation of buildings with a broad perspective can give further opportunities for energy savings and improvement of the indoor climate.

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the functionality, regarding indoor climate and energy performance, of a low-energy building. To achieve this, a multi-dimensional approach is used, which means that the building is investigated from several points of views and with different methods. A systems approach is applied where the definition of the system, its components and the border to its environment, is essential to the understanding of a phenomenon. Measurement of physical variables, simulations, and qualitative interviews are used to characterize the performance of the building. Both energy simulation and computational fluid dynamic simulations are used to analyse the energy performance at the building level as well as the indoor climate at room level. To reveal the environmental impact of the low-energy building studied in this thesis the CO2 emissions and embodied energy have been investigated regarding different surrounding energy systems. The evaluated building is situated at the west coast of Sweden and uses about 50% of energy compared to a comparable ordinary Swedish building. The building is well-insulated and an air-to-air heat exchanger is used to minimise the heat losses through ventilation. The houses are heated mainly by the emissions from the household appliances, occupants, and by solar irradiation. During cold days an integrated electrical heater of 900 W can be used to heat the air that is distributed through the ventilation system. According to measurements and simulations, the ventilation efficiency and thermal environment could be further improved but the occupants are mostly satisfied with the indoor climate. The control of the heating system and the possibility for efficient ventilation during summertime are other important issues. This was found through quantitative measurements, simulations and qualitative interviews. The low-energy building gives rise to lower CO2 emissions than comparable buildings, but another energy carrier, such as district heating or biofuel, could be used to further improve the environmental performance of the building. The total energy demand, including the embodied energy, is lower than for a comparable building.

    To understand the functionality of a low-energy building both the technical systems and the occupants, who are essential for low-energy buildings, partly as heat sources but mainly as users of the technical systems, should be included in the analysis.

    List of papers
    1. Energy usage and thermal environment in a low-energy building
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy usage and thermal environment in a low-energy building
    2004 (English)In: Proceedings of Roomvent 2004, 9th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, 5–8 Sept., Coimbra, Portugal, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14149 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-30 Created: 2006-11-30 Last updated: 2009-02-18
    2. Energy demand and indoor climate in a low energy building : changed control strategies and boundary conditions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy demand and indoor climate in a low energy building : changed control strategies and boundary conditions
    2006 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 315-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy demand in the built environment is an important issue. In Sweden, 39% of energy use originates from the building sector, and this figure is increasing. Several attempts have been made to improve the energy use, for example low-energy houses, which are built with the aim of decreasing the use of energy, but still providing a good environment for the occupants. An energy simulation program, ESP-r, was used for simulation of the energy requirement and indoor climate in a well-insulated terraced house in Sweden. The building model was compared to measured values from the real object. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-model for one room was used to simulate and visualize the airflow and temperature pattern. Increased set-point temperature increases the power demand by about 200 kWh/°C. Thinner insulation increases the heat demand but decreases the demand for passive cooling by airing and deteriorates the indoor climate. Different types of windows affect both the energy demand and the indoor climate significantly. Load management was simulated by restriction on the heating possibilities and an economical comparison was made to investigate the advantage of such an operation. The extra insulation has a payoff time of about 38 years at common Swedish energy prices.

    Keywords
    Low-energy building; Energy simulation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14150 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.06.013 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-11-30 Created: 2006-11-30 Last updated: 2009-11-16
    3. Indoor climate in low-energy houses: An interdisciplinary investigation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor climate in low-energy houses: An interdisciplinary investigation
    2006 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 1678-1690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    If energy demand in the building sector should be decreased, low-energy buildings, which are built with the aim of decreasing the use of energy, but still provide a good environment for the occupants, ought to be built on a larger scale. Investigations into how experimental houses function provides the opportunity of improving next-generation houses. This paper presents the results of an interdisciplinary investigation of the thermal environment and the space heating in 20 low-energy terraced houses. Qualitative interviews with the occupants as well as measurements of physical parameters have been conducted for this purpose. When the houses are inhabited and household appliances and candles are being used, the temperature can be managed within acceptable limits, even on cold days. However, those living in middle houses are generally more satisfied with their indoor temperature than the households of the gable houses. Results from both interviews and measurements show that there is a temperature difference between the floor levels, which is more pronounced in the gable houses. One outcome of the investigation is that information about the functionality of the heating system given to the households should be improved. Another outcome is that the accuracy of the temperature regulation system could be better.

    Keywords
    Indoor climate; Interdisciplinary method; Temperature measurements; Low-energy houses; Occupier satisfaction; Comfort; Sociotechnical system
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14151 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.06.022 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-11-30 Created: 2006-11-30
    4. Experimental evaluation of airflow in a low-energy building
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evaluation of airflow in a low-energy building
    2006 (English)In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 239-248Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on tracer gas measurements of the ventilation flow within a low-energy building. Constant-concentration, decay and homogenous tracer gas emission methods were used. Low-energy buildings are airtight constructions; effective ventilation is thus very essential for the indoor climate. The results of this study show an airflow rate between 0.42 and 0.68 air exchanges per hour (ac/h), which should be compared to the minimum requirements in Sweden of 0.5 ac/h. It was found that the airflow changes with time and that the local mean age of air was different on different floors of the building and, to some extent, different at different heights.

    Keywords
    ventilation, low-energy building, tracer gas, constant concentration, decay, homogenous concentration emission, dwellings
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14152 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-30 Created: 2006-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    5. A comprehensive investigation of a low-energy building in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive investigation of a low-energy building in Sweden
    2007 (English)In: Renewable Energy, ISSN 0960-1481, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 1830-1841Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the building sector alone accounts for almost 40% of the total energy demand and people spend more than 80% of their time indoors. Reducing energy demand in the buildings is essential to the achievement of a sustainable built environment. At the same time, it is important to not deteriorate people's health, well-being and comfort in buildings. Thus, designing healthy and energy efficient buildings are one of the most challenging tasks for building scientists. A low-energy building that uses less than half of the purchased energy of a comparable typical Swedish building has been investigated from different viewpoints in an attempt to represent the building at different system levels. First, the ventilation performance in different rooms using the tracer gas method is reported. Second, results from simulations and in situ measurements are used to analyse the building's power demand and energy performance. The household's behaviour and their impact on energy usage as well as acceptance are reported. Finally, the CO2 emissions with regard to the energy usage are analysed on the basis of different supply energy forms from surrounding energy systems, for example a Swedish and European electricity mix, or district heating as a substitute for electrical heating.

    Keywords
    Low-energy building, Ventilation, Indoor climate, Energy use, Environmental performance
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14153 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2006.10.009 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-11-30 Created: 2006-11-30 Last updated: 2009-05-04
    6. CFD simulation of temperature and airflow pattern in a low-energy building
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>CFD simulation of temperature and airflow pattern in a low-energy building
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14154 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-30 Created: 2006-11-30 Last updated: 2010-01-13
    7. Measured and predicted energy demand of a low energy building: Important aspects when using Building Energy Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measured and predicted energy demand of a low energy building: Important aspects when using Building Energy Simulation
    2007 (English)In: Building services engineering research and technology, ISSN 0143-6244, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 223 -235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Three different simulation tools were used to simulate a low energy terraced house in the south of Sweden. The software tools all use dynamic models to calculate, for example, the energy demand for heating and the indoor temperatures. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relative importance to the annual energy demand of different energy aspects of a Swedish low-energy house. Both measured and simulated values are considered and compared. The focus is on the impact of choice of software, the habits of the tenants, and the relative impact of different design parameters such as ventilation rates.The measured values for total electricity demand range from about 6000 kWh to over 12 000 kWh, the average demand being 8020 kWh. The annual predicted total energy demand using three different simulation software tools deviated by about 2%. The energy use deviation due to airflow control was about 10%, and the deviation due to differences in heat exchanger efficiency was about 20% and the deviation in annual energy use due to differences in internal gains due to differences in tenant habits, assumed in the models, was 7%.Furthermore, when comparing the predicted energy use during the design process of the low-energy building with actual measurements after the tenants have moved in, these differ about 50% in average for this specific case.Practical application: Building energy simulation software is often used to make predictions of how different construction materials, design principles and operation influence the energy balance and indoor thermal comfort. It is therefore important that the output of these software tools is trustworthy and accurate. This paper discusses the importance of accurate input data during the design process in order to achieve a valid prediction of energy use with emphasis on tenants' behaviour. It was shown that the deviations in a parametric study were larger than the deviations in the comparison between the results from the three simulation tools. This indicates a need for more accurate models for modelling tenant behaviour and habits rather than more accurate building component models.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SAGE Journals Online, 2007
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14155 (URN)10.1177/0143624407077393 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2009-05-04Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 254.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comprehensive investigation of a low-energy building in Sweden2007In: Renewable Energy, ISSN 0960-1481, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 1830-1841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the building sector alone accounts for almost 40% of the total energy demand and people spend more than 80% of their time indoors. Reducing energy demand in the buildings is essential to the achievement of a sustainable built environment. At the same time, it is important to not deteriorate people's health, well-being and comfort in buildings. Thus, designing healthy and energy efficient buildings are one of the most challenging tasks for building scientists. A low-energy building that uses less than half of the purchased energy of a comparable typical Swedish building has been investigated from different viewpoints in an attempt to represent the building at different system levels. First, the ventilation performance in different rooms using the tracer gas method is reported. Second, results from simulations and in situ measurements are used to analyse the building's power demand and energy performance. The household's behaviour and their impact on energy usage as well as acceptance are reported. Finally, the CO2 emissions with regard to the energy usage are analysed on the basis of different supply energy forms from surrounding energy systems, for example a Swedish and European electricity mix, or district heating as a substitute for electrical heating.

  • 255.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy demand and indoor climate in a low energy building : changed control strategies and boundary conditions2006In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 315-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy demand in the built environment is an important issue. In Sweden, 39% of energy use originates from the building sector, and this figure is increasing. Several attempts have been made to improve the energy use, for example low-energy houses, which are built with the aim of decreasing the use of energy, but still providing a good environment for the occupants. An energy simulation program, ESP-r, was used for simulation of the energy requirement and indoor climate in a well-insulated terraced house in Sweden. The building model was compared to measured values from the real object. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-model for one room was used to simulate and visualize the airflow and temperature pattern. Increased set-point temperature increases the power demand by about 200 kWh/°C. Thinner insulation increases the heat demand but decreases the demand for passive cooling by airing and deteriorates the indoor climate. Different types of windows affect both the energy demand and the indoor climate significantly. Load management was simulated by restriction on the heating possibilities and an economical comparison was made to investigate the advantage of such an operation. The extra insulation has a payoff time of about 38 years at common Swedish energy prices.

  • 256.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy usage and thermal environment in a low-energy building2004In: Proceedings of Roomvent 2004, 9th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, 5–8 Sept., Coimbra, Portugal, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Whole building CFD simulation of a Swedish low-energy building2007In: CLIMA 2007 - Wellbeing indoors,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

           

  • 258.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Mari-Louise
    The Ångström Laboratory, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Measured and predicted energy demand of a low energy building: Important aspects when using Building Energy Simulation2007In: Building services engineering research and technology, ISSN 0143-6244, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 223 -235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different simulation tools were used to simulate a low energy terraced house in the south of Sweden. The software tools all use dynamic models to calculate, for example, the energy demand for heating and the indoor temperatures. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relative importance to the annual energy demand of different energy aspects of a Swedish low-energy house. Both measured and simulated values are considered and compared. The focus is on the impact of choice of software, the habits of the tenants, and the relative impact of different design parameters such as ventilation rates.The measured values for total electricity demand range from about 6000 kWh to over 12 000 kWh, the average demand being 8020 kWh. The annual predicted total energy demand using three different simulation software tools deviated by about 2%. The energy use deviation due to airflow control was about 10%, and the deviation due to differences in heat exchanger efficiency was about 20% and the deviation in annual energy use due to differences in internal gains due to differences in tenant habits, assumed in the models, was 7%.Furthermore, when comparing the predicted energy use during the design process of the low-energy building with actual measurements after the tenants have moved in, these differ about 50% in average for this specific case.Practical application: Building energy simulation software is often used to make predictions of how different construction materials, design principles and operation influence the energy balance and indoor thermal comfort. It is therefore important that the output of these software tools is trustworthy and accurate. This paper discusses the importance of accurate input data during the design process in order to achieve a valid prediction of energy use with emphasis on tenants' behaviour. It was shown that the deviations in a parametric study were larger than the deviations in the comparison between the results from the three simulation tools. This indicates a need for more accurate models for modelling tenant behaviour and habits rather than more accurate building component models.

  • 259.
    Karlsson, J.Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Investigation of indoor climate and power usage in a data center2005In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 1075-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal management of data centers is an important issue for many high technology companies. The power requirement to provide proper indoor climate in data centers is considerable. Thus, possibilities for energy savings and efficient electricity utilization are quite important. In this paper, the airflow and temperature patterns, as well as the electrical power requirement within a small data center, have been investigated. The power requirement within the data center is considerably high, due to an oversized air conditioning system. An infrared camera was used to visualize the airflow and temperature pattern, showing that cool air does not reach the upper levels of the racks, despite a very high air exchange rate. Point measurements of temperatures in a rack show that recirculation cells are present, causing accumulation of heat and improper cooling of electronic equipments. Thus, the chilled air is not distributed properly and consequently the cooling energy is not used effectively. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 260.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysing strategic energy-related investments in process industries: applied studies at a pulp and board mill2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential to reduce energy demand in industrial applications is often substantiaL Since energy cost represents a considerable share of the value added in several categories of process industries, a great potential exists for cutting costs through investment, for instance in energy efficiency improvements. However, industrial energy systems form complex relations not only within the industrial unit, but also in the interaction with their surroundings. Consequently, issues such as energy prices and governmental regulations influence the systems to varying extents. At the moment environmental issues, as manifested in the Kyoto agreement, and the new common European electricity market are in focus and are likely to influence the different boundary conditions that face European industries. Therefore, when major investments are to take place, changes in such boundary conditions need to be considered.

    Analysing potential investments in industrial energy systems require advanced methods that manage these complex relations and interactions and concurrently consider technical, economic and environmental issues. The purpose of the thesis is to develop and co-ordinate such methods and apply them to investments in an existing process industry. A method based on optimisation is used as the main tool for analysis. Other methods are applied as complements, for example to manage different aggregation levels and to facilitate sensitivity analyses.

    A pulp and board mill in central Sweden is used as a case study, where investments and changes in the utility systems and the main processes are analysed. These investments are subject to changes in boundary conditions and other mill-specific changes, showing both potentially interesting investments, and also the extensive influence of different boundary conditions. It is also shown that the methods used are appropriate for the purpose at hand.

    List of papers
    1. Co-ordination of pinch technology and the MIND method: applied to a Swedish board mill
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-ordination of pinch technology and the MIND method: applied to a Swedish board mill
    2002 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    By combining the pinch technology and the MIND method, it is possible to identify beneficial and energy-efficient measures in a complex industrial energy system. By tackling a problem on the two different aggregation levels, the result is thoroughly evaluated and durable measures are achieved. The strength of the combination of methods is elucidated in a case study where a Scandinavian pulp and paper mill is analysed. The studied problem concerns pre-evaporation of effluents in a board mill using excess heat. Different alternatives are evaluated, taking into account economic, technical and practicable constraints. The results show that it is cost-effective to pre-evaporate the effluent using excess heat in the studied mill.

    Keywords
    Effluent, Energy, Energy efficiency, Evaporation, Excess heat, Industrial energy system, MIND, Optimisation, Pinch technology, Process integration, Pulp and paper
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46976 (URN)10.1016/S1359-4311(01)00080-1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Sensitivity analysis of investments in the pulp and paper industry: on investments in the chemical recovery cycle at a board mill
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensitivity analysis of investments in the pulp and paper industry: on investments in the chemical recovery cycle at a board mill
    2002 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 26, no 14, p. 1253-1267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the pulp and paper industry, energy costs represents a relatively large proportion of the value of production. When investing in new equipment, considerations concerning boundary conditions, such as electricity and oil prices, are therefore of great importance. A vital requirement is the identification of other key parameters influencing production costs as well as possible interaction between these parameters. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is accomplished by using an optimization model that minimizes the system cost combined with a systematic approach involving a statistical method.

    The paper analyses the possibilities of investing in a new chemical recovery cycle, including a new recovery boiler and evaporation plant, at a Swedish board mill. The study includes a survey of future changes, together with forecasts of boundary conditions, such as changes in the price of electricity and oil. Interactions between different parameters are also examined.

    Keywords
    optimization, energy efficiency, industrial energy system, pulp and paper, interaction, factorial design
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39955 (URN)10.1002/er.848 (DOI)51861 (Local ID)51861 (Archive number)51861 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. A systems approach to the reduction of oil demand in a Swedish board mill
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A systems approach to the reduction of oil demand in a Swedish board mill
    2004 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 103-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of reducing oil demand in the board mill at Skoghall, operated by Stora Enso, is analysed from a systems perspective. Identification of different key factors influencing the potential for reducing oil demand includes measures within the mill, e.g. steam reduction measures, and boundary conditions, such as electricity prices. Different key factors influence each other to different extents, indicating that an analysis concerning interactions between the different factors is also vital. A survey of these factors influencing oil demand has been carried out and a sensitivity analysis, including a factorial design method, has been applied to the subject.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22917 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2003.08.003 (DOI)2272 (Local ID)2272 (Archive number)2272 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Cost-efficient CO2-reduction in the pulp and paper industry: a case study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-efficient CO2-reduction in the pulp and paper industry: a case study
    2002 (English)In: International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, 2002, Porto, Portugal: FEUP , 2002, p. EES58-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally accepted that human activities have a large influence on global climate. In order to minimize human impact on global warming, regulations and agreements may be introduced for all CO2‑generating sectors. Therefore, measures to reduce CO2-emissions will be of importance to the industrial sector. Strategic decisions and long-term thinking are needed to comply with the regulations and to fulfil the agreements.

    The pulp and paper industry is an energy intensive sector with relatively large potentials to accomplish energy efficiency measures that result in reduction of CO2-emissions. To settle the cost-effectiveness for each measure a number of system parameters have to be considered, such as investment costs, boundary conditions and reference systems.

    This paper presents two methods, pinch technology and the MIND method. These methods are used for analysis of industrial energy systems considering different parameters and aspects. Pinch technology is used for thermodynamic and economic evaluation of process integration possibilities and the MIND method is used for strategic evaluation of different energy efficiency measures. Foundation for long-term decision-making can be obtained by co-ordinating the results from the two methods. In this paper, cost-effectiveness has been determined for different energy efficiency measures. The measures are non-conventional evaporation and heat pumping. The case studied is from a Swedish board mill. Economic potentials and consequences for these CO2-reducing measures are discussed from both an industrial and a societal perspective.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Porto, Portugal: FEUP, 2002
    Keywords
    MIND, Pinch, Industrial energy systems, CO2, pulp and paper
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39952 (URN)51858 (Local ID)51858 (Archive number)51858 (OAI)
    Conference
    1st International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, 12-14 June 2002, Porto, Portugal
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-02-11
    5. Increasing the use of wood fuel in a pulp and paper mill: investment opportunity and external costs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing the use of wood fuel in a pulp and paper mill: investment opportunity and external costs
    2002 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th Biennal Bioenergy Conference, 2002, p. 174-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fuel is a by-product produced in large quantities in the pulp and paper industry. It is a relatively cheap energy carrier that can be used to satisfy the internal demand for heat and electricity. Furthermore, it can replace the use of fossil fuels and thereby reduce emissions of CO2 and the related external costs. The aim of this study is to analyze the economics of using more wood fuel for energy purposes, as well as the economics of using wood fiber sludge as a fuel instead of delivering it to landfills. A pulp and paper mill in Sweden is analyzed and the study focuses on providing a demand for heat and electricity. An energy system model based on mixed integer linear programming is used to perform the study. The analysis illustrates the investment opportunity of a new boiler fuelled with bark and sludge. A business economic approach is compared with a socio-economic approach, in which some external costs are considered. The result of the comparison is that the investment opportunity for a wood fuel-boiler is greater when the external cost of production is considered. Furthermore, the amount of emissions associated with the energy conversion and related external costs is estimated for the different cases.

    Keywords
    optimization, industrial energy system, pulp and paper, investment, external costs, bioenergy
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39956 (URN)51862 (Local ID)51862 (Archive number)51862 (OAI)
    Conference
    10th Biennal Bioenergy Conference, Boise, Idaho USA, 22-26 September
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-02-11
    6. A pulp and paper mill in the deregulated electricity market: strategies for electricity production
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pulp and paper mill in the deregulated electricity market: strategies for electricity production
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The deregulated electricity market has changed the prerequisites for the different actors in the market, both electricity producing companies and electricity purchasers. Companies may purchase electricity directly on the spot market and/ or use different derivatives, such as forwards and futures, as hedging instruments. There are various strategies for acting in the market and this paper explores alternative strategies for a Swedish board mill where hedging contracts to secure the price of electricity cover part of the electricity demand. The remaining demand is purchased on the spot market or produced on site. The back-pressure turbines on site are subject to possible changes in order to determine whether it is profitable to make additional investments aimed at reducing costs.

    Producing electricity close to the demand is a favourable alternative due to reduced losses in the grid and a lesser risk of power failure. Using back-pressure turbines on site meets these requirements and may also help to reduce the risk of power shortages. In certain situations, offering electricity production when there is a lack of electric power in the national grid is a possible alternative aimed at increasing income.

    The result shows that the choice of hedging strategy strongly influences the possibility of reducing costs. It is also shown that the different hedging strategies depend on factors such as the amount of electricity produced on site and the spot price.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88511 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-02-11 Created: 2013-02-11 Last updated: 2013-02-11
    7. Industry and the energy market - optimal choice of measures using the MIND method
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industry and the energy market - optimal choice of measures using the MIND method
    2002 (English)In: CRIS Conference on Power Systems and Communications Infrastructures for the future, 2002, China: CRIS, International Institute for Critical Infrastructures , 2002Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No abstract available.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    China: CRIS, International Institute for Critical Infrastructures, 2002
    Keywords
    MIND, Industrial energy systems
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39960 (URN)51866 (Local ID)51866 (Archive number)51866 (OAI)
    Conference
    Power Systems and Communication Systems Infrastructures for the Future International Conference (CRIS'2002) September 23-27, 2002, Beijing, China
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-02-11
  • 261.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energikartläggning vid Sandvik AB, Västra Verken, Hus 92909 och 929102007Report (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modellering av Sandvik AB värmesystem tillsammans med SEAB2007Report (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    reMIND - an energy systems modeling tool for decision support2011In: Interdisciplinary energy system methodology - A compilation of research methods used in the Energy Systems Programme, Program Energisystem , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this volume is to present the basics of our methods used within the Energy Systems Programme and to introduce how we have combined methods in earlier research. A research-oriented learning experience includes a formal and informal process of gaining and utilizing knowledge in an area of interest. In our short description of the methods,  e end up with a rather formal description of the essence of each method; however, this should be seen as an introduction to methods as a whole, where the reader can deepen their understanding of a method by looking at the reference literature given. We also hope that our book will contribute to vibrant discussions within your research environment concerning the pros and cons of different methods, and the possibilities and limitations when combining different methods. We also encourage the reader to contact people familiar with a method to discuss their experiences and understand that there are lessons to be learned from them.

    In this chapter, we will introduce the methods presented here. However, we will start by introducing the system perspective and explain how to do a system analysis.

  • 264.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    RESO - Regional energisystemoptimering, del II (Slutrapport)2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 265.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The MIND method: A decision support for optimization of industrial energy systems – Principles and case studies2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 577-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in complex industrial energy systems require adequate tools to be evaluated satisfactorily. The MIND method (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems) is a flexible method constructed as decision support for different types of analyses of industrial energy systems. It is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and developed at Linköping University in Sweden. Several industries, ranging from the food industry to the pulp and paper industry, have hitherto been modelled and analyzed using the MIND method. In this paper the principles regarding the use of the method and the creation of constraints of the modelled system are presented. Two case studies are also included, a dairy and a pulp and paper mill, that focus some measures that can be evaluated using the MIND method, e.g. load shaping, fuel conversion and introduction of energy efficiency measures. The case studies illustrate the use of the method and its strengths and weaknesses. The results from the case studies are related to the main issues stated by the European Commission, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, improvements regarding security of supply and increased use of renewable energy, and show great potential as regards both cost reductions and possible load shifting.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 266.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Increasing the use of wood fuel in a pulp and paper mill: investment opportunity and external costs2002In: Proceedings of the 10th Biennal Bioenergy Conference, 2002, p. 174-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fuel is a by-product produced in large quantities in the pulp and paper industry. It is a relatively cheap energy carrier that can be used to satisfy the internal demand for heat and electricity. Furthermore, it can replace the use of fossil fuels and thereby reduce emissions of CO2 and the related external costs. The aim of this study is to analyze the economics of using more wood fuel for energy purposes, as well as the economics of using wood fiber sludge as a fuel instead of delivering it to landfills. A pulp and paper mill in Sweden is analyzed and the study focuses on providing a demand for heat and electricity. An energy system model based on mixed integer linear programming is used to perform the study. The analysis illustrates the investment opportunity of a new boiler fuelled with bark and sludge. A business economic approach is compared with a socio-economic approach, in which some external costs are considered. The result of the comparison is that the investment opportunity for a wood fuel-boiler is greater when the external cost of production is considered. Furthermore, the amount of emissions associated with the energy conversion and related external costs is estimated for the different cases.

  • 267.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klugman, Sofia
    Gävle University.
    Henning, Dag
    Optensys Energianal.
    Moshfegh , Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 441-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO2 from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO2 emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO2 between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios.

  • 268.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Final report for BRC EP3 (New industries)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In BRC EP3 focus has been on new industries. The goal has been to find some new industries where biogas production is a resource‐efficient way to take advantage of material flows that are not used today. From this goal seven activities were formulated and are in short: (A1) Present biogas solutions, (A2) Overview of new industrial sectors in Sweden regarding biogas production, (A3) Possibilities and impossibilities process‐wise, (A4) Energy and environmental impacts, (A5) Societal aspects, (A6) Selection of case studies, and (A7) Case study design. These activities needed different angles of approach and therefore a variety of methods were used in the project, e.g. literature studies, calculations, measurements, interviews and workshops. The results from the activities are presented in short below.

    A1: International comparison of biogas production at industrial sites, for example, is impossible to carry out as different classifications are used in different countries. In A1 a way to categorize biogas plants is proposed and discussed.

    A2: By screening and geographically pin‐pointing the food industry, eight clusters were chosen for deeper studies. A mapping of biogas potential was thereafter carried out in these clusters. The activity shows great potentials for some of the clusters regarding biogas production.

    A3: Process‐related feasibility for opportunities for the clusters studied in A2 is targeted. The general conclusion is that there are no severe aspects that imply that one should not continue working with a specific cluster or a specific substrate found in those clusters, regarding biogas production.

    A4: Each cluster found in A2 is assessed in terms of environmental aspects (climate, acidification and eutrophication), energy balance and economy, which were found being the most important assessment criteria when it comes to efficient biogas solutions. The results show, for example, that even though some of the clusters hold a large potential for biogas production some of these clusters do not imply profitable solutions or environmental advantages compared to the present situation of using the substrates. Moreover, the study shows that the end use of the biogas (electricity, heat and vehicle fuel) has significant influence on the results. It is shown that each cluster has a unique combination of substrates and unique alternatives for use of both substrates and produced biogas, implying different beneficial solutions. Sometimes the beneficial solutions differ dependent on what assessment criterion used.

    A5: Societal aspects were explored for each cluster found in A2. It is shown that there are differences between the clusters regarding institutional and organizational prerequisites. Important areas have been identified on both a national level (e.g. taxes) and regional level (e.g. cooperation between public and private sectors).

    A6: When selecting case studies it is found that the following aspects needs to be considered: (1) biogas potential, (2) character of substrates and other materials, (3) environmental aspects (climate, acidification and eutrophication), (4) influence on energy balances (5) economy, (6) use of biogas, and (7) societal aspects.

    A7: When designing case studies the same aspects as for A6 applies. However, when designing the case study it is also vital to consider where to put the system border and also consider the localization of the production unit (e.g. internal at a company or detached).

    Moreover, integration of biogas solutions with other types of material or energy flows has to be considered.

    All the stated parts in “Motivation and aim” are addressed in the project. Consequently, the target of the project is achieved.

  • 269.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Considering start-ups and shutdowns using an optimisation tool – Including a dairy production planning case study2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 107, p. 338-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many different aspects a production-planning model has to be able to handle to make a model adequate for the purpose. One aspect is the handling of start-ups and shutdowns for different processes. The production plan is likely to be changed when considering, for example, a cost connected to the start-up and/or shutdown of processes. Besides costs associated with start-ups and shutdowns, waste may be produced during the start-up and shutdown. However, there is also the possibility of carrying out soft start-ups and shutdowns or limiting the number of start-ups and shutdowns. Thus, start-ups and shutdowns have to be handled in an adequate way in models to produce reliable and accurate results. In optimisation tools, this may be dealt with by introducing certain constraints, including integers. In this paper, the implementation of alternative ways to consider start-ups and shutdowns are presented. This is done in the energy system optimisation tool reMIND, which deals with Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problems. The purpose of this paper is to show four alternatives to consider start-ups and shutdowns in optimisation models. This involves, in total, almost 50 constraints. Also, a simple dairy case study is included in the paper to visualise the effect of implementing the different alternatives to shutdowns.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 270.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Considering start-ups and shutdowns using an optimization tool: including a dairy production planning case studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many different aspects a production-planning model has to be able to handle to make a model adequate for the purpose. One aspect is the handling of start-ups and shutdowns for different processes. The production plan is likely to be changed when considering, for example, a cost connected to the start-up and/or shutdown of processes. Besides costs associated with start-ups and shutdowns, waste may be produced during the start-up and shutdown. However, there is also the possibility of carrying out soft start-ups and shutdowns or limiting the number of start-ups and shutdowns. Thus, start-ups and shutdowns have to be handled in an adequate way in models to produce reliable and accurate results. In optimisation tools, this may be dealt with by introducing certain constraints, including integers. In this paper, the implementation of alternative ways to consider start-ups and shutdowns are presented. This is done in the energy system optimisation tool reMIND, which deals with Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problems. The purpose of this paper is to show four alternatives to consider start-ups and shutdowns in optimisation models. This involves, in total, almost 50 constraints. Also, a simple dairy case study is included in the paper to visualise the effect of implementing the different alternatives to shutdowns.

  • 271.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timing and sizing of investments in industrial processes– the use of an optimization tool2011In: ECOS 2010 Volume IV (Power plants and Industrial processes): Proceedings of ECOS 2010 Conference in Lausanne / [ed] Daniel Favrat, MER Francois Maréchal, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investments of different kinds are vital for industries to stay competitive. However, there are several issues that need to be considered before investing, e.g. the timing and size of the investment. In this paper a methodology is presented for analysing investments form the point of view of optimal size and timing. The energy systems optimization tool reMIND is used as the basis of the modelling, and has been used in several industrial energy systems studies for various purposes. reMIND is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and has been further developed to consider investments of different kinds. The different constraints needed to model the investment properly are presented together with the variables included in the objective function. A simple case study is also included to illustrate how the method is used. The results from the case study show that the timing and size of the different investments change, depending on the size of the proposed increase in production rate.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 272.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Sandberg, Johan
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Energivetenskap.
    Från en vänlig användare till användarvänlighet – förbättringar av MIND-metoden – Slutrapport2011Report (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Kurser på tvären2007In: Att forska på tvären- Erfarenheter från 10 år av tvärvetenskap inom forskarskolan Program Energisystem / [ed] Jenny Palm, Magnus Karlsson, Linköping: Program Energisystem , 2007, p. 17-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Metoder för tvärvetenskaplig analys av energisystem - några exempel: Essäer från doktorandkursen : Systemanalys med metodexempel från energiområdet2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Program Energisystem är ett forskningsprogram och en forskarskola som startades 1997 och består av fem olika avdelningar vid fyra universitet i Sverige. De deltagande forskarna tillhör inte bara olika ämnen utan också helt olika fakulteter. Inom ramarna för Program Energisystem arbetar tekniker och samhällsvetare tillsammans för att studera energifrågorna ur olika infallsvinklar. Det är inte bara tekniken i sig, utan även hur den påverkas av bland annat samhällets regelsystem, politiska beslutsprocesser och olika aktörers intressen som studeras. Följande avdelningar deltar i Program Energisystem:

    Energiprocesser, KTHEnergisystem, Linköpings universitetFasta Tillståndets Fysik, Uppsala universitetTema Teknik och social förändring, Linköpings universitetVärmeteknik och maskinlära, Chalmers

    Nya doktorander har antagits vartannat år, med början 1997 vilket lett till att 7 doktorandgrupper har antagits till programmet. Den senaste antagningen genomfördes under hösten 2010. Varje årskull läser ett gemensamt kurspaket om 45 högskolepoäng. Kurspaketet har förändrats något under årens lopp, men huvudlinjerna är kvar. För doktoranderna som antogs 2010 ingår följande kurser i detta kurspaket:

    Vetenskapsteori, 6hpPerspectives on Energy Systems, 7,5hpSystemanalys med metodexempel från energiområdet, 12hpTvärprojekt i energisystem, 15hpPraktisk tvärvetenskap inom energiområdet, 4,5hp

    Kurserna är öppna för andra doktorander i mån av plats och denna bok är ett resultat av de uppsatser som doktoranderna skrev under ”Systemanalys med metodexempel från energiområdet” och utgör en del i examinationen.

  • 275.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Widén, Joakim
    Teknikvetenskaper, Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Interdisciplinary energy system methodology: A compilation of research methods used in the Energy Systems Programme2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this volume is to present the basics of our methods used within the Energy Systems Programme and to introduce how we have combined methods in earlier research. A research-oriented learning experience includes a formal and informal process of gaining and utilizing knowledge in an area of interest. In our short description of the methods,  e end up with a rather formal description of the essence of each method; however, this should be seen as an introduction to methods as a whole, where the reader can deepen their understanding of a method by looking at the reference literature given. We also hope that our book will contribute to vibrant discussions within your research environment concerning the pros and cons of different methods, and the possibilities and limitations when combining different methods. We also encourage the reader to contact people familiar with a method to discuss their experiences and understand that there are lessons to be learned from them.

    In this chapter, we will introduce the methods presented here. However, we will start by introducing the system perspective and explain how to do a system analysis.

  • 276.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Systemdesign för energieffektivitet - AstraZeneca och Scania i Södertälje i samarbete med Telge Nät (SEAST) – Slutrapport2011Report (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sensitivity analysis of investments in the pulp and paper industry: on investments in the chemical recovery cycle at a board mill2002In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 26, no 14, p. 1253-1267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the pulp and paper industry, energy costs represents a relatively large proportion of the value of production. When investing in new equipment, considerations concerning boundary conditions, such as electricity and oil prices, are therefore of great importance. A vital requirement is the identification of other key parameters influencing production costs as well as possible interaction between these parameters. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is accomplished by using an optimization model that minimizes the system cost combined with a systematic approach involving a statistical method.

    The paper analyses the possibilities of investing in a new chemical recovery cycle, including a new recovery boiler and evaporation plant, at a Swedish board mill. The study includes a survey of future changes, together with forecasts of boundary conditions, such as changes in the price of electricity and oil. Interactions between different parameters are also examined.

  • 278.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Opportunities using the energy system optimization tool reMIND2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a method, called MIND (Method for analyzes of INDustrial energy systems) started in the early 90ies at the division Energy Systems at Linköping University, Sweden. The software reMIND, based on the MIND method, includes a graphical user interface (Figure 1) along with a number of functions in order to analyze industrial energy systems.

    Figure 1: Graphical interface of reMIND

     

    The tool has been used in a number of different projects over the years showing great opportunities to make an impact on the energy systems. In a foundry, for example, using reMIND it was concluded that the holding furnaces would in the future be valuable to reduce electricity costs. The head of company had decided to remove the holding furnaces when investing in new furnaces, but due to the reMIND study, the decision was changed. In another study great savings has been shown when introducing a heat market in a region north of Stockholm, where several industrial- and energy companies could sell and buy heat. In the steel industry process optimization has been conducted to reduce costs. Also, in Eco-Industrial parks great synergy effects have been shown by using reMIND. In total there are around 100 publications, in whole or in part, based on modeling using reMIND (e.g. dissertations, scientific articles, reports and theses).

     

    So far, reMIND has mainly been used in the academia (Linköping University, Luleå University of Technology, University of Gävle and Chalmers University of Technology) but also Swerea MEFOS has used the tool. Just recently it has started to be used in China.

     

    The program is developed as a general tool to be able to model a variety of industries and their energy supply and use. However, it is possible to model any kind of system, but so far only energy-related problems have been modeled both in industries and district heating systems and in the integration in between. With the help of optimization routines the system cost is minimized based on the limitations and conditions the modeled company is exposed to. However, any type of minimization may be accomplished when using reMIND, e.g. minimizing CO2-emissions. It is also possible to model problems with multi-objective characters.

     

    The structure of the problem is represented by branches (e.g. electricity) and nodes (e.g. process lines). Each node includes numerous functions describing the functionality of the node. Time is divided into time steps to consider the dynamics of the system.

  • 279.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Impact and process evaluation of the Swedish national energy audit program for small and medium-sized industries2012In: eceee 2012 Industrial Summer Study: Conference proceedings, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2012, Vol. 1, p. 73-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In April 2006 the EU adopted the so-called Energy End-Use efficiency and Energy Services Directive that gives energy audit programs a central role for promoting energy efficiency. As a consequence Sweden launched a program to support implementations of energy audits in Swedish companies, the so-called energy audit checks, in April 2010. The program is constructed so that a company that performs an energy audit gets subsidy of 50 % of the audit cost, up to a maximum value of 3300 EUR, when performed an approved energy audit. The program targets small and medium sized companies, as the maximum subsidy indicates. The aim of this paper is to present an evaluation of the initial phase of this Swedish energy audit program. The results include bottom-up data on potentials and outcome of the program and comparison with other previous programs. Expected results, in addition to bottom-up data, will include the need to involve regional and municipal actors in the program, a need for formulation of program goals and a need for a standardized energy audit tool. The energy efficiency potential for the 300 energy audits approved so far in the program is estimated to around 20 %. 1000-2000 energy audits are estimated to be approved within the program, which makes it by far the largest Energy audit program in Sweden. The already funded energy audits indicate an implementation rate of the proposed measures of 20-40 %.

  • 280.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wolf, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using an optimisation model to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 14, p. 1536-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a model comprising a pulp mill, a sawmill, a district heating network and a biofuel upgrading plant is used to demonstrate how the MIND method, an optimization method based on mixed integer linear programming, can be used to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry. Using this method, both energy and material flows on both the supply and the demand side can be studied simultaneously. The method can be used to find improvements in the structure of the modelled system, to find the optimal operational strategy of a given system, and to evaluate and compare different systems. The total system costs for stand-alone cases and integrated industrial symbiosis system configuration are compared, generating results that can be used as decision support when planning industrial symbiosis initiatives in the forest industry. The results of this study showed that there are financial benefits to industrial symbiosis compared to the same system operated in stand-alone mode, and that the industrial symbiosis configuration generates a more stable system. However, it is difficult to generalize the results from a case study, and the main conclusion drawn is that it is possible to show that industrial symbiosis has economical benefits, although the magnitude of these benefits needs to be evaluated from case to case.

  • 281.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Marcusson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Elteknisk konsekvensanalys kring elektrifiering av transportsektorn: Fallstudie emot Tekniska verken i Linköping AB och deras omfång i regionen Östergötland2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhället står inför stora utmaningar för att globalt, regionalt och lokalt minska de klimat- och miljömässiga avtrycken till följd av antropogena aktiviteter. Transportsektorn står globalt för drygt en fjärdedel av utsläppta växthusgaser vilket varit en bidragande drivkraft till miljöavtal som kräver alternativa bränslen, reducerad användning och energieffektiviseringstekniker för att uppnås. Sverige har globalt den högsta andelen förnyelsebara bränslen (23 % år 2019) men tros, enligt trender, skifta till en mer elektrifierad fordonsflotta, som del i att uppnå miljömålen för transportsektorn. Ackumulerat effektuttag för laddbara fordon har visat sig orsaka försörjnings- och distributionsutmaningar i elnätet vilket detta arbete djupdykt kring.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att på en tidigare minimalt utforskad stads-skala utvärdera en stads utsatt- och robusthet gentemot olika prognostiserade elektrifieringstrender för 2030 - vilket gjorts på Tekniska verken i Linköping AB:s nät. Två scenarier, ett förutsägande och ett explorativt, har utifrån litteratur och omvärldsgranskning skapats i kombination med simulering på Linköping stads befintliga elnät för att uppskatta nya belastningsgrader och spänningsfall. Med det explorativa scenariot som referens har även framtida "smarta-nät"-lösningar (ellagring, Vehicle-to-grid/house, flexibilitetsmarknader m.fl.) demonstrativt visat potentialen hos laststyrning som alternativ till traditionell elnätsförstärkning.

    Förutom rent eltekniska aspekter och statistiska trender har även externa utvecklingsfaktorer, till följd av omställningen av transportsektorns multidimensionella och komplexa påverkanssamband, utvärderats. Utblickar mot den globalt ledande norska elbilssituationen, institutionella styrmedel, alternativa bränslen samt socio-tekniska och kulturella värderingar har likaså vägts in under diskussion och analys.

    Resultaten och inverkande omvärldsanalyser indikerar, utifrån fallstudiens omständigheter, en mild utvecklingstrend till 2030. Omkring 12 % av personbilsflottan, samtliga bussar i tätortstrafik och få tunga fordon förväntas elektrifieras och tros belastningsmässigt vara högkoncentrerat i villaområden med pendlingsavstånd och hög medelinkomst. Effekten av detta kan leda till lokalt överbelastade lågspänningsnät som primärt bör lösas med laststyrning genom ellagrings- eller V2H-tekniker innan omfattande nätförstärkning. Tekniska verken som nätägare rekommenderas framöver aktivt följa elbilstrenden i Linköping och omvärlden för att tidigt förebygga konsekvenser likt de resultaten påvisade hos det stresstestande scenariot.

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  • 282.
    Karresand, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Molin, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Johannes
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet.
    How passive are your activities?: An interdisciplinary comparative energy analysis of passive and conventional houses in Linköping2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a number of new built passive and conventional houses in the residential area of Lambohov, Linköping, are studied. The effect of household activities on the building’s energy balance is investigated along with an investigation of the effects of an extensive adaptation to passive houses in the energy system of Linköping. The study compares how the heating system affects the thermal indoor climate for the tenants. Further on, the study also contains in-depth interviews on the expectations on the passive houses of the recently moved in tenants. Also the expectations from the housing company on the tenants and the factors that motivated the actual building of the passive houses are investigated, both out of the housing company’s perspective and the perspective of the City of Linköping.

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    How passive are your activities?: An interdisciplinary comparative energy analysis of passive and conventional houses in Linköping
  • 283.
    Kindesjö, Viktoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Nordqvist, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Energirenovering av flerbostadshus från miljonprogrammet genom LCC-optimering: En fallstudie av två byggnader i Linköping, Sverige2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The content of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is increasing resulting in climate change and efforts to stop the negative trend need to be intensified. The energy use in the Swedish residential and service sector constitutes 40 % of the total energy use of 378 TWh in the country. Nationally there is a target to reduce the energy use per heated area with 20 % to 2020 and 50 % to 2050. Energy renovation of buildings from the Million Programme is foreseen to be able to contribute to achieving the targets owing to the large building stock and energy efficiency potential. In the master thesis cost optimal energy renovation strategies are investigated for two multi-family buildings in Linkoping built during the Million Programme, one with an unheated attic and one with a heated attic. The thesis is carried out by using life-cycle cost optimisation (LCC-optimisation) by utilising the software OPERA-MILP, developed at Linkoping University. The aim of the thesis is to obtain the energy renovation strategy that is optimal from an LCC-perspective and to investigate the energy reduction and LCC. Optimal energy renovation strategies are also investigated for energy renovation to levels of the Energy Classes of the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning in Sweden and the stricter limits for nearly zero-energy buildings (NZEB) that will likely come into force in 2021. Greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use are also investigated for the different cases with the purpose of putting energy renovation in relation to climate impact. Local environmental factors are used for district heating while electricity is assigned values based on the Nordic electricity mix and Nordic marginal electricity respectively. The current LCC and annual energy use is 2 945 kSEK and 133 MWh for the building with an unheated attic and 3 511 kSEK and 162 MWh for the building with a heated attic. The result shows that LCC can be reduced by approximately 70 kSEK and 90 kSEK respectively. The optimal solution constitutes of a window change from windows with U=3,0 W/m2°C to windows with U=1,5 W/m2°C and results in a reduction of the energy use by 13 % and 15 % respectively. LCC increases with 240 kSEK for the building with unheated attic and decreases with 18 kSEK for the other building when Energy Class D is reached. Energy Class C is attained through an increase in LCC by 300 – 590 kSEK and Energy Class B through an increase by 1610 – 1800 kSEK. It is not possible to reach Energy Class A or the future requirements for NZEB (55 kWh/m2Aheated) with the energy renovation measures that are implemented in OPERA-MILP. The largest energy reduction that can be attained is approximately 60 %. The most cost optimal insulation measure is additional insulation of the attic floor/pitched roof followed by additional insulation of the ground concrete slab. It was shown to be more cost efficient to change to windows with U=1,5 W/m2°C in combination with additional insulation compared to changing to windows with better energy performance. For greater energy savings additional insulation on the inside of the external wall is applied, while insulation on the outside of the external wall is never cost optimal. To reach Energy Class B installation of HRV is required which gives a large increase in cost. Less extensive energy renovation is needed to reach the energy classes for the building with heated attic compared to the building with unheated attic. The annual use of primary energy in the reference case is 22 MWh for the building with an unheated attic and 26 MWh for the building with a heated attic. The emissions of greenhouse gases are 18 tonnes CO2e and 22 tonnes CO2e per year respectively when the emission factor of the Nordic electricity mix is applied and 20 tonnes CO2e and 25 tonnes CO2e respectively when the Nordic marginal electricity is applied. The yearly primary energy use can be reduced with up to 7 MWh through energy renovation. When the energy renovation leads to an increase in electricity use the primary energy can however increase with up to 12 MWh. The yearly greenhouse gas emissions can be decreased with up to 14 tonnes CO2e. When Nordic marginal electricity is applied to estimate the emissions of greenhouse gases for an energy renovation strategy that leads to an increase in electricity use the result is less beneficial from a climate perspective compared to when Nordic electricity mix is applied.

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  • 284.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Driving forces for and barriers to providing energy services: a study of local and regional energy companies in Sweden2017In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation, and energy services are portrayed as a promising market-based approach to achieve this. This paper examines the barriers to, and driving forces needed for, the implementation of energy services from the perspective of Swedish local and regional energy companies. This includes an analysis of the resources needed in three phases of energy service implementation, i.e., development, sales, and deployment. The results indicate a supply-side interest in providing energy services, with the major challenges being related to (a) intra-organizational issues such as a lack of strategic direction and intent and (b) a perceived lack of knowledge, interest, and trust on the part of potential energy service customers. The paper concludes with managerial and policy implications on how an increased focus and impact of energy service can be achieved among local and regional companies.

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  • 285.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energitjänster i energibolag: ett ökat värdeskapande med kunden i fokus2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med detta projekt var att undersöka förutsättningarna för att öka tjänsteinnehållet på den svenska energimarknaden utifrån ett energibolags perspektiv. Mer konkret omfattar rapporten följande:

    • Beskrivning och analys av implementeringsprocessen av energitjänster hos ett energibolag; detta skedde genom att följa implementeringen av vissa typer av energitjänster. Målet var att ta fram ett ramverk för hur energibolag kan arbeta för att effektivt implementera och leverera utvecklade energitjänster (checklistor, processteg etcetera) samt nyckelkriterier för att vara framgångsrik i detta.
    • Undersökning av vilka typer av avancerade energitjänster som kan utvecklas, och hur (till exempel hur dessa kan paketeras), med utgångspunkt i kundens behov och med kunden som medskapare. Detta skedde genom att identifiera dels de behov och de utmaningar som kunder står inför (oberoende av leverantör), dels de typer av tjänster som har potential att skapa värde (utifrån marknadens behov). Målet var att ta fram en typologi av energitjänster med typiska karaktärsdrag samt även klassificera vilket värde (för både kund och leverantör) som kan skapas. Denna typologi kan användas av energibolag (och andra) vid nyutveckling av tjänster men även vid kundkontakter och strategiutveckling.
    • Beskrivning av de framtida affärsmodeller som är möjliga för att ett energibolag på ett effektivt och lönsamt sätt ska ha potential att utveckla, sälja och leverera energitjänster.

    Det som gör denna rapport unik är att den ämnar kombinera energitjänsteforskningen med den numera rika flora av vetenskaplig litteratur kopplad till så kallad tjänstefiering. Främst har forskning inom tjänsteinnovation berört tillverkade företags produkt- och tjänsteportföljer. I denna rapport ämnar de rådande teoribildningarna inom forskningsfältet tjänsteinnovationer kopplas till den relativt sätt nya så kallade energitjänstemarknaden men där flera likheter med tillverkande industri finns, till exempel ett traditionellt sett starkt fokus på den produkt som säljs och inte kring tjänster kopplade till produkten.

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    Energitjänster i energibolag : ett ökat värdeskapande med kunden i fokus
  • 286. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Klugman, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy systems analysis of Swedish pulp and paper industries from a regional cooperation perspective: Case study modeling and optimization2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector uses about one third of the energy end-use in the world. Since energy use in many cases highly affects both the local and global environment negatively, it is of common interest to increase energy efficiency within industries. Furthermore, seen from the industrial perspective, it is also important to reduce dependency on energy resources with unstable prices in order to obtain economic predictability.

    In this thesis, the energy-saving potential within the chemical pulp and paper sector is analyzed. One market pulp mill and one integrated pulp and paper mill were studied as cases. Energy system changes at the mills were analyzed through cost minimization. The thesis focuses on principal energy issues such as finding the most promising alternatives for use of industrial excess heat, possible investments in electricity generation and choice of fuel. In order to find synergies, the same system was optimized first from the perspective of different operators respectively, and then from a joint regional perspective. Also, the prerequisites for a regional heat market in the region were analyzed.

    This thesis reveals that the use of excess heat from pulp and paper mills for district heating does not generally conflict with process integration measures. This is partly because of the great availability of industrial excess heat and partly because the different purposes require different temperatures and thereby do not compete. Rather, the results show that they strengthen each other since steam and hot water of higher temperatures are made available for district heating when hot water of lower temperature is used for process integration. However, there are cases when the conditions are complicated by preexisting technical solutions within a system. In these cases, a combination of measures could be necessary.

    Furthermore, it is concluded that energy cooperation in terms of a heat market between municipalities and industries in the studied region gives opportunity for positive synergies. Switching from expensive fuels such as oil to less expensive biofuel in the region proved to be particularly beneficial. Expanding the capacity for combined heat and power generation is also beneficial for the region as well as increased use of industrial excess heat for district heating. The most financially beneficial scenarios also have the greatest potential for CO2 emission reduction; the emissions would be reduced by about 700 thousand tonnes CO2/year for the region in those scenarios.

    List of papers
    1. A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 1. Energy audit aiming at efficiency measures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 1. Energy audit aiming at efficiency measures
    2007 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 326-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish wood-pulp mill is surveyed in terms of energy supply and use in order to determine the energy-saving potential. Conservation measures are of increasing interest to Swedish industry, as energy prices have continued to rise in recent years. The electricity price particularly increased after the deregulation of the Scandinavian electricity market in 1996. The deregulation expanded to all of the EU in July 2004, which may increase the Swedish electricity price further until it reaches the generally higher European price level. Furthermore, oil prices have increased and the emissions trading scheme for CO2 adds to the incentive to reduce oil consumption. The energy system at the surveyed pulp mill is described in terms of electricity and process heat production and use. The total energy-saving potential is estimated and some saving points are identified. The heat that today is wasted at the mill has been surveyed in order to find potential for heat integration or heat export. The result shows that the mill probably could become self-sufficient in electricity. Particularly important in that endeavour is updating old pumps.

    Keywords
    Energy survey, Paper pulp industry, Energy system, Energy efficiency
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13240 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2006.07.003 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-05-09 Created: 2008-05-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 2. International and model mills comparison.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 2. International and model mills comparison.
    2007 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The energy use at a Swedish chemical wood-pulp mill is compared internationally and for two model mills that aim to use the most efficient available technology. The international comparison is performed between Canadian and Scandinavian pulp-mills on a general level, and on a closer level among eleven Swedish and Finnish non-integrated sulfate pulp-mills, the type of mill considered in the case study. The two model mills that are used for comparison are one Swedish and one Canadian. The Scandinavian pulp-mills are somewhat more energy efficient than the Canadian mills. Still, the variation in energy use is remarkably large among the Scandinavian mills, which indicates that the energy-saving potential is great. If all Swedish freestanding sulfate pulp-mills became as energy efficient as the most efficient Scandinavian mill, electricity savings corresponding to nearly 1% of the national electricity use would be obtained. In the model mills comparison it was found that large amounts of heat could be saved, particularly in the evaporation plant.

    Keywords
    Benchmarking, Paper pulp industry, Energy system, Energy efficiency
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13241 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2006.07.004 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-05-09 Created: 2008-05-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. An integrated chemical pulp and paper mill: Energy audit and perspectives on regional cooperation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An integrated chemical pulp and paper mill: Energy audit and perspectives on regional cooperation
    2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference of Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS, 2006, p. 637-644Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a case study, an energy audit was performed at an integrated pulp and paper mill. A top-down approach was applied to identify and categorize the use of electricity, steam and hot water and the results of the audit are presented in this paper. Also, the connections and cooperation with both the nearby district heating system and a local steam deliverer, partly owned by the mill, are described. Potential ways to save energy are pointed out and changes in the cooperation are discussed. Moreover, a discussion of how the system can benefit from the taxation structure is presented, as the design of the studied system, in combination with the introduction of tradable green certificates, creates possibilities to exploit such benefits. As a result from this design it is shown that the introduction of these certificates promotes the use of oil to produce electricity.

    Keywords
    energy efficiency, paper industry, industrial cooperation, energy audit, district heating
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13242 (URN)960-87584-1-6 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2008-05-09 Created: 2008-05-09
    4. A Swedish integrated pulp and paper mill - Energy optimisation and local heat cooperation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Swedish integrated pulp and paper mill - Energy optimisation and local heat cooperation
    2009 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 2514-2524Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Heat cooperation between industries and district heating companies is often economically and environmentally beneficial. In this paper, energy cooperation between an integrated Swedish pulp and paper mill and two nearby energy companies was analysed through economic optimisations. The synergies of cooperation were evaluated through optimisations with different system perspectives. Three changes of the energy system and combinations of them were analysed. The changes were process integration, extending biofuel boiler and turbine capacity and connection to a local heat market. The results show that the single most promising system change is extending biofuel and turbine capacity. Process integration within the pulp and paper mill would take place through installing evaporation units that yield less excess heat but must in this particular case be combined with extended biofuel combustion capacity in order to be beneficial. Connecting to the local heat market would be beneficial for the pulp and paper mill, while the studied energy company needs to extend its biofuel capacity in order to benefit from the local heat market. Furthermore, the potential of reducing CO2 emissions through the energy cooperation is shown to be extensive; particularly if biofuel and turbine capacity is increased.

    Keywords
    Industrial energy system, Optimisation, Cooperation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18722 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.097 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-06-03 Created: 2009-06-03 Last updated: 2009-12-04
    5. Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 441-451Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO2 from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO2 emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO2 between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios.

    Keywords
    District heating, CO2, Heat market, Optimization, Economic evaluation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17168 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.09.012 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-03-07 Created: 2009-03-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    6. Modeling an industrial energy system: Perspectives on regional heat cooperation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling an industrial energy system: Perspectives on regional heat cooperation
    2008 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 793-807Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Through energy efficiency measures, it is possible to reduce heat surplus in the pulp and paper industry. Yet pulp and paper mills situated in countries with a heat demand for residential and commercial buildings for the major part of the year are potential heat suppliers. However, striving to utilize the heat within the mills for efficient energy use could conflict with the delivery of excess heat to a district heating system. As part of a project to optimize a regional energy system, a sulfate pulp mill situated in central Sweden is analyzed, focusing on providing heat and electricity to the mill and its surrounding energy systems. An energy system optimization method based on mixed integer linear programming is used for studying energy system measures on an aggregated level. An extended system, where the mill is integrated in a regional heat market (HM), is evaluated in parallel with the present system. The use of either hot sewage or a heat pump for heat deliveries is analyzed along with process integration measures. The benefits of adding a condensing unit to the back-pressure steam turbine are also investigated. The results show that the use of hot sewage or a heat pump for heat deliveries is beneficial only in combination with extended heat deliveries to an HM. Process integration measures are beneficial and even increase the benefit of selling more heat for district heating. Adding a condensing turbine unit is most beneficial in combination with extended heat deliveries and process integration.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, 2008
    Keywords
    industrial energy system, energy efficiency, surplus heat, optimization, process integration, heat market, district heating, system boundary
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13245 (URN)10.1002/er.1392 (DOI)000257917100002 ()
    Available from: 2008-05-09 Created: 2008-05-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
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  • 287.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 1. Energy audit aiming at efficiency measures2007In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 326-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish wood-pulp mill is surveyed in terms of energy supply and use in order to determine the energy-saving potential. Conservation measures are of increasing interest to Swedish industry, as energy prices have continued to rise in recent years. The electricity price particularly increased after the deregulation of the Scandinavian electricity market in 1996. The deregulation expanded to all of the EU in July 2004, which may increase the Swedish electricity price further until it reaches the generally higher European price level. Furthermore, oil prices have increased and the emissions trading scheme for CO2 adds to the incentive to reduce oil consumption. The energy system at the surveyed pulp mill is described in terms of electricity and process heat production and use. The total energy-saving potential is estimated and some saving points are identified. The heat that today is wasted at the mill has been surveyed in order to find potential for heat integration or heat export. The result shows that the mill probably could become self-sufficient in electricity. Particularly important in that endeavour is updating old pumps.

  • 288.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 2. International and model mills comparison.2007In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy use at a Swedish chemical wood-pulp mill is compared internationally and for two model mills that aim to use the most efficient available technology. The international comparison is performed between Canadian and Scandinavian pulp-mills on a general level, and on a closer level among eleven Swedish and Finnish non-integrated sulfate pulp-mills, the type of mill considered in the case study. The two model mills that are used for comparison are one Swedish and one Canadian. The Scandinavian pulp-mills are somewhat more energy efficient than the Canadian mills. Still, the variation in energy use is remarkably large among the Scandinavian mills, which indicates that the energy-saving potential is great. If all Swedish freestanding sulfate pulp-mills became as energy efficient as the most efficient Scandinavian mill, electricity savings corresponding to nearly 1% of the national electricity use would be obtained. In the model mills comparison it was found that large amounts of heat could be saved, particularly in the evaporation plant.

  • 289.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Swedish integrated pulp and paper mill - Energy optimisation and local heat cooperation2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 2514-2524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat cooperation between industries and district heating companies is often economically and environmentally beneficial. In this paper, energy cooperation between an integrated Swedish pulp and paper mill and two nearby energy companies was analysed through economic optimisations. The synergies of cooperation were evaluated through optimisations with different system perspectives. Three changes of the energy system and combinations of them were analysed. The changes were process integration, extending biofuel boiler and turbine capacity and connection to a local heat market. The results show that the single most promising system change is extending biofuel and turbine capacity. Process integration within the pulp and paper mill would take place through installing evaporation units that yield less excess heat but must in this particular case be combined with extended biofuel combustion capacity in order to be beneficial. Connecting to the local heat market would be beneficial for the pulp and paper mill, while the studied energy company needs to extend its biofuel capacity in order to benefit from the local heat market. Furthermore, the potential of reducing CO2 emissions through the energy cooperation is shown to be extensive; particularly if biofuel and turbine capacity is increased.

  • 290.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. Energi- och maskinteknik. Energi.
    An integrated chemical pulp and paper mill: Energy audit and perspectives on regional cooperation2006In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference of Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS, 2006, p. 637-644Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a case study, an energy audit was performed at an integrated pulp and paper mill. A top-down approach was applied to identify and categorize the use of electricity, steam and hot water and the results of the audit are presented in this paper. Also, the connections and cooperation with both the nearby district heating system and a local steam deliverer, partly owned by the mill, are described. Potential ways to save energy are pointed out and changes in the cooperation are discussed. Moreover, a discussion of how the system can benefit from the taxation structure is presented, as the design of the studied system, in combination with the introduction of tradable green certificates, creates possibilities to exploit such benefits. As a result from this design it is shown that the introduction of these certificates promotes the use of oil to produce electricity.

  • 291.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modeling an industrial energy system: Perspectives on regional heat cooperation2008In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 793-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through energy efficiency measures, it is possible to reduce heat surplus in the pulp and paper industry. Yet pulp and paper mills situated in countries with a heat demand for residential and commercial buildings for the major part of the year are potential heat suppliers. However, striving to utilize the heat within the mills for efficient energy use could conflict with the delivery of excess heat to a district heating system. As part of a project to optimize a regional energy system, a sulfate pulp mill situated in central Sweden is analyzed, focusing on providing heat and electricity to the mill and its surrounding energy systems. An energy system optimization method based on mixed integer linear programming is used for studying energy system measures on an aggregated level. An extended system, where the mill is integrated in a regional heat market (HM), is evaluated in parallel with the present system. The use of either hot sewage or a heat pump for heat deliveries is analyzed along with process integration measures. The benefits of adding a condensing unit to the back-pressure steam turbine are also investigated. The results show that the use of hot sewage or a heat pump for heat deliveries is beneficial only in combination with extended heat deliveries to an HM. Process integration measures are beneficial and even increase the benefit of selling more heat for district heating. Adding a condensing turbine unit is most beneficial in combination with extended heat deliveries and process integration.

  • 292.
    Kokoneshi, Renisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Utilizing big data from products in use to create value: A case study of Bosch Thermoteknik AB2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New knowledge and insights are generated when big data is collected and processed. Traditionally, business generated data internally from operations and transactions across the value chain such as sales, customer service visits, orders, interaction with supplier as well as data gathered from research, surveys or other sources externally. Today, with improved software and connectivity, the products become smarter which makes it easier to collect and generate large amount of real-time data.  The fast growing volumes and varieties of big data bring many challenges for companies on how to store, manage, utilize and create value from these data.    

    This thesis represents a case study of a large heat pump manufacturer, Bosch Thermoteknik AB, situated in Tranås, Sweden. Bosch Thermoteknik AB has started to collect data in real time from several heat pumps connected to the internet. These data are currently used during development phase of the products and occasionally to support installers during maintenance services. The company understands the potential benefits resulting from big data and would like to further deepen their knowledge on how to utilize big data to create value. One of the company’s goals is to identify how big data can reduce maintenance costs and improve maintenance approaches.  The purpose of this study is to provide knowledge on how to obtain insights and create value by collecting and analyzing big data from smart connected products. A focus point will be on improving maintenance approaches and reducing maintenance costs.

    This study shows that if companies create capabilities to perform data analytics, insights obtained from big data analytics could be used to create business value targeting many areas such as: customer experience, product and service innovation, organization performance improvement as well as improving business image and reputation. Creating capabilities requires deploying many resources other than big data, including a technology infrastructure, integrating and storing a vast amount of data, implementing data-driven culture and having talented employees with business, technical and analytics knowledge and skills.

    Insights obtained through analytics of big data could provide a better understanding of problems, identifying the root causes and reacting faster to problems. Additionally, failures could be prevented and predicted in the future. This could result in the overall improvement of maintenance approaches, products and services.

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  • 293.
    Koski, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    A Standardized Approach for Water Reduction Measures in Industrial Companies: Organizational Constraints and Effects on Economy and Environment2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The access of water globally is becoming more strained, why the focus on industrial water use is increasing. The present study examined how industries should approach water efficiency projects, what organizational constraints that should be addressed, and what effects water saving measures have on economic costs, environmental impact and influence from water related risks.

    The study has been conducted at Saab Group. Primary data for water supply amount and cost has been obtained from twelve sites for the year of 2018. Data from these sites has been used to estimate the water use for the other 43 sites included in this study. Interviews with employees across Saab´s organization and with external stakeholders have functioned as important sources of information, combined with investigations of internal company documents.

    To facilitate for companies to structurally address water efficiency projects, the concept of the Deming Cycle is developed in this study. The steps included are necessary to address major identified organizational constraints which are lack of communication, lack of incentives for employees, and lack of economic incentives. Furthermore, with water often having energy embedded into it, a new Water Management Hierarchy is developed to include the interrelated aspects of energy supply and energy recovery. The potential for pipe leakages and the challenge to detect these are also identified. If the time from leak occurrence to repair in 2018 was eliminated, the total water supply in Arboga could have been reduced with 10100 m3 which corresponds to 35% of total supply to the site, respectively 35900 m3 and 42% in Björkborn.

    In Tannefors, water saving measures are identified for a surface treatment process, a facility with testing equipment, and by utilization of groundwater. Not all water saving measures result in reduced annual operating costs, due to an increased energy demand. Furthermore, if neglecting the possibility of energy recovery when aiming for water use reduction, the results show that replacing a once-through cooling system using potable municipal water as a medium with a dry-cooling unit, can increase greenhouse gas emissions. In 2018, the simultaneously implementable water saving measures in Tannefors would have reduced the water supply with 40600 m3, which corresponds to 22% of the total supply to the site. The greenhouse gas emissions would simultaneously have been reduced with 0.4 tonnes CO2eq. If also addressing energy supply reduction and energy recovery, some measures achieves a reduction of over 35 tonnes CO2eq, which results in enhanced economic viability from reduced operating costs.

    This study suggest that organizational constraints have to be addressed to successfully implement identified water saving measures. To allow economic motivation for all water saving measures in Tannefors, a payback period of over 7 years has to be applied, which can be lowered if the measure also reduces energy demand or increases energy recovery. In order to avoid sub-optimization of water saving measures, the current Water Management Hierarchy has to include the aspects of energy supply and energy recovery. If the aim is to reduce a corporation’s water use, the largest sites with heavy industrial processes should be addressed first. However, the potential impact from water related risks at smaller sites should not be neglected, in order to ensure safe operations and avoid increased costs in the company´s supply chain.

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  • 294.
    Kullmann, Felix
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Economic and Environmental Analysis of Excess Heat at Pulp Mills2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    European industries have realized that a reduction of primary energy usage is not only a European requirement but can also be of great economic interest. Especially both energy and resource intensive industries like the pulp and paper industry will benefit. Industrial excess heat as a by-product of industrial processes needing energy has a great potential to be a key factor in reducing primary energy usage. Both excess heat utilization and heat integration are potential ways for Kraft pulp mills to increase their energy efficiency, to decrease their primary energy use and thus green-house gas emission, and to support the pulp and paper industry to achieve sustainability goals and meet EU regulations. This thesis examines the total excess heat potential in the Swedish Kraft pulp industry through pinch analysis and optimization on a modelled average Swedish Kraft pulp mill (FRAM). Different excess heat recovery technologies (EHRTs) are identified based on their applicability and are evaluated regarding their environmental and economic benefits for the Swedish pulp industry by using the energy price and carbon scenarios tool (ENPAC tool). An excess heat potential in the Swedish Kraft pulp mill industry of 2,03 TWh at 60°C, and 3,53 TWh at 25°C is found in this study. Heat delivery to the district heating network (DH), cooling delivery to the district cooling network (DC), electricity generation with a condensing turbine (CT), phase-change material engine (PCM) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) are identified as suitable excess heat recovery technologies for Swedish Kraft pulp mills. A payback time calculation in this study found the condensing turbine as the EHRT to be of highest economic benefit in 2018 (less than 3 years). With predicted future energy prices of the years 2030, 2040 and 2050 all considered recovery technologies become economically feasible (payback time of less than 3 years). The CT and combinations of CT with DH and DC are furthermore the recovery technologies with the highest CO2 savings of 100.000 t/a in 2018. All in all, this study suggests investing in a CT, or combinations of it with DH and DC, to create the greatest economic and environmental benefits in 2018. With future price changes on the energy market and an uncertain future energy demand an investment in combinations of recovery technologies generating both heat, cooling and electricity is found to be the most sustainable choice.

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  • 295.
    Källman, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kvantifiering och utnyttjande av lågvärdig spillvärme: En fallstudie av en verkstadsindustri2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Energy use is increasing throughout the world, which causes an increased load on the environment. Today, a lot of industries have unused waste heat, which by extended use would reduce the amount of primary energy sources and thus the environmental load together with economical savings that would apply for the industry.

    DIBO Produktionspartner AB is a manufacturing industry that processes metal‐ and plastic components in CNC‐machines. The machinery consists of 14 CNC‐machines and one compressor that provide the machines with compressed air. The ventilation system consists of two systems, one supply and exhaust air system for the workshop and one heat exchange system for the adjacent office building. Due to activity from the machines and compressor, the company has excess heat which causes high temperatures in the workshop. Today, a gate is opened in order to vent the excess heat and lower the temperature.

    This project’s aim was to quantify the amount of excess heat available in the workshop and afterwards investigate possible internal and external uses. The excess heat was estimated by setting up an energy balance for the workshop where heat energy contributions and losses were compared. Both the contributions and losses of heat energy were calculated by a workshop inventory, electricity, temperature and ventilation measurements and through simulations of the workshop’s indoor climate.

    Results show that excess heat occurs in the workshop every month of the year, largely dependent on the outdoor temperature and activity level in the workshop, and amounts to 137 MWh yearly.

    Regarding the external uses, factors that affect waste heat cooperation, technology to deliver heat and the possibility for DIBO to deliver heat to the district heating system in Katrineholm, was evaluated. Among all the factors to keep in mind in cooperation, trust between the parties, investment division and valuation of waste heat, are some. The technology needed to deliver heat varies, but common equipment includes connecting points and lines and in some cases a circulation pump as well as a heat pump for upgrading the heat. As a result of an air compressor with relatively low power and airborne heat, a suiting heat pump has not been found. Contact with Tekniska verken in Katrineholm showed that the potential amount of heat energy deliverable to the district heating system is too small to be of interest and therefor a delivery to the district heating network is today not relevant.

    The internal measures are listed in Table 1 along with their potential savings and payback time. 

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  • 296.
    Küller, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Liu, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thoresson, Josefin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    När sannering blir energieffektivisering2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggnaders energianvändning spelar en stor roll för om Sverige ska kunna minska sin energianvändning eftersom de står för hela 39 % av Sveriges totala energianvändning. I den siffran är både byggnadernas uppvärmning, varmvatten samt fastighetselen och de boendes hushållsel inkluderad. där både energi för att värma upp byggnaden, vattenanvändning och fastigheternas samt hushållens elanvändning ingår. Den största potentialen för att minska byggnaders energianvändning finns i redan existerande byggnader som ofta har en relativt hög energianvändning. Vi har därför studerat redan existerade byggnader i denna rapport med syfte att undersöka drivkrafter och hinder för att genom renovering minska energianvändningen för hyreshus i bostadsområdet Stolplyckan-Magistratshagen. Bostadshusen är belägna i Linköping och ägs av det allmännyttiga fastighetsbolaget Stångåstaden. Vi studerar förändringar i byggnadernas energisystem i Stolplyckan-Magistratshagen i och med renoveringarna från tre perspektiv som alla är relaterade till varandra. Det handlar om byggnaderna som renoveras i området, hushållen som bor i byggnaderna och de professionella aktörerna relaterade till byggnaderna och renoveringarna.

    Det här är en studie som syftar till att vara tvärvetenskaplig i den meningen att gemensamma analyser är baserade på insamlad data med hjälp av metoder från flera olika discipliner. För att förstå de sociala aktörernas syn på förändringen av byggnadernas energisystem har vi använt oss av kvalitativa intervjuer med professionella aktörer och hushåll i bostadsområdet. Vi har även använt oss av en enkätundersökning för att undersöka hur de boende ser på byggnadernas inomhusklimat. Vi har dessutom genomfört simuleringar i IDA ICE av en byggnad för att beräkna lägenheternas el- och värmebehov.

    Studien visar att renoveringen genomfördes på grund av mikrobiell tillväxt i byggnadernas fasader, och kom efterhand att också fokusera på energieffektiviseringar eftersom en sådan satsning ansågs innebära en liten del av den totala renoveringskostnaden. Arbete med energifrågor hade ett stort stöd i Stångåstaden och stöddes även principiellt av hushållen, men i praktiken var det få hushåll som var villiga att premiera energieffektiviseringar framför andra värden i sin vardag, och det fick inte gå ut över exempelvis bekvämlighet.

    Renoveringen innebär inga tekniska nymodigheter utan Stångåstaden satsade efter egna erfarenheter och efter inspiration från tidigare renoveringar på vad de ansåg vara säker och tillförlitlig teknik. Renoveringen skulle inte innebära något nytt eller krångligt utan handla om energisparande åtgärder som skulle vara osynliga för hushållen. Enligt enkätresultatet och simuleringarna har renoveringen varit lyckosam i fråga om att både förbättra byggnadernas inomhusklimat och för att minska byggnadernas uppvärmningsbehov. För hushållen var detta dock inget som de primärt värdesatte vid val av bostad. För de boende var energi i huvudsak el, och renoveringen hade också som ambition att sänka elanvändningen genom energisnåla vitvaror. Samtidigt utrustades alla lägenheter med egna tvättmaskiner och torktumlare och den gemensamma tvättstugan togs bort. Det gjorde att hushållens elanvändning ökade och enligt våra beräkningar ökar hushållens elkostnader med mellan 700 – 1 000 kr per år. De enskilda tvättstugorna i varje lägenhet installerades med tanken att framtida hyresgäster kommer efterfråga det. Få av de nuvarande hyresgästerna värdesatte att ha en egen tvättmaskin.

    Slutsatsen för vår studie är att det råder en obalans mellan de inblandade aktörernas mål med renoveringen. Stångåstaden såg att de har ett ansvar för att reducera energianvändningen för byggnaderna men inkluderade inte hushållen i arbetet med att spara energi. De boende förstod inte energiåtgärderna och betraktade renoveringen i första hand som ett saneringsprojekt

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    När sannering blir energi effektivisering
  • 297. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    La Fleur, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy renovation of multi-family buildings in Sweden: An evaluation of life cycle costs, indoor environment and primary energy use, and a comparison with constructing a new building2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential buildings account for 27% of the final energy use in the European Union. In cold climates, space heating represents the largest proportion of the energy demand in residential buildings. By implementing energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in existing buildings, energy use can be significantly reduced. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive states that renovations of buildings offer an opportunity to improve energy efficiency. Renovations that include measures implemented with the specific purpose of reducing energy use are referred to as energy renovations. In addition to improving energy efficiency, an energy renovation can also improve the indoor environment. Sweden, like many other European countries, faces the challenge of renovating an ageing building stock with poor energy performance. Improving energy efficiency and performing energy renovations in a cost-effective manner is central, and optimization approaches are often used to identify suitable EEMs and energy renovation approaches. New buildings usually feature better energy performance compared to older buildings, and one approach for reducing energy use in the building sector could be to demolish old buildings with poor thermal performance and build new buildings with better thermal performance.

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate energy renovations of multi-family buildings with regard to space heating demand, life cycle costs, indoor environment and primary energy use. The choice between energy renovation of a multi-family building and the demolition and construction of a new one is also investigated with regard to life cycle costs (LCCs). A Swedish multi-family building in which energy renovation has been carried out is used as a case study. The building was originally constructed in 1961 and has a lightweight concrete construction. The renovation included improving the thermal performance of the building envelope and replacing the exhaust air ventilation system with a mechanical supply and exhaust air ventilation system with heat recovery.

    The methods used in the studies include dynamic whole building energy simulation, life cycle cost analysis and optimizations, and a questionnaire on indoor environment perception. Extensive field measurements have been performed in the building prior to and after renovation to provide input data and to validate numerical predictions. In addition to the studied building, the analysis of the choice between energy renovation and the demolition and construction of a new building includes three other building construction types, representing common Swedish building types from the 1940s, 1950s and 1970s.

    The analysis shows that the energy renovation led to a 44% reduction in space heating demand and an improved indoor environment. The indoor temperature was higher after the renovation and the perception of the indoor temperature, air quality and noise in the building improved. The EEMs implemented as part of the energy renovation have a slightly higher LCC than the optimal combinations of EEMs identified in the LCC optimization. It is not cost-optimal to implement any EEMs in the building if the lowest possible LCC is the objective function. Attic insulation has a low cost of implementation but has limited potential in the studied building with its relatively good thermal properties. Insulation of the façade is an expensive measure, but has a great potential to reduce heat demand because of the large façade area. Façade insulation is thus required to achieve significant energy savings. Heat recovery in the ventilation system is cost-effective with an energy saving target above 40% in the studied building. The primary energy factors in the Swedish Building Code favor ground source heat pumps as a heat supply system in the studied building.

    The LCC of renovation is lower compared to demolishing and constructing a new building. A large proportion of the LCC of demolition and new construction relates to the demolition of the existing building. In a building with a high internal volume to floor area ratio, it is not always possible to renovate to the same energy performance level as when constructing a new building. A more ambitious renovation approach is also needed compared to a building with a smaller volume to floor area ratio.

    List of papers
    1. Energy Performance of a Renovated Multi-Family Building in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Performance of a Renovated Multi-Family Building in Sweden
    2017 (English)In: Mediterranean Green Buildings & Renewable Energy / [ed] Sayigh, Ali, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 531-539Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased attention is being directed towards reducing energy use in buildings, and implementing energy-saving measures when renovating buildings has become of central importance. The aim of this chapter is to study the effects on heat demand of a deep renovation of a Swedish post-war, multi-family building. The studied building was renovated in 2014, and the renovation measures included thermal improvement of the climate envelope and installation of a mechanical supply and exhaust air ventilation system with heat recovery. The effect on heat demand is studied through a whole-building energy simulation, using IDA Indoor Climate and Energy. The IDA model is empirically validated with regard to its ability to predict indoor temperature and energy use. The results indicate a technical potential for a 50.3 % reduction of heat demand from implemented renovation measures, but measured data indicate that actual energy use is around 15 % higher than the technical potential. The reasons for this gap could be overestimated heat recovery efficiency or airing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer International Publishing, 2017
    National Category
    Building Technologies Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160813 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-30746-6_39 (DOI)9783319307459 (ISBN)9783319307466 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Springer Cham
    Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-09
    2. Measured and predicted energy use and indoor climate before and after a major renovation of an apartment building in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measured and predicted energy use and indoor climate before and after a major renovation of an apartment building in Sweden
    2017 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 146, p. 98-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a case study of a renovated Swedish apartment building with a common design built in 1961. The aim is to present numerical predictions, validation and evaluation of energy use and indoor climate for the building before and after renovation. Comprehensive field measurements were carried out before and after the renovation to be used as input data in the building energy simulation tool IDA ICE and for validation of model results. Indoor temperature is predicted with maximum standard deviation of 0.4 degrees C during winter. Annual heat demand is in good agreement with measurements. The building had an annual climate normalized district heat demand of 99.0 MWh before renovation and 55.4 MWh after, resulting in a 44% reduction. A slight under-prediction of the saving potential is noted, since the indoor air temperature has increased after the renovation. The results also show that assumptions of user behavior have significant impact on the energy-saving potential, and that choice of renovation measures, such as level of insulation, and efficiency of the ventilation heat recovery system need careful consideration. Choice of system boundaries also has a major effect on climate and resource impact from selected renovation measures. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2017
    Keywords
    Renovation; Multi-family buildings; Building energy simulation; Field measurements; Validation; Energy use; CO2 emissions; Primary energy
    National Category
    Building Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138876 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.04.042 (DOI)000403122200010 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council Formas

    Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2019-09-18
    3. Energy Use and Perceived Indoor Environment in a Swedish Multifamily Building before and after Major Renovation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Use and Perceived Indoor Environment in a Swedish Multifamily Building before and after Major Renovation
    2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 766Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in the building sector is a central goal in the European Union and renovation of buildings can significantly improve both energy efficiency and indoor environment. This paper studies the perception of indoor environment, modelled indoor climate and heat demand in a building before and after major renovation. The building was constructed in 1961 and renovated in 2014. Insulation of the facade and attic and new windows reduced average U-value from 0.54 to 0.29 W/m(2).K. A supply and exhaust ventilation system with heat recovery replaced the old exhaust ventilation. Heat demand was reduced by 44% and maximum supplied heating power was reduced by 38.5%. An on-site questionnaire indicates that perceived thermal comfort improved after the renovation, and the predicted percentage dissatisfied is reduced from 23% to 14% during the heating season. Overall experience with indoor environment is improved. A sensitivity analysis indicates that there is a compromise between thermal comfort and energy use in relation to window solar heat gain, internal heat generation and indoor temperature set point. Higher heat gains, although reducing energy use, can cause problems with high indoor temperatures, and higher indoor temperature might increase thermal comfort during heating season but significantly increases energy use.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2018
    Keywords
    renovation; indoor environment; thermal comfort; building energy simulation; energy use; multifamily buildings
    National Category
    Building Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147818 (URN)10.3390/su10030766 (DOI)000428567100193 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council Formas

    Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2019-09-18
    4. Energy Renovation versus Demolition and Construction of a New Building: A Comparative Analysis of a Swedish Multi-Family Building
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Renovation versus Demolition and Construction of a New Building: A Comparative Analysis of a Swedish Multi-Family Building