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  • 251.
    Stymne, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cancedda, Nicola
    Xerox Research Centre Europe.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Generation of Compound Words in Statistical Machine Translation into Compounding Languages2013In: Computational linguistics - Association for Computational Linguistics (Print), ISSN 0891-2017, E-ISSN 1530-9312, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 1067-1108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigate statistical machine translation (SMT) into Germanic languages, with a focus on compound processing. Our main goal is to enable the generation of novel compounds that have not been seen in the training data. We adopt a split-merge strategy, where compounds are split before training the SMT system, and merged after the translation step. This approach reduces sparsity in the training data, but runs the risk of placing translations of compound parts in non-consecutive positions. It also requires a postprocessing step of compound merging, where compounds are reconstructed in the translation output. We present a method for increasing the chances that components that should be merged are translated into contiguous positions and in the right order and show that it can lead to improvements both by direct inspection and in terms of standard translation evaluation metrics. We also propose several new methods for compound merging, based on heuristics and machine learning, which outperform previously suggested algorithms. These methods can produce novel compounds and a translation with at least the same overall quality as the baseline. For all subtasks we show that it is useful to include part-of-speech based information in the translation process, in order to handle compounds.

  • 252.
    Sulyman, Areen
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Theories of Identity Formation among Immigrants: Examples from People with an Iraqi Kurdish Background in Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay portrays the formation and construction of the identity development of immigrants through their cultural encounter with a new society. It is an attempt to give voice to four Iraqi Kurds, who came to Sweden at the age of six months, nine years, twenty-two and twenty-seven years respectively, in order to interpret issues about their identity construction and belonging. What does it mean for them to be Kurds in Sweden and live between two different cultures? How is their identity formulated and where do they belong as Kurds, Swedes, in-between or both? The individuals‘ identity changes when encountering a society that is completely different from their country of origin because ―[…] the nature of the individual depends upon the society in which he or she lives‖ (Burke and Stets 2009: 4). Moreover, the first generation includes those immigrants who arrived at a very young age and thus grew up and were raised in diaspora, lived between two different cultures, and are ―confronted with two motherlands‖ (Jodeyr 2003). One is their country of origin and the other one is the host country that they migrated to. The host country is considered the real home country for those who arrived at a very young age according to some of my informants. Therefore, the narratives my informants tell about their identity are the result of their relationship as individuals with the Swedish society.

  • 253.
    Szczepek Reed, Beatrice
    et al.
    Department of Education, University of York, United Kingdom.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Sweden.
    How Speakers of Different Languages Extend Their Turns: Word Linking and Glottalization in French and German2016In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 128-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A speaker who issues a confirming turn starting with particles like yes, oui, ja, and so on, may mean to extend it and provide further material. This study shows that French and German speakers employ the same phonetic contrast to indicate the nature of that turn continuation. In spite of the typological difference between the German use of glottalization and the French use of linking phenomena for word boundaries involving word-initial vowels, speakers of both languages exploit this contrast systematically in their design of multiunit turns. Initial confirmations are joined directly to subsequent vowel-fronted turn components when speakers respond with an internally cohesive multiunit confirming turn. The components are separated by glottalization when responses involve multiple actions or departures from a trajectory projected by the turn-initial confirmation. This is further evidence that sound patterns shape interaction and are not solely determined by language-specific phonologies. Data are in French and German with English translation.

  • 254.
    Thorstensson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Educational Science (IUV).
    Språklig medvetenhet: En empirisk och teoretik studie2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under inriktningen Grundläggande färdigheter på lärarprogrammet väcktes ett intresse hos mig angående språklig medvetenhet och dess betydelse för barns läs- och skrivinlärning. I det här examensarbetet har det behandlats närmare med hjälp av en empirisk och teoretisk studie. Genom att koppla vad framstående forskare inom språklig medvetenhet anser om vad just språklig medvetenhet är, till hur verksamma pedagoger arbetar och upplever språklig medvetenhet i praktiken, ges en bild av begreppets innebörd och betydelse. Svårigheter, oklarheter och fördelar med begreppet språklig medvetenhet redovisas.

    I examensarbetets teoretiska del framkommer olika definitioner och benämningar av begreppet språklig medvetenhet. Att begreppet är innehållsrikt och svårdefinierat tydliggörs ytterligare i den empiriska delen. Där har även pedagogerna svårt att definiera vad språklig medvetenhet är. Dock upplever pedagogerna att arbetet med språklig medvetenhet medför många vinster vilket även stärks av den teoretiska delen. I många nationella och internationella studier har det framkommit att medveten träning av språklig medvetenhet är av betydelse för barns läs- och skrivinlärning. I det här examensarbetet förtydligas det ytterligare.

  • 255.
    Utgof, Darja
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    The Perception of Lexical Similarities Between L2 English and L3 Swedish2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates lexical similarity perceptions by students of Swedish as a foreign language (L3) with a good yet non-native proficiency in English (L2). The general theoretical framework is provided by studies in transfer of learning and its specific instance, transfer in language acquisition.

    It is accepted as true that all previous linguistic knowledge is facilitative in developing proficiency in a new language. However, a frequently reported phenomenon is that students see similarities between two systems in a different way than linguists and theoreticians of education do. As a consequence, the full facilitative potential of transfer remains unused.

    The present research seeks to shed light on the similarity perceptions with the focus on the comprehension of a written text. In order to elucidate students’ views, a form involving similarity judgements and multiple choice questions for formally similar items has been designed, drawing on real language use as provided by corpora. 123 forms have been distributed in 6 groups of international students, 4 of them studying Swedish at Level I and 2 studying at Level II. 

    The test items in the form vary in the degree of formal, semantic and functional similarity from very close cognates, to similar words belonging to different word classes, to items exhibiting category membership and/or being in subordinate/superordinate relation to each other, to deceptive cognates. The author proposes expected similarity ratings and compares them to the results obtained. The objective measure of formal similarity is provided by a string matching algorithm, Levenshtein distance.

    The similarity judgements point at the fact that intermediate similarity values can be considered problematic. Similarity ratings between somewhat similar items are usually lower than could be expected. Besides, difference in grammatical meaning lowers similarity values significantly even if lexical meaning nearly coincides. Thus, the obtained results indicate that in order to utilize similarities to facilitate language learning, more attention should be paid to underlying similarities.

  • 256.
    van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Laterality shifts in neural activation coupled to language ability2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The right-hemispheric homologues to Broca’s and Wernicke’s area play an important, but currently poorly understood role in language ability. In the current study, we tested 27 healthy adults for their language ability. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data when the participants performed a sentence reading and a word fluency task. The fMRI data were used to calculate a measure of brain laterality – the laterality index – in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior and middle temporal gyrus, and the angular gyrus. These laterality measurements were correlated with performance scores on language tasks administered prior to fMRI. We expected to see that high performance was characterized by a more efficient, i.e. decreased, neural activation pattern in typical language areas. Furthermore, we expected to see activation in additional, right-hemispheric brain regions in high performing subjects as a sign of neural adaptability.

    High performance in a test measuring subtle language deficits (BeSS test) was related to increased activation in the right middle temporal gyrus when the participants were reading sentences. Thus, semantic ability correlated negatively with laterality in the temporal lobe, but not in the frontal lobe. For increased verbal fluency ability, we did observe a decreased left-hemispheric dominance in the inferior frontal gyrus when the participants were generating words. Increased task demands in the word generation task were not related to brain activation, but in the sentence reading task, the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus did exhibit an increase in activation when the sentences increased in difficulty. This result was independent of individual language ability. Increased brain activation at increased difficulty of a language task is interpreted as a sign that the brain recruits additional resources upon higher demands. The negative correlation between language ability and laterality in the in right-hemispheric middle temporal gyrus indicates a higher degree of neural adaptability in the temporal lobes of high skilled individuals.

  • 257.
    Warnicke, Camilla
    et al.
    Habiliteringens Forskningscentrum (HFC), Örebro, Sweden.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Turn-organisation in mediated phone interaction using Video Relay Service (VRS)2012In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 44, no 10, p. 1313-1334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical development has created new arenas of communication for people. One such arena is the VideoRelayService (VRS). The VRS facilitates interaction between people who use visual/gestual sign language on a videophone, and people who use verbal/auditive language on the telephone/mobile phone. The interaction is mediated by a sign language interpreter. The interpreter is the only person in the setting who is directly linked to the others, and all participants are physically separated from each other. The interpreter plays a key role in the interaction, administrating and co-ordinating the talk. In order to do so, the interpreter uses a range of different techniques and strategies. It is the purpose of the current article to describe, analyse and discuss the turn-organisation of the VRS. The article demonstrates how the interpreter is a power figure, who may sanction or not sanction an utterance. The interpreter also manages the turn-taking machinery by means of visible and audible techniques, as well as rendition strategies. The interpreter is not only a mediator, but a co-creator of the interaction; a part that relates dynamically, and makes the participants relate dynamically, to the specific setting of the service.

  • 258.
    Weatherall, Ann
    et al.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Danby, Susan
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Osvaldsson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Emmison, Michael
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Pranking in children's helpline calls2016In: Australian Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0726-8602, E-ISSN 1469-2996, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 224-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pranking can be understood as challenging a normative social order. One environment where pranking occurs is in institutional interaction. The present study examines a sample of pranking calls to telephone helplines for children and young people. Some cases had been posted on YouTube by the person doing the pranking; others were from a subcollection of possible pranks, extracted from a larger corpus of Australian children’s counselling helpline calls. Drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis we aim to understand the inferential and sequential resources involved in pranking within telephone-mediated counselling services for children and youth. Our analysis shows pranksters know the norms of counselling helplines by their practices employed for subverting them. YouTube pranksters exploit next turns of talk to retrospectively cast what the counsellor has just said as a possible challenge to the perception of the call as anormal counselling one. One practice evident in both sources was the setting up of provocative traps to break a linguistic taboo. This detailed study of pranking in interaction provides documentary evidence of its idiosyncratic yet patterned local accomplishment in telephone-mediated counselling services aimed at children and youth.

  • 259.
    Weatherall, Ann
    et al.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    When Claims of Understanding Are Less Than Affiliative2016In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 167-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conversation analysis has established that the smooth progression of interaction and the accomplishment of action rest on joint understanding, which is implicitly built by a next turn of talk. In this article we examine explicit claims to intersubjective understanding from a range of settings from the institutional to the mundane. Our target expressions have the general form; I + understand + YOU + PSYCHOLOGICAL FORMULATION such as I understand your concern and I see that this is frustrating you. We propose these expressions do pro forma affiliationthat is, they make a show of affiliating, even if in fact there is no affiliation. By explicitly claiming and demonstrating an understanding of the other speakers subjectivity, our target expression orients to misalignment between the parties, makes a show of other-attentiveness and bridges a shift that advances a speakers interactional agenda. Our contribution is to show the strategic function of a previously undocumented pro-social grammatical-conversational structure. Data are in English, and in Estonian and Swedish with English translation.

  • 260.
    Wingard, Leah
    et al.
    San Francisco State University.
    Forsberg, Lucas
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Parent involvement in childrens homework in American and Swedish dual-earner families2009In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1576-1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes parent involvement by employing ethnographic methods and discourse analysis of parent-child talk about homework. We juxtapose what is often presented as a straightforward and unproblematic concept of parent involvement in education policy and research with actual instances of the day-to-day practices and reported experiences of parent involvement in childrens homework in the U.S. and Sweden. Our analyses show that parent involvement may be either parent or child initiated, and varies widely according to how much homework the child is assigned, the childs orientation to homework and a number of other factors. Analyses demonstrate that parents become involved in two main ways: 1. through anticipating and planning the activity of homework and 2. by directly participating in the accomplishment of the homework task itself. We additionally highlight in the paper that there is an inherent tension between a parents responsibility for homework and the childs responsibility for homework, and that parent involvement can cause tension in communication in the parent-child relationship.

  • 261.
    Winzell, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Swedish Studies and Comparative Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Svensklärares skrivdidaktiska kunskapsbildning: Blivande och tidigt verksamma gymnasielärare i svenska talar om skrivundervisning2016Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The teaching of writing is a central task for teachers of Swedish and it is a complex activity which requires knowledge of different areas such as language, communication, and text. The aim of this licentiate’s dissertation is to investigate when and how the knowledge needed for the teaching of writing is developed in teacher education as well as during the first years of teaching. The study is based on semi-structured qualitative interviews with prospective and novice upper secondary school teachers of Swedish.

    The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed in two ways. The first analysis focused on the way in which the prospective and novice teachers talked about text, writing, and the teaching of writing. The result shows that, at the beginning of the teacher education, prospective teachers focus on concrete aspects of text – such as syntax, punctuation and spelling – when they speak about text, writing, writing instruction, and assessment of student writings. In other words, they pay special attention to local text levels. At the end of the teacher education  programme, prospective teachers focus on aspects of text structure such as outline, the structure of paragraphs, coherence and cohesion. Certain aspects that the students pay special attention to are mentioned by the novice teachers, but these aspects are not central to them. Instead, novice teachers give special attention to the global text levels such as context, receivers and the purpose of the text, i.e. abstract aspects of text and writing. The pattern discerned shows a development that starts with a focus on the details at a local text level and expands into a more comprehensive view with a focus at a global level.

    The second analysis concerns the development of the knowledge base for the teaching of writing. This analysis focuses on two of the knowledge categories described by Lee S. Shulman (1986, 1987), namely subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), both of which can be seen as central for the teaching of writing. The knowledge base manifested in the prospective teachers’ utterances mainly consists of subject matter knowledge, whereas the greater part of the knowledge base manifested in the teachers’ utterances consists of pedagogical content knowledge for the teaching of writing. The teachers also manifest a more complex subject matter knowledge and speak about writing instruction in a way which is characterized by conscious choices, reflection and metacognition. The analysis thus shows that the PCK for the teaching of writing is mainly developed in the teaching profession; in other words, after the teacher education programme is finished.

  • 262.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    TeliaSonera, Farsta, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    TeliaSonera, Farsta, Sweden.
    Engberg, Fredrik
    TeliaSonera, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westermark, Johan
    TeliaSonera, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Experiences of an In-Service Wizard-of-Oz Data Collection for the Deployment of a Call-Routing Application2007In: Bridging the Gap: Academic and Industrial Research in Dialog Technologies Workshop Proceedings,, Madison, WI: Omnipress , 2007, p. 56-63Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes our experiences of collecting a corpus of 42,000 dialogues for a call-routing application using a Wizard-of-Oz approach. Contrary to common practice in the industry, we did not use the kind of automated application that elicits some speech from the customers and then sends all of them to the same destination, such as the existing touch-tone menu, without paying attention to what they have said. Contrary to the traditional Wizard-of-Oz paradigm,our data-collection application was fully integrated within an existing service, replacing the existing touch-tonenavigation system with a simulated callroutingsystem. Thus, the subjects were real customers calling about real tasks,and the wizards were service agents from our customer care. We provide a detailed exposition of the data collection as such and the application used, and compare our approach to methods previously used.

  • 263.
    Yavari, Sonia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linguistic Landscape and Language Policies: A Comparative Study of Linköping University and ETH Zürich2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Examining the languages in the public space i.e. the linguistic landscape is an emerging field of sociolinguistics, and research focused on the relationship between the linguistic landscape (LL) and language policy has recently garnered particular interest.

    This paper aims to study the linguistic landscapes of two different universities (Linköping University and ETH Zürich) in two different countries (Sweden and Switzerland, respectively) with rather different language policies. The aim is to ascertain some of the striking differences, as well as, the similarities between the two universities in terms of the public use of languages. Apart from the study of LL, the paper investigates the relationship between LL and language policy, and uncovers any contrasts which take place between top-down (posted by the university staff) and bottom-up (not inscribed by the university personnel) forces.

    The study of LL in these two universities is particularly interesting; since they are home to many international students; it is thus quite likely that the national languages are not the only languages found in the linguistic landscape. Furthermore, as Sweden is a monolingual country (basically Swedish), and Switzerland is a multilingual country (German, French, Italian and Romansch), comparing the two could yield insightful results regarding the public use of different languages in these different linguistic settings. Moreover, because of the influence universities have on society, studying the university space is of importance.

    This study tries to answer to the following research questions:

    1. What are the visible languages in the linguistic landscape of LiU and ETH? How are languages distributed in different areas? What is the status of English in proportion to other languages in bilingual signs? How are languages distributed in top-down and bottom-up signs? What kinds of multilingual signs are present? What is a clear classification scheme for signs found in the LL, and how are languages distributed in this scheme?
    2. What are the language policies of these two universities? Are there any policies regarding the languages written on signs? Are the language policies reflected in patterns of language use on signs, and are they reflected in top-down signs more visibly than in bottom-up signs?
  • 264.
    Örnberg Berglund, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Modern Languages. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Text-based chat and language learning: opportunities and challenges2013In: Språk i undervisning: rapport från ASLA:s vårsymposium, Linköping, 11-12 maj, 2012 / [ed] Christina Rosén, Per Simfors, Ann-Kari Sundberg, Uppsala: ASLA (Institutionen för Nordiska språk, Uppsala universitet) , 2013, p. 139-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current article is to discuss opportunities and challenges with employing text-based interaction in the language classroom. These issues are addressed in relation to empirical data from a Swedish upper secoondary school, where students of English interact with a teacher (the researcher) in instant messaging. In order to gain a detailed picture of the interactional processes, data from chat logs are complemented with screen recordings, keystroke logging data and data from eye tracking. It should be noted that the current article cannot give a comprehensive account of all relevant phenomena and previous research, but rather some identified pattems will be highlighted and discussed.

  • 265.
    Čekaitė, Asta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Getting started: Children’s participation and language learning in an L2 classroom2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis investigates L2 learners’ participation and language learning in a Swedish immersion classroom (ages 7-10). The data consist of video recordings and observations of classroom (and recess) activities, during one school year. Methodologically, the present thesis combines insights from language socialization with detailed transcriptions and analysis, inspired by conversation analytic approaches. More specifically, the learners’ communicative practices are studied as they emerge in the interactional ecology of a specific classroom, situating Swedish language (L2) development within the concrete classroom experiences of the learner. Three communicative practices were recurrently identified in the children’s classroom repertoires: (i) summonses; (ii) self-selections; (iii) language play, including metapragmatic play.

    The findings are documented in four studies. The first article focuses on how L2 novices solicit the teacher’s attention during individual seatwork. It illustrates how the novices upgraded their attempts to secure the teacher’s attention by employing multimodally structured summons turns, involving affective stances and displays of classroom artefacts. In the second study, an L2 novice’s self-selections in teacher-fronted (conversational) activities are analysed in a longitudinal perspective, showing how participation in such activities was related to language, and interactional skills, that were consequential for ‘learner’ identity in the classroom community. The third study explores the children’s metapragmatic play and demonstrates how they created joking episodes, involving transgressions from local classroom norms. Finally, the fourth study analyses children’s spontaneous form-focused language play. It demonstrates that such playful episodes and transgressions from ‘correct’ language form recurrently evolved into spontaneous peer-run ‘language lessons’; a form of aesthetic explorations of language form and meaning, involving multiparty public performances.

    As a whole, the present studies illuminate different aspects of informal learning in language classrooms, highlighting practices that have largely escaped systematic attention in much prior work on second language acquisition.

    List of papers
    1. Soliciting teacher attention in an L2 classroom: Affective displays, classroom artefacts, and embodied action
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soliciting teacher attention in an L2 classroom: Affective displays, classroom artefacts, and embodied action
    2009 (English)In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 26-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores L2 novices’ ways of soliciting teacherattention, more specifically, their summonses. The data arebased on detailed analyses of video recordings in a Swedishlanguage immersion classroom. The analyses illuminate the lexicalshape of summonses in conjunction with prosody, body posture,gestures, and classroom artefacts. As demonstrated, a simplestructure of summoning provided a handy method for solicitingand establishing the teacher's attention, and facilitated thenovices’ participation in classroom activities from earlyon. Importantly, however, the local design of the summonseswas influenced by the competitive multiparty classroom setting.The analyses illustrate how the novices upgraded their summonsesby displaying a range of affective stances. Different aspectsof the students’ embodied actions were employed as waysof indexing affective stances, for example ‘tired’,‘resigned’, or ‘playful’, that in thelocal educational order created methods that invited the teacher'sattention and conversational uptake. These locally availableresources allowed children to upgrade their summonses and toindicate their communicative projects, in spite of their limitedSwedish (L2) resources. The findings are discussed in termsof their implications for understanding participation in L2classroom interactions as being a matter of delicately calibratedcollaborative accomplishments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford University Press, 2009
    Keywords
    L2 novices, embodied action, L2 learning, children, affective stances
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28176 (URN)10.1093/applin/amm057 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    2. Turn-taking and learner identity during the first year in an L2 classroom: A novice’s changing patterns of participation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turn-taking and learner identity during the first year in an L2 classroom: A novice’s changing patterns of participation
    2006 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Humanities
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13991 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2015-06-02
    3. Repetition and joking in children’s second language conversations: playful recyclings in an immersion classroom
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repetition and joking in children’s second language conversations: playful recyclings in an immersion classroom
    2004 (English)In: Discourse studies, ISSN 1461-4456, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 373-392Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Repetition is often associated with traditional teaching drills.However, it has been documented how repetitionsare exploited by learners themselves (Duff, 2000). In a study of immersion classroom conversations, it wasfound that playful recyclings were recurrentfeatures of young learners’ second language repertoires.Such joking events were identified on the basisof the participants’ displayed amusement,and they often involved activity-based jokes (Lampert, 1996)and meta pragmatic play, that is, joking abouthow or by whom something is said. Two typesof recyclings: intertextual play and roleappropriations were both important features in informal classroomentertainment and in the formation of a communityof learners (cf. Rogoff, 1990). In a broad sense,both types of joking contained subversive elements in that theycreated play zones or ‘time-out’(cf. Goffman, 1959; Jefferson, 1996) withinclassroom activities. Moreover, role appropriations were subversivein that they inverted classroom hierarchies.

    Keywords
    children’s early L2 conversations, joking events, metapragmatic play, repetition, subversion
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13992 (URN)10.1177/1461445604044295 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2018-03-06
    4. Language play, a collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language play, a collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning
    2005 (English)In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 169-191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Within communicative language teaching, ‘natural’language has had a privileged position, and a focus on formhas been seen as something inauthentic or as something thatis inconsequential for learning (for a critique, see Kramschand Sullivan 1996; Cook 1997). Yet in the present study of animmersion classroom, it was found that children with limitedL2 proficiency recurrently employed form-focused language playin spontaneous peer conversations. Our work involves a distinctfocus on multiparty talk, and it is shown how language playis, in many ways, a collaborative affair, initiated by the childrenthemselves. Playful mislabelings and puns often generated extendedrepair sequences that could be seen as informal ‘languagelessons’ focused on formal aspects of language. Simultaneously,shared laughter and shifting alignments between peers were centralaspects of the local politics of classroom life. The jokingwas quite rudimentary. Yet it included artful performance andcollaborative aestheticism, involving alliteration and otherforms of parallelisms, as well as code switching, laughing,and artful variations in pitch, volume and voice quality. Thepaper illustrates the need to integrate language play in modelsof L2 learning.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford University Press, 2005
    Keywords
    language play; joking events; collaborative performance; second language learning; immersion classroom
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13993 (URN)10.1093/applin/amh042 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2018-03-06
  • 266.
    Čekaitė, Asta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Evaldsson, Ann-Carita
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stance and footing in children’s multilingual play: Rescaling practices in a Swedish preschool2019In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 144, p. 127-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how young immigrant children in multilingual playful activities with peers and adults engage with and explore heritage language forms (e.g., their features, social values and pragmatic uses), as well as transgress boundaries between different language varieties. It is argued that such ludic language practices – located and enacted within micro-interactional processes – in turn link to and contribute to macro-level socio-cultural values and tensions of languages. The selected data constitute a case study based on a video-ethnography of multilingual language practices in a preschool (for 3- to 6-year-olds) with a Swedish monolingual policy. It is found that the children's multilingual play involve the exploitation of heritage language and linguistic incongruities: it takes the shape of exaggerated repetitions, transformations of language forms (phonetic, morphological and syntactic features), various keying resources, i.e., affective (serious or ludic) and metalinguistic stances. The findings underscore the importance of taking into account young immigrant children's agency in creating new spaces (e.g., ludic or instructional activities) for heritage language forms and varieties as they are used for entertaining, rather than educational purposes.

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