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  • 251.
    Abrahamsson, R.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, USA.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, USA.
    Li, J.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, USA.
    Habersat, J.
    U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensor Directorate, Fort Belvoir, USA.
    Maksymonko, G.
    U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensor Directorate, Fort Belvoir, USA.
    Bradley, M.
    Planning Systems Inc., USA.
    Elimination of leakage and ground-bounce effects in ground-penetrating radar data2001In: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Signal Processing Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing, 2001, 2001, p. 150-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the problem of removing specular ground surface reflections and leakage/cross-talk from downward looking stepped frequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. A new model for the ground-bounce and the leakage/cross-talk is introduced. An algorithm that jointly estimates these effects from collected data is presented. The algorithm has the sound foundation of a nonlinear least squares (LS) fit to the presented model. The minimization is performed in a cyclic manner where one step is a linear LS minimization and the other step is a non-linear LS minimization where the optimum can efficiently be found using, e.g., the chirp-transform algorithm. The results after applying the algorithm to measured GPR data, collected at a US army test range, are also shown

  • 252.
    Abrahamsson, S.
    et al.
    SLU, Umeå, Sweden .
    Ahlinder, J.
    FOI, Umeå, Sweden .
    Waldmann, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    García-Gil, M. R.
    SLU, Umeå, Sweden .
    Maternal heterozygosity and progeny fitness association in an inbred Scots pine population2013In: Genetica, ISSN 0016-6707, E-ISSN 1573-6857, Vol. 141, no 1-3, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between heterozygosity and fitness traits have typically been investigated in populations characterized by low levels of inbreeding. We investigated the associations between standardized multilocus heterozygosity (stMLH) in mother trees (obtained from12 nuclear microsatellite markers) and five fitness traits measured in progenies from an inbred Scots pine population. The traits studied were proportion of sound seed, mean seed weight, germination rate, mean family height of one-year old seedlings under greenhouse conditions (GH) and mean family height of three-year old seedlings under field conditions (FH). The relatively high average inbreeding coefficient (F) in the population under study corresponds to a mixture of trees with different levels of co-ancestry, potentially resulting from a recent bottleneck. We used both frequentist and Bayesian methods of polynomial regression to investigate the presence of linear and non-linear relations between stMLH and each of the fitness traits. No significant associations were found for any of the traits except for GH, which displayed negative linear effect with stMLH. Negative HFC for GH could potentially be explained by the effect of heterosis caused by mating of two inbred mother trees (Lippman and Zamir 2006), or outbreeding depression at the most heterozygote trees and its negative impact on the fitness of the progeny, while their simultaneous action is also possible (Lynch. 1991). However,since this effect wasn’t detected for FH, we cannot either rule out that the greenhouse conditions introduce artificial effects that disappear under more realistic field conditions.

  • 253.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Can Lactobacillus Reuteri Prevent Allergic Disease in Early Childhood?2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An altered microbial exposure may be partly responsible for the increase of allergic diseases in populations with a western lifestyle. Activation of the immune system by microbes early in life is probably required for an accurate maturation of the immune system. Probiotics, live bacteria which are considered to confer health when ingested, have been suggested to prevent eczema and sensitisation infants.

    Aim: The general aim of this thesis was to assess the effect of oral supplementation with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) in infancy on the development of allergic disease and sensitisation during the first 2 years of life and to examine mechanisms possibly underlying eventual effects on allergic manifestations.

    Subjects: The thesis is based on results obtained from a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter trial, comprising 232 families with allergic disease, of whom 188 completed the study.

    Methods: The families were recruited at the antenatal clinic, and the mothers received L. reuteri ATCC 55730 (1 x 108 colony forming units) or placebo daily from gestational week 36 until delivery. Their babies then continued with the same study product from birth until 12 months of age and were followed up for another year. The primary outcomes were allergic disease, with or without positive skin prick test or circulating IgE to food allergens. Bacterial counts and prevalence were assessed in maternal breast milk and faeces and infant faeces, employing conventional cultivation methods. Cytokines and IgA antibodies were analysed in colostrum and mature milk from the mothers with ELISA, and Na/K- ratio in breast milk with ion selective electrodes. Circulating Th1/Th2-associated chemokines were analysed in cord and peripheral blood in the infants with Luminex or ELISA technique.

    Results: The incidence of eczema was similar, 36% in the treated versus 34% in the placebo group. The L. reuteri group had a lower cumulative incidence of IgE-associated allergic disease, 20% versus 35% (p=0.04), and less IgE-associated eczema during the second year, 8% versus 20% (p=0.02). The prevalence of L. reuteri was higher during the first year of life in stool samples from infants, as well as in colostrum, in the active as compared to the placebo treated group. Colostrum from L. reuteri supplemented mothers had lower levels of TGF-β2, and low levels of this cytokine were associated with less sensitisation. Low Th1- and high Th2-associated chemokine levels preceded allergic disease. The presence of L. reuteri in stool was associated with lower levels of the Th2-associated chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 and higher levels of the Th1-associated CXCL11.

    Conclusion: Although a preventive effect of probiotics on infant eczema was not confirmed, the L. reuteri treated infants had lower incidence of IgE-associated allergic disease at two years of age, and therefore possibly run a reduced risk to develop later respiratory allergic disease. The mechanisms underlying this effect require further elucidation.

    List of papers
    1. Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 119, no 5, p. 1174-1180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An altered microbial exposure may underlie the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies. Probiotics may alleviate and even prevent eczema in infants.

    OBJECTIVE: To prevent eczema and sensitization in infants with a family history of allergic disease by oral supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, which comprised 232 families with allergic disease, of whom 188 completed the study. The mothers received L reuteri ATCC 55730 (1 x 10(8) colony forming units) daily from gestational week 36 until delivery. Their babies then continued with the same product from birth until 12 months of age and were followed up for another year. Primary outcome was allergic disease, with or without positive skin prick test or circulating IgE to food allergens.

    RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of eczema was similar, 36% in the treated versus 34% in the placebo group. The L reuteri group had less IgE-associated eczema during the second year, 8% versus 20% (P = .02), however. Skin prick test reactivity was also less common in the treated than in the placebo group, significantly so for infants with mothers with allergies, 14% versus 31% (P = .02). Wheeze and other potentially allergic diseases were not affected.

    CONCLUSION: Although a preventive effect of probiotics on infant eczema was not confirmed, the treated infants had less IgE-associated eczema at 2 years of age and therefore possibly run a reduced risk to develop later respiratory allergic disease. CLINICAL IMPLICATION: Probiotics may reduce the incidence of IgE-associated eczema in infancy.

    Keywords
    Children, eczema, IgE, Lactobacillus, prevention, probiotics, sensitization, skin prick test
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20580 (URN)10.1016/j.jaci.2007.01.007 (DOI)17349686 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Probiotic lactobacilli in breast milk and infant stool in relation to oral intake during the first year of life
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probiotic lactobacilli in breast milk and infant stool in relation to oral intake during the first year of life
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 349-354Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This is to identify factors affecting the prevalence of Lactobacillus reuteri in maternal faeces and breast milk and infant faeces after oral supplementation with L reuteri and to assess the influence on microbial ecology, particularly Clostridium difficile and Bifidobacterium colonization.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind trial, 232 mothers with a family history of atopic disease were randomized to a daily intake of either L reuteri American-type culture collection (ATCC) 55730 (1 x 10 colony-forming units [CFU]) or placebo for the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. Their babies then continued with the same study product daily from birth until 12 months of age. Bacterial counts and prevalence were assessed in maternal breast milk and faeces and infant faeces, using conventional cultivation methods.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of L reuteri was higher during the first year of life in the stool samples from infants in the active as compared with the placebo-treated group. The highest prevalence was recorded at 5 to 6 days of age (82% in the treated vs 20% in the placebo group, P < 0.001). Lactobacillus reuteri was isolated from 12% and 2%, respectively, in the colostrum samples (P < 0.05). Breast-feeding seemed to reduce faecal L reuteri counts, although antibiotics did not influence the levels of L reuteri. The administration of L reuteri did not affect bifidobacteria or C difficile colonization.

    CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus reuteri may be detected in breast milk after oral supplementation to the mother and in almost all infants after oral supplementation during the first year of life, as well as occasionally in many untreated infants.

    Keywords
    Bifidobacteria, Clostridium, Faeces, Probiotics, Lactobacillus reuteri
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20622 (URN)10.1097/MPG.0b013e31818f091b (DOI)19525871 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2009-09-27Bibliographically approved
    3. Low breast milk TGF-beta2 is induced by Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation and associates with reduced risk of sensitization during infancy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low breast milk TGF-beta2 is induced by Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation and associates with reduced risk of sensitization during infancy
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 497-504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The immunological composition of breast milk differs between mothers. The reasons for these differences and the consequences for the breast-fed infants are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation on the immunological composition of breast milk in relation to sensitization and eczema in the babies. Total IgA, secretory IgA (SIgA), TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, IL-10, TNF, soluble CD14 (sCD14), and Na/K ratios were analyzed in colostrum and mature milk obtained from women treated with L. reuteri (n = 54) or placebo (n = 55) from gestational week 36 until delivery. Bacteriological analyses of L. reuteri were performed in faecal samples of the mothers. The infants were followed prospectively for 2 yr regarding development of eczema and sensitization as defined by a positive skin prick test and/or circulating allergen-specific IgE antibodies at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. Supplementation of L. reuteri during pregnancy was associated with low levels of TGF-beta2 and slightly increased levels of IL-10 in colostrum. For TGF-beta2, this association was most pronounced in mothers with detectable L. reuteri in faeces. Infants receiving breast milk with low levels of TGF-beta2 were less likely to become sensitized during their first 2 yr of life. A similar trend was observed for development of IgE-associated eczema. The levels of total IgA, SIgA, TGF-beta1, TNF, sCD14, and Na/K ratios in breast milk were not affected by the intake of L. reuteri. None of these parameters correlated with sensitization or development of eczema in the infant, except for high Na/K ratios that associated with increased risk of sensitization. Supplementation with L. reuteri during late pregnancy reduces breast milk levels of TGF-beta2, and low levels of this cytokine are associated with less sensitization and possibly less IgE-associated eczema in breast-fed infants.

    Keywords
    Lactobacilli, breast milk, TGF-b, sensitization, infancy
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20623 (URN)10.1111/j.1399-3038.2007.00687.x (DOI)18221472 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2009-09-27Bibliographically approved
    4. A Th1/Th2-associated chemokine imbalance preceding allergic disease is influenced by birth size, breastfeeding, daycare and probiotics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Th1/Th2-associated chemokine imbalance preceding allergic disease is influenced by birth size, breastfeeding, daycare and probiotics
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: in Allergy, vol 64, 2009, Vol. 64, p. 56-56Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Analyses of circulating chemokines offer novel tools to investigate the Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic disease in vivo and explore the influence of pre- and postnatal factors in infancy.

    Objective: To relate circulating Th1- and Th2-associated chemokines to the development of allergic disease, pre- and postnatal factors and probiotic supplementation in infancy.

    Methods: Circulating levels of Th1-associated CXC-chemokine ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 and Th2-associated CC-chemokine ligand (CCL)17, CCL18 and CCL22 were assessed with Luminex and ELISA at birth (n=109), 6 (n=104), 12 (n=116) and 24 months (n=123) in 179 infants completing a double-blind placebo-controlled allergy prevention trial with Lactobacillus reuteri during the last month of gestation and through the first year of life. The infants were followed regarding development of allergic disease and sensitization until two years of age.

    Results: The Th2-associated chemokines were as highest at birth and then decreased, whereas the Th1-associated chemokines increased with age. Low Th1- and high Th2-associated chemokine levels were observed in children developing allergic disease. Sensitization was preceded by elevated CCL22 and reduced CXCL11 levels. High Th2-associated chemokine46 levels were associated with increased birth length and weight and long duration of breastfeeding, and high Th1-associated chemokine levels with day-care attendance. Presence of L. reuteri in stool the first week of life was associated with low CCL17 and CCL22 and high CXCL11 levels at 6 months.

    Conclusion: Allergic disease in infancy was associated with low circulating Th1- and high Th2-associated chemokine levels during the first year of life. The chemokine levels were affected by both pre and –postnatal factors.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19153 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-06-12 Created: 2009-06-12 Last updated: 2009-09-15Bibliographically approved
  • 254.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Editorial Material: Not all probiotic strains prevent necrotising enterocolitis in premature infants in LANCET, vol 387, issue 10019, pp 624-6252016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 387, no 10019, p. 624-625Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 255.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Using probiotics to prevent necrotising enterocolitis2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 11, p. 1718-1719Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 256.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Saab Military Aircraft, Sweden.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McKelvey, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Finite Element Model Updating Formulation Using Frequency Responses and Eigenfrequencies1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel frequency and modal domain formulation of the model updating problem is presented. Deviations in discrete frequency responses and eigenfrequencies, between the model to be updated and a reference model, constitute the criterion function. A successful updating thus results in a model with the reference's input-output relations at selected fre- quencies. The formulation is demonstrated to produce a criterion function with a global minimum having a large domain of attraction with respect to stiffness and mass variations. The method relies on mode grouping and uses a new extended modal assurance criterion number (eMAC) for identifying related modes. A quadratic objective with inexpensive evaluation of approximate Hessians give a rapid convergence to a minimum by the use of a regularized Gauss-Newton method. Physical bounds on parameters and complementary data, such as structural weight, are treated by imposing set constraints and linear equality constraints. Efficient function computation is obtained by model reduction using a moderately sized base of modes which is recomputed during the minimization. Statistical properties of updated parameters are discussed. A verification example show the performance of the method.

  • 257.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jakobsson, H.E.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, A.F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björksten, B.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden .
    Engstrand, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Low gut microbiota diversity in early infancy precedes asthma at school age2014In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 842-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first year of life is associated with allergic diseases in infancy, but little is known how early microbial diversity is related to allergic disease later in school age.

    OBJECTIVE:

    To assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to the prevalence of different allergic diseases in school age, such as asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) and eczema.

    METHODS:

    The microbial diversity and composition was analysed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month and 12 months of age in 47 infants which were subsequently assessed for allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity at 7 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830).

    RESULTS:

    Children developing asthma (n = 8) had a lower diversity of the total microbiota than non-asthmatic children at 1 week (P = 0.04) and 1 month (P = 0.003) of age, whereas allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (n = 13), eczema (n = 12) and positive skin prick reactivity (n = 14) at 7 years of age did not associate with the gut microbiota diversity. Neither was asthma associated with the microbiota composition later in infancy (at 12 months). Children having IgE-associated eczema in infancy and subsequently developing asthma had lower microbial diversity than those that did not. There were no significant differences, however, in relative abundance of bacterial phyla and genera between children with or without allergic disease.

    CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:

    Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first month of life was associated with asthma but not ARC in children at 7 years of age. Measures affecting microbial colonization of the infant during the first month of life may impact asthma development in childhood.

  • 258.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Bjorksten, Bengt
    University of Örebro, Sweden .
    Engstrand, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Reply: Gut microbiota diversity and atopic disease: Does breast-feeding play a role?2013In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 248-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 259.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jakobsson, Hedvig E
    Department of Preparedness, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders F
    Science for Life Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björksten, Bengt
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, and the School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engstrand, Lars
    Department of Preparedness, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Low diversity of the gut microbiota in infants with atopic eczema2012In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 434-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    It is debated whether a low total diversity of the gut microbiota in early childhood is more important than an altered prevalence of particular bacterial species for the increasing incidence of allergic disease. The advent of powerful, cultivation-free molecular methods makes it possible to characterize the total microbiome down to the genus level in large cohorts.

    Objective

    We sought to assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to atopic eczema development.

    Methods

    Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month, and 12 months of age in 20 infants with IgE-associated eczema and 20 infants without any allergic manifestation until 2 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830).

    Results

    Infants with IgE-associated eczema had a lower diversity of the total microbiota at 1 month (P = .004) and a lower diversity of the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes and the genus Bacteroides at 1 month (P = .02 and P = .01) and the phylum Proteobacteria at 12 months of age (P = .02). The microbiota was less uniform at 1 month than at 12 months of age, with a high interindividual variability. At 12 months, when the microbiota had stabilized, Proteobacteria, comprising gram-negative organisms, were more abundant in infants without allergic manifestation (Empirical Analysis of Digital Gene Expression in R [edgeR] test: P = .008, q = 0.02).

    Conclusion

    Low intestinal microbial diversity during the first month of life was associated with subsequent atopic eczema.

  • 260.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jakobsson, Ted
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björksten, Bengt
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Oldaeus, Göran
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    No effect of probiotics on respiratory allergies: a seven-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial in infancy2013In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 556-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri reduced the incidence of IgE-associated allergic disease in infancy. This treatment might therefore also reduce the risk of asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in school age.

    Objective

    To evaluate whether perinatal and infant supplementation with L. reuteri reduced the prevalence of respiratory allergic disease in school age and to explore whether this supplementation was associated with any long-term side effects.

    Methods

    A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with oral supplementation with Lreuteri ATCC 55730 (1 × 108 CFU) during the last month of gestation and through the first year of life comprising 232 families with allergic disease, of whom 184 completed a 7-yr follow-up. The primary outcomes at 7 yr of age were allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830).

    Results

    The prevalence of asthma (15% in the probiotic vs. 16% in placebo group), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (27% vs. 20%), eczema (21% vs. 19%) and skin prick test reactivity (29% vs. 26%) was similar in the probiotic and placebo group. Growth indices and gastrointestinal symptoms were similar in the two groups. No severe adverse events were reported.

    Conclusion

    The effect of L. reuteri on sensitization and IgE-associated eczema in infancy did not lead to a lower prevalence of respiratory allergic disease in school age. Thus, the effect of L. reuteri on the immune system seems to be transient. Administration of L. reuteri during the last weeks of gestation and in infancy was not associated with any long-term side effects.

  • 261.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas R
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Jakobsson, Ted
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Böttcher, Malin Fagerås
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jenmalm, Maria C
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Oldaeus, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial2007In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 119, no 5, p. 1174-1180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An altered microbial exposure may underlie the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies. Probiotics may alleviate and even prevent eczema in infants.

    OBJECTIVE: To prevent eczema and sensitization in infants with a family history of allergic disease by oral supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, which comprised 232 families with allergic disease, of whom 188 completed the study. The mothers received L reuteri ATCC 55730 (1 x 10(8) colony forming units) daily from gestational week 36 until delivery. Their babies then continued with the same product from birth until 12 months of age and were followed up for another year. Primary outcome was allergic disease, with or without positive skin prick test or circulating IgE to food allergens.

    RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of eczema was similar, 36% in the treated versus 34% in the placebo group. The L reuteri group had less IgE-associated eczema during the second year, 8% versus 20% (P = .02), however. Skin prick test reactivity was also less common in the treated than in the placebo group, significantly so for infants with mothers with allergies, 14% versus 31% (P = .02). Wheeze and other potentially allergic diseases were not affected.

    CONCLUSION: Although a preventive effect of probiotics on infant eczema was not confirmed, the treated infants had less IgE-associated eczema at 2 years of age and therefore possibly run a reduced risk to develop later respiratory allergic disease. CLINICAL IMPLICATION: Probiotics may reduce the incidence of IgE-associated eczema in infancy.

  • 262.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas R
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Sinkiewicz, Gabriela
    Department of Biomedical Lab Science, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Ted
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Probiotic lactobacilli in breast milk and infant stool in relation to oral intake during the first year of life2009In: Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 349-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This is to identify factors affecting the prevalence of Lactobacillus reuteri in maternal faeces and breast milk and infant faeces after oral supplementation with L reuteri and to assess the influence on microbial ecology, particularly Clostridium difficile and Bifidobacterium colonization.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind trial, 232 mothers with a family history of atopic disease were randomized to a daily intake of either L reuteri American-type culture collection (ATCC) 55730 (1 x 10 colony-forming units [CFU]) or placebo for the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. Their babies then continued with the same study product daily from birth until 12 months of age. Bacterial counts and prevalence were assessed in maternal breast milk and faeces and infant faeces, using conventional cultivation methods.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of L reuteri was higher during the first year of life in the stool samples from infants in the active as compared with the placebo-treated group. The highest prevalence was recorded at 5 to 6 days of age (82% in the treated vs 20% in the placebo group, P < 0.001). Lactobacillus reuteri was isolated from 12% and 2%, respectively, in the colostrum samples (P < 0.05). Breast-feeding seemed to reduce faecal L reuteri counts, although antibiotics did not influence the levels of L reuteri. The administration of L reuteri did not affect bifidobacteria or C difficile colonization.

    CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus reuteri may be detected in breast milk after oral supplementation to the mother and in almost all infants after oral supplementation during the first year of life, as well as occasionally in many untreated infants.

  • 263.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Rautava, Samuli
    University of Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Moore, Aideen M.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Neu, Josef
    University of Florida, FL USA.
    Sherman, Philip M.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Editorial Material: The Time for a Confirmative Necrotizing Enterocolitis Probiotics Prevention Trial in the Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant in North America Is Now! in JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, vol 165, issue 2, pp 389-3942014In: Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0022-3476, E-ISSN 1097-6833, Vol. 165, no 2, p. 389-394Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 264.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sandberg, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Bjorksten, B
    Karolinska Institute.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Th1/Th2-associated chemokine imbalance during infancy in children developing eczema, wheeze and sensitization2011In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 1729-1739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Analyses of circulating chemokines offer novel tools to investigate the T helper (Th)1/Th2 imbalance in allergic disease in vivo. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective To relate circulating Th1- and Th2-associated chemokines in infancy to allergic disease, sensitization and probiotic supplementation. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods Circulating levels of Th1-associated CXC-chemokine ligand (CXCL) 9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 and Th2-associated CC-chemokine ligand (CCL)17 and CCL22 were assessed with Luminex and CCL18 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at birth (n = 109), 6 (n = 104), 12 (n = 116) and 24 months (n = 123) in 161 infants completing a double-blind placebo-controlled allergy prevention trial with Lactobacillus reuteri during the last month of gestation and through the first year of life. The infants were followed regarding the development of allergic disease and sensitization until 2 years of age. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults The Th2-associated chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 were the highest at birth and then decreased, whereas CCL18 and the Th1-associated chemokines increased with age. High Th2-associated chemokine levels were observed in children developing allergic disease. Sensitization was preceded by elevated levels of the Th2-associated CCL22 and reduced levels of the Th1-associated CXCL11 already at birth. The Th2-associated CCL17 was also elevated at birth in infants developing recurrent wheeze. A high Th2/Th1 ratio (CCL22/CXCL10) at birth associated with both sensitization and eczema development. The presence of L. reuteri in stool in the first week of life was associated with low CCL17 and CCL22 and high CXCL11 levels at 6 months of age. High Th1-associated chemokine levels were associated with day-care. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion and Clinical Relevance Allergic disease and sensitization in infancy was associated with low circulating Th1- and high Th2-associated chemokine levels already from birth. Circulating chemokines are useful for investigating the Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic disease in vivo. Elucidation of the role of chemokines in allergic diseases may lead to future treatments.

  • 265.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sandberg, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bjorksten, B
    Karolinska Institute.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Th1/Th2-associated chemokine imbalance preceding allergic disease is influenced by birth size, breastfeeding, daycare and probiotics2009In: in Allergy, vol 64, 2009, Vol. 64, p. 56-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Analyses of circulating chemokines offer novel tools to investigate the Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic disease in vivo and explore the influence of pre- and postnatal factors in infancy.

    Objective: To relate circulating Th1- and Th2-associated chemokines to the development of allergic disease, pre- and postnatal factors and probiotic supplementation in infancy.

    Methods: Circulating levels of Th1-associated CXC-chemokine ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 and Th2-associated CC-chemokine ligand (CCL)17, CCL18 and CCL22 were assessed with Luminex and ELISA at birth (n=109), 6 (n=104), 12 (n=116) and 24 months (n=123) in 179 infants completing a double-blind placebo-controlled allergy prevention trial with Lactobacillus reuteri during the last month of gestation and through the first year of life. The infants were followed regarding development of allergic disease and sensitization until two years of age.

    Results: The Th2-associated chemokines were as highest at birth and then decreased, whereas the Th1-associated chemokines increased with age. Low Th1- and high Th2-associated chemokine levels were observed in children developing allergic disease. Sensitization was preceded by elevated CCL22 and reduced CXCL11 levels. High Th2-associated chemokine46 levels were associated with increased birth length and weight and long duration of breastfeeding, and high Th1-associated chemokine levels with day-care attendance. Presence of L. reuteri in stool the first week of life was associated with low CCL17 and CCL22 and high CXCL11 levels at 6 months.

    Conclusion: Allergic disease in infancy was associated with low circulating Th1- and high Th2-associated chemokine levels during the first year of life. The chemokine levels were affected by both pre and –postnatal factors.

  • 266.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sherman, Philip M.
    University of Toronto, Canada .
    Editorial Material: Multifaceted Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides2014In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 209, no 3, p. 323-324Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 267.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Wu, Richard Y.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Sherman, Philip M.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Microbiota in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infancy: Implications for Management2017In: INTESTINAL MICROBIOME: FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE, KARGER , 2017, Vol. 88, p. 107-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex and diverse intestinal microbiome is recognized as important in promoting human health. An altered gut microflora, referred to as dysbiosis, is increasingly recognized as having an etiologic role in a variety of conditions, including functional gastrointestinal disorders: colic in infants and irritable bowel syndrome in older children. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, if ingested in sufficient amounts, restore microbial homeostasis and have a benefit on health. Randomized controlled trials indicate that probiotics can be effective in a variety of intestinal conditions, including colic and irritable bowel syndrome. Probiotics may promote gut microbial diversity, but timing of the intervention appears crucial. Strain-specific effects on colonization resistance, epithelial barrier integrity, modulation of signal transduction, impacts on innate and adaptive immune responses, and effects on visceral hyperalgesia likely explain the observed variability in various probiotic strains. In the future, probiotics are likely to be chosen for use in a defined clinical setting based on underlying mechanism(s) of action. The precise component of the probiotic agent mediating observed effects is the subject of current research. Unresolved issues relate to optimal dosages, timing of ingestion, single versus combination formulations, maintenance of viability in storage, and the merits of employing probiotic- derived products. (C) 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 268.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. University of Toronto, Canada.
    You Wu, Richard
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gut microbiota and allergy: the importance of the pregnancy period2015In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 214-219Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited microbial exposure is suggested to underlie the increase of allergic diseases in affluent countries, and bacterial diversity seems to be more important than specific bacteria taxa. Prospective studies indicate that the gut microbiota composition during the first months of life influences allergy development, and support the theory that factors influencing the early maturation of the immune system might be important for subsequent allergic disease. However, recent research indicates that microbial exposure during pregnancy may be even more important for the preventative effects against allergic disease. This review gives a background of the epidemiology, immunology, and microbiology literature in this field. It focuses on possible underlying mechanisms such as immune-regulated epigenetic imprinting and bacterial translocation during pregnancy, potentially providing the offspring with a pioneer microbiome. We suggest that a possible reason for the initial exposure of bacterial molecular patterns to the fetus in utero is to prime the immune system and/or the epithelium to respond appropriately to pathogens and commensals after birth.

  • 269.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Formation of Monolithic Ion-Selective Transport Media Based on "Click" Cross-Linked Hyperbranched Polyglycerol2019In: Frontiers in Chemistry, E-ISSN 2296-2646, Vol. 7, article id 484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the emerging field of organic bioelectronics, conducting polymers and ion-selective membranes are combined to form resistors, diodes, transistors, and circuits that transport and process both electronic and ionic signals. Such bioelectronics concepts have been explored in delivery devices that translate electronic addressing signals into the transport and dispensing of small charged biomolecules at high specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Manufacturing such "iontronic" devices generally involves classical thin film processing of polyelectrolyte layers and insulators followed by application of electrolytes. This approach makes miniaturization and integration difficult, simply because the ion selective polyelectrolytes swell after completing the manufacturing. To advance such bioelectronics/iontronics and to enable applications where relatively larger molecules can be delivered, it is important to develop a versatile material system in which the charge/size selectivity can be easily tailormade at the same time enabling easy manufacturing of complex and miniaturized structures. Here, we report a one-pot synthesis approach with minimal amount of organic solvent to achieve cationic hyperbranched polyglycerol films for iontronics applications. The hyperbranched structure allows for tunable pre multi-functionalization, which combines available unsaturated groups used in crosslinking along with ionic groups for electrolytic properties, to achieve a one-step process when applied in devices for monolithic membrane gel formation with selective electrophoretic transport of molecules.

  • 270.
    Abrahamsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Saab Military Aircraft, Sweden.
    McKelvey, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Study of some Approaches to Vibration Data Analysis1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from extensive vibrational tests of the new aircraft Saab 2000 three different methods for vibration analysis are studied. These methods are ERA (eigensystem realization algorithm), N4SID (a subspace method) and PEM (prediction error approach). We find that both the ERA and N4SID methods give good initial model parameter estimates that can be further improved by the use of PEM. We also find that all methods give good insights into the vibrational modes.

  • 271.
    Abramavicius, V.
    et al.
    Vilnius University, Lithuania; Centre Phys Science and Technology, Lithuania.
    Pranculis, V.
    Centre Phys Science and Technology, Lithuania.
    Melianas, Armantas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gulbinas, V.
    Centre Phys Science and Technology, Lithuania.
    Abramavicius, D.
    Vilnius University, Lithuania.
    Role of coherence and delocalization in photo-induced electron transfer at organic interfaces2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, no 32914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photo-induced charge transfer at molecular heterojunctions has gained particular interest due to the development of organic solar cells (OSC) based on blends of electron donating and accepting materials. While charge transfer between donor and acceptor molecules can be described by Marcus theory, additional carrier delocalization and coherent propagation might play the dominant role. Here, we describe ultrafast charge separation at the interface of a conjugated polymer and an aggregate of the fullerene derivative PCBM using the stochastic Schrodinger equation (SSE) and reveal the complex time evolution of electron transfer, mediated by electronic coherence and delocalization. By fitting the model to ultrafast charge separation experiments, we estimate the extent of electron delocalization and establish the transition from coherent electron propagation to incoherent hopping. Our results indicate that even a relatively weak coupling between PCBM molecules is sufficient to facilitate electron delocalization and efficient charge separation at organic interfaces.

  • 272.
    Abramian, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Refacing: Reconstructing Anonymized Facial Features Using GANS2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymization of medical images is necessary for protecting the identity of the test subjects, and is therefore an essential step in data sharing. However, recent developments in deep learning may raise the bar on the amount of distortion that needs to be applied to guarantee anonymity. To test such possibilities, we have applied the novel CycleGAN unsupervised image-to-image translation framework on sagittal slices of T1 MR images, in order to reconstruct facial features from anonymized data. We applied the CycleGAN framework on both face-blurred and face-removed images. Our results show that face blurring may not provide adequate protection against malicious attempts at identifying the subjects, while face removal provides more robust anonymization, but is still partially reversible.

  • 273.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Äldre, infrastruktur och boende2017In: Vem är den äldre? - Äldrebilder i ett åldrande Sverige / [ed] Abramsson, Marianne; Hydén, Lars-Christer & Motel Klingebiel, Andreas, Stockholm: Nationell Kvalitetsplan för Äldreomsorgenionell Kvalitetsplan för Äldreomsorgen , 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Changing residential mobility rates of older people in Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 275.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Housing Careers2012In: International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home / [ed] Susan J. Smith, Marja Elsinga, Lorna Fox O'Mahony, Ong Seow Eng, Susan Wachter, David Clapham, Oxford: Elsevier, 2012, p. 385-389Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Housing career is a frequently used term in housing research that describes the residential mobility of households often in relation to housing quality, size, tenure, and location. It can be defined as a series of dwellings occupied by a household during the course of life. Housing policies influence the choices and constraints of individuals acting on the housing market. They vary for different groups depending on factors such as experiences, education, or socioeconomic status. Resources, preferences, and possibilities are concepts used to describe households’ actions on the housing market.

  • 276.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Society, Diversity, Identity .
    Housing Careers in a Changing Welfare State - A Swedish Cohort Study2008In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 231-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the housing careers of individuals are related to the development of the Swedish welfare state and its effects on the housing market.The aim of the study was to investigate if the value placed on housing standard, size, tenure and location has changed over time as the welfare state has developed. Twelve individuals in four cohorts born in 1925, 1942, 1955 and 1970 were interviewed. The most evident differences relate to the standard, size and the location of a dwelling. The older cohorts began their housing career in smaller housing with a standard that was the norm at that time. When the most basic housing needs were met, environmental and location aspects began to gain policy interest. These factors were taken into account by the younger cohorts as they entered the housing market, but also among the older as they had progressed through their housing career. A change in housing size as the household grows was not cohort-specific. Tenure was not cohort-specific, but was discussed in terms of freedom that differed between individuals rather than between cohorts.

  • 277.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lifestyle motives as reasons for moving to senior housing2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify possible life style motives to why a group of older movers chose to move into senior housing. This was done using the results from an interview study with people moving into a senior housing facility. Interviews were conducted prior to and after the move.

  • 278.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lifestyle Motives as Reasons for Moving to Senior Housing2014In: Nordic Seniors on the Move.: Mobility and Migration in Later Life. / [ed] Anne Leonora Blaakilde & Gabriella Nilsson, Lund: Lund Studies in Arts and Cultural Sciences , 2014, p. 51-74Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 279.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mellanboendeformer för äldre: av intresse såväl för de äldre som för bostadsföretagen2009In: Åldrande, åldersordning, ålderism / [ed] Håkan Jönson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009, 1, p. 138-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här texten syftar till att diskutera det ökande intresset för äldres boendesituation utifrån kommunernas, bostadsföretagens samt de äldre individernas perspektiv. Detta görs genom att studera de förändringar som har ägt rum på bostadsmarknaden då nya former av boenden för äldre nu finns på marknaden. Dessa boenden riktar sig till aktiva äldre som närmar sig eller redan har uppnått pensionsåldern och som inte har hemmaboende barn. De förändringar som sker i den här fasen av livet kan antas påverka boendesituationen även om det är individer och hushåll som inte är beroende av insatser i form av vård och omsorg som endast kan lösas inom det särskilda boendet. Fokus här är på de förändringar som ägt rum på den ordinära bostadsmarknaden och inom bostadsföretagen men också på sociala frågor som kan ha med de äldres bostadssituation att göra.

    Studien utgår ifrån några forskningsfrågor kring tidpunkten för det ökade intresset för äldres boendesituation, de olika typer av boenden som diskuteras liksom de kvaliteter i boendet som poängteras i samband med marknadsföringen av seniorboenden.

    Texten är en sammanfattning dels av litteratur som berör äldre som aktörer på bostadsmarknaden, dels av möten med representanter för bostadsföretag och tjänstemän inom några olika kommuner kring de behov som finns och olika exempel på hur man försöker möta dessa behov. Ett antal studiebesök har också genomförts som visar på hur den här typen av boenden fungerar i praktiken och texten bygger också på preliminära resultat ifrån ett par pågående studier om äldres boendepreferenser i en medelstor svensk stad. Resultaten som presenteras är en sammanfattning av det som framkommit ur dessa olika källor.

    Det finns inga regler för vad som måste ingå för att ett boende ska räknas som en mellanboendeform, t.ex. seniorboende, även om en del riktlinjer och rekommendationer har presenterats (Wel Hops 2007). Oftast riktar sig boendet till individer som är 55 år eller äldre och som inte har några hemmavarande barn. Tillgängligheten är hög och det finns oftast gemensamhetsutrymmen och lokaler för hobbyverksamheter av olika slag. Mellanbo-endeformerna har en rad olika namn såsom seniorboende, plusboende, 55+, temaboende, boende för den tredje åldern, gemensamhetsboende etc. Här kommer termen seniorboende för enkelhetens skull att användas.

  • 280.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Older people’s reasons to move or age in place – individual preferences or a housing market issue2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally known that older people move to a smaller extent than younger age groups. They are less prone to change housing when circumstances such as a change in household size or a change in income occur. Still some of them do move. Older people have different reasons for moving or ageing in place. In this study the aim was to dig deeper into the reasons for why older people act differently in the housing market to investigate whether their actions mainly depend on different individual preferences or issues related to the housing market or possibly other social or physical obstacles. In the study 80 older households aged 55 years or older were interviewed about their housing situation, their housing preferences and their knowledge about different types of housing offered in their local housing market. 55 of the interviewees lived in owner occupied single family housing or ordinary rental housing, 20 had recently moved to a rental senior housing complex and 5 had moved to a rental ‘sheltered’ housing complex. In addition the interviewees were selected from different geographical areas, a medium sized city, one small city, a small town and a countryside area. The results of the study showed that attachment to home and housing preferences were important for their respective actions. Their knowledge about the local housing market and the actual supply of housing suitable for older people influenced their decisions to move. Information about housing for older people such as advertisements and posters, as well as the building of new housing for this group made several of the interviewees decide to move. To some the lack of suitable or affordable housing was a reason to remain in current housing. Yet another group had not considered their housing situation at all and the question of moving or ageing in place was a non-issue.

  • 281.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Plans and reasons for relocation among older people.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Social relations within a senior housing complex –uniting or dividing?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life.
    The Choice of Housing among Seniors - Alternatives to Ageing in Place2008In: European Network for Housing Research. Housing and Living Conditions of Ageing Populations,2008, 2008, p. 98-98Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade a growing interest in senior housing has been seen in Sweden. This type of housing in between ageing in place and nursing homes has gained a vivid political interest, evident in the Swedish Government Official Report from December 2007 on housing for seniors. The number of this type of dwellings is increasing as is the demand. Here the aim was to study the variety of housing aimed at seniors as well as the effect recent demographic changes may have had on the supply. The political agenda for housing for seniors has been studied as well as the trends and plans in some municipalities in a southern Swedish county. The amount of high quality senior housing often in attractive locations has increased and is being marketed to middle income active (young) seniors. At the other end of the scale is a group of frail seniors ageing in place but with social needs that cannot be accounted for in their current homes. For them new housing types develop in collaboration with housing companies and social welfare offices in municipalities. In addition there is a group of seniors, active but with low incomes in need of ordinary housing but with the social qualities of senior housing. It is evident that a growing number of municipalities are responding to the changing demography, i.e., an ageing population, by building or planning for new types of senior housing. Having begun in the larger cities often in tenant cooperatives, municipal housing companies are entering this market to a larger extent and senior housing can now be found in medium sized cities as well as in smaller municipalities. A forthcoming issue is what will happen in senior housing as people age and how this will effect the social life on which many are built.

  • 284.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The housing situation as part of everyday life among older people2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The housing situation of older people – Issues of investigations2017In: Book of abstracts, 2017, p. 51-51Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The housing situation of older people has been on the Swedish political agenda for some time. An increasing ageing population implies a demand for housing in correspodence to their needs. Assisted living facilities decreased with 30 000 places between 2002 and 2016, as a result, the majority of older people age in a dwelling in the ordinary housing market. In 2008 and 2015 respectively two government investigations on older people’s housing were presented. The investigations focused on the need for housing to bridge the gap between ordinary housing and assisted living facilities and issues of affordability and social community but also the lack of accessible housing in particular geographic areas. This paper aims to investigate the origins of the two investigations and relate them to changes in the housing market affecting older people, arguing that the strong emphasis on ageing in place has shifted the responsibility of having a good place to live from general welfare to older individuals themselves.

  • 286.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life.
    The move into senior housing - reasons and expectations. Results from interviews with inmovers to a new senior housing complex2008In: Nordic Congress of Gerontology, Ageing, dignity and diversity,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing interest in senior housing has been seen in Sweden in the last decade. This type of housing in between ageing in place and nursing homes has gained a vivid political interest, evident in the Swedish Government Official Report from December 2007 on housing for seniors. The number of this type of dwellings is increasing as is the demand. In this study the aim was to study the qualities of this housing type making it an attractive housing alternative to seniors. Inmovers to a senior housing complex in municipal housing were interviewed before the move about their reasons for choosing senior housing and their expectations as regard the move. The building has 13 floors, has been completely refurbished and is located near the city centre. The interviews were semi-structured using an inteview guide listing subjects to be covered in an open discussion. Each interview lasted one hour. The interviewees come from a mix of tenures, owner occupation, tenant cooperatives and rental housing. A majority of the inmovers became aware of the housing alternative as they saw the advertisment in the newspaper and had not thought about this type of housing before. Preliminary results show that the fact that the housing complex is specifically aimed at seniors is important as are feelings of security, stability and access to common areas. Accessibility and low levels of maintenance are other factors of importance. The fact that the building has gone through a complete renovation is important to many households and decisive to some. To take part in the construction process, interior design and planning of common areas has been appreciated by many. Most look forward to common activities, to know their neighbours, but privacy is important. In conclusion the importance of the house being available to seniors only has to be stressed.

  • 287.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vad kännetecknar de äldre under kommande årtionden? Äldre, generationsperspektiv och sociala nätverk2017In: Vem är den äldre? - Äldrebilder i ett åldrande Sverige / [ed] Abramsson, Marianne; Hydén, Lars-Christer & Motel Klingebiel, Andreas, Stockholm: Regeringskansliet Kommitteservice , 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 288.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Äldre, generationsperspektiv och sociala nätverk2017In: Vem är den äldre? Äldrebilder i ett åldrande Sverige / [ed] Abramsson, Marianne; Hydén, Lars-Christer & Motel Klingebiel, Andreas, Stockholm: Nationell Kvalitetsplan för Äldreomsorgenationell Kvalitetsplan för Äldreomsorgen , 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 289.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Eva
    Changing locations – Central or peripheral moves of seniors’ residential mobility.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing shares of elderly in European populations have initiated debates about where and how they will reside. Our main hypothesis is that when moving in this phase of life the most common move would be a move from a suburban location in owner occupation to a more centrally located apartment. This would be in line with the discussion that older people when they retire or the children have moved out want to take part in the culture of city living, such as concerts, theatres and museums in addition to enjoying a more convenient type of housing. This we argue, is the assumed residential pattern during the third age and a possible part of a mobility cycle as described by Rossi (1955). There are qualitative and survey studies pointing to such a residential mobility trend among seniors and increased mobility rates among young seniors have been shown statistically. However, quantitative tests showing a central or suburban destination and type of tenure chosen by the movers are still lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the local geographical mobility and tenure choice of older people. The analysis was made using a register database, Geoswede, comprising the total Swedish population. Moves of the cohorts born in the 1920s, 1930s and the 1940s were followed between 2001 and 2006. Using five distances to the municipal’s population core we concluded that a centralized mobility pattern could be observed among elderly movers in Sweden. The two older cohorts made such moves whereas the majority of the young cohort moved to more peripheral destinations. Also, movers from owner occupation in the cohort born in the 1940s to a larger extent move within owner occupation and make short distance moves. This is further analysed through the use of three case municipalities. Increased knowledge about the mobility rates and residential patterns of the studied cohorts, that constitute two out of nine million people in Sweden, will have an impact on planning issues.

  • 290.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Eva
    Dept of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Changing Preferences with Ageing – Housing Choices and Housing Plans of Older People2016In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 2016, no 33, p. 217-241, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning for the housing situation of an ageing population is one of the challenges of many countries. To increase our understanding of the needs of the ageing population, a nationwide survey stratified on age and municipality type was conducted. Research questions referred to the current housing situation and plans. The aim was to investigate how preferences, location, and/or the type of housing preferred changes with age and if they are housing market dependent. Results of 10-year cohorts show that the most marked change is between the cohort 75–84 years old and the oldest cohort 85+. There is a gradual change over time of moves from large to small housing, from owner-occupation to rented housing. Respondents in the major cities and in the rural or tourism-dependent municipalities are less inclined to move compared to those from other types of municipalities. The study predicts a shortage of rented apartments.

  • 291.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Eva
    Housing choices and housing plans of older people2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning for the housing situation of an ageing population is one of the challenges of many countries today. In Sweden housing provision is mainly a matter at the municipal level and although the municipalities do not provide housing themselves, they can facilitate for the actors to realise their housing plans and influence the situation in the housing market. In or-der to do this successfully, knowledge about the housing preferences of the different actors is crucial. Most people today remain in ordinary housing all through life. In Sweden only 5 per cent of the population aged 65 and above move to assisted living. This results in greater de-mands on the housing that is available in the ordinary housing market and on the municipali-ties in ascertaining that suitable housing is being provided. In order to increase our under-tanding of the needs and wants of the ageing population, a survey was conducted in 2013 in which the respondents answered questions about their current housing situation and their housing plans for the future. The research questions raised regarded the choice of housing location in relation to the respondents’ current housing, similarly the choice of tenure and housing size and if there are differences in the choices made depending of the age of the indi-vidual and in the type of municipality in which they live. The survey was sent out nation-wide, to 4000 people aged 55 years and older resulting in a response rate at 60,7 per cent (2400 individual), the oldest respondent being 103 years old.

    In this study the housing plans as regard location and housing type were in focus. The aim was to distinguish if there is a time in life when the locations and/or the type of housing the respondents would prefer changes, a tipping point. Preliminary results of 10 year cohorts show that the most frequent the movers are those aged 55-65 and 85 and older, the former mainly moving within the same tenure whereas the latter are more likely to change tenure, into rental housing which is more often located in central areas in the municipality.

  • 292.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Eva
    Housing choices and housing plans of older people – in search of a tipping point.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning for the housing situation of an ageing population is one of the challenges of many countries today. In Sweden housing provision is mainly a matter at the municipal level where the municipalities take on the responsibility for facilitating for the different actors to realise their housing plans and for influencing the situation in the housing market. In order to do this successfully, knowledge about the housing preferences of the different actors is crucial. Most people today remain in ordinary housing all through life. In Sweden only 5 per cent of the population aged 65 and above move to assisted living. This results in greater demands on the housing that is available in the ordinary housing market and on the municipalities in ascertaining that suitable housing is being provided. In order to increase our understanding of the needs and wants of the ageing population, a survey named SHIELD, Survey of Housing Intentions among the ELDerly, was conducted in 2013 in which the respondents answered questions about their current housing situation and their housing plans for the future. The research questions raised regarded the choice of tenure and housing size and were stratified on age and municipality type to certify analyses of these variables. The SHIELD-survey was sent out nation-wide, to 4000 people aged 55 years and older resulting in a response rate at 60,7 per cent (2400 individual). In this study the housing preferences as regard housing, housing location and housing type were in focus in relation to age. The aim was to distinguish if there is a time in life when the preferences, locations and/or the type of housing the respondents would prefer changes, a tipping point. Preliminary results of 10 year cohorts show that the most marked change in preferences and behaviour is between the cohort 75-84 years old and the oldest cohort 85+ but it is also evident from the study that there is a gradual change over time, such as moves from large to small housing, from owner occupation to rental housing that begin already between the first two cohorts, 55–64 and 65–74 years old. The survey shows that in general respondents in the major cities and in the rural or tourism-dependent municipalities are less inclined to move compared to respondents from other types of municipalities.

  • 293.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Eva
    Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF), Uppsala Universitet.
    Residential mobility patterns of older people2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 294.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Eva K
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Changing locations: Central or peripheral moves of seniors2015In: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, ISSN 1566-4910, E-ISSN 1573-7772, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 535-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing proportion of elderly in European populations has prompted debate about where and how they will reside. Our main hypothesis is that when moving in this phase of life the most common move would be one from a suburban location in owner occupation to a more central location. This would be in line with the popular belief that older people, when they retire or when the children have moved out, want to take part in the culture of city living, such as concerts, theatres and museums in addition to enjoying a more convenient type of housing. This, we argue, is the assumed residential pattern during the third age and a possible part of a mobility cycle as described by Rossi (1955). The aim of this study was to examine the local geographical mobility and tenure of older people. The analysis was made using a register database, Geoswede, comprising the total Swedish population. Moves of the cohorts born in the 1920s, 1930s and the 1940s were followed between 2001 and 2006. Using five distances to the municipal population core a centralized mobility pattern could be observed. The two older cohorts made such moves, whereas the majority of the youngest cohort moved to peripheral destinations. From analysis of three case municipalities, it was shown that movers from owner occupation in the cohort born in the 1940s moved within owner occupation to a greater extent and made short distance moves. This type of knowledge will have an impact on planning issues.

  • 295.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Eva K
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University.
    From suburb to central location – Residential mobility among elderly2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden an assumption is that older people today, and in particular the baby boomers, are more willing to change residence to accommodate for changing life-styles and poorer health when ageing, than was the case for earlier generations. Often this will include a move from a suburban location to a central location. In interview studies and the popular debate this would suit the idea of modern older people taking part in the culture of the city centre, such as museums, concerts and theatres. There are qualitative and survey studies pointing to such a residential mobility trend among seniors but quantitative tests are to a large extent lacking although increased mobility rates among young seniors have been shown. The aim of this study is to examine, in three case municipalities, if older people leaving owner occupation in the suburb move to apartments in more central locations. The analysis is made using a register database, Geoswede, comprising the total Swedish population. Moves of the cohorts born in the 1920s, 1930s and the 1940s are followed between 2001 and 2006. Most elderly in Sweden are stayers (75%). However, it can be concluded that in three municipalities a centralized mobility pattern can be observed. Mobility and residential patterns of the studied cohorts will impact planning issues, as they constitute two out of nine million people in Sweden.

  • 296.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Eva K
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University.
    Residential Mobility Patterns of Elderly - Leaving the House for an Apartment2012In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 582-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One hypothesis is that, in Sweden, the elderly today are more willing to change residence to accommodate for changing lifestyles and poorer health than in earlier generations. If so, the elderly will change their type of tenure from owner occupation to tenant co-operative or rental housing, which includes more services for residents. The aim of this study is to discover if elderly people move to apartments after leaving single-family housing that they own. Mobility patterns of those born in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s are analysed to indetify characteristics of satyers and movers, and to determine to what extent the elderly move to rental and tenant co-operative apartments. The analysis is cross-sectional using a register database comprising the Swedish population. Moves were followed between 2001 and 2006. The majority remained in their current dwelling but almost one-quarter moved. Of those, a smaller number moved from owner-occupied housing to a tenant co-operative or rental apartment.

  • 297.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Magnusson Turner, Lena
    Norwegian Social Research (Nova) Oslo, Norge.
    Äldres flyttningar och motiv till att flytta eller bo kvar: skrift inom regeringsuppdraget Bo bra på äldre dar, Hjälpmedelsinstitutet2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport handlar om den äldre befolkningen i Sverige, dess bosättningsmönster, flyttningar och motiv till att flytta eller att bo kvar. Studien är dels baserad på statistik från databasen Geosweden dels på resultat från ett större intervjumaterial omfattande 74 hushåll som inbegriper boende i olika åldrar, upplåtelseformer och med olika ekonomiska ramar.

    Analysen av bosättningsmönster och flyttning bland dem som var 65 år och äldre år 1990 respektive år 2000 uppvisar både en stabilitet och en dynamik över tiden. Stabiliteten består i att flertalet inte flyttar och att det fortsatt är en hög andel som bor i ägt småhus, även högt upp i åren. Dynamiken består i de effekter som flyttningen har för den grupp som flyttar. Det är effekter som har stor betydelse för dem som flyttar men marginella effekter för ålderskohorterna totalt.

    Drygt 1,5 miljoner individer i varje ålderskohort har följts över tio respektive åtta år. Skillnader och likheter i både flyttningsbeteende och bosättningsmönster i tre olika åldersgrupper: 65-69 år, 70-79 år och 80+ år har analyserats. Fokus är på ålder och demografiska förändringar som faktorer som kan bidra till att förklara både flyttningsbenägenheten i sig och mellan vilka typer av bostäder flyttningen sker.

    Den demografiska profilen i de två ålderskohorterna är ungefär densamma, dock är det relativt sett fler i ålderskohorten 65+ år 2000 som är födda utanför Sverige, fler som är skilda respektive har en ATP-pension. Det är också relativt sett fler som är 80+ år i ålderskohorten 65+ år 2000. Demografiska förändringar som är kända i samhället i stort, såsom en stigande andel personer född i ett annat land och en ökad skilsmässofrekvens framträder även bland de äldre, och dessutom som förändringar över en relativt kort tidsperiod.

    Bosättningsmönstret har undersökts efter typ av bostad definierad som småhus med äganderätt, bostadsrätt, privat hyresrätt och allmännyttig hyresrätt. År 1990 var det 41,8 procent av samtliga i åldern 65+ år som bodde i ett ägt småhus. Fördelningen på övriga typer av bostäder var relativt jämn. År 2000 var det fortsatt 38,7 procent i denna kohort som bodde i ett ägt småhus. En motsvarande analys av ålderskohorten 65+ år, år 2000 visar att 46,7 procent bodde i ägt småhus, år 2008 var det fortsatt 42,1 procent. De förändringar som sker i bosättningsmönstret i övrigt mellan de två ålders-kohorterna är en högre andel i bostadsrätt och en motsvarande lägre andel i hyresrätt. De senare förändringarna rör sig om tre procentenheter.

    Bosättningsmönstret varierar över tid, men än mer mellan olika åldersgrupper. Andelen i ägd bostad sjunker med stigande ålder och skillnaderna mellan åldersgrupperna i de båda ålderskohorterna minskar med stigande ålder. Det skiljer närmare tio procentenheter i andelen i den yngsta åldersgruppen som bodde i ägt småhus år 1990 respektive år 2000, medan skillnaderna mellan övriga åldersgrupper är betydligt mindre. Vi pekar här på betydande kohorteffekter.

    Flyttningsbenägenheten är lägre i ålderskohorten 65+ år, år 2000 jämfört med i ålderskohorten 65+ år 1990, en förändring som gäller såväl totalt som för de enskilda åldersgrupperna. Sambandet mellan demografiska förändringar och benägenheten att flytta har undersökts. Här återfinns förvän-tade samband såsom att en skilsmässa genererar en flyttning för åtminstone den ena parten samt en relativt sett högre flyttningsbenägenhet bland dem som blir änkor/änklingar. Stabilitet minskar sannolikheten för att flytta. Det gäller särskilt bland dem som är gifta. Ny familjebildning bland äldre leder inte alltid till att parterna flyttar samman, utan samlivet blir istället ”Living apart together”.

    Den andel som flyttar under de två femårsperioderna var 27,6 procent respektive 23,2 procent. Flyttningsbenägenheten minskade totalt, inom samtliga åldersgrupper och även inom samtliga typer av bostäder. Men även om bosättningsmönstret i hela gruppen 65+ år var stabilt under såväl 1990-talet som 2000-talet var det stora förändringar bland dem som flyttade, andelen individer i småhus med äganderätt minskade betydligt. I de grupper som flyttade under perioden 1990-1995 minskade andelen från 41,6 procent till 26,8 procent och under perioden 1996-2000 från 40,9 procent till 14,1 procent. Ökningen skedde framför allt i hyresrätt. Bland dem som flyttade under perioden 2001-2005 minskade andelen i ägt småhus från 53,3 procent till 13,1 procent och under perioden 2006-2008 (kort tidsperiod) från 49,0 procent till 10,8 procent. Ökningen skedde i övriga upplåtelseformer, men särskilt i allmännyttig hyresrätt.

    Småhuset är den vanligaste typen av bostad men bostadsrätten och hyresrätten får en allt större betydelse med stigande ålder och förändringar i hushållet. Den ägda bostaden, förutsätter på samma sätt som för yngre åldersgrupper stabila förhållanden. Studien visar på signifikanta samband mellan demografiska förändringar och sannolikheten för att flytta men också på att det finns komplexa samband mellan flyttningsbenägenhet och typ av bostad, främst den ägda bostaden som både ökar sannolikheten för att flytta, men över tid också minskar densamma.

    Sannolikt kommer äldres boende i huvudsak inte att se så mycket annorlunda ut i framtiden mot vad det gör idag, dvs de flesta bor kvar i sina bostäder och de äldsta flyttar när de har behov av att an-passa sitt boende till en försämrad hälsa. Utifrån intervjuerna kan vi dock förvänta oss en något ökad rörlighet bland äldre och en större beredskap bland äldre att själva se om sin situation som äldre. När de ges möjlighet, i form av ett varierat bostadsutbud, flyttar flera äldre till ett mera anpassat boende. Det ökade utbudet av bostadsalternativ liksom intervjuerna understryker detta. En flytt till ett mer anpassat boende skulle på sikt kunna underlätta för t ex vård- och omsorgsgivare. Flera av de äldre hänvisar dock till att de inte vet hur de kommer att agera när de blir äldre, kanske kommer de att dröja sig kvar i sina bostäder trots att de nu säger att de tänker anpassa sitt boende, att den tröga rörligheten följer med åldrandet. Några av de intervjuade kände också en stark bundenhet såväl till bostaden som till den omgivande miljön och var därmed inte intresserade av att flytta.

    Intervjuerna visar att boendekostnaderna påverkar äldres val av boende. De som bor i villa sedan många år tillbaka har ofta låga boendekostnader, 2000-4000 kronor i månaden, en bidragande orsak till att många äldre bor kvar, även om det erbjuds attraktiva alternativ på bostadsmarknaden. Skillnaden i månadskostnad mellan det man har och det man får är alltför stor. En grupp äldre anser sig inte ha råd till ett annat boende, särskilt de som bor i bostäder med låg hyra. En utmaning för bostadsmarknadens aktörer är att skapa boenden som passar även för den gruppen som har samma behov av ett bra boende som äldre med bättre ekonomi. Information om hur man kan beräkna sina boendekostnader kan vara behjälplig då en del äldre utgår från att de inte har råd med vissa boende-alternativ, trots att det är många som inte utnyttjar sin rätt till bostadsbidrag.

    Många äldre har inte varit aktiva på bostadsmarknaden på många år och saknar kunskap om boende-alternativ. För äldre som bor i bostäder där de har svårt att klara sig själva och upplever sin situation som besvärlig kan riktad information om alternativ på bostadsmarknaden öka den kunskapen.

    Trygghetsboendet är ett alternativ för äldre som känner sig oroliga, ensamma eller isolerade i sitt boende. I boendet finns personal på dagtid och larmfunktion under övriga tider på dygnet. Då det särskilda boendet i allt större utsträckning riktar sig till dem med stora vård- och omsorgsbehov, ofta multisjuka och med demenssjukdom, erbjuder trygghetsboendet ett alternativ för äldre vars omsorgsbehov är av en annan karaktär, t ex för att man är ensam i sitt boende eller sjuklig. Trygghetsboendet såsom det fungerar för de intervjuade i den här studien bidrar till en ökad social gemenskap och en minskad oro. Boendet utgör en trygghet även för anhöriga som vet att hjälp finns att få vid behov.

    Intervjuerna visar också att det finns en medvetenhet bland äldre om att man kan behöva hjälpa varandra. Boendesituationen eller boendemiljön kan underlätta eller försvåra den typen av hjälp. I intervjuerna var det de som bodde på landsbygden som tydligast gav uttryck för att de kände sig trygga med att man grannar sinsemellan hjälps åt även om hjälpen förekom även i stadsmiljöer. På landsbygden kände man sig även tryggare med den formella omsorg man eventuellt kan komma att behöva. Man hade en större kännedom om hur hemtjänsten fungerar, genom personlig erfarenhet av arbete eller av att föräldrar hade haft hemtjänst och var nöjda med hur den fungerar. Likaså visste man vilka särskilda boenden som skulle kunna bli aktuella och även här hade man en stor tillit till att dessa fungerar bra och man kände också till personalen. Denna tillit gör också att man inte känner sig tvingad att se om sin boendesituation, man vet att den dag man inte längre klarar sig på egen hand får man hjälp från en fungerande hemtjänst eller får flytta till ett omtyckt särskilt boende.

    Bostadsrätten har över tid stärkt sin roll. Möjligen kan detta förklaras av att allt fler äldre är vana vid ägande liksom att de lägger en stor vikt vid att bo i en miljö med stabila grannar. På så sätt har även seniorboendet fått en ökad betydelse. Den insats i boendet som krävs för tillgång till en bostadsrätt och den åldersgräns som förutsätter inflyttning i seniorboende, ses av en del som en garant för att grannarna är stabila. Många av de äldre bor fortsatt i småhus och det faktum att många bor billigt i sina hus kommer att påverka deras bostadskonsumtion även i framtiden, om än det finns en vilja att anpassa sitt boende och slippa underhåll och ansvar. Tillgång till bostadsanpassning och service i det befintliga boendet påverkar möjligheten att bo kvar. För de allra äldsta får hyresrätten en större betydelse. Detta, och det faktum att de sedan bor kvar och i många fall uppnår en hög ålder i dessa ställer högre krav dels på bostadens utformning men även på den hjälp och service man behöver i bostaden. Hyresvärden kan bli en allt viktigare aktör. Det krävs en lyhördhet inför de äldres preferenser och möjligheter och hur dessa varierar över tid. De äldre utgör en heterogen grupp åldersmässigt, ekonomiskt och socialt och har därmed olika förutsättningar. Att kunna erbjuda framtidens äldre ett bra boende i olika geografiska områden, i stora såväl som små kommuner, ställer krav på bostadsmarknadens aktörer att samarbeta kring att hitta boendeformer som passar den lokala bostadsmarknaden, trygghetsboenden är exempel på sådant samarbete.

  • 298.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Housing plans of the oldest old – Ageing in semi-rural areas2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many municipalities in rural areas have decreasing population rates. Generally the young move out, increasing the share of older people and influencing the way life is led in rural areas. In this paper focus is on the housing situation and housing plans of the oldest individuals in three small, semi-rural municipalities in southern Sweden. In order to increase our understanding of the living conditions of an ageing rural population, a postal survey was conducted. In one part of the survey the respondents answered questions about their current housing situation and their housing plans for the future. The research questions analysed for this study regarded stated reasons for housing decisions and plans. 1386 surveys were sent out, i.e., to all inhabitants aged 80 years and older residing in the ordinary housing market, in the three municipalities, 817 surveys were returned providing a response rate at 60%. The aim was to determine the main reasons for remaining put in a current housing situation or reasons for why relocation could be a future option. Results show that place attachment is strong, 90% of the respondents have lived in the municipality for more than 20 years and 60% have lived in the current dwelling for more than 20 years. Ageing in place is the dominating plan although 23% answered that they do not know what will happen in future. Those that plan to move, want to move to housing that needs less maintenance than the current dwelling and to a more central location.

  • 299.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Omsorgens skugga - äldres strategier i boendet2012In: Åldrande och omsorgens gestaltningar: mot nya perspektiv / [ed] Eva Jeppsson Grassman, Anna Whitaker, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 125-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I vår tids diskussion om välfärd är omsorgsbegreppet centralt. Men vad är omsorg och på vilket sätt kommer den till uttryck i sammanhang som gäller äldre och åldrande? Det är några av de frågeställningar som diskuteras i den här antologin.I äldre­omsorgsforskning har man hittills som regel tagit offentlig äldreomsorg som en självklar utgångspunkt.

    Här vidgas istället perspektivet och flera andra av omsorgsbegreppets olika dimensioner, gestaltningar och sammanhang inkluderas och diskuteras - sådana som har betydelse i vår tid men som ofta har förbisetts i forskningen.

    Det innebär också att antologin fokuserar på åldrande och omsorg i vid bemärkelse och inte bara på kommunal äldreomsorg. Med utgångspunkt i begrepp som tid, plats och aktörer och samspelet mellan dessa lyfter vi fram flera olika sammanhang för omsorg: Det är fråga om civilsamhället som plats och utförare av omsorg, liksom omsorg som berör migration och etniska relationer.

    Vi diskuterar också den fysiska miljön, boendet och platsens betydelse för omsorgens utformning och innebörder. Slutligen belyser vi livets sista tid och omsorgens olika existentiella dimensioner under detta skede.Åldrande och omsorgens gestaltningar - mot nya perspektiv riktar sig främst till högskolestuderande inom samhälls- och beteende­vetenskap, socialt arbete, social omsorg och vård, liksom till yrkesverksamma inom fältet. Den kan också vara värdefull för en intresserad allmänhet.

  • 300.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    What about community sustainability? - dilemmas of ageing in shrinking semi-rural areas in Sweden2018In: Scottish Geographical Journal, ISSN 1470-2541, E-ISSN 1751-665X, Vol. 134, no 3-4, p. 103-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many municipalities in Sweden have decreasing population rates combined with an increasing proportion of older people. Such a demographic shift will influence the way life is led as the foundation for service provision and social activities becomes undermined. This leads us to question the extent to which shrinking municipalities can be considered socially sustainable. The aim of the paper was to investigate older peoples participation in the local community and to study the perceived changes in the local community as reported by older people and how these are experienced. A postal survey was sent out to all inhabitants aged 80 years and older living in their own household in three small, semi-rural municipalities in southern Sweden, in total 1386. The response rate was 60%. Thus, focus was on the experiences of the oldest individuals. The research questions analysed for this study concerned the ageing populations social networks, community involvement, car dependence and service provision. The results are used to discuss the social sustainability of the societies in which these people have lived for a long time.

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