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  • 251.
    Qureshi, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strindberg på färöiska: En analys av Ett halvt ark papper2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en insikt i hur den färöiska översättningen av Strindbergs novell Ett halvt ark papper förhåller sig till originalet i fråga om syntax och ordbildning ur ett såväl grammatiskt som semantiskt perspektiv. Metoden som tillämpas är en kvalitativ-komparativ metod som har sitt ursprung i en kombination av kopplingsanalys och komponentanalys. Resultatet av materialet visar att måltextens syntax överlag överensstämmer med syntaxen i källtexten med ett fåtal konsekventa undantag. Dessutom visar resultatet att ordvalet och sammansättningarna i måltexten överlag överensstämmer med källtexten. Trots att lexikaliseringen kan te sig annorlunda innehar de oftast samma denotationi och konnotation.

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  • 252.
    Rangraz, Masood
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Uses of the Discourse Markers ‘well’, ’you know’ and ‘I mean’ in News Interviews2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the use of three Discourse Markers (henceforth DMs) in news interviews. It is an attempt to demonstrate how well, you know and I mean are employed in news interviews. It also shows what participants accomplish using the DMs as rhetorical devices.

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  • 253.
    Rayner, Manny
    et al.
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Carter, David
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Bretan, Ivan
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Hansen, Steffen Leo
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Kirchmeier-Andersen, Sabine
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Philp, Christina
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Finn
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Recycling Lingware in a Multilingual MT System1997In: Proceedings of ACL/EACL Workshop From Research to Commercial Applications, 1997, p. 65-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe two methods relevant to multilingual machine translation systems, which can be used to port linguistic data (grammars, lexicons and transfer rules) between systems used for processing related languages. The methods are fully implemented within the Spoken Language Translator system, and were used to create versions of the systems for two new language pairs using only a month of expert effort.

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    Recycling Lingware in a Multilingual MT System
  • 254.
    Rayner, Manny
    et al.
    SRI International, USA.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Swedish Coverage2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, Dave Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 131-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 255.
    Rose, Ralph
    et al.
    Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Eklund, RobertLinköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Proceedings of DiSS 2019, The 9th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech: ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary 12-13 September, 20192019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the successes of the Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech workshop in Berkeley (1999) and the DiSS workshops in Edinburgh (2001), Göteborg (2003), Aix-en-Provence (2005), Tokyo (2010), Stockholm (2013), Edinburgh (2015) and Stockholm (2017), we are proud to announce DiSS 2019, to be held at the ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary, in September 2019. The workshop is a satellite event of INTERSPEECH 2019.

    What is most often called disfluency– i.e. pauses, hesitations, prolongations, truncations, repetitions, self‑repairs and similar – in normal spontaneous speech presents challenges for researchers in many different fields, ranging from speech production and perception in psychology, to conversational analysis and automatic speech recognition in speech technology.

    DiSS 2019 will allow an opportunity for researchers from diverse backgrounds to present their research findings, to discuss common interests, to identify future directions and to establish new research collaborations. DiSS 2019 will be a two-day international workshop with an additional special day on (Dis)Fluency in Children’s Speech. All accepted papers will be published.

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    Proceedings of DiSS 2019. The 9th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University Budapest, Hungary 12–13 September, 2019
  • 256.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 679Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

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  • 257.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Seeing the talker’s face improves free recall of speech for young adults with normal hearing but not older adults with hearing loss2016In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 59, p. 590-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers.

    Method Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13 two-digit numbers, with alternating male and female talkers. Lists were presented in quiet as well as in stationary and speech-like noise at a signal-to-noise ratio giving approximately 90% intelligibility. Amplification compensated for loss of audibility.

    Results Seeing the talker's face improved free recall performance for the younger but not the older group. Poorer performance in background noise was contingent on individual differences in working memory capacity. The effect of seeing the talker's face did not differ in quiet and noise.

    Conclusions We have argued that the absence of an effect of seeing the talker's face for older adults with hearing loss may be due to modulation of audiovisual integration mechanisms caused by an interaction between task demands and participant characteristics. In particular, we suggest that executive task demands and interindividual executive skills may play a key role in determining the benefit of seeing the talker's face during a speech-based cognitive task

  • 258.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    UCL, England; Univ Crete, Greece.
    Kastner, Lena
    UCL, England; Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Cardin, Velia
    Not Found:Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci and Learning, Linnaeus Ctr HEAD, Swedish Inst Disabil Res, Linkoping, Sweden; UCL, England; Univ East Anglia, England.
    Woll, Bencie
    UCL, England.
    Capek, Cheryl M.
    Univ Manchester, England.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Neural Networks Supporting Phoneme Monitoring Are Modulated by Phonology but Not Lexicality or Iconicity: Evidence From British and Swedish Sign Language2019In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 13, article id 374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sign languages are natural languages in the visual domain. Because they lack a written form, they provide a sharper tool than spoken languages for investigating lexicality effects which may be confounded by orthographic processing. In a previous study, we showed that the neural networks supporting phoneme monitoring in deaf British Sign Language (BSL) users are modulated by phonology but not lexicality or iconicity. In the present study, we investigated whether this pattern generalizes to deaf Swedish Sign Language (SSL) users. British and SSLs have a largely overlapping phoneme inventory but are mutually unintelligible because lexical overlap is small. This is important because it means that even when signs lexicalized in BSL are unintelligible to users of SSL they are usually still phonologically acceptable. During fMRI scanning, deaf users of the two different sign languages monitored signs that were lexicalized in either one or both of those languages for phonologically contrastive elements. Neural activation patterns relating to different linguistic levels of processing were similar across SLs; in particular, we found no effect of lexicality, supporting the notion that apparent lexicality effects on sublexical processing of speech may be driven by orthographic strategies. As expected, we found an effect of phonology but not iconicity. Further, there was a difference in neural activation between the two groups in a motion-processing region of the left occipital cortex, possibly driven by cultural differences, such as education. Importantly, this difference was not modulated by the linguistic characteristics of the material, underscoring the robustness of the neural activation patterns relating to different linguistic levels of processing.

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  • 259.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Video Recording as a Tool for Assessing Children’s Everyday Use of Features Targeted in Phonological Intervention2016In: Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders/Equinox, ISSN 2040-5111, E-ISSN 2040-512X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 27-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decades, speech and language pathology services have been subject to changes, and there has been a growing demand for intervention activities to be effective and evidence-based. The aim of the present study was to investigate if and how video recording can be used to assess the use of features targeted in phonological intervention, in everyday talk by children with LI. Three five-year-old girls with phonological problems participated in the study, and data consist of video recordings of intervention sessions and of interaction at home. Three different paths of development were identified: Some targeted speech sounds are displayed in everyday interaction; Targeted speech sound is present in intervention-like activity; No displays of targeted sounds. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate that the use of video recordings, transcriptions and analysis of interaction outside of the clinical setting contribute important information that may guide planning, goal-setting and evaluation of intervention.

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  • 260.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anward, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Defusing practices as mitigation in speech and language intervention.2014In: Communication & Medicine: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Healthcare, Ethics and Society, ISSN 1612-1783, E-ISSN 1613-3625, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 299-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, speech and language intervention was investigated in order to explore the use and function of defusing practices. Defusing practices may be viewed as a special form of mitigation. In previous research, including studies on clinical interaction, mitigation has been described mainly as devices used in order to reduce the unwelcome effects of an utterance, or reduce the discomfort of bad news. Defusing practices, however, appear to serve somewhat different functions, which are examined here. Data comprises video and audio recordings of eight intervention sessions with children with language impairment (LI), and six intervention sessions with adults with aphasia, The analysis revealed the following kinds of defusing practices: circumscriptions/figurative language, diminutive words, words like ‘try’ or ‘test’, placing the problem outside of the patient, collective pronouns, diminishing the speech and language pathologist’s own competence, encouragement, and references to well-known phenomena. If speech and language therapists (SLPs) are made aware of the practice and function of defusing, they may make conscious use of these practices in order to reduce face-threatening situations in intervention

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  • 261.
    Sautermeister, Per
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, Sweden.
    Some Observations on the Influence of F0 and Duration to the Perception of Prominence by Swedish Listeners1997In: Proceedings of Fonetik ’97: PHONUM, Reports from the Department of Phonetics Umeå University, 1997, Vol. 4, p. 121-124Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments have been conducted that deal with prosodic prominence in reiterant speech in order to determine the relative contribution of F0 and duration to the perception of prosodic prominence by Swedish listeners. F0 and duration were manipulated independently on different syllables in the stimuli. The results show that F0 is considered primary cue by most subjects. Furthermore, duration only does not seem to be a sufficient cue to the perception of prominence to many of the subjects.

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    Some Observations on the Influence of F0 and Duration to the Perception of Prominence by Swedish Listeners
  • 262.
    Schofield, Alexandra
    et al.
    Cornell University Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Magnusson, Måns
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mimno, David
    Cornell University Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Pulling Out the Stops: Rethinking Stopword Removal for Topic Models2017In: 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of Conference, volume 2: Short Papers, Stroudsburg: Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) , 2017, Vol. 2, p. 432-436Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often assumed that topic models benefit from the use of a manually curated stopword list. Constructing this list is time-consuming and often subject to user judgments about what kinds of words are important to the model and the application. Although stopword removal clearly affects which word types appear as most probable terms in topics, we argue that this improvement is superficial, and that topic inference benefits little from the practice of removing stopwords beyond very frequent terms. Removing corpus-specific stopwords after model inference is more transparent and produces similar results to removing those words prior to inference.

  • 263.
    Schötz, Susanne
    et al.
    Humanities Lab, Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative acoustic analysis of purring in four cats2011In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2011, Quarterly Progress and Status Report TMH-QPSR, Volume 51, 2011, Stockholm: Universitetsservice , 2011, p. 5-8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results from a comparative analysis of purring in four domesticcats. An acoustic analysis describes sound pressure level, duration, number ofcycles and fundamental frequency for egressive and ingressive phases. Significantindividual differences are found between the four cats in several respects.

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  • 264. Schötz, Susanne
    et al.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Melody Matters: An Acoustic Study of Domestic Cat Meows in Six Contexts and Four Mental States2019In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop onVocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2019 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer, Roger K. Moore, Dan Stowell, 2019, p. 29-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates domestic cat meows in different contexts and mental states. Measures of fundamental frequency (f0) and duration as well as f0 contours of 780 meows from 40 cats were analysed. We found significant effects of recording context and of mental state on f0 andduration. Moreover, positive (e.g. affiliative) contexts and mental states tended to have rising f0 contours while meows produced in negative (e.g. stressed) contexts and mental states had predominantly falling f0 contours. Our results suggest that cats use biological codes and paralinguistic information to signal mental state.

  • 265.
    Schötz, Susanne
    et al.
    Lund University.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Lund University.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phonetic Characteristics of Domestic Cat Vocalisations2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 5-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cat (Felis catus, Linneaus 1758) has lived around or with humans for at least 10,000 years, and is now one of the most popular pets of the world with more than 600 millionindividuals. Domestic cats have developed a more extensive, variable and complex vocal repertoire than most other members of the Carnivora, which may be explained by their social organisation, their nocturnal activity and the long period of association between mother and young. Still, we know surprisingly little about the phonetic characteristics of these sounds, and about the interaction between cats and humans.

    Members of the research project Melody in human–cat communication (Meowsic) investigate the prosodic characteristics of cat vocalisations as well as the communication between human and cat. The first step includes a categorisation of cat vocalisations. In the next step it will be investigated how humans perceive the vocal signals of domestic cats. This paper presents an outline of the project which has only recently started.

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    Phonetic Characteristics of Domestic Cat Vocalisations
  • 266.
    Schötz, Susanne
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phonetic Methods in Cat Vocalisation Studies: A report from the Meowsic project2019In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2019 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the project Melody in Human–Cat Communication (Meowsic) we are using established phonetic methods to collect, annotate, pre-process and analyse domestic cat–human vocal communication. This article describes these methods, and also presents results of meow vocalisations in four different mental states showing variation in fundamental frequency (f0).

  • 267.
    Silber Varod, Vered
    et al.
    The Open University of Israel, Israel.
    Gósy, Mária
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Segment prolongation in Hebrew2019In: Proceedings of DiSS 2019, The 9th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech: ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary, 12-13 September, 2019 / [ed] Ralph Rose & Robert Eklund, 2019, p. 47-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study segment prolongations (PRs), a type of disfluency sometimes included under the term “hesitation disfluencies”, in Hebrew. PRs have previously been studied in a number of other languages within a comprehensive speech disfluency framework, which is applied to Hebrew in the current study. For the purpose of this study we defined Hebrew clitics, such as conjunctions, articles, prepositions and so on, as words. The most striking difference between Hebrew and the previously studies languages is how restricted PRs seem to be in Hebrew, occurring almost exclusively on wordfinal vowels. The most frequently prolonged vowel is [e]. The segment type does not affect PRs’ duration. We found significant differences between men and women regarding the frequency of PRs.

  • 268.
    Skobel, Ekaterina
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Reversing Language Shift in Galicia: A Present-Day Perspective2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis is about the current linguistic situation in the Spanish province of Galicia and about the prospects of the Galician language in modern times. The situation is analyzed through applying Joshua Fishman's model of reversing language shift (RLS).

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 269.
    Stokoe, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Loughborough Univ Technol, England.
    Fernandez-Dols, Jose-Miguel
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Albert, Saul
    Tufts Human Interact Lab, MA 02155 USA.
    Reeves, Stuart
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Porcheron, Martin
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Hepburn, Alexa
    Rutgers State Univ, NJ 08854 USA.
    Mandelbaum, Jenny
    Rutgers State Univ, NJ 08854 USA.
    Hoey, Elliott
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Loughborough, England.
    How real people communicate2018In: Psychologist (Leicester), ISSN 0952-8229, E-ISSN 2398-1598, Vol. 31, p. 28-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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  • 270. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Stymne, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Text Harmonization Strategies for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I aim to improve phrase-based statistical machine translation (PBSMT) in a number of ways by the use of text harmonization strategies. PBSMT systems are built by training statistical models on large corpora of human translations. This architecture generally performs well for languages with similar structure. If the languages are different for example with respect to word order or morphological complexity, however, the standard methods do not tend to work well. I address this problem through text harmonization, by making texts more similar before training and applying a PBSMT system.

    I investigate how text harmonization can be used to improve PBSMT with a focus on four areas: compounding, definiteness, word order, and unknown words. For the first three areas, the focus is on linguistic differences between languages, which I address by applying transformation rules, using either rule-based or machine learning-based techniques, to the source or target data. For the last area, unknown words, I harmonize the translation input to the training data by replacing unknown words with known alternatives.

    I show that translation into languages with closed compounds can be improved by splitting and merging compounds. I develop new merging algorithms that outperform previously suggested algorithms and show how part-of-speech tags can be used to improve the order of compound parts. Scandinavian definite noun phrases are identified as a problem forPBSMT in translation into Scandinavian languages and I propose a preprocessing approach that addresses this problem and gives large improvements over a baseline. Several previous proposals for how to handle differences in reordering exist; I propose two types of extensions, iterating reordering and word alignment and using automatically induced word classes, which allow these methods to be used for less-resourced languages. Finally I identify several ways of replacing unknown words in the translation input, most notably a spell checking-inspired algorithm, which can be trained using character-based PBSMT techniques.

    Overall I present several approaches for extending PBSMT by the use of pre- and postprocessing techniques for text harmonization, and show experimentally that these methods work. Text harmonization methods are an efficient way to improve statistical machine translation within the phrase-based approach, without resorting to more complex models.

    List of papers
    1. Generation of Compound Words in Statistical Machine Translation into Compounding Languages
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generation of Compound Words in Statistical Machine Translation into Compounding Languages
    2013 (English)In: Computational linguistics - Association for Computational Linguistics (Print), ISSN 0891-2017, E-ISSN 1530-9312, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 1067-1108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigate statistical machine translation (SMT) into Germanic languages, with a focus on compound processing. Our main goal is to enable the generation of novel compounds that have not been seen in the training data. We adopt a split-merge strategy, where compounds are split before training the SMT system, and merged after the translation step. This approach reduces sparsity in the training data, but runs the risk of placing translations of compound parts in non-consecutive positions. It also requires a postprocessing step of compound merging, where compounds are reconstructed in the translation output. We present a method for increasing the chances that components that should be merged are translated into contiguous positions and in the right order and show that it can lead to improvements both by direct inspection and in terms of standard translation evaluation metrics. We also propose several new methods for compound merging, based on heuristics and machine learning, which outperform previously suggested algorithms. These methods can produce novel compounds and a translation with at least the same overall quality as the baseline. For all subtasks we show that it is useful to include part-of-speech based information in the translation process, in order to handle compounds.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MIT PRESS, 2013
    Keywords
    Machine translation, compound words, compounding languages
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) General Language Studies and Linguistics Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76689 (URN)10.1162/COLI_a_00162 (DOI)000327124700008 ()
    Available from: 2012-04-16 Created: 2012-04-16 Last updated: 2018-01-12
    2. Definite Noun Phrases in Statistical Machine Translation into Danish
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Definite Noun Phrases in Statistical Machine Translation into Danish
    2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Extracting and Using Constructions in NLP / [ed] Magnus Sahlgren and Ola Knutsson, 2009, p. 4-9Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two ways to express definiteness in Danish, which makes it problematic for statistical machine translation (SMT) from English, since the wrong realisation can be chosen. We present a part-of-speech-based method for identifying and transforming English definite NPs that would likely be expressed in a different way in Danish. The transformed English is used for training a phrase-based SMT system.This technique gives significant improvements of translation quality, of up to 22.1% relative on Bleu, compared to a baseline trained on original English, in two different domains.

    Series
    SICS Technical Report, ISSN 1100-3154 ; T2009:10
    Keywords
    Statistical machine translation, definiteness, nouns, Scandinavian languages
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53955 (URN)
    Conference
    Workshop on Extracting and Using Constructions in NLP, May 14, Odense, Denmark
    Available from: 2010-02-15 Created: 2010-02-15 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Definite Noun Phrases in Statistical Machine Translation into Scandinavian Languages.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Definite Noun Phrases in Statistical Machine Translation into Scandinavian Languages.
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 15th conference of the European Association for Machine Translation (EAMT 2011) / [ed] Mikel L.Forcada, Heidi Depraetere, Vincent Vandeghinste, 2011, p. 289-296Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Scandinavian languages have an unusual structure of definite noun phrases (NPs), with a noun suffix as one possibility of expressing definiteness, which is problematic for statistical machine translation from languages with different NP structures. We show that translation can be improved by simple source side transformations of definite NPs, for translation from English and Italian, into Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian, with small adjustments of the preprocessing strategy, depending on the language pair. We also explored target side transformations, with mixed results.

    Keywords
    Machine translation, definiteness, Scandinavian languages
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70123 (URN)
    Conference
    EAMT-2011: the 15th Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation, 30-31 May 2011, Leuven, Belgium
    Available from: 2011-08-19 Created: 2011-08-19 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Iterative reordering and word alignment for statistical MT
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iterative reordering and word alignment for statistical MT
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics (NODALIDA 2011) / [ed] Bolette Sandford Pedersen, Gunta Nešpore and Inguna Skadiņa, 2011, p. 315-318Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Word alignment is necessary for statistical machine translation (SMT), and reordering as a preprocessing step has been shown to improve SMT for many language pairs. In this initial study we investigate if both word alignment and reordering can be improved by iterating these two steps, since they both depend on each other. Overall no consistent improvements were seen on the translation task, but the reordering rules contain different information in the different iterations, leading us to believe that the iterative strategy can be useful.

    Series
    NEALT Proceedings Series, ISSN 1736-6305 ; 11
    Keywords
    Machine translation, reordering
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70122 (URN)
    Conference
    The 18th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics, May 11–13, Riga, Latvia
    Available from: 2011-08-19 Created: 2011-08-19 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Clustered Word Classes for Preordering in Statistical Machine Translation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clustered Word Classes for Preordering in Statistical Machine Translation
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2012, p. 28-34Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clustered word classes have been used in connection with statistical machine translation, for instance for improving word alignments. In this work we investigate if clustered word classes can be used in a preordering strategy, where the source language is reordered prior to training and translation. Part-of-speech tagging has previously been successfully used for learning reordering rules that can be applied before training and translation. We show that we can use word clusters for learning rules, and significantly improve on a baseline with only slightly worse performance than for standard POS-tags on an English–German translation task. We also show the usefulness of the approach for the less-resourced language Haitian Creole, for translation into English, where the suggested approach is significantly better than the baseline.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Association for Computational Linguistics, 2012
    Keywords
    Statistical machine translation, reordering, clustering, unsupervised learning
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76706 (URN)
    Conference
    The 13th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics April 24, Avignon, France
    Available from: 2012-04-17 Created: 2012-04-17 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Vs and OOVs: Two Problems for Translation between German and English
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vs and OOVs: Two Problems for Translation between German and English
    2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the Joint Fifth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and MetricsMATR (WMT'10), 2010, p. 183-188Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on experiments with three preprocessing strategies for improving translation output in a statistical MT system. In training, two reordering strategies were studied: (i) reorder on thebasis of the alignments from Giza++, and (ii) reorder by moving all verbs to the end of segments. In translation, out-of-vocabulary words were preprocessed in a knowledge-lite fashion to identify a likely equivalent. All three strategies were implemented for our English-German systems submitted to the WMT10 shared task. Combining them lead to improvements in both language directions.

    Keywords
    Machine translation, reordering, Out-of-vocabulary words
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58979 (URN)978-1-932432-71-8 (ISBN)1-932432-71-X (ISBN)
    Conference
    The Joint Fifth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and MetricsMATR, 15-16 July 2010 Uppsala, Sweden
    Available from: 2010-09-03 Created: 2010-09-03 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    7. Spell Checking Techniques for Replacement of Unknown Words and Data Cleaning for Haitian Creole SMS Translation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spell Checking Techniques for Replacement of Unknown Words and Data Cleaning for Haitian Creole SMS Translation
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation (WMT 2011) / [ed] Chris Callison-Burch, Philipp Koehn, Christof Monz, Omar F. Zaidan, Stroudsburg: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2011, p. 470-477Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report results on translation of SMS messages from Haitian Creole to English. We show improvements by applying spell checking techniques to unknown words and creating a lattice with the best known spelling equivalents. We also used a small cleaned corpus to train a cleaning model that we applied to the noisy corpora.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stroudsburg: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2011
    Keywords
    Machine translation, unknown words, spell checking, data cleaning, Haitian Creole
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70127 (URN)978-1-937284-12-1 (ISBN)1-937284-12-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    The Sixth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation (WMT 2011), July 30-31, Edinburgh, UK
    Available from: 2011-08-19 Created: 2011-08-19 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
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    Text Harmonization Strategies for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation
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  • 271.
    Stymne, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the practice of error analysis for machine translation evaluation2012In: Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12), European Language Resources Association , 2012, p. 1786-1790Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Error analysis is a means to assess machine translation output in qualitative terms, which can be used as a basis for the generation of error profiles for different systems. As for other subjective approaches to evaluation it runs the risk of low inter-annotator agreement, but very often in papers applying error analysis to MT, this aspect is not even discussed. In this paper, we report results from a comparative evaluation of two systems where agreement initially was low, and discuss the different ways we used to improve it. We compared the effects of using more or less fine-grained taxonomies, and the possibility to restrict analysis to short sentences only. We report results on inter-annotator agreement before and after measures were taken, on error categories that are most likely to be confused, and on the possibility to establish error profiles also in the absence of a high inter-annotator agreement.

  • 272.
    Stymne, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cancedda, Nicola
    Xerox Research Centre Europe.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Generation of Compound Words in Statistical Machine Translation into Compounding Languages2013In: Computational linguistics - Association for Computational Linguistics (Print), ISSN 0891-2017, E-ISSN 1530-9312, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 1067-1108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigate statistical machine translation (SMT) into Germanic languages, with a focus on compound processing. Our main goal is to enable the generation of novel compounds that have not been seen in the training data. We adopt a split-merge strategy, where compounds are split before training the SMT system, and merged after the translation step. This approach reduces sparsity in the training data, but runs the risk of placing translations of compound parts in non-consecutive positions. It also requires a postprocessing step of compound merging, where compounds are reconstructed in the translation output. We present a method for increasing the chances that components that should be merged are translated into contiguous positions and in the right order and show that it can lead to improvements both by direct inspection and in terms of standard translation evaluation metrics. We also propose several new methods for compound merging, based on heuristics and machine learning, which outperform previously suggested algorithms. These methods can produce novel compounds and a translation with at least the same overall quality as the baseline. For all subtasks we show that it is useful to include part-of-speech based information in the translation process, in order to handle compounds.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 273.
    Sulyman, Areen
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Theories of Identity Formation among Immigrants: Examples from People with an Iraqi Kurdish Background in Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay portrays the formation and construction of the identity development of immigrants through their cultural encounter with a new society. It is an attempt to give voice to four Iraqi Kurds, who came to Sweden at the age of six months, nine years, twenty-two and twenty-seven years respectively, in order to interpret issues about their identity construction and belonging. What does it mean for them to be Kurds in Sweden and live between two different cultures? How is their identity formulated and where do they belong as Kurds, Swedes, in-between or both? The individuals‘ identity changes when encountering a society that is completely different from their country of origin because ―[…] the nature of the individual depends upon the society in which he or she lives‖ (Burke and Stets 2009: 4). Moreover, the first generation includes those immigrants who arrived at a very young age and thus grew up and were raised in diaspora, lived between two different cultures, and are ―confronted with two motherlands‖ (Jodeyr 2003). One is their country of origin and the other one is the host country that they migrated to. The host country is considered the real home country for those who arrived at a very young age according to some of my informants. Therefore, the narratives my informants tell about their identity are the result of their relationship as individuals with the Swedish society.

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    attachment
  • 274.
    Szczepek Reed, Beatrice
    et al.
    Department of Education, University of York, United Kingdom.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Sweden.
    How Speakers of Different Languages Extend Their Turns: Word Linking and Glottalization in French and German2016In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 128-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A speaker who issues a confirming turn starting with particles like yes, oui, ja, and so on, may mean to extend it and provide further material. This study shows that French and German speakers employ the same phonetic contrast to indicate the nature of that turn continuation. In spite of the typological difference between the German use of glottalization and the French use of linking phenomena for word boundaries involving word-initial vowels, speakers of both languages exploit this contrast systematically in their design of multiunit turns. Initial confirmations are joined directly to subsequent vowel-fronted turn components when speakers respond with an internally cohesive multiunit confirming turn. The components are separated by glottalization when responses involve multiple actions or departures from a trajectory projected by the turn-initial confirmation. This is further evidence that sound patterns shape interaction and are not solely determined by language-specific phonologies. Data are in French and German with English translation.

  • 275.
    Thompson, Katrina Daly
    et al.
    Director of the Program in African Languages, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
    Ivanova (Anatoli Smith), Olga
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Religious Speech and Silence about Sexuality2018In: The Oxford Handbook of Language and Sexuality / [ed] Kira Hall and Rusty Barrett, Oxford University Press, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the theme of silence about sexuality within religious communities. The discussion focuses not only on sexuality as religious taboo that necessitates silence but also on innovative ways to talk about sex while containing the taboo through uses of humor, indirect speech, vagueness, and euphemism. The authors argue that research can benefit from a closer examination of how discourse about sexuality within a religious context is often double-voiced, especially among those whose sexual practices and identifications are censored by religious dogma. The chapter explores this tension in the existing literature and then uses linguistic data to illustrate how people can use speech and silence to circumvent and transgress religious and linguistic taboos.

  • 276.
    Thorstensson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Educational Science (IUV).
    Språklig medvetenhet: En empirisk och teoretik studie2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under inriktningen Grundläggande färdigheter på lärarprogrammet väcktes ett intresse hos mig angående språklig medvetenhet och dess betydelse för barns läs- och skrivinlärning. I det här examensarbetet har det behandlats närmare med hjälp av en empirisk och teoretisk studie. Genom att koppla vad framstående forskare inom språklig medvetenhet anser om vad just språklig medvetenhet är, till hur verksamma pedagoger arbetar och upplever språklig medvetenhet i praktiken, ges en bild av begreppets innebörd och betydelse. Svårigheter, oklarheter och fördelar med begreppet språklig medvetenhet redovisas.

    I examensarbetets teoretiska del framkommer olika definitioner och benämningar av begreppet språklig medvetenhet. Att begreppet är innehållsrikt och svårdefinierat tydliggörs ytterligare i den empiriska delen. Där har även pedagogerna svårt att definiera vad språklig medvetenhet är. Dock upplever pedagogerna att arbetet med språklig medvetenhet medför många vinster vilket även stärks av den teoretiska delen. I många nationella och internationella studier har det framkommit att medveten träning av språklig medvetenhet är av betydelse för barns läs- och skrivinlärning. I det här examensarbetet förtydligas det ytterligare.

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  • 277.
    Utgof, Darja
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    The Perception of Lexical Similarities Between L2 English and L3 Swedish2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates lexical similarity perceptions by students of Swedish as a foreign language (L3) with a good yet non-native proficiency in English (L2). The general theoretical framework is provided by studies in transfer of learning and its specific instance, transfer in language acquisition.

    It is accepted as true that all previous linguistic knowledge is facilitative in developing proficiency in a new language. However, a frequently reported phenomenon is that students see similarities between two systems in a different way than linguists and theoreticians of education do. As a consequence, the full facilitative potential of transfer remains unused.

    The present research seeks to shed light on the similarity perceptions with the focus on the comprehension of a written text. In order to elucidate students’ views, a form involving similarity judgements and multiple choice questions for formally similar items has been designed, drawing on real language use as provided by corpora. 123 forms have been distributed in 6 groups of international students, 4 of them studying Swedish at Level I and 2 studying at Level II. 

    The test items in the form vary in the degree of formal, semantic and functional similarity from very close cognates, to similar words belonging to different word classes, to items exhibiting category membership and/or being in subordinate/superordinate relation to each other, to deceptive cognates. The author proposes expected similarity ratings and compares them to the results obtained. The objective measure of formal similarity is provided by a string matching algorithm, Levenshtein distance.

    The similarity judgements point at the fact that intermediate similarity values can be considered problematic. Similarity ratings between somewhat similar items are usually lower than could be expected. Besides, difference in grammatical meaning lowers similarity values significantly even if lexical meaning nearly coincides. Thus, the obtained results indicate that in order to utilize similarities to facilitate language learning, more attention should be paid to underlying similarities.

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  • 278.
    van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Laterality shifts in neural activation coupled to language ability2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The right-hemispheric homologues to Broca’s and Wernicke’s area play an important, but currently poorly understood role in language ability. In the current study, we tested 27 healthy adults for their language ability. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data when the participants performed a sentence reading and a word fluency task. The fMRI data were used to calculate a measure of brain laterality – the laterality index – in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior and middle temporal gyrus, and the angular gyrus. These laterality measurements were correlated with performance scores on language tasks administered prior to fMRI. We expected to see that high performance was characterized by a more efficient, i.e. decreased, neural activation pattern in typical language areas. Furthermore, we expected to see activation in additional, right-hemispheric brain regions in high performing subjects as a sign of neural adaptability.

    High performance in a test measuring subtle language deficits (BeSS test) was related to increased activation in the right middle temporal gyrus when the participants were reading sentences. Thus, semantic ability correlated negatively with laterality in the temporal lobe, but not in the frontal lobe. For increased verbal fluency ability, we did observe a decreased left-hemispheric dominance in the inferior frontal gyrus when the participants were generating words. Increased task demands in the word generation task were not related to brain activation, but in the sentence reading task, the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus did exhibit an increase in activation when the sentences increased in difficulty. This result was independent of individual language ability. Increased brain activation at increased difficulty of a language task is interpreted as a sign that the brain recruits additional resources upon higher demands. The negative correlation between language ability and laterality in the in right-hemispheric middle temporal gyrus indicates a higher degree of neural adaptability in the temporal lobes of high skilled individuals.

  • 279.
    Warnicke, Camilla
    et al.
    Habiliteringens Forskningscentrum (HFC), Örebro, Sweden.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Turn-organisation in mediated phone interaction using Video Relay Service (VRS)2012In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 44, no 10, p. 1313-1334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical development has created new arenas of communication for people. One such arena is the VideoRelayService (VRS). The VRS facilitates interaction between people who use visual/gestual sign language on a videophone, and people who use verbal/auditive language on the telephone/mobile phone. The interaction is mediated by a sign language interpreter. The interpreter is the only person in the setting who is directly linked to the others, and all participants are physically separated from each other. The interpreter plays a key role in the interaction, administrating and co-ordinating the talk. In order to do so, the interpreter uses a range of different techniques and strategies. It is the purpose of the current article to describe, analyse and discuss the turn-organisation of the VRS. The article demonstrates how the interpreter is a power figure, who may sanction or not sanction an utterance. The interpreter also manages the turn-taking machinery by means of visible and audible techniques, as well as rendition strategies. The interpreter is not only a mediator, but a co-creator of the interaction; a part that relates dynamically, and makes the participants relate dynamically, to the specific setting of the service.

  • 280.
    Weatherall, Ann
    et al.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Danby, Susan
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Osvaldsson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Emmison, Michael
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Pranking in children's helpline calls2016In: Australian Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0726-8602, E-ISSN 1469-2996, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 224-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pranking can be understood as challenging a normative social order. One environment where pranking occurs is in institutional interaction. The present study examines a sample of pranking calls to telephone helplines for children and young people. Some cases had been posted on YouTube by the person doing the pranking; others were from a subcollection of possible pranks, extracted from a larger corpus of Australian children’s counselling helpline calls. Drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis we aim to understand the inferential and sequential resources involved in pranking within telephone-mediated counselling services for children and youth. Our analysis shows pranksters know the norms of counselling helplines by their practices employed for subverting them. YouTube pranksters exploit next turns of talk to retrospectively cast what the counsellor has just said as a possible challenge to the perception of the call as anormal counselling one. One practice evident in both sources was the setting up of provocative traps to break a linguistic taboo. This detailed study of pranking in interaction provides documentary evidence of its idiosyncratic yet patterned local accomplishment in telephone-mediated counselling services aimed at children and youth.

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  • 281.
    Weatherall, Ann
    et al.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    When Claims of Understanding Are Less Than Affiliative2016In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 167-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conversation analysis has established that the smooth progression of interaction and the accomplishment of action rest on joint understanding, which is implicitly built by a next turn of talk. In this article we examine explicit claims to intersubjective understanding from a range of settings from the institutional to the mundane. Our target expressions have the general form; I + understand + YOU + PSYCHOLOGICAL FORMULATION such as I understand your concern and I see that this is frustrating you. We propose these expressions do pro forma affiliationthat is, they make a show of affiliating, even if in fact there is no affiliation. By explicitly claiming and demonstrating an understanding of the other speakers subjectivity, our target expression orients to misalignment between the parties, makes a show of other-attentiveness and bridges a shift that advances a speakers interactional agenda. Our contribution is to show the strategic function of a previously undocumented pro-social grammatical-conversational structure. Data are in English, and in Estonian and Swedish with English translation.

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  • 282.
    Wingard, Leah
    et al.
    San Francisco State University.
    Forsberg, Lucas
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Parent involvement in childrens homework in American and Swedish dual-earner families2009In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1576-1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes parent involvement by employing ethnographic methods and discourse analysis of parent-child talk about homework. We juxtapose what is often presented as a straightforward and unproblematic concept of parent involvement in education policy and research with actual instances of the day-to-day practices and reported experiences of parent involvement in childrens homework in the U.S. and Sweden. Our analyses show that parent involvement may be either parent or child initiated, and varies widely according to how much homework the child is assigned, the childs orientation to homework and a number of other factors. Analyses demonstrate that parents become involved in two main ways: 1. through anticipating and planning the activity of homework and 2. by directly participating in the accomplishment of the homework task itself. We additionally highlight in the paper that there is an inherent tension between a parents responsibility for homework and the childs responsibility for homework, and that parent involvement can cause tension in communication in the parent-child relationship.

  • 283. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Winzell, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Swedish Studies and Comparative Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Svensklärares skrivdidaktiska kunskapsbildning: Blivande och tidigt verksamma gymnasielärare i svenska talar om skrivundervisning2016Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The teaching of writing is a central task for teachers of Swedish and it is a complex activity which requires knowledge of different areas such as language, communication, and text. The aim of this licentiate’s dissertation is to investigate when and how the knowledge needed for the teaching of writing is developed in teacher education as well as during the first years of teaching. The study is based on semi-structured qualitative interviews with prospective and novice upper secondary school teachers of Swedish.

    The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed in two ways. The first analysis focused on the way in which the prospective and novice teachers talked about text, writing, and the teaching of writing. The result shows that, at the beginning of the teacher education, prospective teachers focus on concrete aspects of text – such as syntax, punctuation and spelling – when they speak about text, writing, writing instruction, and assessment of student writings. In other words, they pay special attention to local text levels. At the end of the teacher education  programme, prospective teachers focus on aspects of text structure such as outline, the structure of paragraphs, coherence and cohesion. Certain aspects that the students pay special attention to are mentioned by the novice teachers, but these aspects are not central to them. Instead, novice teachers give special attention to the global text levels such as context, receivers and the purpose of the text, i.e. abstract aspects of text and writing. The pattern discerned shows a development that starts with a focus on the details at a local text level and expands into a more comprehensive view with a focus at a global level.

    The second analysis concerns the development of the knowledge base for the teaching of writing. This analysis focuses on two of the knowledge categories described by Lee S. Shulman (1986, 1987), namely subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), both of which can be seen as central for the teaching of writing. The knowledge base manifested in the prospective teachers’ utterances mainly consists of subject matter knowledge, whereas the greater part of the knowledge base manifested in the teachers’ utterances consists of pedagogical content knowledge for the teaching of writing. The teachers also manifest a more complex subject matter knowledge and speak about writing instruction in a way which is characterized by conscious choices, reflection and metacognition. The analysis thus shows that the PCK for the teaching of writing is mainly developed in the teaching profession; in other words, after the teacher education programme is finished.

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  • 284.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    TeliaSonera, Farsta, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    TeliaSonera, Farsta, Sweden.
    Engberg, Fredrik
    TeliaSonera, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westermark, Johan
    TeliaSonera, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Experiences of an In-Service Wizard-of-Oz Data Collection for the Deployment of a Call-Routing Application2007In: Bridging the Gap: Academic and Industrial Research in Dialog Technologies Workshop Proceedings,, Madison, WI: Omnipress , 2007, p. 56-63Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes our experiences of collecting a corpus of 42,000 dialogues for a call-routing application using a Wizard-of-Oz approach. Contrary to common practice in the industry, we did not use the kind of automated application that elicits some speech from the customers and then sends all of them to the same destination, such as the existing touch-tone menu, without paying attention to what they have said. Contrary to the traditional Wizard-of-Oz paradigm,our data-collection application was fully integrated within an existing service, replacing the existing touch-tonenavigation system with a simulated callroutingsystem. Thus, the subjects were real customers calling about real tasks,and the wizards were service agents from our customer care. We provide a detailed exposition of the data collection as such and the application used, and compare our approach to methods previously used.

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  • 285.
    Yavari, Sonia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linguistic Landscape and Language Policies: A Comparative Study of Linköping University and ETH Zürich2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Examining the languages in the public space i.e. the linguistic landscape is an emerging field of sociolinguistics, and research focused on the relationship between the linguistic landscape (LL) and language policy has recently garnered particular interest.

    This paper aims to study the linguistic landscapes of two different universities (Linköping University and ETH Zürich) in two different countries (Sweden and Switzerland, respectively) with rather different language policies. The aim is to ascertain some of the striking differences, as well as, the similarities between the two universities in terms of the public use of languages. Apart from the study of LL, the paper investigates the relationship between LL and language policy, and uncovers any contrasts which take place between top-down (posted by the university staff) and bottom-up (not inscribed by the university personnel) forces.

    The study of LL in these two universities is particularly interesting; since they are home to many international students; it is thus quite likely that the national languages are not the only languages found in the linguistic landscape. Furthermore, as Sweden is a monolingual country (basically Swedish), and Switzerland is a multilingual country (German, French, Italian and Romansch), comparing the two could yield insightful results regarding the public use of different languages in these different linguistic settings. Moreover, because of the influence universities have on society, studying the university space is of importance.

    This study tries to answer to the following research questions:

    1. What are the visible languages in the linguistic landscape of LiU and ETH? How are languages distributed in different areas? What is the status of English in proportion to other languages in bilingual signs? How are languages distributed in top-down and bottom-up signs? What kinds of multilingual signs are present? What is a clear classification scheme for signs found in the LL, and how are languages distributed in this scheme?
    2. What are the language policies of these two universities? Are there any policies regarding the languages written on signs? Are the language policies reflected in patterns of language use on signs, and are they reflected in top-down signs more visibly than in bottom-up signs?
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  • 286.
    Zetterholm, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Texten växer fram - om skrivprocessen hos elever i årskurs 32019In: HumaNetten, E-ISSN 1403-2279, no 43, p. 65-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att skriva en text är en process som består av flera olika delar – planering, skrivande, revidering, ordval, grammatiska strukturer med mera (Wengelin 2008). De texter lärare får i sin hand för läsning och bedömning är en slutprodukt som eleven arbetat med på olika sätt under en begränsad tid. Ofta vet inte läraren vilka processer texten genomgått när den växt fram från idé till färdig produkt. Genom att använda loggningsprogrammet ScriptLog (Strömqvist, Holmqvist, Johansson, Karlsson & Wengelin 2006) är det möjligt att få en större förståelse för själva skrivprocessen. Skribentens skrivtid, antal tangentnedslag, redigeringar, flyt i skrivandet och pauser, både längd och plats i texten, loggas och kan sedan studeras och analyseras. Som underlag för den studie som här presenteras finns några texter skrivna av elever i årskurs 3, ålder 9–10 år. Det är 18 texter skrivna av 12 olika elever vid ett par olika tillfällen.

    Eleverna, vars texter används i den här studien, går på en skola där många språk talas. Alla utom två av de tolv medverkande eleverna har minst en utlandsfödd förälder och använder ett eller flera språk förutom svenska dagligen i hemmet. Alla texter är skrivna på svenska, vilket innebär att de flesta eleverna producerat texter på ett språk som inte med självklarhet är deras starkaste språk. Texterna är en del av det material som samlades in från elever i ett par olika klasser och årskurser på en och samma skola inom ramen för ett större projekt vid Linnéuniversitet (Lindgren, Svensson & Zetterholm 2015).

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  • 287.
    Zetterholm, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature.
    Abelin, Åsa
    Ungrammatical prosody does not hinder positive evaluations2019In: Proceedings ICPhS 2019 / [ed] Sasha Calhoun, Paola Escudero, Marija Tabain & Paul Warren (eds.), Canberra Australia, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Zetterholm, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Abelin, Åsa
    Ungrammatical prosody does not hinder positive evaluations2019In: Proceedings International Symposium of Phonetic Sciences, Melbourne, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Örnberg Berglund, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Modern Languages. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Text-based chat and language learning: opportunities and challenges2013In: Språk i undervisning: rapport från ASLA:s vårsymposium, Linköping, 11-12 maj, 2012 / [ed] Christina Rosén, Per Simfors, Ann-Kari Sundberg, Uppsala: ASLA (Institutionen för Nordiska språk, Uppsala universitet) , 2013, p. 139-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current article is to discuss opportunities and challenges with employing text-based interaction in the language classroom. These issues are addressed in relation to empirical data from a Swedish upper secoondary school, where students of English interact with a teacher (the researcher) in instant messaging. In order to gain a detailed picture of the interactional processes, data from chat logs are complemented with screen recordings, keystroke logging data and data from eye tracking. It should be noted that the current article cannot give a comprehensive account of all relevant phenomena and previous research, but rather some identified pattems will be highlighted and discussed.

  • 290. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Čekaitė, Asta
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Getting started: Children’s participation and language learning in an L2 classroom2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis investigates L2 learners’ participation and language learning in a Swedish immersion classroom (ages 7-10). The data consist of video recordings and observations of classroom (and recess) activities, during one school year. Methodologically, the present thesis combines insights from language socialization with detailed transcriptions and analysis, inspired by conversation analytic approaches. More specifically, the learners’ communicative practices are studied as they emerge in the interactional ecology of a specific classroom, situating Swedish language (L2) development within the concrete classroom experiences of the learner. Three communicative practices were recurrently identified in the children’s classroom repertoires: (i) summonses; (ii) self-selections; (iii) language play, including metapragmatic play.

    The findings are documented in four studies. The first article focuses on how L2 novices solicit the teacher’s attention during individual seatwork. It illustrates how the novices upgraded their attempts to secure the teacher’s attention by employing multimodally structured summons turns, involving affective stances and displays of classroom artefacts. In the second study, an L2 novice’s self-selections in teacher-fronted (conversational) activities are analysed in a longitudinal perspective, showing how participation in such activities was related to language, and interactional skills, that were consequential for ‘learner’ identity in the classroom community. The third study explores the children’s metapragmatic play and demonstrates how they created joking episodes, involving transgressions from local classroom norms. Finally, the fourth study analyses children’s spontaneous form-focused language play. It demonstrates that such playful episodes and transgressions from ‘correct’ language form recurrently evolved into spontaneous peer-run ‘language lessons’; a form of aesthetic explorations of language form and meaning, involving multiparty public performances.

    As a whole, the present studies illuminate different aspects of informal learning in language classrooms, highlighting practices that have largely escaped systematic attention in much prior work on second language acquisition.

    List of papers
    1. Soliciting teacher attention in an L2 classroom: Affective displays, classroom artefacts, and embodied action
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soliciting teacher attention in an L2 classroom: Affective displays, classroom artefacts, and embodied action
    2009 (English)In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 26-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores L2 novices’ ways of soliciting teacherattention, more specifically, their summonses. The data arebased on detailed analyses of video recordings in a Swedishlanguage immersion classroom. The analyses illuminate the lexicalshape of summonses in conjunction with prosody, body posture,gestures, and classroom artefacts. As demonstrated, a simplestructure of summoning provided a handy method for solicitingand establishing the teacher's attention, and facilitated thenovices’ participation in classroom activities from earlyon. Importantly, however, the local design of the summonseswas influenced by the competitive multiparty classroom setting.The analyses illustrate how the novices upgraded their summonsesby displaying a range of affective stances. Different aspectsof the students’ embodied actions were employed as waysof indexing affective stances, for example ‘tired’,‘resigned’, or ‘playful’, that in thelocal educational order created methods that invited the teacher'sattention and conversational uptake. These locally availableresources allowed children to upgrade their summonses and toindicate their communicative projects, in spite of their limitedSwedish (L2) resources. The findings are discussed in termsof their implications for understanding participation in L2classroom interactions as being a matter of delicately calibratedcollaborative accomplishments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford University Press, 2009
    Keywords
    L2 novices, embodied action, L2 learning, children, affective stances
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28176 (URN)10.1093/applin/amm057 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    2. Turn-taking and learner identity during the first year in an L2 classroom: A novice’s changing patterns of participation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turn-taking and learner identity during the first year in an L2 classroom: A novice’s changing patterns of participation
    2006 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Humanities
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13991 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2015-06-02
    3. Repetition and joking in children’s second language conversations: playful recyclings in an immersion classroom
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repetition and joking in children’s second language conversations: playful recyclings in an immersion classroom
    2004 (English)In: Discourse studies, ISSN 1461-4456, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 373-392Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Repetition is often associated with traditional teaching drills.However, it has been documented how repetitionsare exploited by learners themselves (Duff, 2000). In a study of immersion classroom conversations, it wasfound that playful recyclings were recurrentfeatures of young learners’ second language repertoires.Such joking events were identified on the basisof the participants’ displayed amusement,and they often involved activity-based jokes (Lampert, 1996)and meta pragmatic play, that is, joking abouthow or by whom something is said. Two typesof recyclings: intertextual play and roleappropriations were both important features in informal classroomentertainment and in the formation of a communityof learners (cf. Rogoff, 1990). In a broad sense,both types of joking contained subversive elements in that theycreated play zones or ‘time-out’(cf. Goffman, 1959; Jefferson, 1996) withinclassroom activities. Moreover, role appropriations were subversivein that they inverted classroom hierarchies.

    Keywords
    children’s early L2 conversations, joking events, metapragmatic play, repetition, subversion
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13992 (URN)10.1177/1461445604044295 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2018-03-06
    4. Language play, a collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language play, a collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning
    2005 (English)In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 169-191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Within communicative language teaching, ‘natural’language has had a privileged position, and a focus on formhas been seen as something inauthentic or as something thatis inconsequential for learning (for a critique, see Kramschand Sullivan 1996; Cook 1997). Yet in the present study of animmersion classroom, it was found that children with limitedL2 proficiency recurrently employed form-focused language playin spontaneous peer conversations. Our work involves a distinctfocus on multiparty talk, and it is shown how language playis, in many ways, a collaborative affair, initiated by the childrenthemselves. Playful mislabelings and puns often generated extendedrepair sequences that could be seen as informal ‘languagelessons’ focused on formal aspects of language. Simultaneously,shared laughter and shifting alignments between peers were centralaspects of the local politics of classroom life. The jokingwas quite rudimentary. Yet it included artful performance andcollaborative aestheticism, involving alliteration and otherforms of parallelisms, as well as code switching, laughing,and artful variations in pitch, volume and voice quality. Thepaper illustrates the need to integrate language play in modelsof L2 learning.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford University Press, 2005
    Keywords
    language play; joking events; collaborative performance; second language learning; immersion classroom
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13993 (URN)10.1093/applin/amh042 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2018-03-06
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  • 291.
    Čekaitė, Asta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Evaldsson, Ann-Carita
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stance and footing in children’s multilingual play: Rescaling practices in a Swedish preschool2019In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 144, p. 127-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how young immigrant children in multilingual playful activities with peers and adults engage with and explore heritage language forms (e.g., their features, social values and pragmatic uses), as well as transgress boundaries between different language varieties. It is argued that such ludic language practices – located and enacted within micro-interactional processes – in turn link to and contribute to macro-level socio-cultural values and tensions of languages. The selected data constitute a case study based on a video-ethnography of multilingual language practices in a preschool (for 3- to 6-year-olds) with a Swedish monolingual policy. It is found that the children's multilingual play involve the exploitation of heritage language and linguistic incongruities: it takes the shape of exaggerated repetitions, transformations of language forms (phonetic, morphological and syntactic features), various keying resources, i.e., affective (serious or ludic) and metalinguistic stances. The findings underscore the importance of taking into account young immigrant children's agency in creating new spaces (e.g., ludic or instructional activities) for heritage language forms and varieties as they are used for entertaining, rather than educational purposes.

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