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  • 251.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Recent Swedish Research and Development on quality and Ergonomics2003In: Proc. of the XVth Triennal Congress of the Intl Ergonomics Associaiton,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

         

  • 252.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Samverkan i praktiken - några exempel.2003In: Proc. CMTO konferens Förändringskraft,2003, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

         

  • 253.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Samverkansformer mellan universitet och näringsliv - exempel och erfarenheter2003In: Arbete, människa, miljö & Nordisk ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, no 2/2003, p. 100-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 254.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Ekros, Jens- Peder
    Safety and Reliability. Interacations between machines, software and people2003Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 255.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning in Working Life and Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karltun, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Standardisation - A Means for Creating Developing Work?1998In: Ergonomics for Global Quality and Productivity: Proceedings, 1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Ergonomics improvements based on interactions between humans, technology and organisation - cases in remanufacturing.2006In: NES Conference,2006, Tampere: Pkpaino Oy , 2006, p. 79-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

         

  • 257.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    The Programme "Recycling centres in Sweden - working conditions, environmental and system performance.2006In: NES Conference,2006, Tampere: Pkpaino Oy , 2006, p. 67-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 258.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Gerner Björkstén, Marianne
    Industriell arbetsvetenskap Linköpings universitet.
    BALANS - Bedömningsmodell för arbetsbelastning vid sammansatta brevbäringsuppgifter2004Report (Other academic)
  • 259.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Kammerlind, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Lovén, Eva
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Lörstad, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Process Oriented Postgraduate Teaching -PROPOSTE2003In: Proc. of Nordic Ergonomics Society Conf. NES2003,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 260.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Kiviloog, Lisa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Kansei Raitings and Time Dependencies2003In: Proc. of the XVth Triennal Congress of the intl Ergonomics Associaiton,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 261.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Carlsson, Anna
    IAV LiU.
    Näsström, Eva
    IAV LiU.
    Rahm, Malin
    Muscle load on the neck for welders2005In: NES 2005,2005, Oslo: NES , 2005, p. 226-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 262.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Larsson, Kerstin
    Improving working conditions for mail carriers by the use of vehicles.2006In: 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, IEA2006,2006, Maastrict: Elsevier Ltd , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 263.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Miljöteknik i Linköping - Inventering av företag och förslag på åtgärder för utveckling2005Report (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Wolf, Anna
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Skogsindustriellt ekosystem i Kisa - projektrapport2004Report (Other academic)
  • 265. Ekros, Jens-Peder
    et al.
    Kammerlind, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Ohlsson, Niclas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASELAB - Applied Software Engineering Lab.
    Runesson, Magnus
    Subotic, Anders
    Access, Teams, and Design for Applied Software Engineering Research1999In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering,1998, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Ekstrand-Tobin, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hälsopåverkan av åtgärder i fuktiga byggnader2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this inventory study was to study the effect on the indoor environment and allergy parameters after adequate measures were taken in damp-damaged one-family houses with HDM allergic occupants.

    Moisture may cause damage on building material and increase allergic symptoms. If adequate measures considering moisture are taken in a damaged building this should improve the indoor air quality and thereby reduce the allergic symptoms in allergic patients.

    In this study fifteen patients with allergy to house dust mites (HDM) and living in houses with severe moisture problems were selected. Several technical parameters were measured before and after (one year or more) adequate taken measures. These parameters were e.g. ventilation rate, HDM-content in e.g. mattresses, temperature and moisture conditions in indoor air and in the damaged/damp building structures. In parallel to the technical measurements, questionnaire and medical parameters on each patients including HDM-specific IgE, ECP, symptom score and spirometry were followed.

    The results show a significant reduction of moisture. Improved indoor air quality and odour condition were seen after adequate taken measures. Significant improvements in some clinical data and allergy laboratory tests were noticed. In conclusion this study shows that adequate taken measures in severe moisture damaged houses can improve indoor air quality, well being and may also reduce the conditions for continuing allergy problems in HDM allergic patients.

  • 267.
    Ekstrand-Tobin, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samband mellan astma och inomhusmiljö?: undersökning i 60 unga astmatikers bostäder1993Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this cross-disciplinary project has been to find relationships between the indoor environment in the homes of 60 young asthmatics and their pattern of disease. The patients were selected by paediatric allergy specialists, who also made available the results of sensitisation tests and assessments of the severity of the patient's asthma.

    Field measurements were made in 60 homes during the winter of 1990/91, covering moisture, temperature, ventilation, volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, radon and particles. In addition bacteria, endotoxins and microfungi in dust were also measured, and information was obtained concerning the families' lifestyle and their houses.

    The results show that ventilation air change rates per person were only about half of the aver­ age value for Swedish housing stock. Low ventilation tended to be linked to higher levels of various pollutants.

    The results, based on about 160 different parameters, do not show any simple relationship between the parameters which tend to describe the patients' condition in general terms and their indoor environment. What were revealed, however, were several interesting significant relationships between individual physical and medical parameters. Many of the results could be suitable as starting points for continued research, while others indicate ways in which the indoor environment could be improved in order to reduce the risk of development of allergies.

  • 268.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Performance measures and managerial work: a modified behavior setting approach to the study of usage of performance measures in managerial meetings2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of different technologies in managerial work has received widespread attention among both academics and practitioners. Performance measures constitute one such technology related to planning, coordination, control and improvement of organizational activities. What kind of significance do performance measures have in their usage in managerial work? This study focuses on the various social, material, temporal and spatial resources of usage of performance measures; the activities taking place within meetings where performance measures are being used, and the significance of performance measures in the coordination of units within a hierarchical organization.

    The usage of performance measures is conceptualized by a modified version of behavior setting theory, which was originally developed by the psychologist Roger Barker and his research group. A behavior setting can be seen as a small-scale social system whose components include people and physical objects. This social system is guided by its setting program; the goal and the sequentially ordered activities. To fulfil the requirements of the focus in the present study, a setting program must partly consist of activities devoted to the usage of performance measures.

    The empirical study encompasses observations from managerial meetings (selected by a formal procedure) within various hierarchical levels of a manufacturer of complex industrial products. Some of the themes highlighted in this study are: I) the social, material and temporal environment of managerial work influencing the usage of performance measures; 2) that the usage of performance measures is mainly a reflective activity emerging from the organizational history; 3) that linkages between hierarchical levels, such as leadership and population overlapping as well as performance measure overlapping, both limit and enable coordination; and 4) that performance measures within the studied context constitute an important role in creating knowledge about organizational activity.

  • 269.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Statistisk Process Styrning -ett använtbart beslutsstöd i vårdens förbättringsarbete?!1999In: Kvalitet99,1999, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 270.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    André, Bengt
    Federation of County Councils.
    Lindmark, Jan
    Federation of County Councils.
    Implementing Performance Measurement Systems in Swedish Psychiatry: A Method for Supporting Management Teams in Complex Implementation Situations2004In: PCSE,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    André, Bengt
    Landstingsförbundet.
    Lindmark, Jan
    Landstingsförbundet.
    Organisation och design av verksamhetsuppföljning -En metod för implementering av uppföljningsfrågor i ett löpande ledningsarbete i psykiatrisk vård2004In: Verksamhetsuppföljning inom psykiatrin,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 272.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Dettner, Fredrik
    Implementing Performance Measurement Systems: An Application of SPC in a Swedish Industrial Organization2004In: International QMOD Conference,2004, 2004, p. 359-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 273.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Fundin, Anders
    Division of Quality Sciences Chalmers University.
    Persson, Bodil
    Sveriges kommuner och landsting.
    Principles for Improvement of Data Quality in Performance Measurement Systems2005In: QMOD Conference,2005, Palermo: Ordinelngegneri della provincia di Palermo , 2005, p. 935-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 274.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Centrum för tjänsteforskning Karlstad universitet.
    Huber, Frank
    Herrmann, Andreas
    An Integrative Framework for Product Development and Satisfaction Measurement1999In: In proceedings of the 3rd Annual International QFD Symposium,1999, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 275.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Kollberg, Beata
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Lindmark, Jan
    Sveriges kommuner och landsting.
    Development of Process Oriented Innovations in Swedish Healthcare: a Longitudinal Study of Development Projects2005In: QMOD Conference,2005, Palermo: Ordinelngegneri della provincia de Palermo , 2005, p. 511-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Lindmark, Jan
    Sveriges kommuner och landsting .
    Process orientation in health care services: the flow model as a way to follow the patient's journey through the health care system2006In: 9th International QMOD Conference,2006, Liverpool: Liverpool JMU , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 277.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Lindmark, Jan
    Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting.
    Stakeholder information needs in psychiatric care: a qualitative study of political and administrative perspectives2005In: PCS/I Conference,2005, Ljubljana: PSC , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 278.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Lindmark, Jan
    Sveriges kommuner och landsting.
    André, Bengt
    Sveriges kommuner och landsting.
    Implementing multidimensional control systems in psychiatric organizations: an intervention based approach2005In: PCS/I Conference,2005, Ljubljana: PCS , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 279.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Centrum för tjänsteforskning Karlstad universitet.
    Blomkvist, Ola
    Understanding the Role of Situational Factors when Implementing Quality Function Deployment in the Product Development Process1999In: The Tenth Symposium on Quality Function Deployment,1998, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    How to make environmental management systems a more powerful tool in local authorities2004In: Partnerships for sustainable development, greening of industry network,2004, Hongkong: Greening of industry network , 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Artikeln finns på en cd-skiva med ISBN: 962-7589-25-X

  • 281.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Att hantera indirekt miljöpåverkan av kommunal verksamhet - Ett arbetsnotat om hur några svenska kommuner ser på hantering av indirekt miljöpåverkan i deras miljöledningssystem. LiTH-IKP-R-13602004Report (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Sammanställning av telefonintervjuer om några kommuners arbete med miljöledningssystem - arbetsnotat2004Report (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Engelhardt, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using engineering design methodology for robust product development2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many successful industrial companies aim at improving product development in order to be competitive. This thesis is intended to make a contribution to the work of fulfilling this goal.

    Rapid advances in technology in recent years have set new demands on product development. As a consequence, an increasing variety of products are built on heterogeneous technologies. Such products incorporate a mixture of technologies, often combinations of computer, electrical, and mechanical systems. Specialists from different engineering disciplines must co-operate to a greater extent than before in order to understand the products. Increased cooperation and heterogeneous technologies in products set high demands on communication and systems integration if product development is to deliver products with high quality, short lead times, and low cost.

    This thesis presents research that advocates tools and methods for performance­ related robustness improvements in product development. Robust products, or subsystems, are insensitive to disturbances and perform well under a wide range of conditions. It is found that robustness in product development increases multidisciplinary optimization, communication, and systems integration. Thus, robustness provides a solution to a number of important questions relating to systems integration and communication in product development.

    The presented research consists of theory development, mainly in the field of engineering design and, more specifically, Axiomatic Design. The research in the appended papers provides: (1) A tool for customizing and designing company unique strategies; (2) An approach to problem solving and quality­ related performance improvements by combining design object analysis with Axiomatic Design, Quality Control tools, and designed experiments; (3) Algorithms for computing the Information content in decoupled design solutions.

    A research methodology based on an explaining foundation is combined with a more hermeneutic approach when working with interviews and human/organizational aspects of the case studies. Case studies are carried out with the researcher actively taking part in problem solving.

    Two of the presented studies have been carried out in industry and the results have been implemented successively. A third study is performed in an academic environment, although the results and simulations indicate industrial relevance when applied to real-life problems.

  • 284.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Proceedings of the XVth Triennal Congress of the Int'l Ergonomics Association2003In: Congress Of the Intl ergonomics Association,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 285.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Recycling centres - a new workplace.2006In: 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, IEA2006,2006, Maastricht: Elsevier Ltd , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 286.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utmaningar inom återvinningsbranschen: En förstudie av problem- och utvecklingsområden vid återvinningscentraler och relaterade verksamheter2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Insamling, sortering och återvinning av uttjänta produkter är en snabbt växande industribransch. Det svenska samhällets kretsloppsanpassning har under 1990-talet medfört stora förändringar av samhällets avfallshantering. Nya lagar om vilket avfall som skall återvinnas tillkommer kontinuerligt. Denna kretsloppsanpassning i samhället har vanligen skett utan att några speciella krav har ställts på utformningen av produkterna eller på hur produkterna skall insamlas på bästa sätt för att kunna ta reda på materialet så effektivt och skonsamt som möjligt. Istället har man utgått från att de eventuella problem som kan uppstå när produkterna ska återvinnas får lösas när produkterna blir avfall och att producenterna via producentansvaret får ta kostnader och problem som uppstår i avfallshanteringen.

    Samhället av idag står inför flera stora utmaningar när systemen för återvinning av produkter och material ska utvecklas. Studien har visat att frågor som rör arbetsförhållanden, ekonomi och effektivitet samt miljönytta bör behandlas på ett integrerat sätt när branschen utvecklas för framtiden.

    Arbetsförhållandena för de som är verksamma inom återvinningsindustrin förväntas vara sådana att de anställda långsiktigt bibehåller god hälsa och välbefinnande. De arbetsplatser där avfallet sorteras och hanteras har utvecklats under kort tid och inom en avfallshanteringstradition där man inte utnyttjat kunskap från industrin och forskningen om arbetsplatsutformning och hantering av gods. Det finns påtagliga arbetsmiljöproblem i återvinningsbranschen som visar sig i statistiken både gällande olycksfall och arbetsrelaterade sjukdomar.

    Konsumenterna får bära mycket av kostnaderna för materialåtervinningen dels genom ett högre pris på nya produkter de köper, dels genom att de står för en del av arbetet med sortering och transporterna av avfallet till återvinningscentraler eller återvinningsstationer samt vidare via avfallstaxan. För kommunerna kan ökad sortering av avfall också medföra ökade kostnader. Det är angeläget att hålla nere dessa kostnader genom god utformning av anläggningar för återvinning.

    Syftet med denna förstudie var att identifiera förekommande problem- och utvecklingsområden inom återvinningsbranschen med focus på återvinningscentralernas roll.

    Studien utformades som en kartläggande och utforskande studie. Datainsamlingen genomfördes på totalt 7 anläggningar som representerar olika delar av återvinningsbranschen varav fyra återvinningscentraler (i kommuner med 32 000 till 135 000 invånare). Två av dem byggdes på mitten av 1990-talet medan de andra två har utvecklats från soptippar. Tre av anläggningarna drevs direkt i kommunal regi eller som kommunägt bolag och ett drevs på entreprenad. Anläggningarna valdes för att ge en variation mellan återvinningscentraler från större kommuner såväl som mindre, och också för att representera olika typer och byggnadsår. Dessutom besöktes en elektronikdemonteringsanläggning, en fragmenteringsanläggning samt en anläggning för rekonditionering av vitvaror. Detta möjliggjorde att ett par avfallsfraktioner kunnat följas från återvinningscentralen till efterbehandling i nästkommande steg.

    Besöken genomfördes av de forskare som är författare till denna rapport, och därmed representerade disciplinerna arbetsmiljö, hälsa, produktionssystem, säkerhet och miljö. Besöken inleddes med en presentation / rundvandring i anläggningen. Halvstrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med de anställda och besökare. Observationer genomfördes av hur olika aktiviteter genomfördes av besökarna såväl som av de anställda. Med hjälp av digitalkamera med videofunktion dokumenterades layouter, materialfraktioner, skyltning etc. samt vissa rörelsemoment. Relevanta dokument som fanns tillgängliga samlades in. Respektive besök genomfördes under en dag, under januari - mars 2003.

    Återvinningscentralerna är ofta den första instansen för insamlandet av avfall och har en nyckelposition för hur avfallet kan hanteras på ett så produktivt och kostnadseffektivt sätt som möjligt. Det är därför viktigt att studera återvinningsproblematiken med ett helhetsperspektiv med utgångspunkt från såväl arbetsmiljö, säkerhet, produktionssystemutformning och yttre miljö. Vidare att betrakta återvinningscentraler utifrån en systemsyn, och se dess funktion också i relation till avnämarna, d.v.s. de behov och förutsättningar som efterföljande anläggningar i avfallskedjan har.

    Studien kan konkluderas enligt följande:

    Identifierade problemområden

    • Det föreligger olika typer av arbetsmiljörisker i de olika stegen av avfallshanteringen.
    • Vid återvinningscentraler idag finns risker för skada för de anställda såväl som för besökarna.
    • Återvinningscentralen har identifierats att inneha en nyckelroll i hanteringen av avfall.
    • Det brister i de ekonomiska incitament för förbättring av hanteringen av avfallet vid återvinningscentralerna.
    • Det föreligger dålig kommunikation mellan de olika aktörerna i återvinningskedjan om hur avfallet hanteras i respektive led och vilka förväntningar man har på det inkommande avfallet. Incitamentsbristen och den därav försämrade kommunikationen påverkar såväl arbetsmiljön, kvaliteten som ekonomin i efterföljande led.

    Utvecklingsområden

    • Goda möjligheter finns att utforma och organisera återvinningscentraler så att risken för skada påtagligt minskar för såväl personal som besökare.
    • Goda förbättringsmöjligheter finns att inom miljöområdet åstadkomma bättre sorteringskvalitet och därmed förbättra kvaliteten av det återvunna materialet.
    • Genom en bättre industrialisering av återvinningscentralerna kan effektiviteten och ekonomin förbättras, samtidigt som det finns möjligheter att också förbättra arbetsförhållanden och miljö i återvinningssystemen som helhet. Vissa enkla åtgärder, t.ex. tydlig skyltning och information till besökarna, kan ge avsevärd förenkling av arbetet i återvinningscentralerna och även senare i återvinningskedjan.
    • En bättre helhetsoptimering skulle erhållas genom förbättrad interorganisatorisk samverkan för ökad förståelse mellan de olika aktörerna i återvinningskedjan och därmed en bättre optimering av hur avfallet hanteras.

    En återvinningscentral ett viktigt ansikte utåt för kommunen. Om utformningen är anpassad till besökarna kan en positiv attityd till återvinning skapas med positiva miljöeffekter och en bättre arbetsmiljö för de anställda som följd.

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    Utmaningar inom återvinningsbranschen : En förstudie av problem- och utvecklingsområden vid återvinningscentraler och relaterade verksamheter
  • 287.
    Engvall, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Modelling and Simulation.
    Ask, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Loyd, Dan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Wranne, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Importance of collateral vessels in aortic coarctation: Computer simulation at rest and exercise using transmission line elements1994In: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, Vol. 32, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Parker Hannifin AB.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems.
    The source admittance method A new measurement method for hydrostatic pump flow pulsation2006In: Proc. of the 4th FPNI - PhD Symposium Sarasota, Vol 1, Sarasota: Coastal Printing , 2006, p. 297-309Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two main drawbacks with hydraulic systems are noise and vibrations, mainly created from flow pulsations in positive displacement pumps. The flow ripple can be divided in two parts; kinematic and compressible. Kinematic flow ripple is created due to the limited number of pumping elements. Compressible flow ripple is created due to cornpressibility effects in the pumping chambers and is the dominating effect at high pressures. There are well proven methods to decrease noise in specific operation conditions, but there is an urgent need for new techniques in machines working under varying operation conditions. There is also a need for improved measurement methods to be used in product development and to judge new inventions to decrease noise.

    Simulation techniques are useful in the early stages of the development process. There are useful and accurate simulation models capable of predicting source flow ripple in hydrostatic pumps and thereby useful for optimisation purposes. Simulation results are, however, of less practical use before they are experimentally verified . The experimental methods must be simple and straightforward if they are to be accepted in industry.

    This paper describes a new method to measure source flow. It is called the source admittance method. Compared to earlier methods such as the two-microphone method, the main benefit is that there is no need for a model of the outlet channel - the source flow is measured through an additional pressure transducer inside the pump. The method works very well with a tested fixed bent-axis pump with a rather simple outlet channel. Experiments have also been performed with a variable in-line pump with added complexity to the out let channel. Although the overall impression is positive, these experiments show that the method needs to be further to be used for such machines. In both cases, the new method is compared with earlier verified simulation models and with measurements based on the two-microphone method. Apart from the mentioned discrepancies in a narrow frequency range, agreement is very good.

  • 289.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems .
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Machine Design.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems.
    En effektiv metod för att reducera flödespulsationer från variabla hydraulmaskiner2007In: Hydraulikdagar 07,2007, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     Den här presentationen behandlar en metod som effektivt reducerar flödespulsationer i variabla hydraulmaskiner, genom att förskjuta dödpunktens läge. Det realiseras genom att införa en fast inklinationsvinkel vinkelrätt mot den normala deplacementsvinkeln. Genom att förskjutningsvinkeln ändrar kolvarnas dödpunkt kommer förkompressionen och efterexpansionen att variera när deplacementet ändras. Tidigare arbeten visar, både teoretiskt och experimentellt, fördelarna med förskjutningsvinkeln för pumpar men inga utförligare utredningar för maskiner som arbetar både som motor och pump.

  • 290.
    Ericsson, Torsten
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    High resolution X-ray tomography applied to internal surfaces in metal foams1999In: 12o Collogue Internation sur les Methodes dInvestigation Physico Chimique et Mecanique des Surfaces,1999, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Ericsson, Torsten
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Laser coating technologies2005In: Handbook on residual stress. Vol. 1: Residual stress: manufacturing and materials processing / [ed] Jian Lu, 2005, 2Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 292.
    Ericsson, Torsten
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laser Coating Technologies1996In: Handbook of Measurement of Residual Stresses / [ed] Jian Lu, Lilburn, Ga./Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Fairmont Press/Prentice Hall , 1996, p. 269-283Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Ericsson, Torsten
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Residual Stress after Quenching1996In: Handbook of Measurement of Residual Stresses / [ed] Jian Lu, Lilburn, Ga./Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Fairmont Press/Prentice Hall , 1996, p. 169-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With contributions from 24 authorities from around the world, this handbook provides the most authoritative reference resource available on the impact of residual stresses on mechanical properties of materials and structures. You'll find detailed descriptions of a full range of measuring techniques, including hole drilling, layer removal, sectioning, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and ultrasonic methods. A variety of case studies which illustrate use of specific techniques are included to facilitate your understanding. Design and structural engineers, metallurgists, and material scientists will find a wealth of valuable information covering recent developments in residual stress measuring techniques, with guidelines provided for selecting the right measuring strategy for each specific application, and many helpful tips for improving quality control.

  • 294.
    Ericsson, Torsten
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Residual Stress Induced by Heat Treatment and Thermochemical Treatment2000In: 20th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference,2000, ASM International, 2000, p. 392-401Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All heat treatments including thermochemical heat treatments give rise to residual stresses in steel. A number of computer models have been developed for calculating temperature and phase distributions as well as residual macrostresses. They are implemented in several commercial codes which are listed. To some extent it is now possible to tailor make residual stress profiles by controlling process parameters. In this paper an overview of the state of the art of modeling is made for martensitic hardening nitriding and laser cladding. The importance of being able to predict residual microstresses in all phases in multiphase structures is emphasised and some examples are given. It is concluded that much work remains to be done until it has reach the same maturity as the modling of macrostresses. Professor J. B. Cohen has made great contributions in this field.

  • 295.
    Ericsson, Torsten
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Residual Stresses in Laser Claddded Layers2003Book (Other academic)
  • 296.
    Ericsson, Torsten
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    The effect of final shaping prior to heat treatment2001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 297.
    Ericsson, Torsten
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Studies of residual stress, microcracks, hardness and microstructure of cold compacted metallic green bodies2003In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 759, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The residual stresses have been measured by X-ray and neutron diffraction on PM green bodies manufactured by conventional and high speed compaction of iron powder with and without added copper and brass powder. Compressive residual stresses are present in a thin layer in both top and side surfaces. They are largest in the side surfaces due to plastic deformation of the surface material caused by the friction forces during ejection out of the die. In the interior of the green body residual stresses exist with certain region under compression (periferical regions) and other under tension (more central regions). It is unclear whether mixing iron powder with brass or copper powder leads to considerable phase stresses between the two phases.

  • 298.
    Ericsson, Torsten
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Luukkonen, Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Residual stresses in green bodies of steel powder after conventional and high speed compaction2002In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 404-407, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual stresses have been measured in green bodies after conventional compaction at 400 and 530 MPa and after high speed compaction with impact energies of 1400J and. 2200J. The former were rectangular bars and the latter cylinders. The stresses have been measured by X-ray and neutron diffraction. The full width half maximum peak widths were also recorded. :ft was found that all surfaces had compressive residual stresses in the range 5 to 90 MPa, the largest values found on side surfaces that had been deformed in shear during ejection from the die. The presence of lubricant reduces the residual stress values. The powders were basically water atomised iron powder: Hoganas ASC 100.29, Distalloy AE and Pasc.

  • 299.
    Eriksen, Emmeli
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Tre som materiale i smykker2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [nb]

    Sammendrag

    I mitt eksamensarbeid ved Malmstens CTD, Linköpings Universitet, har jeg forsøkt å beskrive en prosess fra ide til ferdig produkt. Tanken bak har vært å fremheve treverk i et produkt som historisk sett er preget av edle metaller. Ved å formgi et smykke i tre, er målet å få treverkets skjønnhet og eleganse frem i produktet og gi det et personlig preg. Arbeidsprosessen er inndelt i etapper, hver etappe er beskrevet og analysert i rapporten.

    Gjennom en inspirasjonsreise til Liv Blåvarp, en norsk smykkekunstner, har jeg fått innsikt i hva produksjon av smykker i tre kan innebære. Hennes arbeid har vært min viktigste inspirasjonskilde. Mitt formprosjekt ønsket jeg skulle resultere i et smykke som kan produseres i mindre nummererte serier, med størrelse tilpasset ”normalen” og uttrykksmessig kunne fremheve følelser fra våre fire årstider.

    Skisseetappen resulterte i tre armbånd. I rapporten er produksjonen av disse tre prototypene beskrevet med tekst og bilder.

    I smykkene har treverkets fremtoning fått mye plass. Jeg har valgt å beholde de naturlige trefargene og bruke dem bevisst. Kommentarer fra venner og kjente ble: Hvordan kan det bli så glatt og hvordan blir det slike mønster? Når interessen melder seg på denne måten har jeg oppnådd litt av mitt mål, de blir overrasket over tre som materiale på en positiv måte.

    Jeg har funderinger på utformingen av smykkene. De kan utvikles og bli bedre både i form og produksjonsvennlighet. Samtidig er jeg relativt fornøyd med resultatet, det er armbånd som fremhever treverket, de er lette og ledige på armen og gir bærer en følelse av egenhet og en viss verdighet. Treverk gir et varmt og vennlig uttrykk som hjelper den personlige karakteren frem. Armbåndene kan produseres med ulik indre diameter med enkle endringer, som gjør det mulig å tilpasse ”normalen”. Jeg har valgt ut hvilke årstider jeg synes fremhever formen på mine prototypener, men det var for optimistisk å regne med at folk flest funderte på sinnestemningen rundt årstid og utsmykning. Jeg kan håpe at det like vel ubevisst fører til å forsterke kroppspråk og utstråling.

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  • 300.
    Erikssohn, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Oscarsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Automatisk sortering med engreppsskördare vid slutavverkning2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet som skogsmaskinförare är mycket belastande både fysiskt och mentalt. För att minska arbetsskador och sjukskrivningar, vilket i längden kan leda till brist på förare och svårigheter att rekrytera nya, behöver arbetsbelastningen minskas. Genom att automatisera vissa delar av skördarförarens arbete kan vinster avseende både den fysiska och mentala belastningen göras. Detta genom att föraren får mer tid att ta de många beslut som ingår i arbetet medan maskinen tar över enkla, upprepade handlingar. Därmed minskar också reglageanvändningen och det ges fler möjligheter till mikropauser då musklerna kan återhämta sig.

    Målet med examensarbetet var att genom studier av kommunikationen mellan människa och maskin komma med förslag på hur belastningsproblemen kan lindras. Samtidigt får inte produktiviteten försämras, eftersom det skulle avskräcka tillverkare och köpare att satsa på nya idéer.

    Genom att göra intervjuer och observationer med förare samt studiebesök hos tillverkare, kunde en kognitiv uppgiftsanalys av förarens arbetssituation göras. Utifrån denna identifierades sedan en rad problemområden varav ett valdes ut för vidare arbete. Arbetet fokuserades på att utveckla en automatisk sorteringsfunktion och ett antal koncept arbetades fram. Två av dessa idéer vidareutvecklades till färdiga koncept vilka sedan testades och analyserades i simulatormiljö. För att se hur de nya funktionerna fungerade jämfört med dagens arbete gjordes också samma test med det konventionella arbetssättet vars resultat sedan användes som referensvärde. Efter varje test gjordes dessutom subjektiva mätningar av arbetsbelastningen för att få en uppfattning om hur koncepten upplevdes.

    Resultaten av studien visar att reglageanvändningen minskar vilket ökar möjligheterna för mikropauser i arbetet. Det ger föraren möjligheter att återhämta sig under arbetets gång och därmed minska belastningsproblemen. Det visar sig dock att avverkningstiden ökar något och att de subjektiva skattningarna hos de nya koncepten är något sämre än referensvärdena. Det beror dock med stor sannolikhet på att testföraren till vardags arbetar med det konventionella arbetssättet och att det inte fanns tid för tillräcklig övning och tillvänjning till de nya koncepten.

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