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  • 251.
    Forsberg, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poenaru, Iuliana
    Fraunhofer ISC, Project Group Materials Recycling and Resource Strategy IWKS, Hanau, Germany.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Junaid, Mohammad
    RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stacking fault related luminescence in GaN nanorods2015In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical and structural properties are presented for GaN nanorods grown in the [0001]direction on Si(111) substrates by direct-current reactive magnetron sputter epitaxy.Transmission electron microscopy reveals clusters of dense stacking faults (SFs) regularlydistributed along the c-axis. A strong emission at ~3.42 eV associated with basal plane SFsdemonstrates thermal stability up to room temperatures together with a relatively shortrecombination time suggesting carrier localization in the system similar to multiple quantumwells.

  • 252.
    Forsmark, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigation of magnetic sensors and hardware design of a sensor platform for human-computer interaction purposes2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Company A develops algorithms and hardware for the application of magnet tracking, to be able to use a dipole magnet as an interaction tool between humans and computers. This master thesis investigates the available magnetic sensors through a market survey and practical testing of a selection of the sensors in purpose to determine the most suitable magnetic sensor and magnetic sensor technology for the application of magnet tracking. With the most suitable sensor found in the investigation, a sensor platform is designed and manufactured. The sensor HMC5983 from Honeywell is found to be the most suitable sensor and is designed into the sensor platform, which also includes ,for instance, a wireless MCU, CC2640 from Texas Instru- ments, together with a PCB antenna and a PSU including a battery charger, BQ24075 from Texas Instruments. The most suitable mag- netic sensor technology was found to be magnetoresistive sensors. The sensor platform was designed according to the requirements and is working good enough to enable company A to start testing their algorithms for magnet tracking on the new platform.

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    Investigation of magnetic sensors and hardware design of a sensor platform for human-computer interaction purposes
  • 253.
    Franco Gonzalez, Felipe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Autonomous Univ Madrid, Spain.
    Rolland, Nicolas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Substrate-Dependent Morphology and Its Effect on Electrical Mobility of Doped Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Thin Films2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 34, p. 29115-29126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deposition dynamics, crystallization, molecular packing, and electronic mobility of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films are affected by the nature of the substrate. Computational microscopy has been carried out to reveal the morphology-substrate dependence for PEDOT thin films doped with molecular tosylate deposited on different substrates including graphite, Si3N4, silicon, and amorphous SiO2. It is shown that the substrate is instrumental in formation of the lamellar structure. PEDOT films on the ordered substrates (graphite, Si3N4, and silicon) exhibit preferential face-on orientation, with graphite showing the most ordered and pronounced face-on packing. In contrast, PEDOT on amorphous SiO2 exhibits the dominant edge-on orientation, except in the dry state where both packings are equally presented. The role of water and the porosity of the substrate in formation of the edge-on structure on SiO2 is outlined. On the basis of the calculated morphology, the multiscale calculations of the electronic transport and percolative analysis are performed outlining how the character of the substrate affects the electron mobility. It is demonstrated that good crystallinity (PEDOT on graphite substrate) and high content of edge-on (PEDOT on SiO2 substrate) are not enough to achieve the highest electrical in-plane mobility. Instead, the least ordered material with lower degree of the edge-on content (PEDOT on silicon substrate) provides the highest mobility because it exhibits an efficient network of pi-pi stacked chain extending throughout the entire sample.

  • 254.
    Franco Gonzalez, Felipe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Molecular Dynamics Study of Morphology of Doped PEDOT: From Solution to Dry Phase2017In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 121, no 16, p. 4299-4307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morphology of the conducting polymer PEDOT:TOS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiopherre) doped with molecular, tosylate) and its crystallization in aqueous solution, were Studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. It was foirnd that (a) PEDOT comprises crystallite aggregates consisting of 3-6 pi-pi stacked chains. The crystallites are linked by interpenetrating pi-pi stacked chains such that percolative paths in the structure are formed. (b) The size of the crystallites.deperids on the water content, but the pi-pi stacking distance is practically independent of the chain length, charge,Concentration and water content. (c) TOS counterions are located either on the top of the,chains or on the side of the crystalliteS and their distribution depends on the charge concentration but is practically independent of the water content; (d) PEDOT depends On their length and water,content. 2 chains and crystallites exhibit bending that depends On their length and water content.

  • 255.
    Franco Gonzalez, Juan Felipe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pavlopoulou, Eleni
    Bordeaux INP, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, LCPO UMR 5629, 33600 Pessac, France.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor V
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Morphology of a self-doped conducting oligomer for green energy applications2017In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 13717-13724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recently synthesized self-doped conducting oligomer, salt of bis[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene]3thiophene butyric acid, ETE-S, is a novel promising material for green energy applications. Recently, it has been demonstrated that it can polymerize in vivo, in plant systems, leading to a formation of long-range conducting wires, charge storage and supercapacitive behaviour of living plants. Here we investigate the morphology of ETE-S combining the experimental characterisation using Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (GIWAXS) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The GIWAXS measurements reveal a formation of small crystallites consisting of π–π stacked oligomers (with the staking distance 3.5 Å) that are further organized in h00 lamellae. These experimental results are confirmed by MD calculations, where we calculated the X-ray diffraction pattern and the radial distribution function for the distance between ETE-S chains. Our MD simulations also demonstrate the formation of the percolative paths for charge carriers that extend throughout the whole structure, despite the fact that the oligomers are short (6–9 rings) and crystallites are thin along the π–π stacking direction, consisting of only two or three π–π stacked oligomers. The existence of the percolative paths explains the previously observed high conductivity in in vivo polymerized ETE-S. We also explored the geometrical conformation of ETE-S oligomers and the bending of their aliphatic chains as a function of the oligomer lengths.

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  • 256.
    Franzen, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schweidenbach, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Further development of work samples for pump control2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IKG Östra Sverige AB var i behov av ett arbetsprov som nyanställda ska genom gå när de söker anställning hos IKG. Anställningsprovet togs fram för att testa de nyanställdas kunskaper i elteknik och styrteknik. Anställningsprovet gick ut på att nivåreglera en tank utifrån en funktionslista.

    Uppgiften med detta examensarbete är att vidareutveckla ett anställningsprov så att anställningsprovet kan sätta i bruk. I vidareutvecklingen ingår det att ta fram underlag till arbetsprovet, underlaget som ska tas fram består av arbetsritningar, apparatlista, kabellista och I/O-lista.

    Till IKG Östra Sverige AB togs det fram flera förslag på komponenter och utifrån komponenterna som valdes gjordes det arbetsritningar och en apparatlista. Arbetsritningarna utfördes i en äldre version av Elmaster design som är ett elritningsprogram. Kabelmärkning gjordes för att kunna följa upp ritningarna och en kabellista gjordes för att underlätta installationen. En I/O-lista arbetades fram för att få reda på hur inoch utgångar påverkade styrprocessen i tanken.

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  • 257.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of a 5.5-V Class-D Stage Used in +30-dBm Outphasing RF PAs in 130- and 65-nm CMOS2012In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791, Vol. 59, no 11, p. 726-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This brief presents the design and analysis of a 5.5-V class-D stage used in two fully integrated watt-level, +32.0 and +29.7 dBm, outphasing RF power amplifiers (PAs) in standard 130- and 65-nm CMOS technologies. The class-D stage utilizes a cascode configuration, driven by an ac-coupled low-voltage driver, to allow a 5.5-V supply in the 1.2-/2.5-V technologies without excessive device voltage stress. The rms electric fields (E) across the gate oxides and the optimal bias point, where the voltage stress is equally divided between the transistors, are computed. At the optimal bias point, the rms E, the power dissipation of the parasitic drain capacitance of the common-source transistors, and the equivalent on-resistances are reduced by approximately 25%, 50%, and 25%, compared to a conventional cascode (inverter) stage. To the authors best knowledge, the class-D PAs presented are among the first fully integrated CMOS outphasing PAs reaching +30 dBm and demonstrate state-of-the-art output power and bandwidth.

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  • 258.
    Frykskog, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Hjalmar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Construction of RF-link budget template for transceiver modelling2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis report details the process of developing a simulation platform for radio transceivers with a focus on analog receiver front end system design. The platform was implemented in the National Instruments VSS environment for the company Ericsson AB.

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    Construction of RF-link budget template for transceiver modelling
  • 259.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hammarström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spatiotemporal Control of Amyloid-Like A Plaque Formation Using a Multichannel Organic Electronic Device2016In: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 301, no 4, p. 359-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We herein report on an iontronic device to drive and control A1-40 and A1-42 fibril formation. This system allows kinetic control of A aggregation by regulation of H+ flows. The formed aggregates show both nanometer-sized fibril structure and microscopic growth, thus mimicking senile plaques, at the H+-outlet. Mechanistically we observed initial accumulation of A1-40 likely driven by electrophoretic migration which preceded nucleation of amyloid structures in the accumulated peptide cluster.

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  • 260.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polyphosphonium-based bipolar membranes for rectification of ionic currents2013In: Biomicrofluidics, ISSN 1932-1058, E-ISSN 1932-1058, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 064117-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bipolar membranes (BMs) have interesting applications within the field of bioelectronics, as they may be used to create non-linear ionic components (e. g., ion diodes and transistors), thereby extending the functionality of, otherwise linear, electrophoretic drug delivery devices. However, BM based diodes suffer from a number of limitations, such as narrow voltage operation range and/or high hysteresis. In this work, we circumvent these problems by using a novel polyphosphonium-based BM, which is shown to exhibit improved diode characteristics. We believe that this new type of BM diode will be useful for creating complex addressable ionic circuits for delivery of charged biomolecules.

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  • 261. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monopolar and Bipolar Membranes in Organic Bioelectronic Devices2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1970s it was discovered that organic polymers, a class of materials otherwise best know as insulating plastics, could be made electronically conductive. As an alternative to silicon semiconductors, organic polymers offer many novel features, characteristics, and opportunities, such as producing electronics at low costs using printing techniques, using organic chemistry to tune optical and electronic properties, and mechanical flexibility. The conducting organic polymers have been used in a vast array of devices, exemplified by organic transistors, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Due to their softness, biocompatibility, and combined electronic and ionic transport, organic electronic materials are also well suited as the active material in bioelectronic applications, a scientific and engineering area in which electronics interface with biology. The coupling of ions and electrons is especially interesting, as ions serve as signal carriers in all living organisms, thus offering a direct translation of electronic and ionic signals. To further enable complex control of ionic fluxes, organic electronic materials can be integrated with various ionic components, such as ion-conducting diodes and transistors.

    This thesis reports a background to the field of organic bioelectronic and ionic devices, and also presents the integration of ionic functions into organic bioelectronic devices. First, an electrophoretic drug delivery device is presented, capable of delivering ions at high spatiotemporal resolution. The device, called the organic electronic ion pump, is used to electronically control amyloid-like aggregation kinetics and morphology of peptides, and offers an interesting method for studying amyloids in vitro. Second, various ion-conducting diodes based on bipolar membranes are described. These diodes show high rectification ratio, i.e. conduct ions better for positive than for negative applied voltage. Simple ion diode based circuits, such as an AND gate and a full-wave rectifier, are also reported. The AND gate is intended as an addressable pH pixel to regulate for example amyloid aggregation, while the full-wave rectifier decouples the electrochemical capacity of an electrode from the amount of ionic charge it can generate. Third, an ion transistor, also based on bipolar membranes, is presented. This transistor can amplify and control ionic currents, and is suitable for building complex ionic logic circuits. Together, these results provide a basic toolbox of ionic components that is suitable for building more complex and/or implantable organic bioelectronic devices.

    List of papers
    1. Spatially Controlled Amyloid Reactions Using Organic Electronics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatially Controlled Amyloid Reactions Using Organic Electronics
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    2010 (English)In: SMALL, ISSN 1613-6810, Vol. 6, no 19, p. 2153-2161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abnormal protein aggregates, so called amyloid fibrils, are mainly known as pathological hallmarks of a wide range of diseases, but in addition these robust well-ordered self-assembled natural nanostructures can also be utilized for creating distinct nanomaterials for bioelectronic devices. However, current methods for producing amyloid fibrils in vitro offer no spatial control. Herein, we demonstrate a new way to produce and spatially control the assembly of amyloid-like structures using an organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) to pump distinct cations to a reservoir containing a negatively charged polypeptide. The morphology and kinetics of the created proteinaceous nanomaterials depends on the ion and current used, which we leveraged to create layers incorporating different conjugated thiophene derivatives, one fluorescent (p-FTAA) and one conducting (PEDOT-S). We anticipate that this new application for the OEIP will be useful for both biological studies of amyloid assembly and fibrillogenesis as well as for creating new bioelectronic nanomaterials and devices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2010
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61175 (URN)10.1002/smll.201001157 (DOI)000283274100013 ()
    Available from: 2010-11-08 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2018-04-25
    2. Controlled Microscopic Formation of Amyloid-Like Aβ Aggregates Using an Organic Electronic Device
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlled Microscopic Formation of Amyloid-Like Aβ Aggregates Using an Organic Electronic Device
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), primarily associated with formation of fibrillar amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) aggregates in the brain, is one of the most common old-age diseases. It is therefore crucial with an elevated scientific interest in Aβ, and its fundamental properties in a wide sense, to develop efficient methods for early detection and to combat AD. For the development of new techniques, both for AD detection and prevention, researchers are dependent on either tissue samples from deceased patients, animal models or in vitro systems. In vitro systems, such as producing protein aggregates of the Aβ-peptide in a test tube by incubation under denaturing conditions, offers us a simple but rather blunt tool for evaluating aggregation inhibition caused by compounds or to investigate new detection methods. We recently introduced the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) as a method for creating amyloid-like aggregates at high spatiotemporal control as compared to the resulting aggregates manufactured using regular test tube-conditions. Combined with a fluorescent probe that is specific for the fibrillar aggregated form of misfolded peptides commonly seen in AD, this allowed us to control and to monitor the aggregation of a model peptide system in a highly confined space.

    To further elaborate the functionality of the OEIP together with amyloid-specific probes, we here present experiments demonstrating electronically controlled micron sized formation of Aβ-aggregates with morphologies ranging from fine fibers, to bundles of fibers, and thick mesh-like fiber structures. We foresee that the methodology can be implemented in multi array systems that can be utilized for studies of protein aggregation in confined spaces or together with cultured cells, as well as for the development of screening platforms for assessment of molecules influencing the Aβ-aggregation process.

    National Category
    Polymer Technologies Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110401 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-09-10 Created: 2014-09-10 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
    3. Ion diode logics for pH control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion diode logics for pH control
    2012 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 12, no 14, p. 2507-2513Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic control over the generation, transport, and delivery of ions is useful in order to regulate reactions, functions, and processes in various chemical and biological systems. Different kinds of ion diodes and transistors that exhibit non-linear current versus voltage characteristics have been explored to generate chemical gradients and signals. Bipolar membranes (BMs) exhibit both ion current rectification and water splitting and are thus suitable as ion diodes for the regulation of pH. To date, fast switching ion diodes have been difficult to realize due to accumulation of ions inside the device structure at forward bias – charges that take a long time to deplete at reverse bias. Water splitting occurs at elevated reverse voltage bias and is a feature that renders high ion current rectification impossible. This makes integration of ion diodes in circuits difficult. Here, we report three different designs of micro-fabricated ion bipolar membrane diodes (IBMDs). The first two designs consist of single BM configurations, and are capable of either splitting water or providing high current rectification. In the third design, water-splitting BMs and a highly-rectifying BM are connected in series, thus suppressing accumulation of ions. The resulting IBMD shows less hysteresis, faster off-switching, and also a high ion current rectification ratio as compared to the single BM devices. Further, the IBMD was integrated in a diode-based AND gate, which is capable of controlling delivery of hydroxide ions into a receiving reservoir.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2012
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78002 (URN)10.1039/C2LC40093F (DOI)000305532600009 ()
    Available from: 2012-06-04 Created: 2012-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07
    4. Polyphosphonium-based bipolar membranes for rectification of ionic currents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polyphosphonium-based bipolar membranes for rectification of ionic currents
    2013 (English)In: Biomicrofluidics, ISSN 1932-1058, E-ISSN 1932-1058, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 064117-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Bipolar membranes (BMs) have interesting applications within the field of bioelectronics, as they may be used to create non-linear ionic components (e. g., ion diodes and transistors), thereby extending the functionality of, otherwise linear, electrophoretic drug delivery devices. However, BM based diodes suffer from a number of limitations, such as narrow voltage operation range and/or high hysteresis. In this work, we circumvent these problems by using a novel polyphosphonium-based BM, which is shown to exhibit improved diode characteristics. We believe that this new type of BM diode will be useful for creating complex addressable ionic circuits for delivery of charged biomolecules.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2013
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103883 (URN)10.1063/1.4850795 (DOI)000329292200020 ()
    Available from: 2014-01-30 Created: 2014-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    5. A Four-Diode Full-Wave Ionic Current Rectifier Based on Bipolar Membranes: Overcoming the Limit of Electrode Capacity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Four-Diode Full-Wave Ionic Current Rectifier Based on Bipolar Membranes: Overcoming the Limit of Electrode Capacity
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    2014 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 30, p. 5143-5147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Full-wave rectification of ionic currents is obtained by constructing the typical four-diode bridge out of ion conducting bipolar membranes. Together with conjugated polymer electrodes addressed with alternating current, the bridge allows for generation of a controlled ionic direct current for extended periods of time without the production of toxic species or gas typically arising from electrode side-reactions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2014
    Keywords
    bioelectronics, ionics, ion transport, bipolar membranes, conjugated polymer electrodes
    National Category
    Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Polymer Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110403 (URN)10.1002/adma.201401258 (DOI)000340546300010 ()24863171 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Vinnova, 2010–00507EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, iONE-FP7Swedish Research Council, 621–2011–3517EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, OrgBIO
    Available from: 2014-09-10 Created: 2014-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    6. Polyphosphonium-Based Ion Bipolar Junction Transistors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polyphosphonium-Based Ion Bipolar Junction Transistors
    2014 (English)In: Biomicrofluidics, ISSN 1932-1058, E-ISSN 1932-1058, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 064116-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons, but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e. ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example addressable drug-delivery devices.

    Keywords
    WATER DISSOCIATION; NANOFLUIDIC DIODE; MEMBRANES; CIRCUITS
    National Category
    Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110400 (URN)10.1063/1.4902909 (DOI)000347160400018 ()
    Note

    This research was financed by VINNOVA (OBOE Miljo and AFM), the Swedish Research Council, and the Onnesjo foundation.

    Available from: 2014-09-10 Created: 2014-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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    Monopolar and Bipolar Membranes in Organic Bioelectronic Devices
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  • 262.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hammarström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, K. Peter N.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Controlled Microscopic Formation of Amyloid-Like Aβ Aggregates Using an Organic Electronic DeviceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), primarily associated with formation of fibrillar amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) aggregates in the brain, is one of the most common old-age diseases. It is therefore crucial with an elevated scientific interest in Aβ, and its fundamental properties in a wide sense, to develop efficient methods for early detection and to combat AD. For the development of new techniques, both for AD detection and prevention, researchers are dependent on either tissue samples from deceased patients, animal models or in vitro systems. In vitro systems, such as producing protein aggregates of the Aβ-peptide in a test tube by incubation under denaturing conditions, offers us a simple but rather blunt tool for evaluating aggregation inhibition caused by compounds or to investigate new detection methods. We recently introduced the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) as a method for creating amyloid-like aggregates at high spatiotemporal control as compared to the resulting aggregates manufactured using regular test tube-conditions. Combined with a fluorescent probe that is specific for the fibrillar aggregated form of misfolded peptides commonly seen in AD, this allowed us to control and to monitor the aggregation of a model peptide system in a highly confined space.

    To further elaborate the functionality of the OEIP together with amyloid-specific probes, we here present experiments demonstrating electronically controlled micron sized formation of Aβ-aggregates with morphologies ranging from fine fibers, to bundles of fibers, and thick mesh-like fiber structures. We foresee that the methodology can be implemented in multi array systems that can be utilized for studies of protein aggregation in confined spaces or together with cultured cells, as well as for the development of screening platforms for assessment of molecules influencing the Aβ-aggregation process.

  • 263.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Four-Diode Full-Wave Ionic Current Rectifier Based on Bipolar Membranes: Overcoming the Limit of Electrode Capacity2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 30, p. 5143-5147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-wave rectification of ionic currents is obtained by constructing the typical four-diode bridge out of ion conducting bipolar membranes. Together with conjugated polymer electrodes addressed with alternating current, the bridge allows for generation of a controlled ionic direct current for extended periods of time without the production of toxic species or gas typically arising from electrode side-reactions.

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  • 264.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ion diode logics for pH control2012In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 12, no 14, p. 2507-2513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic control over the generation, transport, and delivery of ions is useful in order to regulate reactions, functions, and processes in various chemical and biological systems. Different kinds of ion diodes and transistors that exhibit non-linear current versus voltage characteristics have been explored to generate chemical gradients and signals. Bipolar membranes (BMs) exhibit both ion current rectification and water splitting and are thus suitable as ion diodes for the regulation of pH. To date, fast switching ion diodes have been difficult to realize due to accumulation of ions inside the device structure at forward bias – charges that take a long time to deplete at reverse bias. Water splitting occurs at elevated reverse voltage bias and is a feature that renders high ion current rectification impossible. This makes integration of ion diodes in circuits difficult. Here, we report three different designs of micro-fabricated ion bipolar membrane diodes (IBMDs). The first two designs consist of single BM configurations, and are capable of either splitting water or providing high current rectification. In the third design, water-splitting BMs and a highly-rectifying BM are connected in series, thus suppressing accumulation of ions. The resulting IBMD shows less hysteresis, faster off-switching, and also a high ion current rectification ratio as compared to the single BM devices. Further, the IBMD was integrated in a diode-based AND gate, which is capable of controlling delivery of hydroxide ions into a receiving reservoir.

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  • 265.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polyphosphonium-Based Ion Bipolar Junction Transistors2014In: Biomicrofluidics, ISSN 1932-1058, E-ISSN 1932-1058, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 064116-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons, but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e. ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example addressable drug-delivery devices.

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  • 266.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biocompatible Circuits for Human–Machine Interfacing2018In: Green Materials for Electronics / [ed] Mihai Irimia-Vladu, Eric D. Głowacki, Niyazi Sariciftci, Siegfried Bauer, Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018, p. 91-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional electronic devices have evolved from the first transistors introduced in the 1940s to integrated circuits and today's modern (CMOS) computer chips fabricated on silicon wafers using photolithography. This chapter reviews such iontronic devices for signal translation and their application in bioelectronics. It begins with a brief description of the ion transport mechanisms that lay the conceptual groundwork for this type of iontronic devices. The chapter presents various iontronic devices aimed at bioelectronic applications. It outlines the future possible developments of iontronics for human-machine interfacing. The physical interface between electronic devices and biological tissues is of particular interest, as this interface bridges the gap between artificial, humanmade technologies and biological "circuits". Ion-conducting diodes and transistors can be used to build circuits for modulation of ion flow, with the possibility of mimicking the dynamic and nonlinear processes occurring in the body.

  • 267.
    Gatu, Torsten
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementation of spectrumanalyzer in Softube Console 12015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to implement an audio spectrum analyzer in Console 1, an audio mixing platform developed by Softube AB. The implementation needed to have good performance at low cost and minimal maintenace, while still integrating well with the Console 1 environment.

    The work consisted of finding a suitable FFT library, constructing an algorithm for visualization of the raw FFT data, and to collect and process sound data while maintaining the real-time performance of the Console 1 environment.

    The result was well a integrated spectrum analyzer with a minimal codebase that is performing well enough for its application.

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  • 268.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Roger H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Neuromorphic Applications2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 1801339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An evolvable organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), operating in the hybrid accumulation-depletion mode is reported, which exhibits short-term and long-term memory functionalities. The transistor channel, formed by an electropolymerized conducting polymer, can be formed, modulated, and obliterated in situ and under operation. Enduring changes in channel conductance, analogous to long-term potentiation and depression, are attained by electropolymerization and electrochemical overoxidation of the channel material, respectively. Transient changes in channel conductance, analogous to short-term potentiation and depression, are accomplished by inducing nonequilibrium doping states within the transistor channel. By manipulating the input signal, the strength of the transistor response to a given stimulus can be modulated within a range that spans several orders of magnitude, producing behavior that is directly comparable to short- and long-term neuroplasticity. The evolvable transistor is further incorporated into a simple circuit that mimics classical conditioning. It is forecasted that OECTs that can be physically and electronically modulated under operation will bring about a new paradigm of machine learning based on evolvable organic electronics.

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  • 269.
    Gomez, Eliot
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration.2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 45864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals-as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work-we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems.

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  • 270.
    Gomez-Carretero, S.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Libberton, B.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svennersten, K.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rhen, M.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, A.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Correction: Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017)2018In: npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 271.
    Gomez-Carretero, S.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Libberton, B.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svennersten, K.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rhen, M.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, A.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017)2017In: npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 3, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofouling is a major problem caused by bacteria colonizing abiotic surfaces, such as medical devices. Biofilms are formed as the bacterial metabolism adapts to an attached growth state. We studied whether bacterial metabolism, hence biofilm formation, can be modulated in electrochemically active surfaces using the conducting conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). We fabricated composites of PEDOT doped with either heparin, dodecyl benzene sulfonate or chloride, and identified the fabrication parameters so that the electrochemical redox state is the main distinct factor influencing biofilm growth. PEDOT surfaces fitted into a custom-designed culturing device allowed for redox switching in Salmonella cultures, leading to oxidized or reduced electrodes. Similarly large biofilm growth was found on the oxidized anodes and on conventional polyester. In contrast, biofilm was significantly decreased (52-58%) on the reduced cathodes. Quantification of electrochromism in unswitched conducting polymer surfaces revealed a bacteria-driven electrochemical reduction of PEDOT. As a result, unswitched PEDOT acquired an analogous electrochemical state to the externally reduced cathode, explaining the similarly decreased biofilm growth on reduced cathodes and unswitched surfaces. Collectively, our findings reveal two opposing effects affecting biofilm formation. While the oxidized PEDOT anode constitutes a renewable electron sink that promotes biofilm growth, reduction of PEDOT by a power source or by bacteria largely suppresses biofilm formation. Modulating bacterial metabolism using the redox state of electroactive surfaces constitutes an unexplored method with applications spanning from antifouling coatings and microbial fuel cells to the study of the role of bacterial respiration during infection.

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  • 272.
    Gomez-Carretero, Salvador
    et al.
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Libberton, Benjamin
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rhen, Mikael
    Dep. of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salmonella Biofilm Modulation with Electrically Conducting Polymers2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in many human activities, constituting a threat or an advantage depending on the context of application. It is therefore of great interest to obtain new materials to study and control how biofilms are formed. Here, heparin and DBS (dodecylbenzenesulfonate) are incorporated as counter-ions to the PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) backbone, forming conducting polymer thin-films. Polymer synthesis is based on electrodeposition, allowing for the adjustment, during fabrication, of properties like charge and hydrophobicity, important in bacterial adhesion. The electrochemical redox state of the polymer is of fundamental importance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium biofilm modulation. Oxidized composites show increased levels of biofilm growth compared to reduced and pristine polymer films. As a result, biofilm formation is modulated by the application of a low electric voltage. Moreover, biofilm morphology and topology are affected by both the electrochemical redox state and the incorporated counter-ion, making these materials a useful tool in biofilm engineering.

  • 273.
    Gong, Shaofang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Truly Differential RF and Microwave Front-End Design2010In: IEEE 11th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2010, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New design methodology for truly differential RF and microwave front-ends has been presented in this paper. Baluns are avoided using this design methodology, while achieving differential signaling for high noise immunity. A case study on an ultra-wide band RF front-end in the frequency band 6-9 GHz has been performed using the new design methodology, indicating that both wide bandwidth and high performance can be achieved using this design methodology. A direct comparison between single-ended and differential designs of the RF filter has also been presented in order to verify the correctness of the design methodology.

  • 274.
    Gong, Shaofang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pushing the wireless data rate to the Internet speed2016In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 4, p. 8787-8792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article intends to answer the question how to achieve wireless data rates that can catch up with current Internet speed, from a basic physics point of view. It is shown that the traditional electric circuit theory and design methodology that have been used for generations are unfortunately not adequate for wireless communications in the future. Instead, disruptive approaches such as six-port modulators for processing of electromagnetic waves and optical pulses should be employed to push up the wireless data rate above 100 gigabits per second. The key variables to consider for high speed digital communications are bandwidth, modulation order and signal-to-noise ratio. In principle, it should be possible to achieve a wireless data rate at 100 Gbps within the frequency spectrum below 20 GHz.

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  • 275.
    Gong, Shaofang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Östh, Joakim
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Six-port Modulators for High Speed Data2016In: GigaHertz Symposium 2016, Linköping, 2016, p. 65-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from our recent study on six-port modulators and demodulators for high speed data transmission have shown that the six-port radio technology has the potential to catch up the speed of the Internet. This is due to the fact that the binary baseband data, either electrical or optical, can be converted directly to high order modulated RF signal without any D/A conversion. The six-port modulators and demodulators can also be designed with differential circuitry to improve the signal-to-noise ration and dynamic range. In addition, antennae and radio front-end components can be integrated on the same substrate with the six-port modulator and demodulator.

  • 276.
    Gonzalez Sampayo, Margarita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fostering skill and knowledge in engineering education - a model2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Markov, Aleksandr
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic heterojunction photocathodes for optimized photoelectrochemical hydrogen peroxide production2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 48, p. 24709-24716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar-to-chemical conversion of sunlight into hydrogen peroxide as a chemical fuel is an emerging carbon-free sustainable energy strategy. The process is based on the reduction of dissolved oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Only limited amounts of photoelectrode materials have been successfully explored for photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen peroxide. Herein we detail approaches to produce robust organic semiconductor photocathodes for peroxide evolution. They are based on evaporated donor-acceptor heterojunctions between phthalocyanine and tetracarboxylic perylenediimide, respectively. These small molecules form nanocrystalline films with good operational stability and high surface area. We discuss critical parameters which allow fabrication of efficient devices. These photocathodes can support continuous generation of high concentrations of peroxide with faradaic efficiency remaining at around 70%. We find that an advantage of the evaporated heterojunctions is that they can be readily vertically stacked to produce tandem cells which produce higher voltages. This feature is desirable for fabricating two-electrode photoelectrochemical cells. Overall, the photocathodes presented here have the highest performance reported to date in terms of photocurrent for peroxide production. These results offer a viable method for peroxide photosynthesis and provide a roadmap of strategies that can be used to produce photoelectrodes with even higher efficiency and productivity.

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  • 278.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sytnyk, Mykhailo
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Energie Campus Nurnberg EnCN, Germany.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Romanazzi, Giuseppe
    Politecn Bari, Italy.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heiss, Wolfgang
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Energie Campus Nurnberg EnCN, Germany.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    General Observation of Photocatalytic Oxygen Reduction to Hydrogen Peroxide by Organic Semiconductor Thin Films and Colloidal Crystals2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 16, p. 13253-13257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost semiconductor photocatalysts offer unique possibilities for industrial chemical transformations and energy conversion applications. We report that a range of organic semiconductors are capable of efficient photocatalytic oxygen reduction to H2O2 in aqueous conditions. These semiconductors, in the form of thin films, support a 2-electron/2-proton redox cycle involving photoreduction of dissolved O-2 to H2O2, with the concurrent photooxidation of organic substrates: formate, oxalate, and phenol. Photochemical oxygen reduction is observed in a pH range from 2 to 12. In cases where valence band energy of the semiconductor is energetically high, autoxidation competes with oxidation of the donors, and thus turnover numbers are low. Materials with deeper valence band energies afford higher stability and also oxidation of H2O to O-2. We found increased H2O2 evolution rate for surfactant-stabilized nanoparticles versus planar thin films. These results evidence that photochemical O-2 reduction may be a widespread feature of organic semiconductors, and open potential avenues for organic semiconductors for catalytic applications.

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  • 279.
    Guex, Anne Geraldine
    et al.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Puetzer, Jennifer L.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Littmann, Elena
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Imperial Coll London, England.
    Giannelis, Emmanuel P.
    Cornell University, NY 14853 USA.
    Malliaras, George G.
    Ecole National Super Mines, France.
    Stevens, Molly M.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Highly porous scaffolds of PEDOT:PSS for bone tissue engineering2017In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 62, p. 91-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers have been increasingly considered for the design of conductive materials in the field of regenerative medicine. However, optimal scaffold properties addressing the complexity of the desired tissue still need to be developed. The focus of this study lies in the development and evaluation of a conductive scaffold for bone tissue engineering. In this study PEDOT:PSS scaffolds were designed and evaluated in vitro using MC3T3-E1 osteogenic precursor cells, and the cells were assessed for distinct differentiation stages and the expression of an osteogenic phenotype. Ice-templated PEDOT:PSS scaffolds presented high pore interconnectivity with a median pore diameter of 53.6 +/- 5.9 mu m and a total pore surface area of 7.72 +/- 1.7 m(2).g(-1). The electrical conductivity, based on I-V curves, was measured to be 140 mu S.cm(-1) with a reduced, but stable conductivity of 6.1 mu S.cm(-1) after 28 days in cell culture media. MC3T3-E1 gene expression levels of ALPL, COL1A1 and RUNX2 were significantly enhanced after 4 weeks, in line with increased extracellular matrix mineralisation, and osteocalcin deposition. These results demonstrate that a porous material, based purely on PEDOT:PSS, is suitable as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering and thus represents a promising candidate for regenerative medicine. Statement of Significance Tissue engineering approaches have been increasingly considered for the repair of non-union fractions, craniofacial reconstruction or large bone defect replacements. The design of complex biomaterials and successful engineering of 3-dimensional tissue constructs is of paramount importance to meet this clinical need. Conductive scaffolds, based on conjugated polymers, present interesting candidates to address the piezoelectric properties of bone tissue and to induce enhanced osteogenesis upon implantation. However, conductive scaffolds have not been investigated in vitro in great measure. To this end, we have developed a highly porous, electrically conductive scaffold based on PEDOT:PSS, and provide evidence that this purely synthetic material is a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering. (C) 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 280.
    Gunhardson, Erica
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Indoor Positioning Using Angle of Departure Information2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I detta examensarbete undersöks möjligheten att kunna använda en positioneringsmetod som inte enbart förlitar sig på den uppmätta signalstyrkan. Istället används en metod som bestämmer från vilken vinkel en signal uppkommer ifrån. Den här tekniken kallas för direction-finding. När informationen om signalens vinkel fastställts används den i ett positioningsfilter som uppskattar positionen. Två tillvägagångssätt har använts i den här rapporten, ett där enbart vinkeln används och ett där både signalstyrka och vinkel används.

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  • 281.
    Gustafsson, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energieffektiviseringar på ett fjärrvärmenät2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka energiåtgången i Mjölby-Svartådalens Energi AB:s fjärrvärmenät genom att undersöka driftfall och ge förslag på förbättringar. I början av examensarbetet studerades fjärrvärmeprocessen, från värmandet av vattnet tills det kommer till kunden. En viktig del var att förstå hur tryck och flöde samverkar. För att behålla trycket krävs det pumpstationer med jämna mellanrum, för att inte överbelasta motorerna. Förstå hur alla de olika delarna fungerar ihop i fjärrvärmesystemet.

    Studerandet av olika driftfall har inte lett till många bättre alternativ. Vissa fall bättre är andra beroende på vilken situation det handlar om. Det är svårt att ge förslag om energibesparingar samt undersöka motorerna, men med detta examensarbete som grund kan en fördjupning ske på flera tänkbara sätt.

  • 282.
    Han, Shaobo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alvi, Naveed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granlof, Lars
    RISE Bioecon, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Bioecon, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Multiparameter Pressure-Temperature-Humidity Sensor Based on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Cellulose Aerogels2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 8, article id 1802128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressure (P), temperature (T), and humidity (H) are physical key parameters of great relevance for various applications such as in distributed diagnostics, robotics, electronic skins, functional clothing, and many other Internet-of-Things (IoT) solutions. Previous studies on monitoring and recording these three parameters have focused on the integration of three individual single-parameter sensors into an electronic circuit, also comprising dedicated sense amplifiers, signal processing, and communication interfaces. To limit complexity in, e.g., multifunctional IoT systems, and thus reducing the manufacturing costs of such sensing/communication outposts, it is desirable to achieve one single-sensor device that simultaneously or consecutively measures P-T-H without cross-talks in the sensing functionality. Herein, a novel organic mixed ion-electron conducting aerogel is reported, which can sense P-T-H with minimal cross-talk between the measured parameters. The exclusive read-out of the three individual parameters is performed electronically in one single device configuration and is enabled by the use of a novel strategy that combines electronic and ionic Seebeck effect along with mixed ion-electron conduction in an elastic aerogel. The findings promise for multipurpose IoT technology with reduced complexity and production costs, features that are highly anticipated in distributed diagnostics, monitoring, safety, and security applications.

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  • 283.
    Han, Shaobo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jiao, Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoelectric Polymer Aerogels for Pressure-Temperature Sensing Applications2017In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 27, no 44, article id 1703549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the society is characterized by an increasing flow of information from things to the internet. Sensors have become the cornerstone of the internet-of-everything as they track various parameters in the society and send them to the cloud for analysis, forecast, or learning. With the many parameters to sense, sensors are becoming complex and difficult to manufacture. To reduce the complexity of manufacturing, one can instead create advanced functional materials that react to multiple stimuli. To this end, conducting polymer aerogels are promising materials as they combine elasticity and sensitivity to pressure and temperature. However, the challenge is to read independently pressure and temperature output signals without cross-talk. Here, a strategy to fully decouple temperature and pressure reading in a dual-parameter sensor based on thermoelectric polymer aerogels is demonstrated. It is found that aerogels made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) can display properties of semiconductors lying at the transition between insulator and semimetal upon exposure to high boiling point polar solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Importantly, because of the temperature-independent charge transport observed for DMSO-treated PEDOT-based aerogel, a decoupled pressure and temperature sensing can be achieved without cross-talk in the dual-parameter sensor devices.

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  • 284. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Hansson (f.d. Wadeasa), Amal
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heterojunctions between zinc oxide nanostructures and organic semiconductor2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lighting is a big business, lighting consumes considerable amount of the electricity. These facts motivate for the search of new illumination technologies that are efficient. Semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs) have huge potential to replace the traditional primary incandescent lighting sources. They are two basic types of semiconductor LEDs being explored: inorganic and organic semiconductor light emitting diodes. While electroluminescence from p-n junctions was discovered more than a century ago, it is only from the 1960s that their development has accelerated as indicated by an exponential increase of their efficiency and light output, with a doubling occurring about every 36 months, in a similar way to Moore's law in electronics. These advances are generally attributed to the parallel development of semiconductor technologies, optics and material science. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have rapidly matured during the last 30 years driven by the possibility to create large area light-emitting diodes and displays. Another driving force to specifically use semiconducting polymers is the possibility to build the OLED on conventional flexible substrates via low-cost manufacturing techniques such as printing techniques, which open the way for large area productions.

    This thesis deals with the demonstration and investigation of heterojunction LEDs based on p-organic semiconductor and n-ZnO nanostructures. The ZnOorganic heterojunctions are fabricated using low cost and simple solution process without the need for sophisticated vacuum equipments. Both ZnO-nanostructures and the organic materials were grown on variety of substrates (i.e. silicon, glass and plastic substrates) using low temperature methods. The growth mechanism of the ZnO nanostructures has been systematically investigated with major focus in ZnO nanorods/nanowires. Different organic semiconductor materials and device configurations are explored starting with single polymer emissive layer ending up with separate emissive and blocking layers, or even blends. Interestingly, the photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of the hybrid LEDs provided a broad emission band covering entirely the visible spectrum [∼400-∼800nm]. The hybrid light emitting diode has a white emission attributed to ZnO intrinsic defects and impurities in combination with the electroluminescence from the conjugated polymers. The ZnO nanostructures in contact with a high workfunction electrode constitute an air stable electron injecting contact for the organic semiconductor. Hence, we have shown that a white light emission can be achieved in a ZnO-organic hybrid light emitting diode using cheap and low temperature growth techniques for both organic and inorganic materials.

    List of papers
    1. The demonstration of hybrid n-ZnO nanorod/p-polymer heterojunction light emitting diodes on glass substrates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The demonstration of hybrid n-ZnO nanorod/p-polymer heterojunction light emitting diodes on glass substrates
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    2009 (English)In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 807-812Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report a demonstration of heterojunction light emitting diode (LED) based on a hybrid n-ZnO-nanorod/p-polymer layered structure. The ZnO was grown using the aqueous chemical growth (ACG) on top of the polymer(s) which were deposited on glass. The current-voltage (I-V) behavior of the heterojunctions showed good rectifying diode characteristics. Room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the LEDs provided a broad emission band over a wide LED color range (430-650 nm), in which both zinc and oxygen vacancy peaks are clearly detected. We present here luminescent devices based on the use of ZnO-nanorods in combination with two different blended and multi-layered p-type polymers. Electroluminescence of the first batch of devices showed that white bluish strong emission for the presently used polymers is clearly observed. We obtained a turn-on voltage of 3 V and break-down voltage equal to -6 V for PVK-TFB blended device. The corresponding values for the NPD-PFO multilayer device were 4 V and -14 V, respectively. The rectification factors were equal to 3 and 10 for the two devices, respectively. The films and devices processed were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DEKTAK 3ST Surface Profile, Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer, photoluminescence (PL), and electroluminescence (EL).

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17910 (URN)10.1007/s00339-009-5075-8 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-04-26 Created: 2009-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. The effect of the interlayer design on the electroluminescence and electrical properties of n-ZnO nanorod/p-type blended polymer hybrid light emitting diodes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of the interlayer design on the electroluminescence and electrical properties of n-ZnO nanorod/p-type blended polymer hybrid light emitting diodes
    2009 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 065710-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on n-ZnO nanorods and blended polymers were fabricated and characterized. The blended polymers consisted of a blue emitting polymer and a charge transport polymer. The effect of the interlayer design on the electrical and electroluminescent characteristics of these hybrid LEDs was investigated. We demonstrated that by adding a calcium (2) acetylacetonate [Ca(acac)(2)] layer between the blended polymer layer and the ZnO nanorods, an increase in device performance was observed. The purpose of the extra layer was to act as a band offset stepping layer (offset divider). Moreover, the effect of the stepper layer thickness for this offset stepping layer was studied. The results indicate that LED performance is greatly affected by the presence and thickness of this band offset stepping layer.

    Keywords
    ZnO-nanorods, p-type polymer, LEDs
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16614 (URN)10.1088/0957-4484/20/6/065710 (DOI)
    Note
    Original Publication: Amal Wadesa, Omer Nour and Magnus Willander, The effect of the interlayer design on the electroluminescence and electrical properties of n-ZnO nanorod/p-type blended polymer hybrid light emitting diodes, 2009, NANOTECHNOLOGY, (20), 6, 065710. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/20/6/065710 Copyright: Institute of Physics http://www.iop.org/ Available from: 2009-02-11 Created: 2009-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Solution processed ZnO nanowires/polyfluorene heterojunctions for large area lightening
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solution processed ZnO nanowires/polyfluorene heterojunctions for large area lightening
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    2010 (English)In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 490, no 4-6, p. 200-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid inorganic-organic semiconductor heterojunctions are nowadays scrutinized for optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells and light emitting diodes. Here, ZnO nanowires/polyfluorene heterojunctions have been entirely fabricated from solution by wet chemistry and low temperature processes. The transparent plastic electrode PEDOT injects holes in the polyfluorene, while the electrons are injected via the ZnO-Au contact, thus avoiding the use of air sensitive low work function metals. The hybrid inorganic-organic light emitting diode emits almost white light. Because of its solution processability, stable cathode, low cost and low temperature process, the ZnO/polymer heterojunction devices are promising for large area lightening applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2010
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-55530 (URN)10.1016/j.cplett.2010.03.050 (DOI)000276822100018 ()
    Available from: 2010-04-30 Created: 2010-04-30 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. ZnO-Polymer hybrid electron only rectifiers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ZnO-Polymer hybrid electron only rectifiers
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of organic semiconductors and ZnO nanorods provides new hybrid devices for large area optoelectronics targeting solar energy harvesting and light emission applications. The electronic transport across organic-ZnO heterojunction is not well understood. Here, we investigate systematically the creation of the ZnOpolymer interface and pinpoint potential issues in hybrid devices based on chemically grown ZnO nanorods. For the sake of simplicity, we focus on a ZnO-polymer hybrid device transporting only electrons. The semiconducting polymer used is poly {[N,N0-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,50-(2,20-dithiophene)}. The device shows easy electron injection from Au/ZnO contacts and a good rectification partially governed by the morphology of the heterojunction.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71841 (URN) (ISBN)
    Projects
    Available from: 2011-11-07 Created: 2011-11-07 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
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    Heterojunctions between zinc oxide nanostructures and organic semiconductor
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  • 285.
    Hansson (f.d. Wadeasa), Amal
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    ZnO-Polymer hybrid electron only rectifiersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of organic semiconductors and ZnO nanorods provides new hybrid devices for large area optoelectronics targeting solar energy harvesting and light emission applications. The electronic transport across organic-ZnO heterojunction is not well understood. Here, we investigate systematically the creation of the ZnOpolymer interface and pinpoint potential issues in hybrid devices based on chemically grown ZnO nanorods. For the sake of simplicity, we focus on a ZnO-polymer hybrid device transporting only electrons. The semiconducting polymer used is poly {[N,N0-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,50-(2,20-dithiophene)}. The device shows easy electron injection from Au/ZnO contacts and a good rectification partially governed by the morphology of the heterojunction.

  • 286.
    Hasan, Affaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liaqat, Ismail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Adaptive Probabilistic Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis work is to analyze how design elements and wireless attributes affect opportunistic routing, and in this context develop a new protocol. The algorithm developed aims to improve opportunistic elements in comparison to a well-known opportunistic protocol Simple Opportunistic Adaptive Routing (SOAR).

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  • 287.
    Hatamie, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Echresh, Ahmad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Zargar, Behrooz
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabrication and characterization of highly-ordered Zinc Oxide nanorods on gold/glass electrode, and its application as a voltammetric sensor2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 174, p. 1261-1267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel voltammetric determination of amoxicillin (AMX) sensor has been fabricated, using zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) grown directly on gold/glass electrode. To prepare an electrode, ZnO NRs were directly grown on Au sputtered (thickness: 100 nm) glass substrate (gold/glass electrode) with hydrothermal method. The directly synthesized ZnO NRs on the electrode expressively increases NRs attachment vertically, and increase its specific surface area. ZnO NRs/gold/glass electrode was characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) techniques, and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystal quality. The performance of the electrode was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (alpha) and chronoamperometry (CA). The parameters of charge transfer coefficient (k(h)), diffusion coefficient (D), electrode surface area (A), and catalytic rate constant (4) were determined, and the results were studied. The electro catalytic current of AMX was found to have a linear relation to concentration over the range of 5 x 10(-6) M - 250 x 10(-6) M (n=6). The good performance of the electrode is due to more immobilization on the well-aligned ZnO NRs arrays, and direct electron conduction between the ZnO NRs and the electrodes. Further, the sensor also showed a promising application for detecting AMX in capsule sample. The ease of fabrication, acceptable stability, and low cost of the modified electrode are the promising features of the proposed sensor.

  • 288.
    Hatamie, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. NED University of Engn and Technology, Pakistan.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sadollah Khani, Azar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zargar, Behrooz
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Bano, Sumaira
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zinc Oxide Nanostructure-Modified Textile and Its Application to Biosensing, Photocatalysis, and as Antibacterial Material2015In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 31, no 39, p. 10913-10921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures with different morphologies (such as nanowires, nanorods (NRs), and nanotubes) have become the focus of intensive research, because of their unique properties with potential applications. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials has been found to be highly attractive, because of the remarkable potential for applications in many different areas such as solar cells, sensors, piezoelectric devices, photodiode devices, sun screens, antireflection coatings, and photocatalysis. Here, we present an innovative approach to create a new modified textile by direct in situ growth of vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs onto textile surfaces, which can serve with potential for biosensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial applications. ZnO NRs were grown by using a simple aqueous chemical growth method. Results from analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO NRs were dispersed over the entire surface of the textile. We have demonstrated the following applications of these multifunctional textiles: (1) as a flexible working electrode for the detection of aldicarb (ALD) pesticide, (2) as a photo catalyst for the degradation of organic molecules (i.e., Methylene Blue and Congo Red), and (3) as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. The ZnO-based textile exhibited excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial activities, and it showed a promising sensing response. The combination of sensing, photo catalysis, and antibacterial properties provided by the ZnO NRs brings us closer to the concept of smart textiles for wearable sensing without a deodorant and antibacterial control. Perhaps the best known of the products that is available in markets for such purposes are textiles with silver nanoparticles. Our modified textile is thus providing acceptable antibacterial properties, compared to available commercial modified textiles.

  • 289.
    Hedberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wetterin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Combined RCD, power manager and phase-switcher for electric vehicles charging, controlled by an FPGA2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis investigates the subsystems required to create a combined residual-current device, power manager and phase-switcher for electric vehicles charging, controlled by an FPGA. The purpose of this task is to create a prototype design for Chargestorm, a company that manufacture charging stations for electrical vehicles and provides a portal for payment.

    Each subsystem will be separately investigated to see the available alternatives and evaluate which solutions fit this design best. The system is designed to handle currents of 32 A on three phases.

    The design consists of a hall sensor to detect the residual current, switches to meet the switching requirements and to break the circuit when needed, current transformers to measure current and differential amplifiers to measure voltage. All logic and communication is controlled by an FPGA.

    Specific isolation requirements are set to prevent the power grid from arcing to the low voltage components. Optocouplers are used to allow communication between the components on the high voltage and the low voltage sides. The final design is placed on a six layer printed circuit board. This is mainly to allow for more copper to conduct the high current and thermal management.

    Theoretically, the work is complete and all requirements are fulfilled. In practice however, the prototype have not been fully tested and evaluated to see if the theory matches the real world.

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    Combined RCD, power manager and phase-switcher for electric vehicles charging, controlled by an FPGA
  • 290.
    Hedlund, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Antenna Study for IoT Devices2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the possibility to design printed circuit board (PCB) antennas with a maximum area size of 30 x 30 mm^2 at 2.4 GHz. The resulting antenna parameters are compared to those of a commercial, more costly chip antenna, i.e., Antenova A5645. The antenna parameters that were evaluated were the antenna efficiency, the return loss and the voltage standing wave ratio(VSWR). Three types of antennas were firstly selected to be designed, i.e., the patch antenna, Inverted-F antenna and Meandered Inverted-F antenna. Using basic antenna theory, general RF knowledge and through simulations performed with the dedicated software tool ADS, five antenna designs were finally selected to be manufactured. After manufacturing, the antennas were tested in a radiation chamber. At 2.4 GHz, the best simulated antenna efficiency was 78.7%, the return loss was -33.91 dB and the VSWR was 1.041. Not all these simulated values have been proven experimentally through measurements due to insufficient equipment at the moment of performing the experiments. However, the three types of antennas were evaluated in the radiation chamber for their polarization and these measurement results are very close to the equivalent simulation results.

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  • 291.
    Helgesson, Dan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparison and implementation of IPS2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Innomhuspositioneringssystem kan med fördel användas i många olika tillämpningar, allt från sjukhus till shoppingcenter. Denna rapport behandlar olika tekniker och lösningar för att designa ett positioneringssystem. Rapporten tar även upp i detalj hur ett system kan konstrueras av ZigBee kombinerat med dödräkning.

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  • 292.
    Hennerdal, Lars-Olov
    et al.
    Acreo AB.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Picture-to-picture switching in full-color thermochromic paper displays2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 99, no 18, p. 183303-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presently, we contemplate the merger of paper and electronics in different forms. There is a great desire to further explore this twinning of the information displaying features of printed papers and electronic inks. Here, we report a full-color paperboard display technology comprised of thermochromic and static inks combined with a patterned heater foil. Black and full-color thermochromic ink dots were screen-printed adjacent to, and on top of, static ink dots using a zero-angle mesh and template pattern orientation. As the heater is turned on and off, the display alter its content in between two predefined four-color pictures.

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  • 293.
    Herland, Anna
    et al.
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Persson, Kristin M
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Vanessa
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin W H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Teixeira, Ana I
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Electrochemical Control of Growth Factor Presentation To Steer Neural Stem Cell Differentiation2011In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 50, no 52, p. 12529-12533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphical Abstract

    Let it grow: The conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was synthesized with heparin as the counterion to form a cell culture substrate. The surface of PEDOT:heparin in the neutral state associated biologically active growth factors (see picture). Electrochemical in situ oxidation of PEDOT during live cell culture decreased the bioavailability of the growth factor and created an exact onset of neural stem cell differentiation.

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  • 294.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tierney, Steve
    Merck Chemicals Ltd..
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Complementary Circuits Operating at Low Power and Voltage2011In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 23, no 40, p. 4684-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, polyanionic and polycationic electrolytes are used as gate insulators in p- and n-channel thin-film transistors, respectively. These material combinations are motivated by that the mobile ions in the electrolytes will be attracted to the oppositely charged gate electrodes when the transistors are operated in the accumulation mode. The electronic charges in the semiconductor channels will thus be balanced by the polyions, which are effectively immobile and cannot penetrate into the semiconductor bulk and cause electrochemical doping.

  • 295.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cölle, Michael
    Merck Chemicals Ltd Chilworth Science Park Southampton, SO16 7QD, UK.
    Tierney, Steven
    Merck Chemicals Ltd Chilworth Science Park Southampton, SO16 7QD,l UK.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low-Voltage Ring Oscillators Based on Polyelectrolyte-Gated Polymer Thin-Film Transistors2010In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 72-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polyanionic electrolyte is used as gate insulator in top-gate p-channel polymer thin-film transistors. The high capacitance of the polyelectrolyte film allows the transistors and integrated circuits to operate below 1.5 V. Seven-stage ring oscillators that operate at supply voltages down to 0.9 V and exhibit signal propagation delays as low as 300 µs per stage are reported.

  • 296.
    Holmberg (née Gonzalez-Sampayo), Margarita
    et al.
    ESIME, Instituto Politechnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico .
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gaining evidence of student knowledge in electric circuits: Integrating elements to get a broad perspective2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Holmberg (née Gonzalez-Sampayo), Margarita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    University teachers’ perspectives on the role of the Laplace transform in engineering education2016In: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 413-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Laplace transform is an important tool in many branches of engineering, for example, electric and control engineering, but is also regarded as a difficult topic for students to master. We have interviewed 22 university teachers from five universities in three countries (Mexico, Spain and Sweden) about their views on relationships among mathematics, physics and technology/application aspects in the process of learning the Laplace transform in engineering education. Strikingly, the teachers held a spectrum of qualitatively differing views, ranging from seeing virtually no connection (e.g. some thought the Laplace transform has no relevance in engineering), through to regarding the aspects as intimately, almost inseparably linked. The lack of awareness of the widely differing views among teachers might lead to a lack of constructive alignment among different courses that is detrimental to the quality of engineering education.

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  • 298.
    Hossain, Mohammad Billal
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    6-9 GHz Low-Noise Amplifier Design and Implementation2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Low-noise amplifier design (LNA) is a critical step when designing a receiver front- end. For the broadband technologies and particularly ultra-wideband (UWB) system, designing the LNA becomes more challenging. This master thesis mainly focuses on the LNA design for the European UWB recommendation, i.e. LNA covering the 6 - 9 GHz spectrum. Moreover, better understandings of the design process in correlation with the implementing of the LNA on a printed circuit board (PCB) were expected.

    The LNA was manufactured, assembled and measured with network analyzer. This report presents a complete functional design of an UWB LNA. 

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    6-9 GHz Low-Noise Amplifier Design and Implementation
  • 299.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhao, Qingxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Li-Chyong
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan .
    Chen, Kuei-Hsien
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan Academic Sinica, Taiwan .
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Room-temperature heteroepitaxy of single-phase Al1-xInxN films with full composition range on isostructural wurtzite templates2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 524, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Al1-xInxN heteroepitaxial layers covering the full composition range have been realized by magnetron sputter epitaxy on basal-plane AlN, GaN, and ZnO templates at room temperature (RT). Both Al1-xInxN single layers and multilayers grown on these isostructural templates show single phase, single crystal wurtzite structure. Even at large lattice mismatch between the film and the template, for instance InN/AlN (similar to 13% mismatch), heteroepitaxy is achieved. However, RT-grown Al1-xInxN films directly deposited on non-isostructural c-plane sapphire substrate exhibit a polycrystalline structure for all compositions, suggesting that substrate surface structure is important for guiding the initial nucleation. Degradation of Al1-xInxN structural quality with increasing indium content is attributed to the formation of more point-and structural defects. The defects result in a prominent hydrostatic tensile stress component, in addition to the biaxial stress component introduced by lattice mismatch, in all RT-grown Al1-xInxN films. These effects are reflected in the measured in-plane and out-of-plane strains. The effect of hydrostatic stress is negligible compared to the effects of lattice mismatch in high-temperature grown AlN layers thanks to their low amount of defects. We found that Vegards rule is applicable to determine x in the RT-grown Al1-xInxN epilayers if the lattice constants of RT-sputtered AlN and InN films are used instead of those of the strain-free bulk materials.

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  • 300.
    Hur, Deniz
    et al.
    Anadolu Univ, Turkey; Bionkit Co Ltd, Turkey.
    Say, Mehmet Girayhan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Bionkit Co Ltd, Turkey.
    Diltemiz, Sibel E.
    Anadolu Univ, Turkey; Bionkit Co Ltd, Turkey.
    Duman, Fatma
    Anadolu Univ, Turkey.
    Ersoz, Arzu
    Anadolu Univ, Turkey; Bionkit Co Ltd, Turkey.
    Say, Ridvan
    Anadolu Univ, Turkey; Bionkit Co Ltd, Turkey.
    3D Micropatterned All-Flexible Microfluidic Platform for Microwave-Assisted Flow Organic Synthesis2018In: CHEMPLUSCHEM, ISSN 2192-6506, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 42-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large-area, all-flexible, microwaveable polydimethoxysilane microfluidic reactor was fabricated by using a 3D printing system. The sacrificial microchannels were printed on polydimethoxysilane substrates by a direct ink writing method using water-soluble Pluronic F-127 ink and then encapsulated between polydimethoxysilane layers. The structure of micron-sized channels was analyzed by optical and electron microscopy techniques. The fabricated flexible microfluidic reactors were utilized for the acetylation of different amines under microwave irradiation to obtain acetamides in shorter reaction times and good yields by flow organic synthesis.

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