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  • 251.
    Lundeberg, Magnus
    et al.
    På i Stockholm AB, Danderyd, Stockholm.
    Nordström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ITIL och pm3: Likheter, skillnader samt värdet av att kombinera modellerna2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten belyses viktiga skillnader och likheter mellan ITIL version 3 och pm3 version 2010, i syfte att öka förståelsen för hur dessa modeller kan samverka för att ge fördelar till de organisationer som använder båda modellerna. I rapporten ges såväl teoretisk som praktisk inblick i modellerna samt exempel på implementering. 

  • 252.
    Lundquist, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automotive Sensor Fusion for Situation Awareness2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of radar and camera for situation awareness is gaining popularity in automotivesafety applications. In this thesis situation awareness consists of accurate estimates of theego vehicle’s motion, the position of the other vehicles and the road geometry. By fusinginformation from different types of sensors, such as radar, camera and inertial sensor, theaccuracy and robustness of those estimates can be increased.

    Sensor fusion is the process of using information from several different sensors tocompute an estimate of the state of a dynamic system, that in some sense is better thanit would be if the sensors were used individually. Furthermore, the resulting estimate isin some cases only obtainable through the use of data from different types of sensors. Asystematic approach to handle sensor fusion problems is provided by model based stateestimation theory. The systems discussed in this thesis are primarily dynamic and they aremodeled using state space models. A measurement model is used to describe the relationbetween the state variables and the measurements from the different sensors. Within thestate estimation framework a process model is used to describe how the state variablespropagate in time. These two models are of major importance for the resulting stateestimate and are therefore given much attention in this thesis. One example of a processmodel is the single track vehicle model, which is used to model the ego vehicle’s motion.In this thesis it is shown how the estimate of the road geometry obtained directly from thecamera information can be improved by fusing it with the estimates of the other vehicles’positions on the road and the estimate of the radius of the ego vehicle’s currently drivenpath.

    The positions of stationary objects, such as guardrails, lampposts and delineators aremeasured by the radar. These measurements can be used to estimate the border of theroad. Three conceptually different methods to represent and derive the road borders arepresented in this thesis. Occupancy grid mapping discretizes the map surrounding theego vehicle and the probability of occupancy is estimated for each grid cell. The secondmethod applies a constrained quadratic program in order to estimate the road borders,which are represented by two polynomials. The third method associates the radar measurementsto extended stationary objects and tracks them as extended targets.

    The approaches presented in this thesis have all been evaluated on real data from bothfreeways and rural roads in Sweden.

    List of papers
    1. Joint Ego-Motion and Road Geometry Estimation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joint Ego-Motion and Road Geometry Estimation
    2011 (English)In: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a sensor fusion framework for solving the problem of joint egomotion and road geometry estimation. More specifically we employ a sensor fusion framework to make systematic use of the measurements from a forward looking radar and camera, steering wheel angle sensor, wheel speed sensors and inertial sensors to compute good estimates of the road geometry and the motion of the ego vehicle on this road. In order to solve this problem we derive dynamical models for the ego vehicle, the road and the leading vehicles. The main difference to existing approaches is that we make use of a new dynamic model for the road. An extended Kalman filter is used to fuse data and to filter measurements from the camera in order to improve the road geometry estimate. The proposed solution has been tested and compared to existing algorithms for this problem, using measurements from authentic traffic environments on public roads in Sweden. The results clearly indicate that the proposed method provides better estimates.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2011
    Keywords
    Sensor fusion, Single track model, Bicycle model, Road geometry estimation, Extended Kalman filter
    National Category
    Signal Processing Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51243 (URN)10.1016/j.inffus.2010.06.007 (DOI)000293207500004 ()
    Projects
    IVSS - SEFS
    Available from: 2011-01-13 Created: 2009-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Recursive Identification of Cornering Stiffness Parameters for an Enhanced Single Track Model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recursive Identification of Cornering Stiffness Parameters for an Enhanced Single Track Model
    2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposiumon System Identification, 2009, p. 1726-1731Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current development of safety systems within the automotive industry heavily relies on the ability to perceive the environment. This is accomplished by using measurements from several different sensors within a sensor fusion framework. One important part of any system of this kind is an accurate model describing the motion of the vehicle. The most commonly used model for the lateral dynamics is the single track model, which includes the so called cornering stiffness parameters. These parameters describe the tire-road contact and are unknown and even time-varying. Hence, in order to fully make use of the single track model, these parameters have to be identified. The aim of this work is to provide a method for recursive identification of the cornering stiffness parameters to be used on-line while driving.

    Series
    LiTH-ISY-R, ISSN 1400-3902 ; 2893
    Keywords
    Recursive estimation, Recursive least square, Vehicle dynamics, Gray box model, Tire-road interaction
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-45372 (URN)10.3182/20090706-3-FR-2004.00287 (DOI)82231 (Local ID)978-3-902661-47-0 (ISBN)82231 (Archive number)82231 (OAI)
    Conference
    15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification, Saint-Malo, France, July, 2009
    Available from: 2011-12-16 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-02-20Bibliographically approved
    3. Estimation of the Free Space in Front of a Moving Vehicle
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimation of the Free Space in Front of a Moving Vehicle
    2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the '09 SAE World Congress & Exhibition, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more and more systems emerging making use of measurements from a forward looking radar and a forward looking camera. It is by now well known how to exploit this data in order to compute estimates of the road geometry, tracking leading vehicles, etc. However, there is valuable information present in the radar concerning stationary objects, that is typically not used. The present work shows how radar measurements of stationary objects can be used to obtain a reliable estimate of the free space in front of a moving vehicle. The approach has been evaluated on real data from highways and rural roads in Sweden.

    Keywords
    Road geometry, Weighted least squares, Quadratic program, Road borders, Free space estimation, Automotive radar, Road mapping
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-44998 (URN)10.4271/2009-01-1288 (DOI)79290 (Local ID)978-0-7680-2126-4 (ISBN)79290 (Archive number)79290 (OAI)
    Conference
    SAE World Congress & Exhibition, April 2009, Detroit, MI, USA
    Available from: 2011-12-16 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-02-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Tracking Stationary Extended Objects for Road Mapping using Radar Measurements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracking Stationary Extended Objects for Road Mapping using Radar Measurements
    2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the '09 IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, IEEE , 2009, p. 405-410Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is getting more common that premium cars areequipped with a forward looking radar and a forward looking camera. The data is often used to estimate the road geometry, tracking leading vehicles, etc. However, there is valuable information present in the radar concerning stationary objects, that is typically not used. The present work shows how stationary objects, such as guard rails, can be modeled and tracked as extended objects using radar measurements. The problem is cast within a standard sensor fusion framework utilizing the Kalman filter. The approach has been evaluated on real datafrom highways and rural roads in Sweden.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2009
    Series
    IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. Proceedings, ISSN 1931-0587
    Keywords
    Extended objects, Object detection, Radar imaging, Road vehicle radar, Object tracking, Road mapping, Stationary objects
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18179 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2009.5164312 (DOI)978-1-4244-3504-3 (ISBN)978-1-4244-3503-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    '09 IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, Xi’an, China, June, 2009
    Projects
    IVSS - SEFSMOVIII
    Available from: 2011-08-12 Created: 2009-05-09 Last updated: 2013-07-22Bibliographically approved
  • 253.
    Lundqvist, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Utveckling av trigger för synkronisering av elektroniksystem: En praktisk tillämpning i elektroniksystem2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De triggers som idag används i Autoliv BKIs laboratorium har till uppgift att synkronisera signalerna vid simulering av krock som en intern kvalitetskontroll av produktionen. De sköter utösning av airbags och start av höghastighetskameror.

    Då Autoliv har flera modeller av krockkuddar används idag olika triggers och man har därför som önskemål att utveckla ett nytt system som skulle kunna ersätta de nuvarande systemen och som kan användas vid samtliga kvalitetstest.

    Projektet resulterade i en testad prototyp som inkluderar hårdvara, mjukvara, samt CAD-ritningar till en färdig produkt.

  • 254.
    Löfstedt, Truls
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att etablera styrning av en tjänsteorienterad IT-arkitektur inom offentlig hälso- och sjukvård: Framtidens eHälsa i Stockholms Läns Landsting2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom Svensk hälso- och sjukvård sker en stor förändring i IT-infrastruktur. En nationell tjänsteplattform som ska möjligt delning av information mellan vårdgivare i olika regioner har implementerats. Flera landsting och regioner har implementerat liknande arkitekturer lokalt för att uppnå samma effekt även internt, men också för att underlätta uppkoppling till den nationella lösningen.Genom en kvalitativ fallstudie undersöker denna uppsats implementationen av en regional tjänsteplattform i Stockholms Läns Landsting med fokus på styrning. I en teoretisk undersökning behandlas teorier gällande IT inom offentlig hälso- och sjukvård, IT-governance, SOA och SOA-governance.Syftet med studien är att analysera och utvärdera teorier gällande SOA-governance i relation till styrning av en regional tjänsteplattform inom offentlig hälso- och sjukvård och på så sätt bidra till utveckling av aktuella teorier genom en diskussion gällande dess användbarhet inom en specifik sektor. Jag syftar också att bidra till utveckling av den studerade verksamheten genom att identifiera/prognostisera möjligheter och problem med aktuella styrningsstrukturer.Resultaten indikerar att utmaningar för att etablera SOA-governance inom offentlig hälso-och sjukvård främst härstammar ur organisationens natur. Exempelvis Politisk styrning eller lagstiftning. Ramverk för SOA-governance kan inte direkt hantera dessa utmaningar, men kan ge ett stöd genom struktur i arbetet samtidigt som de kan agera rådgivande gällande lösningar som fungerat i andra verksamheter. Rekommendationen är att tidigt i processen fastställa omfång av SOA-projektet, men också dess mål relativt verksamheten. Studien tyder också på att en ökad nytta kan erhållas genom att tidigt i processen etablera en styrande grupp som med ett tydligt mandat beslutar om standarder och säkerställer dess efterlevnad redan under etableringsprojektet.

  • 255.
    Löfstedt, Truls
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring Integrated Management Systems – Challenges and Potentials in Relation to IT Governance2015In: IRIS: Selected Papers of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia / [ed] Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti & Judith Molka-Danielsen, 2015, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the notion of an integrated management system (IMS) supported by IT and the relation between IMS and IT governance (ITG). This paper presents the initial results from a case study of an IMS at a large government agency in Sweden. It serves as an initial exploration of the first case in my PhD thesis on ITG intended to explore the integration of ITG in to other management systems. The initial results indicate three main perspectives that are important in the design of a performing IMS; [1] Setting the scope of the IMS in regards to detail level, range and origin of information, [2] having coherent control mechanisms in play that align with the integration strategy and the overall business objectives, and [3] making use of the potential IT has to offer in regards to sorting and presenting information.

  • 256.
    Löfstedt, Truls
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att koordinera distribuerade IT-projekt med stöd av informations- och kommunikationsteknik: En fallstudie på IFS World Operations AB2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems are often developed in globally distributed organizations. Many times the reason for being distributed is to meet requirements and demands from the organizations surrounding and to acquire a specialized set of skills. Global organizations may choose to work distributed, which means that development teams are spread out over multiple locations. This can create problems; how do you make all parts of the organization work together towards a common goal? Thus, coordination – The management of interdependent elements in a complex organization so as to enable them to work together effectively toward a specific goal – becomes important. Long distance communication using information and communication technology (ICT) – digital tools with the purpose of endorsing communication and knowledge – is required to coordinate between locations.

    In this thesis we examine how coordination is performed in distributed IT-projects. We will also address the role that information and communications technology plays in coordination of these projects. The purpose of the study is to contribute with knowledge in the area of using ICT tools for coordinating distributed IT-projects.

    This qualitative case study was conducted in cooperation with IFS World Operations AB – a global provider of an Enterprise Resource Planning system. Our empirical data has been collected using five interviews, all with different types of roles from within IT-projects. The data has then been put in relation to theories concerning coordination, IT-projects and ICT.

    Our findings show coordination in distributed, agile software development projects is working on two levels; strategic and operational coordination. The difference lies with the motivation to complete goals on different levels of the organization. We can also conclude that there are three different kinds of means to carry out coordination; Mutual Adjustment, Emerging standardization and organizational management.

    Concerning the role of ICT in the coordination of distributed IT-projects we have found it to be threefold; enabling, mediating and limiting.

    Based on these findings we conclude this study by presenting five factors that influence the ability to coordinate distributed IT-projects. These are: group dynamics, level of distribution, fixed development teams, parallel development of technology and organization and standardized communication channels.

  • 257.
    Malm, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Malmqvist, Henric
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Automatisering av spraytorkningsprocess2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABB Surge Arrestors in Ludvika have for a long time had a problem to keep the moisture at a steady state in the production of their ZnO-powder, that is used to produce varistors.

    Some black-box models of the spray drying process have been designed and evaluated to find a solution for the problem. After evaluating the collected data it has been found that variations in the supply voltage causes control difficulties for the operator. A cascade control system was designed, consisting of three PI control loops designed with lambda tuning. The disturbance in the supply voltagewas used as a feed forward in the control system.

    At the end of the project the control system was installed, and tests were made to verify the functionality of the regulator. It was shown that most of the variations in the moisture of the powder could be eliminated using small resources, through purchase of a process controller and four power meters. The

    standard deviation in the moisture was decreased from a level of 0.32%, measured when the process was manually controlled, down to 0.07% measured when the control system was used. This also solved the given problem.

  • 258.
    Matras, Omolara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    In pursuit of a perfect system: Balancing usability and security in computer system development2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our society is dependent on information and the different technologies and artifacts that gives us access to it. However, the technologies we have come to depend on in different aspects of our lives are imperfect and during the past decade, these imperfections have been the target of identity thieves, cyber criminals and malicious persons within and outside the organization. These malicious persons often target networks of organizations such as hospitals, banks and other financial organizations. Access to these networks are often gained by sidestepping security mechanisms of computer-systems connected to the organization’s network.

    Often, the goal of computer-systems security mechanisms is to prevent or detect threats; or recover from an eventual attack. However, despite huge investments in IT-security infrastructure and Information security, over 95% of banks, hospitals and government agencies have at least 10 malicious infections bypass existing security mechanisms and enter their network without being detected. This has resulted in the loss of valuable information and substantial sums of money from banks and other organizations across the globe. From early research in this area, it has been discovered that the reason why security mechanisms fail is because it is often used incorrectly or not used at all.  Specifically, most users find the security mechanisms on their computers too complicated and they would rather not use it. Therefore, previous research have focused on making computer-systems security usable or simplifying security technology so that they are “less complicated” for all types users, instead of designing computers that are both usable and secure. The problem with this traditional approach is that security is treated as an “add-on” to a finished computer-system design.

    This study is an attempt to change the traditional approach by adjusting two phases of a computer-system design model to incorporate the collection of usability as well as security requirements. Guided by the exploratory case study research design, I gained new insights into a situation that has shocked security specialists and organizational actors alike. This study resulted in the creation of a methodology for designing usable and secure computer-systems. Although this method is in its rudimentary stage, it was tested using an online questionnaire. Data from the literature study was sorted using a synthesis matrix; and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Some prominent design and security models and methodologies discussed in this report include User-Centered System Design (UCSD), Appropriate and Effective Guidance for Information Security (AEGIS) and Octave Allegro. 

  • 259.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Affärssystem: – en organisatorisk och teknisk paradox?2009In: Temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1, p. 47-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Affärssystem har stor betydelse för hur verksamheter leds och organiseras. De utgör ryggraden i många organisationers informationsbehandling och styrning. Boken riktar sig till praktiker, studenter och forskare genom att visa på affärssystemområdets bredd och lyfta fram relevanta - och vetenskapligt intressanta - situationer och frågeställningar. Den syftar till att ta temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige! I boken diskuteras vad affärssystem är, hur utvecklingen av dem förhåller sig till utveckling av skräddarsydda system, varför vi behöver dem och hur de bidrar till att skapa värde. På vilket sätt kan ett affärssystem underlätta införandet av en mer strategisk ekonomistyrning och vilken roll har controllern i arbetet med att ta tillvara systemets möjligheter? Vad kan vi lära oss av de företag som lyckats och varför är det troligt att affärssystem blir politiska verktyg i dragkampen om hur organisationen ska styras? Inte minst i den offentliga sektorn ställs många av dessa frågor på sin spets

  • 260.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koordination och informationssystem i företag och nätverk2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisatorisk koordination, informationssystem och IT-system är nyckelord i denna avhandling. Att koordinera är en grundläggande del av verksamhet eftersom denna handling syftar till att öka sannolikheten för att nå mål. Att förstå koordination har engagerat forskare från olika ämnesområden under en längre tid. Trots detta finns, med utgångspunkt i både teori och praktik, behov att studera koordination i både företag och nätverk tillsammans med användning av IT-system. Frågor som behandlas i avhandlingen är följande: hur ser samspelet ut mellan koordination inom företag och mellan företag (relationer i nätverk)? Vilken roll har informations-/kommunikationshantering och informationssystem/IT-system vid koordination? Huvudsyftet är att utifrån ett kombinerat företags- och nätverksperspektiv, beskriva och analysera koordination av handlingar inom, och av, affärsrelationer samt användning av informations- och IT-system. Exempel på teorier och perspektiv som används för att förstå koordination är organisationsteori, inter-organisatorisk teori, nätverksansatsen samt teori om informationssystem och IT-system. Aktörer, handling och kommunikation som handling betonas också. Den empiriska delen av arbetet utgörs av två nätverk; ett inom träindustrin och ett inom verkstadsindustrin. Nätverken innehåller både likheter och skillnader och dessa nyttjas för att förstå koordination och informationssystem. De IT-system som studeras och analyseras är företagsinterna och inter-organisatoriska. Systemen används exempelvis för konstruktion (CAD-system), hantering av order, lager och fakturering. Dessutom har ett affärssystem studerats. Det empiriska arbetet är longitudinellt, kvalitativt inriktat och utgörs av 70 intervjuer, viss deltagande observation samt studier av dokument, IT-system och dess användning. Medverkande företag och privata konsumenter är 23 och antalet analyserade affärsrelationer är 20. Kunskapsutvecklingsprocessen kännetecknas av en aktiv användning av både teori och empiri. Teori är en initial guide till datainsamling, en del av en iterativ process av datainsamling och analys samt en del av slutmålet. Växlingen mellan fallstudier, etablerad kunskap, förförståelse och framväxande teori är tydlig både i tillämpning och i beskrivning. Resultatet av studien visar bland annat att befintliga koordinationsmekanismer från teori har en otillräcklig förståelse- och förklaringskraft vid studier av koordination i företag och nätverk, med och utan bruk av IT-system, och behöver därför kompletteras. Otillräcklig hänsyn tas också till mänskliga aktörer och deras handlingar, företagsextern påverkan, emergenta och dynamiska processer, samtidighet och variation samt kommunikation, IT-system och information. Koordination är ett komplext fenomen som kan betraktas utifrån olika vyer. En uppsättning vyer, ett centralt resultat av arbetet, visar att handling, anpassning, organisering, medel, roller, subjekt/objekt och kommunikation samt information är viktigt att inkludera för att förstå koordination. IT-systemens alltmer framträdande roll vid organisering, både som reellt stöd och hinder vid koordination, diskuteras och problematiseras. En viktig tes i avhandlingen är att genom en utvecklad förståelse för koordinationsprinciper och -mönster i företag och nätverk stöds utveckling av verksamhetsnyttiga informationssystem. Rika empiriska beskrivningar tillsammans med en kombinerad ansats vid analys av affärsrelationer samt analys och jämförelse av teorier är också viktiga resultat av arbetet. Vidare finns en avslutande reflektion över den eklektiska forskningsansatsen i arbetet tillsammans med reflektion över utgångspunkter, datagenerering och kunskapsbidrag.

  • 261.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Emperor's New Clothes?: Analysing the Swedish Action Plan for e-Government2009In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, Special Issue on E-Government in Sweden: New Directions, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2009, no 2, p. 97-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the “National Action Plan for the Swedish eGovernment”, launched in 2008, based on three dimensions generated from theory: (1) the relationship between information systems and organizational change, (2) process orientation and (3) coordination. The analysis presents a critical examination of the action plan. The analysis shows that the action plan contains an overall rational perspective on the relationship between information systems and organizational change; several rather specific impacts are forecasted using e.g. e-services in public administration. Rational choices when designing information systems for public administration are assumed to be made based on business needs, citizen needs and business processes. An almost unlimited choice over technological options and an explicit ambition to control the consequences are also outlined in the action plan. The process perspective is also very present in the action plan promoting a horizontal view of public administration and e-services as an antithesis to the vertical, rigid “silos” often reported in government organizations. The action plan is also found to have an innovative view of IT, but a more moderate and reformist view of internal government organizations. The plan as such represents an overall top-down approach to e-government, providing a framework within which to develop egovernment. The customer/client needs are expressed explicitly in the action plan, in several contexts and combined with internal efficiency efforts in a balanced way. Several aspects of coordination are also identified in the analysis, for example regarding standardization.

  • 262.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Enterprise System as a Part of an Organization’s Administrative Paradox2010In: Journal of Enterprise Information Management, ISSN 1741-0398, E-ISSN 1758-7409, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 181-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The main purpose of this article is to discuss if an enterprise system (ES) is a part of an organization’s administrative paradox. The questions raised here is which role the ES has in organizing, focusing aspects of flexibility and stability.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – This study is a qualitative, longitudinal, case study of how an ES maintain, and even reinforce, existing administrative organizational structures. The theoretical lens used is mainly structuration theory.

    Findings – This article argues that an ES can take the part of an organization’s administrative paradox. An administrative paradox is two sides of the same coin when coordinating organizations – the concurrent striving for flexibility and stability. The studied ES even centralizes control, creates norms, and enhances power for actors in positions of authority (top management). Due to its structure and configuration the ES is a powerful tool to coordinate. The ES is considered to be organizationally ungainly, but at the same time indispensable.

    Practical implications – the case study how the administrative paradox becomes present in an organization implementing and using and ES. The case also provides valuable insights on how the studied organizations tries to deal with standardization/stability and flexibility that can be valuable for other system users or implementers to learn from, as well as the analysis as a whole.

    Originality/value – This paper originally combines structuration theory and theories covering the administrative paradox and aspects of coordination in order to analyze and discuss the implementation and use of an ES.

  • 263.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Action in Action Research - Illustrations of What, Who, Why, Where, and When from an E-Government Project2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The core content of action research (AR) is being able to solve organisational problems through intervention and to contribute to scientific knowledge. The main emphasis when discussing AR has been on the -research part-. In this paper we focus on -action part- of AR in order to generate rigorous research, to solve local problems and to deal with evident dilemmas in AR. Action elements are addressed by situations in a project on one-stop government e-service development. As a result of the analysis action is illustrated. Action elements: action, actor, motive, space, time are analysed together with roles. The paper also shows a need to understand initiation, problem and situation addressing as an ongoing process in an AR project. A breakdown in the project is also highlighted and situations where problems discovers the action researcher and vice versa.  

  • 264.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing Information Systems Education in a Network: Lessons Learned from a R&D Project2010In: 2010 ISECON Proceedings: v27 n1372, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on lessons learned from developing information systems (IS) higher education in an inter-organizational (IO) network focusing possibilities and challenges. Developing higher education is one area among others where organizing joint efforts in networks are possible. An IO R&D project is described and analyzed in this paper. The overall research design is qualitative and interpretive. The research is based on a case study of the project and the network collaboration between four Swedish universities as participants as such. Theoretical concepts that characterize an IO relationship (continuity, complexity, symmetry, and formality) and concepts that describe dimensions of such relationships (links, bonds, and ties) helped us to describe and to analyze interaction in the IO network together with the characterization of context, content and process related to the development work. The IO network in this paper is classified as a joint problem solver; a functional network. Findings in the paper address several possibilities and challenges related to higher education development in IO networks. Findings highlight e.g. the need to involve active teachers and researchers, to manage distributed teams, to be aware of the critical and sensitive matter of opening up the “black box” of courses using critical friends, and the time and effort needed for anchoring projects and changes at the participating universities.

  • 265.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Emphasising Symmetry Issues in Business Interaction Analysis and IOS2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 266.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inter-organizational Information Systems and Interaction in Public vs. Private Sector: Comparing Two Cases2010In: Electronic Government: 9th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2010, Lausanne, Switzerland, August 29 - September 2, 2010. Proceedings / [ed] Wimmer, M.A., Chappelet, J-L., Janssen, M., Scholl, H., Berlin: Springer , 2010, p. 38-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares inter-organizational (IO) interaction and inter-organizational information systems (IOS) in public and private sector. The purpose of the paper is to explore differences and similarities between e-government and e-business focusing IOS and interaction. This is done in order to facilitate learning between the two fields. The point of departure is two case studies performed in private vs. public sectors. A comparative study is made using IO concepts from industrial markets that characterize an IO relationship (continuity, complexity, symmetry, and formality) and concepts that describe dimensions of such relationships (links, bonds, and ties). The results from the comparative study show that there are several similarities concerning interaction in relations between organizations in the two sectors. There are also differences depending on the level of analysis (empirical level vs. analytical level). The study shows the need to be explicit regarding organizational value, end-customer or client/citizen value and the type of objects that are exchanged in the interaction.

  • 267.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Managing e-service development: comparing two e-government case studies2009In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 248-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To contribute to a better understanding of the progress and the success vs. failure in e-government development, based on case studies of two inter-organizational e-service projects.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – The analysis in the paper is made from a) an e-government systems development life-cycle perspective and b) a challenge and success factor perspective. The point of departure is theory and a comparative analysis of two e-government projects.

    Findings – The main results in this paper are 1) a combination of perspectives (in a project stage and analysis grid) that can serve as a support when managing e-service development and 2) a set of identified crucial success factors within an inter-organizational e-government project including project manager skills and position in the agency organization as well as when and how systems maintenance issues are introduced into a project. Existing theory and perspectives are also criticised based on the present study.

    Practical implications – Lessons to learn from a challenge and success factors perspective in two different e-government projects, and suggestions to revise an e-government development life-cycle in order to perform a better practice in the field. The revised/developed project stage and analysis grid presented in the paper is one way to deal with the challenges related to the management of e-service development in the public sector.

    Originality/value – This paper addresses a number of challenges of complexity and risk that e-government initiatives face. It is not an easy matter to realize such initiatives’ potential. A key research issue for the e-government field, as well as the information systems field in general, is to understand why some projects progress to success while others end in failure. This is the niche for the present paper.

  • 268.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Wedlund, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Project-based Learning: - An Emergent Framework for Designing Courses2009In: Information Systems Education Journal, ISSN 1545-679X, Vol. 7, no 34, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we elaborate on a framework, a set of guidelines, for teachers when designing project based courses. The emergent framework presented in this paper will focus on six themes: (1) overall course design, (2) project task, (3) project group, (4) examination, (5) feedback and (6) course evaluation and improvement and is initially grounded in theory and practice. The framework elaborated in this paper should support teachers' development of a professional autonomy within the norms of a professional group and an active curriculum.

  • 269.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Project Oriented Student Work - Learning and Examination2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Open Government Data in an e-service Context: Managerial and Conceptual Challenges, Completed Research Full Paper2017In: Proceeding of the Americas Conference on Information Systems: E-Government (SIGEGOV), Americas Conference on Information Systems , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open government data (OGD) includes different data sets that are launched by government organizationsin order to stimulate third-party development of e.g. apps for mobile devices. At the same time agovernment organization is expected to provide useful public e-services. Government organizations oftoday tend to treat OGD and e-services separately, so is the e-government community. The aim of thispaper is to address challenges related to the work with OGD within an e-service context from: (1) amanagerial, and (2) a conceptual perspective. A qualitative case study of the Swedish TransportAdministration and their work with OGD and e-services as an empirical base in this paper. This paperillustrates, using a set of analytic categories generated from previous studies, that there are severalchallenges related to the managerial and conceptual work and perspectives concerning OGD. There arealso different patterns present when managing e-services and OGD (bottom-up vs. top-down).

  • 271.
    Molin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Investigation of Correlations Between COV of Ion Integral and COV of IMEP in a Port-Injected Natural-Gas Engine2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Correlations between the coefficient of variations (COV) of ion current integrals and COV of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) are investigated. The investigations are made to see if there is a possibility to use ion sense technique for closed loop combustion control to maximize Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) level with remaining combustion stability. The engine studied in this thesis is a stoichiometric natural gas engine with a three way catalyst working with different EGR levels. One way to increase the efficiency in a stoichiometric natural gas engine is to maximize the EGR level [3]. With a higher EGR level it is possible to open the throttle even further with a result of lower pumping losses. Also temperature losses to chamber walls will be smaller with high EGR levels. A closed loop system controlling the EGR valve against COV of IMEP around 5 % is used for this engine. For COV of flame peak integral in range from 0 to 15-20% of COV of IMEP a linear correlation was found for lambda less than 1.3. For COV of two peaks integral a linear correlation was found for the entire measured range. This correlation may not be used for a robust EGR control system due to a small increase of COV of ion integral and due to a high variance in COV of ion integral. Correlations are discussed for different ion integrals with different air/fuels ratios and EGR levels. A control strategy is also presented.

  • 272.
    Mugisha, Alice
    et al.
    Univ Bergen, Norway; Makerere Univ, Uganda.
    Nankabirwa, Victoria
    Makerere Univ, Uganda; Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Tylleskar, Thorkild
    Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Babic, Ankica
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Bergen, Norway.
    A usability design checklist for Mobile electronic data capturing forms: the validation process2019In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 19, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundNew Specific Application Domain (SAD) heuristics or design principles are being developed to guide the design and evaluation of mobile applications in a bid to improve on the usability of these applications. This is because the existing heuristics are rather generic and are often unable to reveal a large number of mobile usability issues related to mobile specific interfaces and characteristics. Mobile Electronic Data Capturing Forms (MEDCFs) are one of such applications that are being used to collect health data particularly in hard to reach areas, but with a number of usability challenges especially when used in rural areas by semi literate users. Existing SAD design principles are often not used to evaluate mobile forms because their focus on features specific to data capture is minimal. In addition, some of these lists are extremely long rendering them difficult to use during the design and development of the mobile forms. The main aim of this study therefore was to generate a usability evaluation checklist that can be used to design and evaluate Mobile Electronic Data Capturing Forms in a bid to improve their usability. We also sought to compare the novice and expert developers views regarding usability criteria.MethodsWe conducted a literature review in August 2016 using key words on articles and gray literature, and those with a focus on heuristics for mobile applications, user interface designs of mobile devices and web forms were eligible for review. The data bases included the ACM digital library, IEEE-Xplore and Google scholar. We had a total of 242 papers after removing duplicates and a total of 10 articles which met the criteria were finally reviewed. This review resulted in an initial usability evaluation checklist consisting of 125 questions that could be adopted for designing MEDCFs. The questions that handled the five main categories in data capture namely; form content, form layout, input type, error handling and form submission were considered. A validation study was conducted with both novice and expert developers using a validation tool in a bid to refine the checklist which was based on 5 criteria. The criteria for the validation included utility, clarity, question naming, categorization and measurability, with utility and measurability having a higher weight respectively. We then determined the proportion of participants who agreed (scored 4 or 5), disagreed (scored 1 or 2) and were neutral (scored 3) to a given criteria regarding a particular question for each of the experts and novice developers. Finally, we selected questions that had an average of 85% agreement (scored 4 or 5) across all the 5 criteria by both novice and expert developers. Agreement stands for capturing the same views or sentiments about theperceived likeness of an evaluation question.ResultsThe validation study reduced the initial 125 usability evaluation questions to 30 evaluation questions with the form layout category having the majority questions. Results from the validation showed higher levels of affirmativeness from the expert developers compared to those of the novice developers across the different criteria; however the general trend of agreement on relevance of usability questionswas similar across all the criteria for the developers. The evaluation questions that were being validated were found to be useful, clear, properly named and categorized, however the measurability of the questions was found not to be satisfactory by both sets of developers. The developers attached great importance to the use of appropriate language and to the visibility of the help function, but in addition expert developers felt that indication of mandatory and optional fields coupled with the use of device information like the Global Positioning System (GPS) was equally important. And for both sets of developers, utility had the highest scores while measurability scored least.ConclusionThe generated checklist indicated the design features the software developers found necessary to improve the usability of mobile electronic data collection tools. In the future, we thus propose to test the effectiveness of the measure for suitability and performance based on this generated checklist, and test it on the end users (data collectors) with a purpose of picking their design requirements. Continuous testing with the end users will help refine the checklist to include only that which is most important in improving the data collectors experience.

  • 273.
    Mugisha, Alice
    et al.
    Univ Bergen, Norway; Makerere Univ, Uganda.
    Wakholi, Peter
    Makerere Univ, Uganda.
    Babic, Ankica
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Design Features for Usable Mobile Electronic Data Capturing Forms: The Form Developers Perspective2019In: WORLD CONGRESS ON MEDICAL PHYSICS AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 2018, VOL 1, SPRINGER , 2019, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 463-466Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Electronic Data Capturing Forms (MEDCFs) are electronic form applications that are primarily used for data capture using mobile devices in the place of paper-based routines. Translating paper-based forms to MEDCFs presents several usability challenges due to the design limitations of using mobile devices. The main objective of this study therefore was to define the most important design features that need to be considered when developing MEDCFs. Fifteen mobile form developers each received a semi-structured questionnaire via Email. The questions were derived from sub heuristics for mobile applications and were based on features that are common to forms such as form content, form layout, input type, error handling and form submission. The study identified the eighteen most important design features that all MEDCFs should have in order to provide a usable tool. These include feedback, logic implementation, form navigation, data input format requirements, unique identification, language translation and error handling among others. With a shorter design feature checklist specific to MEDCFs, and collaboration efforts amongst the various stakeholders, it will be possible to develop usable mobile electronic data collection forms.

  • 274.
    Muhammad, Ajmal
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Planning and Provisioning Strategies for Optical Core Networks2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical communication networks are considered the main catalyst for the transformation of communication technology, and serve as the backbone of today's Internet. The inclusion of exciting technologies, such as, optical amplifiers, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADM) in optical networks have made the cost of information transmission around the world negligible. However, to maintain the cost effectiveness for the growing bandwidth demand, facilitate faster provisioning, and provide richer sets of service functionality, optical networks must continue to evolve. With the proliferation of cloud computing the demand for a promptly responsive network has increased. Moreover, there are several applications, such as, real time multimedia services that can become realizable, depending on the achievable connection set-up time.

    Given the high bandwidth requirements and strict service level specifications (SLSs) of such applications, dynamic on-demand WDM networks are advocated as a first step in this evolution. SLSs are metrics of a service level agreement (SLA), which is a contract between a customer and network operator. Apart from the other candidate parameters, the set-up delay tolerance, and connection holding-time have been defined as metrics of SLA. Exploiting these SLA parameters for on-line provisioning strategies exhibits a good potential in improving the overall network blocking performance. However, in a scenario where connection requests are grouped in different service classes, the provisioning success rate might be unbalanced towards those connection requests with less stringent requirements, i.e., not all the connection requests are treated in a fair way.

    The first part of this thesis focuses on different scheduling strategies for promoting the requests belonging to smaller set-up delay tolerance service classes. The first part also addresses the problem of how to guarantee the signal quality and the fair provisioning of different service classes, where each class corresponds to a specified target of quality of transmission. Furthermore, for delay impatient applications the thesis proposes a provisioning approach, which employs the possibility to tolerate a slight degradation in quality of transmission during a small fraction of the holding-time.

    The next essential phase for scaling system capacity and satisfying the diverse customer demands is the introduction of flexibility in the underlying technology. In this context, the new optical transport networks, namely elastic optical networks (EON) are considered as a worthwhile solution to efficiently utilize the available spectrum resources. Similarly, space division multiplexing (SDM) is envisaged as a promising technology for the capacity expansion of future networks. Among the alternative for flexible nodes, the architecture on demand (AoD) node has the capability to dynamically adapt its composition according to the switching and processing needs of the network traffic.

    The second part of this thesis investigates the benefits of set-up delay tolerance for EON by proposing an optimization model for dynamic and concurrent connection provisioning. Furthermore, it also examines the planning aspect for flexible networks by presenting strategies that employ the adaptability inherent in AoD. Significant reduction in switching devices is attainable by proper planning schemes that synthesized the network by allocating switching device where and when needed while maximizing fiber switching operation. In addition, such a design approach also reduces the power consumption of the network. However, cost-efficient techniques in dynamic networks can deteriorate the network blocking probability owing to insufficient number of switching modules. For dynamic networks, the thesis proposes an effective synthesis provisioning scheme along with a technique for optimal placement of switching devices in the network nodes.

    The network planning problem is further extended to multi-core-fiber (MCF) based SDM networks. The proposed strategies for SDM networks aim to establish the connections through proper allocation of spectrum and core while efficiently utilizing the spectrum resources. Finally, the optimal planning strategy for SDM networks is tailored to fit synthetic AoD based networks with the goal to optimally build each node and synthesize the whole network with minimum possible switching resources.

    List of papers
    1. Service Differentiated Provisioning in Dynamic WDM Networks Based on Set-Up Delay Tolerance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service Differentiated Provisioning in Dynamic WDM Networks Based on Set-Up Delay Tolerance
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, ISSN 1943-0620, E-ISSN 1943-0639, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 1250-1261Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Optical networks are expected to provide a unified platform for a diverse set of emerging applications (three-dimensional TV, digital cinema, e-health, grid computing, etc). The service differentiation will be an essential feature of these networks. Considering the fact that users have different levels of patience for different network applications, referred to as set-up delay tolerance, it will be one of the key parameters for service differentiation. Service differentiation based on set-up delay tolerance will not only enable network users to select an appropriate service class (SC) in compliance with their requirements, but will also provide an opportunity to optimize the network resource provisioning by exploiting this information, resulting in an improvement in the overall performance. Improvement in network performance can be further enhanced by exploiting the connection holding-time awareness. However, when multiple classes of service with different set-up delay tolerances are competing for network resources, the connection requests belonging to SCs with higher set-up delay tolerance have better chances to grab the resources and leave less room for the others, resulting in degradation in the blocking performance of less patient customers. This study proposes different scheduling strategies for promoting the requests belonging to smaller set-up delay tolerance SCs, such as giving priority, reserving some fraction of available resources, and augmenting the research space by providing some extra paths. Extensive simulation results show that 1) priority in the rescheduling queue is not always sufficient for eradicating the degradation effect of high delay tolerant SCs on the provisioning rate of the most stringent SC, and 2) by utilizing the proposed strategies, resource efficiency and overall network blocking performance improve significantly in all SCs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2013
    Keywords
    Connections holding-time; Deadline driven provisioning; Dynamic connection provisioning; Dynamic scheduling; Set-up delay tolerance; WDM networks
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103306 (URN)10.1364/JOCN.5.001250 (DOI)000328643500013 ()
    Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. Fair Scheduling of Dynamically Provisioned WDM Connections with Differentiated Signal Quality
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fair Scheduling of Dynamically Provisioned WDM Connections with Differentiated Signal Quality
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 1-6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging, on-demand applications (e.g., Interactive video, ultra-high definition TV, backup storage and grid computing) are gaining momentum and are becoming increasingly important. Given the high bandwidth required by these applications, Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks are seen as the natural choice for their transport technology. Among the various on-line strategies proposed to provision such services, the ones based on service level agreement (SLA) metrics such as setup delay tolerance and connection holding-time awareness showed a good potential in improving the overall network blocking performance. However, in a scenario where connection requests are grouped in different service classes, the provisioning success rate might be unbalanced towards those connection requests with less stringent requirements, i.e., not all the connection requests are treated in a fair way. This paper addresses the problem of how to guarantee the signal quality and the fair provisioning of different service classes, where each class corresponds to a specified target of quality of transmission (QoT). With this objective in mind three fair scheduling algorithms are proposed in a dynamic traffic scenario, each one combining in a different way the concept of both set-up delay tolerance and connection holding-time awareness. Proposed solutions are specifically taylored to facilitate the provisioning of the most stringent service class so as to balance the success rate among the different classes. Simulation results confirm that the proposed approaches are able to guarantee a fair treatment reaching up to 99% in terms of Jain's fairness index, considering the per-class success ratio, without compromising the improvements in terms of overall network blocking probability.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2012
    Keywords
    Bandwidth, Delay, Electronic mail, Optical fiber networks, Real time systems, Telemedicine, WDM networks
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85544 (URN)10.1109/ONDM.2012.6210281 (DOI)978-1-4673-1441-1 (ISBN)978-1-4673-1440-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    16th International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 17-20 April, Colchester, UK
    Available from: 2012-11-22 Created: 2012-11-22 Last updated: 2015-03-23Bibliographically approved
    3. Trading Quality of Transmission for Improved Blocking Performance in All-Optical Networks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trading Quality of Transmission for Improved Blocking Performance in All-Optical Networks
    2013 (English)In: Asia Communications and Photonics Conference 2013, 2013, p. AF4E.5-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a connection provisioning strategy in dynamic all-optical networks, which exploit the possibility to allow a tolerable signal quality degradation during a small fraction of holding-time resulting in a significant improvement of blocking performance.

    Keywords
    All-optical networks; Networks, network optimization; Networks, wavelength routing
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115903 (URN)978-1-55752-989-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, November 12-15, Beijing, China
    Note

    DOI does not work: 10.1364/ACPC.2013.AF4E.5

    Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
    4. An Optimization Model for Dynamic Bulk Provisioning in Elastic Optical Networks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Optimization Model for Dynamic Bulk Provisioning in Elastic Optical Networks
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Asia Communications and Photonics Conference 2014, Optics Info Base, Optical Society of America, 2014, p. AF3E.6-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate benefits of setup-delay tolerance in elastic optical networks and propose an optimization model for dynamic and concurrent connection provisioning. Simulation shows that the proposed strategy offers significant improvement of the network blocking performance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Optics Info Base, Optical Society of America, 2014
    Keywords
    Fiber optics and optical communications; Networks, network optimization
    National Category
    Information Systems Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115904 (URN)10.1364/ACPC.2014.AF3E.6 (DOI)2-s2.0-84918576254 (Scopus ID)978-1-55752-852-0 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, November 11-14, Shanghai, China
    Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    5. Introducing Flexible and Synthetic Optical Networking: Planning and Operation Based on Network Function Programmable ROADMs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing Flexible and Synthetic Optical Networking: Planning and Operation Based on Network Function Programmable ROADMs
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, ISSN 1943-0620, E-ISSN 1943-0639, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 635-648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Elastic optical networks are envisaged as promising solutions to fulfill the diverse bandwidth requirements for the emerging heterogeneous network applications. To support flexible allocation of spectrum resources the optical network nodes need to be agile. Among the different proposed solutions for elastic nodes, the one based on architecture of demand (AoD) exhibits considerable flexibility against the other alternatives. The node modules in the case of AoD are not hard-wired, but can be connected/disconnected to any input/output port according to the requirements. Thus, each AoD node and the network (fabricated with AoD nodes) as a whole acts like an optical field-programmable gate array. This flexibility inherent in AoD can be exploited for different purposes, such as for cost-efficient and energy-efficient design of the networks. This study looks into the cost-efficient network planning issue for synthetic networks implemented through AoD nodes. The problem is formalized as an integer linear programming formulation for presenting the optimal solution. Furthermore, a scalable and effective heuristic algorithm is proposed for cost-efficient design, and its performance is compared with the optimal solution. The designed networks with AoD nodes are further investigated for a dynamic scenario, and their blocking probability due to limited switching resources in the nodes is examined. To alleviate the blocking performance for the dynamic case, an efficient synthesis strategy along with a scheme for optimal placement of switching resources within the network nodes is presented. Extensive results show that 1) even at high loads, the network with AoD nodes achieves saving of switching modules up to 40% compared to the one with static reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers (ROADMs) through a proper network design, 2) by diminishing the spectrum selective switches the overall power consumption of the network decreases by more than 25% for high loads, and 3) for the dynamic scenario the blocking owing to the node modules constraint is alleviated significantly by slightly augmenting the switching devices and optimally deploying them within the network nodes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014
    Keywords
    Architecture on demand; Dynamic traffic; Energy-efficient; Flexible and synthetic optical networks; Network planning; Optical cross-connect; Routing and spectrum allocation
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109232 (URN)10.1364/JOCN.6.000635 (DOI)000338924800006 ()
    Available from: 2014-08-12 Created: 2014-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    6. Dynamic provisioning utilizing redundant modules in elastic optical networks based on architecture on demand nodes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic provisioning utilizing redundant modules in elastic optical networks based on architecture on demand nodes
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 1-3Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Survivable synthetic ROADMs are equipped with redundant switching modules to support failure recovery. The paper proposes a dynamic connection provisioning strategy which exploits these idle redundant modules to provision regular traffic resulting in a substantial improvement in the blocking performance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2014
    Keywords
    optical fibre networks; telecommunication traffic; demand nodes; dynamic connection provisioning strategy; dynamic provisioning; elastic optical networks; failure recovery; redundant switching modules; survivable synthetic ROADM; Availability; Educational institutions; Optical add-drop multiplexers; Optical fiber networks; Optical switches; Ports (Computers)
    National Category
    Information Systems Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115906 (URN)10.1109/ECOC.2014.6963998 (DOI)2-s2.0-84915818579 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2014, September 21-25, Cannes, France
    Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    7. Routing, Spectrum and Core Allocation in Flexgrid SDM Networks with Multi-core Fibers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Routing, Spectrum and Core Allocation in Flexgrid SDM Networks with Multi-core Fibers
    2014 (English)In: 2014 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL NETWORK DESIGN AND MODELING, IEEE , 2014, p. 192-197Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Space division multiplexing (SDM) over multi-core fiber (MCF) is advocated as a promising technology to overcome the capacity limit of the current single-core optical networks. However, employing the MCF for flexgrid networks necessitates the development of new concepts, such as routing, spectrum and core allocation (RSCA) for traffic demands. The introduction of MCF in the networks mitigates the spectrum continuity constraint of the routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) problem. In fact cores can be switched freely on different links during routing of the network traffic. Similarly, the route disjointness for demands with same allocated spectrum diminishes to core disjointness at the link level. On the other hand, some new issues such as the inter-core crosstalk should be taken into account while solving the RSCA problem. This paper formulates the RSCA network planning problem using the integer linear programming (ILP) formulation. The aim is to optimally minimize the maximum number of spectrum slices required on any core of MCF of a flexgrid SDM network. Furthermore, a scalable and effective heuristic is proposed for the same problem and its performance is compared with the optimal solution. The results show that the proposed algorithm is able to well approximate the optimal solution based on ILP model.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2014
    Keywords
    Space division multiplexing (SDM); multi-core fiber (MCF); inter-core crosstalk; network planning; flexgrid networks
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112320 (URN)000343647500033 ()978-3-901882-60-9 (ISBN)
    Conference
    18th International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM)
    Available from: 2014-11-24 Created: 2014-11-24 Last updated: 2015-03-23
    8. Flexible and Synthetic SDM Networks with Multi-core-Fibers Implemented by Programmable ROADMs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible and Synthetic SDM Networks with Multi-core-Fibers Implemented by Programmable ROADMs
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    2014 (English)In: Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC2014, Cannes, France, September 21-25 September 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 1-3Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study looks into network planning issues for synthetic MCF-based SDM networks implemented through programmable ROADMs. The results show that significant savings in switching modules and energy can be attained by exploiting the flexibility inherent in programmable ROADM through a proper network design.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2014
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Information Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115907 (URN)10.1109/ECOC.2014.6963910 (DOI)
    Conference
    European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC2014, Cannes, France, September 2014
    Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
  • 275.
    Munkvold Erikssen, Bjørn
    et al.
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Opach, Tomasz
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Radianti, Jasziar
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Rød, Jan Ketil
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    SHARING INFORMATION FOR COMMONSITUATIONAL UNDERSTANDING INEMERGENCY RESPONSE2019In: Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Uppsala, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Mårtensson, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Insikter i designprocessen: Fem tjänstedesigners åsikter om framtagande och bibehållande av insikter genom designprocessen2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Insikter är en viktig del utav designprocessen. I användarcentreraddesign involveras just användaren i själva processen för att få ett slutresultat som är välanpassat till målgruppen och användaren. För att detta ska bli så bra som möjligt krävs ofta en bra förståelse för användarna och kontexten kring dessa. All information som samlas in måste i sin tur organiseras och tolkas. Insikter om hur situationen, kontexten och vad som är viktigt växer så småningom fram. Hur arbetar då designers med att ta fram insikter och behålla dessa genom hela designprocessen?

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka hur personer som arbetar med tjänstedesign själva uppfattar hur de jobbar med att ta fram insikter i designprocessen. Samt hur de uppfattar att insikter behålls genom hela hela processen.

    Detta undersöktes genom att fem personer som jobbar med tjänstedesign intervjuades. Detta material har sedan analyserats med utgångspunkt från syfte och frågeställningar.

    Insikter uppfattas generellt av dessa personer som något större än information, insikter kommer utifrån bearbetad information, och tillskillnad från idéer anses de inte utvecklas eller förfinas genom designprocessen. De behålls främst genom designprocessen genom att de ligger som grund till idéer samt att den slutliga tjänsten avvägs och utvärderas mot dessa insikter. De faktorer som framför allt påverkar uppkomsten av insikter är information, tid, erfarenhet samt kommunikation och samarbete. Information ses som grund till insikter. Tid är ett måste både för att göra ett bra grundarbete som ger bättre insikter samt att in­sikterna behöver tid för inkubation. Erfarenhet gör att designern vågar lita på sin magkänsla och kommunikation och samarbete är dels vik­tiga för att sätta ord på den intuition och magkänsla som oftast beskrivs som den första initiala delen av en insikt, men även för att förmedla insikterna i projektet samt en förutsättning för ett bra projekt.

  • 277.
    Narvesjö, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    User Experience: ett nytt arbetssätt, tankesätt - eller det beror på!: En kartläggning av UX som ramverk i teorin och praktiken2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    User experience, UX, är ett modernt begrepp inom utvecklingsbranschen lika väl som i forskningsområdet människa-datorinteraktion (HCI). Den här uppsatsen syftar till att reda ut vad UX som arbetssätt är i teori respektive praktik, om det finns en gemensam tolkning eller flera olika i olika verksamheter, samt att jämföra teorin och praktiken. För att ta reda på vad UX egentligen står för i teorin och praktiken, användes triangulering; en litteraturstudie samt en empiriskt grundad kvalitativ och delvis också kvantitativ undersökning genomfördes. Datainsamlingsmetoden som användes i empirin var dels en småskalig fallstudie hos företaget Cambio, som i kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer berättade om hela livscykeln för UX i deras projekt. Baserat på de kategorier och begrepp som kom upp i intervjuerna, fördjupades litteraturstudien i dessa områden, och en enkät om UX i praktiken konstruerades. Respondenterna i enkäten representerade ett antal olika verksamheter i Sverige, från några olika delar av IT-branschen, men som alla arbetar med UX.

    UX som arbetssätt beskrivs i teorin som användarcentrerat och med ett antal delprocesser som ska gås igenom: personas, scenarier, prototyper, utvärdering och testning ihop med slutanvändare och experter. Arbetet ska dessutom ske iterativt.

    I empirin fanns stöd för att det finns ett (singularis) etablerat arbetssätt, eller snarare ett ramverk, som är det som kallas UX. UX i praktiken innebär att man arbetar med användarcentrering. För att uppnå detta använder man verktyg eller genomför delprocesser i form av personas, d.v.s. kartläggningar av slutanvändargrupper – med bakgrunder, förutsättningar, behov o.s.v. – genom observation och intervjuer. Prototyper tas fram som tillgodoser behoven som man fann att alla personas hade och dessa testas och utvärderas ihop med slutanvändare och experter (inom UX eller annat besläktat område) och processen upprepas iterativt till dess att resultatet är till belåtenhet. Scenarier används i de två tidigare nämnda momenten: i personas i form av användningsfall, i prototyper och utvärdering i form av testfall som ska genomföras av slutanvändaren, som speglar en verklig situation. Agil utveckling föredras ur UX-synpunkt, men det är inte helt oproblematiskt eftersom det traditionella, exempelvis vattenfallsmetoden, erbjuder en stark grund att stå på innan utvecklingsarbetet tar vid.

    Litteraturstudien gav alltså liknande resultat som den empiriska undersökningen. Det finns i båda fallen ett antal gemensamma nämnare, även om dessa i teorin förmodligen beskriver ett drömläge eftersom man i praktiken har tagit de praktiskt tillämpbara delarna och snarare använder UX som ett ramverk med en uppsättning verktyg som man kan ta tillhanda för att främja arbetet med användarupplevelsen.

  • 278.
    Nilsson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Andersson, Eddie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Agil kravhantering i praktiken: Efterföljs det som formuleras i litteraturen verkligen i praktiken?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Working agile is nowadays common within the IT industry where companies constantly have to cope and adapt to change. Scrum is today the most applied agile method and is strongly linked to development projects and requirements engineering. Despite this, there are few empirical studies on Scrum and it also lacks comparative studies where requirements engineering in practice are compared to what is formulated in the literature. As a result of this, we have in this survey, examined how requirements engineering in an organization that is using Scrum is conducted in practice in accordance to what is formulated in the literature. We also identified problems and difficulties that may arise in the work with requirements engineering and also which aspects practitioners considers as most important. In order to be able to realize this study we interviewed four practitioners from Arris, all with different positions and connections to requirements engineering.

    The conclusion of this study shows that the requirements engineering in practice in most aspects is consistent with what the literature advocates. However, there are areas that not fully correspond to what is written in the literature, documentation of requirements is one such area.

  • 279.
    Nilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Savelid, Christin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att bädda för test: Utvecklingen av en innovations- och testmiljö inom Landstinget i Östergötland2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this paper is based on an increased demand for the introduction of technology and information technology (IT), which is better tested and adapted for a business before the implementation. Furthermore, there is a need that through new innovations, achieve long-term strategic objectives in the care sector. Therefore, the Swedish innovation agency Vinnova started a venture in test beds in healthcare. A test bed can be likened to an innovation and testing environment. In these, collaboration between healthcare professionals, businesses and research is done to develop products, processes and services that are adapted to the environment in which they are then applied.

    This study concerns the development and organization of an innovation- and testing environment and what the challenges are. It also concerns the roles and the needs of the stakeholders in the development and how innovation can be achieved in an organization. This has been studied by a case concerning the development of the testbed LIÖ in Östergötland County Council. Theories in the fields of stakeholders, development and innovation are used to support the analysis around these parts, and to create an understanding of some concepts. The empirical study is carried out through semi-structured interviews with representatives from various stakeholder groups to testbed LIÖ. The analysis is also carried out with the help of document studies as part of the empirical investigation. The empirical data are discussed in relation to the theoretical framework for achieving a knowledge contribution in the form of a conclusion. This affects how an innovation and test environment can be developed and organized, stakeholder roles and needs of the development and how innovations can be generated and developed in organizations. The study of the case can provide new knowledge in these areas for future development projects of similar nature.

  • 280.
    Nilsson, Kim
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Graphical User Interfaces for Distributed Version Control Systems2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Version control is an important tool for safekeeping of data and collaboration between colleagues. These days, new distributed version control systems are growing increasingly popular as successors to centralized systems like CVS and Subversion. Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) make it easier to interact with version control systems, but GUIs for distributed systems are still few and less mature than those available for centralized systems. The purpose of this thesis was to propose specific GUI ideas to make distributed systems more accessible. To accomplish this, existing version control systems and GUIs were examined. A usage survey was conducted with 20 participants consisting of software engineers. Participants were asked to score various aspects of version control systems according to usage frequency and usage difficulty. These scores were combined into an index of each aspect's "unusability" and thus its need of improvement. The primary problems identified were committing, inspecting the working set, inspecting history and synchronizing. In response, a commit helper, a repository visualizer and a favorite repositories list were proposed, along with several smaller suggestions. These proposals should constitute a good starting point for developing GUIs for distributed version control systems.

  • 281.
    Nilsson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Engback, Linus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Visualization of a blog search engine index using 3D graphics2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to find ways to make the extent and constant movement in the blogosphere visible. An application has been developed using C# and OpenGL. The application is an interactive screensaver to be run on the Windows platform. It visualizes data combining 3D and 2D elements. Geographical data is rendered using a model of the Earth, where the blog posts are constantly updated. Various statistics are displayed to give information on the current state of the blogosphere.

  • 282.
    Nilsson, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visualization of live search2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The classical search engine result page is used for many interactions with search results. While these are effective at communicating relevance, they do not present the context well. By giving the user an overview in the form of a spatialized display, in a domain that has a physical analog that the user is familiar with, context should become pre-attentive and obvious to the user. A prototype has been built that takes public medical information articles and assigns these to parts of the human body. The articles are indexed and made searchable. A visualization presents the coverage of a query on the human body and allows the user to interact with it to explore the results. Through usage cases the function and utility of the approach is shown. 

  • 283.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    De agila principerna: Fortfarande aktuella och tillämpbara ett decennium senare?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agile methodology and models has a wide group of supporters among organizations and companies and is often seen as innovative. The agile methods are now 13 years and a lot has happened since then, both in our ways of working and in the technology we use. The agile methodology is based on two documents, the agile manifesto and the agile principles. The principles embodies the manifesto and in our view creates a strong connection with reality and by that a strong connection with how software is developed. To find out if the principles still are viable and used among developers and if a revision of them is needed we performed a survey based on four interviews and a previously conducted quantitative study.

    The conclusion of this survey is that the principles are used and works well in development projects and are well thought of by the developers but there is still a need for a revision. How this revision would look and when it should be done is hard to say, the need for it aren’t urgent because of the general support of the original principles are still strong. There are a couple of different areas that our respondents point out as important where quality and documentation stands out as the most important that organizations working agile have to focus on in their daily work. Our survey and the study we used as an inspiration ends up in mostly the same conclusions with only few differences, which we see as a confirmation that our study reflects the developers’ view.

  • 284.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Implementation and Testing of a Semi-Active Damping System2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to implement and test a semi-active damping system based on a concept from an earlier thesis. The project includes implementation of mechanical, hydraulic and electronic hardware, aswell as controller software. The idea is to measure the movements of the vehicle chassis and based on these measurements set the damping torque using hydraulics. To be able to develop, test and evaluate the system, realistic input data must be available. To acquire such data, driving trials have been conducted on a variety of tracks.

    The first part of the system is the sensors that measure chassis movements. Both accelerometers and a gyro has been used. To remove drift and high frequency vibrations, the signals are filtered. The suggested controller from the earlier thesis requests damping torque based on the dampers vertical velocity. When accelerometer signals are integrated, measurement and rounding errors causes drift in the velocity. To compensate for this, a floating average is calculated and used.

    The main hydraulic component is a pressure reduction valve that controls the pressure inside the damper. Higher pressure will give higher damping torque. The reaction speed of the system is mostly depending on the hydraulic components. It is important to know the time delay from a change in the valve control signal, to when the actual pressure in the damper has been reached. Tests have shown that a large step, going from 10 Bar to 60 Bar takes approximately 46ms, and that a small step from 1 Bar to 20 Bar takes 63ms. The valve is faster when higher pressure levels are requested. In addition to the hydraulic response time the delay through the signal filters, measured to about 14ms, must be added.

    The sensors are affected by vibrations. If these can be reduced, the digital filters can be made less sharp with a lower filter delay as result. It is also important to have a good control computer so that large rounding errors in the filter calculations can be avoided. This would greatly decrease drift in the integrated velocity.

  • 285.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nygårds, Jonas
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Results of the TAIS/preRunners-project2009In: Fourth Swedish Workshop on Autonomous Robotics SWAR'09 / [ed] Lars Asplund, 2009, p. 60-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents selected results of the preRunners project. The goal was to experimentally demonstrate the value of collaborating unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in an outdoor setting. With uneven terrain and unexpected obstacles a large vehicle benefits greatly from a priori information about theterrain ahead. This information can be gathered by a smaller, more agile and risk tolerant autonomous “preRunner”.

  • 286.
    Nordlander Wiik, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Utvecklarmedverkan: Ett annorlunda perspektiv på relationen mellan utvecklare och användare: En undersökning över hur utvecklare kan involveras i användarens verksamhet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is not a new thing for developers and users to work together in system development projects for the projects to succeed. This collaboration comes from what is known as the Scandinavian approach. This refers to a progress that took place in and was dominant in Scandinavia where codetermination in the workplace became important and they started to involve users in the decisions regarding new computer systems. The Scandinavian approach is the origin of user participation, which is well used today and almost considered necessary to reach success in system development. User participation stands for the participation of users in activities during the development. User participation is well researched and acknowledged to contribute to successful development projects.

    Although user participation has become established most of system development projects does not end in success. Often the systems don’t meet the needs of the users and there’s also often no one with influence that sees to their interests. This leads to the question if collaboration between developers and users could be done by other means, as a way to identify business needs and reach successful IT-solutions. Because of this, this study introduces and explores the possibilities surrounding the concept developer participation. Developer participation stands for the participation of developers in the user’s activities. This presents a new way to look at it with a new focus on the users which means collaboration where the users have the power to influence. In extension of this objective the study was set to answer these three research questions; How can developers participate in the users business?, What benefits can the participation lead to?, What challenges can the participation face?.

    The study was carried out with a qualitative approach where data was collected through literature and semi-structured interviews. The study was conducted with help from a consultant company which accounted for the interviewees through their staff and customer base. With a thematic coding as the analytic method the study concludes that developer participation face mainly two challenges. It means that a new approach where quite different people have to collaborate are introduced and this approach has to be proven worth the time and money it takes to use it. Furthermore the study presents a greater understanding between developers and users and an opportunity for organizational improvements on the user side as possible effects of developer participation.         

  • 287.
    Nordström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Högskolan i Östersund.
    Modern Systemförvaltning: Nuvarande och framtida forskning om systemförvaltning: Projektrapport 11992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten behandlar en kunskapsprojektering inför kommande licentiatarbete. 

  • 288.
    Nordström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. FoU-enheten, Högskolan i Östersund.
    Praktiskt taget systemförvaltning: Genomförande och resultat av kvalitativ empirisk undersökning om systemförvaltning.1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den främsta anledningen till det ökade intresset för systemförvaltning under senare år, är förmodligen att ingen organisation längre kan blunda för de växande resurser som systemförvaltningen tar i anspråk. En annan trolig orsak är att det samlade värdet av de befintliga systemen ökar. Det blir därför naturligt att undersöka hur systemen skall hanteras för att svara upp mot verksamhetens mål. Trots det ökade intresset för systemförvaltning, saknas fortfarande den mångfald av metoder, tekniker och verktyg som kännetecknar t ex systemutveckling.

    Inom forskningsvärden har intresset för systemförvaltning förefallit svagt, och de flesta initiativ till metodutveckling har främst kommit från praktikfältet. [Nordström, 1992a]

    Denna rapport presenterar en empirisk studie om systemförvaltning. Studien ingår som en del i projektet "Modern Systemförvaltning", vilket bedrivs vid Högskolan i Östersund. Målsättningen för projektet är att åstadkomma en kunskapsuppbyggnad inom området systemförvaltning, samt att utveckla och förmedla metoder och hjälpmedel till praktikfältet. Bakgrunden till projektet är dels det uttalade kunskapsbehovet inom området, dels att Jämtlands län har utvecklats till en intressant region för systemförvaltning. [Nordström, 1992b]

    Systemförvaltning kan delas in i två huvudinriktningar, hur befintliga system förvaltas och hur man utvecklar för att underlätta framtida förvaltning. Den här studien inriktar sig på hur man förvaltar redan befintliga system.

    Tidigare studier, i syfte att kartlägga hur systemförvaltning bedrivs, har huvudsakligen haft en kvantitativ ansats [Brandt, 1992, Lientz och Swanson, 1980]. Studien som presenteras i den här rapporten har en kvalitativ ansats. Därför återfinns en relativt omfattande metodbeskrivning i kapitel två. För vidare studier om forskning inom området systemförvaltning, hänvisas till rapporten "Nuvarande och framtida forskning om systemförvaltning" [Nordström, 1992b].

    Undersökningen, som planerades under hösten 1992 och genomfördes under våren 1993, presenteras i kapitel tre. I kapitel fyra utvecklas resultatet i en diskussion, och i kapitel fem återfinns slutligen slutsatserna från studien.

  • 289.
    Nordström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Englund, Per
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Solna, Sweden.
    Släpp Kunskapen Loss: Det är vård!2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vården genomgår en transformation till följd av bl.a. grundläggande krav om jämlik och tillgänglig vård i kombination med en åldrande befolkning och ökad folkmängd. Medborgare, beslutfattare, profession och forskare är alla överens om att uppgiften är grannlaga och mycket angelägen. I den här boken lyfts innovation och digitalisering fram som medel för vårdens transformation. Innehållet i boken är baseras på följeforskning av Innovationslabbet för eHälsa, stationerat på Innovationsplatsen vid Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, i samarbete med Karolinska Institutet. Innovationslabbet för eHälsa möjliggjordes av en Vinnova finansierad testbädd för Vårdinformatik som startade hösten 2013 och avslutades hösten 2016.

    I boken visar vi hur digital plattformsförmåga i kombination med organisatorisk innovationsförmåga är avgörande för att lyckas med digitalisering. Som läsare får du också följa 23 innovationsberättelser genom olika vårdgrenar och teknisk infrastruktur.Syftet med boken är att inspirera och bidra till kunskap om digital innovation. Boken vänder sig till dig som är intresserad av vårdens digitalisering.

  • 290.
    Nordström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. På AB, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Styrbar Systemförvaltning: att organisera systemförvaltningsverksamhet med hjälp av effektiva förvaltningsobjekt2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Systemförvaltning utgör en tämligen omfattande verksamhet i många organisationer. Stora summor och mycket tid har investerats i att datorisera verksamheter. Inledningsvis var syftet ofta att rationalisera verksamheter och höja produktiviteten, men efterhand har syftet allt oftare varit att höja kvalitet i beslut och administration (Falk och Olve, 2000). Nyttan av IT-system kan dock inte värderas förrän i användning, dvs då IT-systemet befinner sig i en förvaltningssituation. I användning måste IT-systemen förändras i takt med den verksamhet som de stödjer (IEEE, 1998) - dvs förvaltas samtidigt som de skall stödja den löpande verksamheten. Systemförvaltningsverksamhet kan därför till sin karaktär vara något av en paradox eftersom det handlar om att säkerställa såväl stabilitet till pågående verksamhet som förändring till interna och externa förändringsarbeten (jfr Thompson, 1967)....

    Rapporten är en sammanfattning av doktorsavhandlingen med samma titel. Doktorsavhandlingen finns i fulltext här: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-33144.

  • 291.
    Nordström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. På AB, Stockholm, Sverige.
    System maintenance management: - organizing system maintenance with effective maintenance objects2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    System maintenance is a rather large business in many organizations. Vast sums of money and vast amounts of time have been invested in computerizing businesses. Originally, the common purpose was to rationalize businesses and increase productivity, but with the passing of time, the purpose has more often become to increase the quality of decisions and administration (Falk and Olve, 2000). However, the value of IT-systems cannot be measured until they are in use, i.e. when the IT-system is in a maintenance situation. In use, the IT-systems must change at the same pace as the business they support (IEEE, 1998) - that is, be maintained at the same time as they support the current business. Thus, system maintenance can be something of a paradox. It must deliver stability to the ongoing business at the same time as it delivers change to support internal and external change processes (compare Thompson, 1967). Since there are other things than IT-systems that are maintained, for instance roads, buildings and stock portfolios, it is probably relevant to speak of objects in maintenance. In existing system maintenance theory (Pigoski, 1997; Kitchenham et al 1999; Kajko-Mattsson, 2001) the IT-system per se is considered the maintenance object. In the subject area of Informatics, it is customary to start with business analyses in development or change ofiTsystems (Andersen, 1994; Krutchen, 2002; Goldkuhl, 1993). This also goes for 01her change attempts such as Business Process Reengineering (Davenport, 1993) and in the Quality area (Bergman and KlefsjO, 1991; Axelsson and Bergman, 1999). In international system maintenance theory there is no such tradition, which may partly be explained by the development of system maintenance theory mainly having been conducted in the Software Engineering area. The business that the IT-systems support is implicit in the line of theory, Chapin too (2003, p 1) says, " ... maintenance is a main way of making intentional changes in how organizations work''. If it is the main way may be questioned, but it certainly is one of the ways….

  • 292.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Kunskapsinitiativet om systemförvaltning2008In: Sundsvall 42,2008, 2008, p. 43-44Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dervisevic, Majda
    Stockholm.
    Att nyttovärder införandet av förvaltningsstyrningsmodell2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad tjänar vi på att införa en förvaltningsstyrningsmodell (FSM)? och hur mycket kan vi sänka IT-kostnaderna om vi inför en FSM? är två vanliga frågor som aktualiseras när organisationer står i begrepp att införa en FSM. Beslutsfattare kräver någon form av kostnads- och intäktsanalys för att fatta beslut om införande av en FSM. Detta är kanske inte så konstigt med tanke på ökade krav på nyttovärderingar som präglar IT-branschen. Svaret på den första frågan blir ofta i form av nyttotermer snarare än i monetära termer och kan sammanfattas i ökad styrbarhet. Svaret på fråga två blir ofta en motfråga, vet du hur mycket det kostar idag? På den frågan erhålls i princip alltid ett nekande svar. I denna studie har vi simulerat en nyttovärdering som sedan prövats mot en verklig nyttovärdering på en stor svensk myndighet. Resultatet visar att

    Det är möjligt att nyttovärdera införandet av en FSM och få ett användbart resultat

    • En FSM kan bidra till såväl intäktsökningar som kostnadsreduceringar
    • En serie händelser måste inträffa för att få nytta av en FSM, det räcker inte att anskaffa en modell
    • Första resultatet pekar på betydande nyttor ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv - De nyttotal som är nödvändiga vid nyttovärdering av en FSM är intäkter/brutto-   nytta/börnytta, kostnader och vinst/nettonytta
    • Nyttostrukturen är specifik för vald FSM, men kan användas i flera organisationer
    • En första version av en generisk nyttostruktur för pm3 införande finns utarbetad
    • Ett införande av en FSM bör ske som en samlad insats där nyttor värderas och    hemtagningsansvar definieras.
  • 294.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Östersund.
    Hafström, Johan
    Högskolan i Östersund.
    Systemförvaltning: faktisk verksamhet, problem och möjligheter1991Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande arbete är att undersöka hur företag och organisationer förvaltar sina informationssystem, om Applicerad Modell (Hafström, Nordström, 1991) innehåller de delar som krävs för en fungerande systemförvaltning. Vi genomförde en litteraturstudie och intervjuade personer som är inblandade i systemförvaltningsprocessen. Utifrån resultatet utvecklar vi Raket förvaltningsmodell. Vidare diskuterar vi problem och möjligheter med systemförvaltning. Slutligen ges synpunkter på hur man skall starta arbetet med att strukturera systemförvaltningsprocessen. 

  • 295.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hägglund, Kerstin
    På i Stockholm AB.
    Certifiering - ett sätt att stärka förvaltningsledarrollen2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport presenteras en studie som syftar till att följa upp den certifieringsutbildning som Dataföreningen startade för förvaltningsledare hösten 2009. I studien har motiv för att delta i certifieringsutbildningen kartlags.  Studien har även belyst de avtryck utbildningen gett för såväl individen som de organisationer som representerats. Studien har genomförts med hjälp av intervjuer av deltagare och deras chefer.  Resultaten visar att motiven att gå utbildningen främst är kompetensutveckling med en önskan om förbättrat arbetssätt i en roll som många redan innehar när de startar kursen. Även certifieringen som sådan lyfts fram som ett centralt motiv för att stärka statusen och stärka yrkesrollen. På ett organisatoriskt plan lyfts förbättrad förvaltningsstyrning fram som det centrala avtrycket i form av förbättrat arbetssätt och stärkta argument kring nya arbetssätt. Även gemensamt språk och att förvaltningsledare utvecklats från experter till ledare lyfts fram som ett avtryck på såväl individuell som organisatorisk nivå.

  • 296.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. På AB, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Jonsson, Ann-Margreth
    TeliaSonera AB.
    Affärsmässig Förvaltningsstyrning och ITIL (ITSM): en jämförande analys2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Systemförvaltningsverksamhet bedrivs i organisationer som använder IT-system och tar ofta betydande resurser i anspråk. För att styra denna verksamhet används lämpligen någon modell för styrning (Nordström, 2005). I denna rapport har vi jämfört modellen Affärsmässig Förvaltningsstyrning (Nordström och Welander, 2002) och ramverket Information Technology Infrastructure Library (Berkhout m.fl, 2001; Bartlett m fl 2001). Bakgrunden är att Affärsmässig Förvaltningsstyrning (AMFS) används sedan en tid tillbaka inom många organisationer för att organisera systemförvaltningsverksamhet, samtidigt som många organisationer beslutat att införa ramverket Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) för att styra IT-Verksamhet.

    Behovet av denna jämförelse väcktes i samband med att TeliaSonera moderniserat sin systemförvaltningsmodell till en ny version benämnd tsm3. tsm3 baseras på Affärsmässig Förvaltningsstyrning (Nordström och Welander, 2002) samt de forskningsresultat som presenteras i doktorsavhandlingen Styrbar Systemförvaltning - att organisera förvaltningsverksamhet med hjälp av effektiva förvaltningsobjekt (Nordström, 2005). Inom TeliaSonera införs även ITIL för att styra IT-verksamhet vilket fick till följd att vid moderniseringen av modellen jämfördes tsm3 med ITIL för att identifiera likheter och skillnader. Resultatet av studien presenterades på Dataföreningskonferensen Förvaltning 2005 (Dataföreningen, 2005) och rönte där stort intresse. Denna rapport grundar sig på den jämförelsen, men är utvecklad till att omfatta grundmodellen AMFS. Vi upptäckte nämligen att denna frågeställning var intressant för flera organisationer som är i samma situation som TeliaSonera. Vi har valt att skriva denna rapport för att de som är intresserade av jämförelsen skall la ta del av våra resultat.

    Syftet med denna rapport är att analysera hur ramverken AMFS och ITIL förhåller sig till varandra. Frågan vi vill besvara är:

    Är· AMFS och ITIL och betrakta som komplementärer eller konkurrenter i strävan att styra systemförvaltningsverksamhet?

    De analysparametrar som används är förvaltningsverksamhet, förvaltningsobjekt, roller och beslutsföra (inkl styrformer).

  • 297.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. På AB, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Jonsson, Ann-Margreth
    TeliaSonera Sverige AB.
    Business Oriented Maintenance Management & ITIL (ITSM): a comparative analysis2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    System maintenance is conducted in organizations that use IT systems and it often consumes considerable resources. To manage this business, it is convenient to use a management model (Nordstrom, 2005). In this report, we have compared the model Business Oriented Maintenance Management, Affärsmassig Förvaltningsstyrning (Nordstrom and Welander, 2002) and the framework Information Technology Infrastructure Library (Berkhout et al, 2001; Bartlett et al, 2001). The background for this is that Affärsmässig Förvaltningsstyrning (AMPS) has been used to organize system maintenance in many organizations for some time now (the latest version of the model is called pm3, Pa Maintenance Management Model, and thus we will refer to it as AMFS/pm3 in this paper). At the same time many organizations have decided to implement the framework Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) to manage IT activities.

    The need for this comparison arose when TeliaSonera modernized their system maintenance management model to a new version called tsm3. tsm3 is based on Affärsmassig Förvaltningsstyrning (Nordstrom and Welander, 2002) and the research results that have been presented in the doctoral dissertation/thesis Manageable System Maintenance, Styrbar Systemförvaltning - att organisera förvaltningsverksamhet med hjälp av effektiva förvaltningsobjekt (Nordström, 2005). In TeliaSonera, ITIL was also introduced to manage IT activities, which resulted in a comparison between tsm3 and ITIL for the purpose of identifying similarities and differences. The result of the study was presented at the Dataföreningen conference Förvaltning 2005 (Dataföreningen, 2005) and met with great interest. This paper is based on that comparison, but is further developed to cover the reference model AMFS/pm3. The reason for this is that we discovered that the question at issue was interesting for several organizations in TeliaSoneras situation. We have chosen to write this report so that those interested in the comparison can get access to our results.

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the frameworks AMFS/pm3 and ITIL are related to each other. The question we want to answer is Can AMFS/pm3 and ITIL be regarded as complementary or competitors in the aim to manage system maintenance?

    The analysis parameters that are used are maintenance activities, maintenance objects, roles and decision-making groups (including control mechanisms).

  • 298.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Innovationslabbet för eHälsa.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Örebro Universitet samt Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Innovationslabbet för eHälsa.
    Kliniska Beslutsstöd: En konceptualisering med IT-goverance implikationer2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller en konceptualisering av begreppet kliniska beslutsstöd. Fem centrala frågor diskuteras och besvaras; vilket är ursprunget för kliniska beslutsstöd?, vad är kliniska beslutsstöd?, var existerar kliniska beslutsstöd?, vilken funktion/syfte har kliniska beslutsstöd?, vad är kontexten för kliniska beslutsstöd?, hur pratar vi om kliniska beslutsstöd?. Resultatet används som avstam för vidare forskning kring IT-governance för kliniska beslutsstöd. 

  • 299.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset och Örebro Universitet.
    Koch, Sabine
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Permert, Johan
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klinisk IT-governance: Principer och språkbruk för klinisk verksamhet och informationssystem i samklang2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vården befinner sig i en dynamisk transformeringsfas där ökad patientinvolvering, värdebaserad vård och personaliserad vård snabbt växer i betydelse. Detta kräver en förbättrad informationsbehandling i klinisk verksamhet, kvalitetsarbete, management samt för innovation och klinisk forskning. Rapporten visar att samma information idag hanteras i flera separata strukturer, vilket i framtiden skall kunna undvikas om vi, genom god organisering, kan skapa ändamålsenliga informationssystem för klinisk verksamhet.

    Vi delar problembilden med utredningen ”Nästa fas i e-hälsoarbetet”, men medan den utredningen fokuserar på statens roll som samordnare och normerare, fokusera vi på vårdgivarnas roll och vad dessa kan göra för att förbättra strukturer och processer mellan klinisk verksamhet och IT-verksamhet.

    Rapporten genomsyras av perspektivet informatik (informationssystem). Detta område har fått ökad uppmärksamhet i och med behovet av ökad semantisk interoperabilitet, då patienter vårdas i kedjor och nätverk av många vårdgivare, och det förväntas att informationen följer patienten. Den här rapporten handlar dock inte om semantisk interoperabilitet eller teknik/arkitektur, utan om hur vårdgivarna kan och bör organisera fram adekvata informationssystem. Samtidigt som man säkrar stabilitet i de cirka 12 500 informationssystem som används i Sverige i vården idag. Vi etiketterar detta klinisk IT-governance, för att betona det kritiska i behovet av samverkan mellan klinisk verksamhet och IT-verksamhet, för att dessa mål ska uppnås. I rapporten påvisas en komplexitet som kan förefalla avskräckande, men som vi menar är en realitet som måste hanteras. Det finns tyvärr inga Silver Bullets för att lösa behovet av informationsförsörjning. Det handlar om enträgenhet, systematiskt och hårt arbete.

    Rapporten bygger på tre studier där vi har undersökt; IT-governance hos vårdgivare i hela landet (L-ITG), hur det informatiska gapet kan överbryggas vid utveckling av kliniska beslutsstöd (BIG), samt behov av strukturer och arbetssätt för digital innovation i Innovationslabbet för eHälsa (Innovationslabbet) vid Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset. Vi som har skrivit rapporten har alla mångårig erfarenhet som forskare, praktiker och lärare inom medicin och/eller informatik.

    L-ITG visar att IT-governancefrågan har beaktats runt om i landet den senaste 10årsperioden. Befintliga informationssystem har kartlagts och 90 procent av landstingen har valt att införa en IT-governancemodell för att organisera samverkan mellan klinisk verksamhet och IT-verksamhet. Detta bör betraktas som en form av transformation, där den traditionella modellen med decentraliserat beslutsfattande kring informationssystem, är på väg att utvecklas till en modell för samverkan mellan klinisk verksamhet och IT-verksamhet. Med hjälp av modellen kan avvägningar göras mellan vårdgrenar, för att använda begränsade resurser på bästa sätt. Medan vissa landsting precis har börjat resan, är andra inne på 7-8 årscykeln, där införandet har övergått till regelrätt kvalitetsarbete. Vi ser dock att införandet av samverkansmodellen har brustit på en central punkt: Den delen av arbetet med informationssystem som ligger nära den kliniska verksamheten (användarstöd, utbildning, förbättringsarbete genom mallar/formulär, deltagande i upphandling osv.) har i många fall organiserats i IT-verksamheten istället för, som sig bör, i den kliniska verksamheten. Forskning och erfarenheter visar samstämmigt att en sådan organisering leder till lägre användaracceptans och lägre nytta av de investeringar som är gjorda i befintliga informationssystem. Användarmedverkan har en central betydelse för kvalitet och acceptans både vid utveckling och vid förvaltning av informationssystem. Detta i kombination med att det skett en intresseglidning från kliniker och forskare mot andra typer av informationssystem, t.ex. kvalitetsregister, gör att en samlad kraftansträngning krävs får att återerövra klinikernas engagemang för vårdgivarnas informationssystem. Dessa andra informationssystem innehåller ofta data som genomgått en valideringsprocess, ger en möjlighet att påverka systemen i kortare cykler samt förenar professionsgrenar över vårdgivargränser. Klinikerna och forskarnas engagemang krävs också för att utveckla och förvalta vårdgivarnas kliniska informationssystem. Vi föreslår därför ett antal konkreta åtgärder som bör genomföras för att öka det kliniska engagemanget, och därmed nyttan, av vårdgivarnas informationssystem. Dessa kan sammanfattas i följande fyra punkter;

    1. Positionera klinisk informatik som ett kompetensområde och utbilda hälsoinformatiker (kan både ha klinisk och/eller informatikbakgrund).
    2. Inrätta en CMIO-roll som får det yttersta ansvaret för klinisk informatik och som blir en ”speaking partner” till CIO avseende informatikfrågor.
    3. Återför den verksamhetsnära förvaltningen till de kliniska verksamheterna. Klinikerna ska inte ”sugas ifrån” den kliniska verksamheten, för att arbeta med IT.
    4. Använd ett språkbruk som är mer anpassat till klinisk verksamhet än traditionella IT-governancetermer.

    Studien av Innovationslabbet, visar att det finns ett behov av att skapa innovationsarenor där kliniska professioner, forskare, innovationsaktörer och IT-professioner kan mötas och utveckla idéer. Innovationslabbet för eHälsa, präglades av ett ”själv-tryck”, där en stor mängd idéer strömmade in från olika delar av SLL. Innovationslabbets idé var från början att finnas som en virtuell resurs, mot bakgrund av att innovation uppstår i den kliniska verksamheten. Vår studie visar dock att en sådan fysisk arena har en funktion och måste ges legitimitet och organisatorisk struktur om det ska vara görligt att stimulera och ta tillvara medarbetarnas innovationsidéer. Behovet av systemutvecklingskompetens hos landstingen är en fråga som får anses belagd via studien av Innovationslabbet, men också via LITG där de flesta pekade på behovet av egen utvecklingsförmåga. Inte nödvändigtvis för att utveckla informationssystem från grunden, utan för att göra t.ex. prototyper som grund för kravställning vid upphandling. Sammanfattningsvis föreslår vi införandet av en dynamisk förmåga hos vårdgivarna bestående av tre agila (lättrörliga) IT-governancemekanismer:

    1. Analytiska system för att uppfatta, filtrera, och kalibrera idéer, behov och möjligheter.
    2. Organisatoriska strukturer och processer för att eskalera idéer, behov och möjligheter till utveckling i Trippel Helix konstellationer (klinisk verksamhet, akademi och industri).
    3. Mekanismer för kontinuerlig sammansmältning av det nya med det befintliga genom kunskapshantering, överföringsarenor samt utbildning och systematiskt lärande.

    I denna miljö kan den kliniska informatiken som kompetensområde initialt ges möjlighet att formas, växa och ta ett större ansvar för semantisk interoperabilitet på olika nivåer samt utveckla kliniska informationsmodeller och kliniska beslutsstöd. Våra tre studier pekar alla mot att kliniska beslutsstöd är det som klinikerna efterfrågar. Av de cirka 30 innovationsprojekt vi studerat, utgjorde de allra flesta någon typ av beslutsstöd som integrerar kunskap från olika källor för att förmedla kunskap, och på sikt även ge individuella rekommendationer.

    I föreliggande rapport har vi sammanfattningsvis tre bidrag;

    1. Principer för att hantera stabilitet (mode 1-förmåga) och dynamik (mode 2-förmåga)
      • a. En övergripande bimodal modell för att hantera stabilitet respektive förändring i två skilda strukturer.
      • b. Principer och åtgärder för stärkt mode 1 förmåga
      • c. Förslag till indelning och innehåll i mode 2 förmåga
    2. Förslag till begrepp för området klinisk IT-governance som kan vara professionsöverskridande (kliniska professioner, forskare och IT-professioner)
    3. Positionering av klinisk informatik som kompetensområde.

    Vi pekar dessutom på att IT-governance är ett etablerat kunskapsområde, och det bör vara naturligt att detta kunskapsområde, påverkar fortsatt utveckling av ITgovernance i praktiken, på samma sätt som forskning inom medicin påverkar klinisk verksamhet.

    Med dessa principer, åtgärder och förslag till gemensamt språkbruk är det vår förhoppning att gemensamma informationssystem kan användas för klinisk verksamhet, klinisk forskning, för innovation samt i managementsyfte.

    Rapporten vänder sig till beslutsfattare hos vårdgivare, som har ansvar över kliniska informationssystem, såväl ur kliniskt som IT-mässigt perspektiv.

  • 300.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Örebro Universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lundkvist, Fredrik
    Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Solna, Sverige.
    Permert, Johan
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Klinisk Digital Innovation: Principer och språkbruk för klinisk digitaliseringsförmåga2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitalisering och innovation är två metoder som ofta nämns i samband med utveckling av vården. Utmaningen är grannlaga inte minst eftersom det handlar om att styra mot ett rörligt mål som definieras av ett samhälle i förändring, men vården har också ett ständigt tillflöde av kunskap genom forskning och kvalitetsarbete. Även den explosionsartade användningen av teknik i samhället sätter förväntansnivåer hos såväl medborgare, patienter som vårdpersonal och forskare. I den här rapporten undersöker vi hur informatisk innovation (benämnd digitalisering) kan användas som instrument i vårdens förändringsarbete. Rapporten bygger på en studie av Innovationslabbet för eHälsa, som via en initial finansiering från Vinnova, etablerades på Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset 2013–2016. Arbetet i innovationslabbet har varit explorativt, i linje med beviljad ansökan, och genom följeforskning har vi studerat innovationsverksamheten genom 25 innovationsberättelser som författas av innovationslabbets medarbetare. Frågeställningarna har handlat förmågor i en digital plattform såväl som organisatorisk innovationsförmåga i form av strukturer, metoder och relationella mekanismer. Arbetet har genomsyrats av praktikforskning och varit indelat i tre faser: I. prövning och generering av frågeställningar II. Utforskande i teori och praktik III. Analys och rapportering. Vi betraktar denna rapport som en delrapportering av en pågående kunskapsutveckling om innovation inom vård och omsorg. Resultatet från studien visar att digital plattformsförmåga och organisatorisk innovationsförmåga måste integreras för att uppnå klinisk digitaliseringsförmåga. Om detta skall vara möjligt måste det förhärskande produktperspektivet överges till förmån från ett mer verksamhetsorienterat perspektiv, där vårdgivare har möjlighet att utveckla verksamheten baserat på behov hos patienter och vårdpersonal snarare än att fokusera på implementation av nya tekniska produkter. Våra studier och erfarenheter visar att, visst behövs nya digitala plattformar för att möta framtidens utmaningar, men det är minst lika viktigt att skapa en organisatorisk innovationsförmåga som kan hantera förändring i klinisk verksamhet när nya digitala verktyg ska utvecklas och implementeras. Utforskandet av en digital plattformsförmåga som kan stödja detta dynamiska arbetssätt visar att en plattform bör ha förmåga till processorkestrering, semantikkonvertering, MT/IT-integration samt förmågan att suga ut data från olika källsystem i syfte att skapa kliniska beslutsstöd. När det gäller strukturer för innovation argumenterar vi för innovationsarenor där legitimitet är ett centralt begrepp. Om innovation ska användas som metod i vårdens förändringsarbete, måste innovation göras legitimt. Vårt förslag att göra övergången från innovationsarenor till förvaltningsstyrning är att tillämpa genererade principer för innovationsförvaltning. Gemensamt för både innovationsarenor och innovationsförvaltning är en professionsstyrning där aktiva kliniker och systemutvecklare interagerar, i syfte att nyskapa. Vi vill även lyfta fram Triple Helix som samarbetsform, men betona vikten av ett gemensamt mål för att undvika konflikter i mål och värden.

    4 (32) När det gäller innovationsmetoder vill vi särskilt lyfta fram alternativa metoder som innovationsupphandling, proof of concepts, nätverkande, matchning och crowdsourcing. Digitala innovationer är flerdimensionella och ett kunskapsbidrag från studien är metoden för innovationsrymd, som på ett enkelt, men ändå kraftfullt sätt kan ”spänna upp” det flerdimensionella i digitala innovationer med fokus på värde. Vi lyfter också fram de relationella mekanismer vi sett är nödvändiga för att skapa innovation. Det är lätt att tekniken hamnar i fokus i digitaliseringssammanhang, men vi vill betona att det faktiskt är människor som agerar på innovationsarenor. Med en ömsesidig respekt för profession och uppdrag, inte minst genom att fokusera ett gemensamt mål, visar vår studie att det är möjligt att bedriva innovation i gränslandet vårdteknik, befintligt-nytt och kund-leverantör.

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