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  • 251.
    Goksøyr, Arnold
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen.
    Nilsen, Roy M
    Haukeland Universitetssykehus, Bergen.
    Eikum, Frode S
    Sogndal kommune, Norge.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Prevalence of post partum depression in parents. An analysis of possible risk and protective  factors. Preliminary results2012In: Infant Mental Health Journal [Abstract Supplement, p 216] / [ed] K. Puura, M. Tomlinson. N.W. Boris & M. Sorsa, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project investigated the retrospective prevalence of depression in both fathers and mothers of children born in the period 1994–1998. Self-administrative questionnaires were sent to the parents of 1736 children in a rural part of Western Norway. We collected information on their symptoms of depression, when the particular child was born, the parents’ education level, their type of employment, marital status, and degree of social support from their own family and from their friends. To assess depression, Kendler’s scale of life time depression was used. This is a 6-item scale classifying clinical depression to mild depression according to the ICD-10. In addition we asked about onset of the symptoms and the duration of depression and if the symptoms had been recurrent

    The response rate of the questionnaires was 39.2%. A total of 1139 replies were received for 680 children (53% girls). Of the parents (55% mothers, 45% fathers), we found that 5.5% of the mothers and 0.4% of the fathers reported a score above cut-off indicating that they suffered from a postpartum depression after the child was born. In addition, a sub-clinical depression with at least 3 significant symptoms was reported by 3.5% of the mothers and 0.8% of the fathers. Age, education and employment of the parents, size of the family and social support as possible risk factors will be discussed.

    In this study, the prevalence of a clinical depression about 15 years ago was lower than that observed in more recent studies in Norway. This could be due to different methods in measuring depression, but may also indicate that postnatal depression is indeed an increasing health problem.   

  • 252.
    Gradin Franzén, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Disciplining Freedom: Treatment Dilemmas and Subjectivity at a Detention Home for Young Men2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This ethnographic study explores treatment practices and staff-resident interaction at a detention home for young men, drawing on video recorded conversations and interviews. It investigates ideological dilemmas inherent in the institutional setting and how these produce complex subject positions to uptake, negotiate or refuse. Study I explores a core treatment dilemma: coercion vs. freedom, involving the dual institutional goal of coercing residents into norm abiding behavior and of producing individuals who behave "properly" out of their own free will. It focuses on staff members’ talk about token economy, illuminating rhetorical resources deployed to avoid the troubled subject position of a disciplinarian. Study II investigates disciplinary humor, illuminating how humor is used both to impose and disrupt social order. It shows how staff members and youths skillfully deploy humor in negotiating local hierarchies related to authority, generation, and age. Humor was also found to be a useful way of navigating ideological dilemmas. Study III explores behavior modification practices, focusing on how selfassessment practices can be conceptualized as responsibilization that emphasizes self-regulation. It documents the participants’ engagement in strategic deployment of specific subject position relations, “young boy”-caregiver rather than delinquent-disciplinarian. In brief, the thesis shows that subject positions are essentially co-constructed, and how positions related to age are highly relevant in this institutional setting. Paradoxical aspects of subject positions provide discursive resources that can be deployed to navigate ideological dilemmas such as that of coercion vs. freedom, but also to handle issues of authenticity.

    List of papers
    1. From punishmentto rewards?: Treatment dilemmas at a youth detention home
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>From punishmentto rewards?: Treatment dilemmas at a youth detention home
    2014 (English)In: Punishment & Society, ISSN 1462-4745, E-ISSN 1741-3095, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 542-559Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present article analyses staff members’ discourses on the treatment method token economy, as it is implemented at a detention home for young men. The study draws on interviews with eight staff members and on participant observations at the detention home. Using discursive psychology, the analysis centers on the staff members’ own constructions of token economy as well as paradoxes and dilemmas that appear in their talk. Two paradoxes were found: (1) paradox of transparency and interpretation; token economy is objective and transparent, but requires interpretative work over time; and (2) paradox of rewards and punishments; tokens are rewards, but they can be ‘zeroed’ or withdrawn in order to limit undesirable behavior. Further, the analysis showed that both paradoxes invoke a principal ideological dilemma of control – freedom, which staff members attempt to resolve by positioning the young men as responsible for their own actions and themselves as subordinate parties in the outcome of ‘objective’ token economy practices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2014
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106934 (URN)10.1177/1462474514548788 (DOI)000346025000003 ()
    Available from: 2014-05-27 Created: 2014-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05
    2. Teasing, laughing and disciplinary humor: Staff-youth interaction in detention home treatment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teasing, laughing and disciplinary humor: Staff-youth interaction in detention home treatment
    2013 (English)In: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 167-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how disciplinary humor is deployed to shape and reshape social order in inter-generational encounters. Data are drawn from an ethnographic study of staff–resident encounters at a treatment home for boys (including about 30 hours of video recordings), focusing on sequential patterns in the local design of jokes and teasing, analyzing language and multimodal interaction in detail. It was found that staff and boys recurrently laughed together and teased each other by invoking local hierarchical positions such as child–adult. The intrinsic ambiguity of humor and teasing allowed staff members to engage in temporary breaches of social order, while simultaneously enforcing local rules of conduct. Similarly, the boys would joke with the staff, exaggerating or transgressing institutional and generational divides. But ultimately, the joking could also be seen to remind the participants of the very hierarchies that separate staff from residents and men from boys, or adults from children. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2013
    Keywords
    Detention homes, disciplinary humor, discipline, laughter, social order, teasing, youth
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90251 (URN)10.1177/1461445612471469 (DOI)000329071000003 ()
    Available from: 2013-03-22 Created: 2013-03-22 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    3. Responsibilization and Discipline: Subject Positioning at a Youth Detention Home
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Responsibilization and Discipline: Subject Positioning at a Youth Detention Home
    2015 (English)In: Journal of contemporary ethnography, ISSN 0891-2416, E-ISSN 1552-5414, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 251-279Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Responsibilization has been seen as a major technique for society’s governing of troublesome youth, yet few previous studies have investigated responsibilization in practice. This article explores a behavior modification program at a youth detention home, specifically how involved self-assessment practices can be conceptualized as a responsibilization strategy (aimed at producing free and self-governing subjects). The study documents and explicates this complex discursive setting, where responsibilization practices are combined with rigorous control. Drawing on video-ethnographic methods, the analyses explore how responsibilization is attempted and resisted in interaction. Institutional rules and manuals were used by residents both to enact resistance and to position themselves as responsibilized, in which self-assessment practices make out a kind of technology of the self (Foucault). Further, the study concludes that both staff and residents at times strategically positioned residents as children, something that ultimately could be conceptualized as both parties jointly enacting resistance in response to the dilemmatic discursive setting.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2015
    Keywords
    Responsibilization, discipline, technologies of the self, subject positions, resistance, self-assessment, video ethnography, self-governing, forced treatment, rehabilitation, youth delinquents
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106935 (URN)10.1177/0891241613520455 (DOI)000353996200001 ()
    Available from: 2014-05-27 Created: 2014-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 253.
    Gradin Franzén, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Responsibilization and Discipline: Subject Positioning at a Youth Detention Home2015In: Journal of contemporary ethnography, ISSN 0891-2416, E-ISSN 1552-5414, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 251-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsibilization has been seen as a major technique for society’s governing of troublesome youth, yet few previous studies have investigated responsibilization in practice. This article explores a behavior modification program at a youth detention home, specifically how involved self-assessment practices can be conceptualized as a responsibilization strategy (aimed at producing free and self-governing subjects). The study documents and explicates this complex discursive setting, where responsibilization practices are combined with rigorous control. Drawing on video-ethnographic methods, the analyses explore how responsibilization is attempted and resisted in interaction. Institutional rules and manuals were used by residents both to enact resistance and to position themselves as responsibilized, in which self-assessment practices make out a kind of technology of the self (Foucault). Further, the study concludes that both staff and residents at times strategically positioned residents as children, something that ultimately could be conceptualized as both parties jointly enacting resistance in response to the dilemmatic discursive setting.

  • 254.
    Gradin Franzén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Teasing, laughing and disciplinary humor: Staff-youth interaction in detention home treatment2013In: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 167-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how disciplinary humor is deployed to shape and reshape social order in inter-generational encounters. Data are drawn from an ethnographic study of staff–resident encounters at a treatment home for boys (including about 30 hours of video recordings), focusing on sequential patterns in the local design of jokes and teasing, analyzing language and multimodal interaction in detail. It was found that staff and boys recurrently laughed together and teased each other by invoking local hierarchical positions such as child–adult. The intrinsic ambiguity of humor and teasing allowed staff members to engage in temporary breaches of social order, while simultaneously enforcing local rules of conduct. Similarly, the boys would joke with the staff, exaggerating or transgressing institutional and generational divides. But ultimately, the joking could also be seen to remind the participants of the very hierarchies that separate staff from residents and men from boys, or adults from children. 

  • 255.
    Gradin Franzén, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From punishmentto rewards?: Treatment dilemmas at a youth detention home2014In: Punishment & Society, ISSN 1462-4745, E-ISSN 1741-3095, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 542-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article analyses staff members’ discourses on the treatment method token economy, as it is implemented at a detention home for young men. The study draws on interviews with eight staff members and on participant observations at the detention home. Using discursive psychology, the analysis centers on the staff members’ own constructions of token economy as well as paradoxes and dilemmas that appear in their talk. Two paradoxes were found: (1) paradox of transparency and interpretation; token economy is objective and transparent, but requires interpretative work over time; and (2) paradox of rewards and punishments; tokens are rewards, but they can be ‘zeroed’ or withdrawn in order to limit undesirable behavior. Further, the analysis showed that both paradoxes invoke a principal ideological dilemma of control – freedom, which staff members attempt to resolve by positioning the young men as responsible for their own actions and themselves as subordinate parties in the outcome of ‘objective’ token economy practices.

  • 256.
    Granström, Kjell
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grupparbete – en försummad möjlighet2012In: Lärare som ledare: – i och utanför klassrummet / [ed] Gunnar Berg, Frank Sundh, Christer Wede, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 153-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokens 17 kapitel beskriver olika perspektiv på lärare som ledare och hur ledarskapet utövas i klassrumsmiljön i samverkan med eleverna, i skolans vardag. Hur skolarbetet kan och bör ledas beror på den enskilda lärarens bedömning av lärandemiljön i det egna klassrummet, men också på faktorer som har att göra med skolan som arbetsplats, organisation och institution i samhället. Ytterst vilar ledarskapet på hur lärare förstår, förhåller sig till och hanterar skolans olikartade uppdrag.

    Områden som behandlas i boken är:

    • ledarstilar och psykologiska teorier
    • aspekter på ledarskap i klassrummet
    • elevinflytande och eget arbete
    • ledarskap i grupparbete
    • undervisning och lärande i helklass
    • specialpedagogiska insatser
    • lärares gemensamma ledarskap
    • undervisning och bedömning
    • lärare och rektorer i samverkan
  • 257.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekerfelt Allvin, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bradely, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Teachers' views on risk factors for problematic school absenteeism in Swedish primary school students2015In: Educational Psychology in Practice, ISSN 0266-7363, E-ISSN 1469-5839, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 412-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present online survey, 158 teachers in regular and special education teaching in grades six to nine were asked to rate the importance of probable reasons for problematic school absenteeism. On average, the teachers estimated that among their students, 19 students had presented with problematic school absenteeism over the last five years. Teachers viewed school absenteeism as a multifactorial problem. Family factors were considered to contribute most and low mood or depression were rated as one of the five most contributing factors. Teachers in special education viewed school factors as more influential than teachers in mainstream education did (t156 = −3.94, p < 0.05). The current findings stress the importance of collaboration between the school, parents and the student to be able to address all factors that may lead to problematic school absenteeism.

  • 258.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Elinor
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Wallman, Julia
    Danderyd Hospital, Sweden.
    How Simple is the Simple View of Reading?2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 292-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Simple View of Reading, reading ability can be divided into decoding and language comprehension. In the present study, decoding and comprehension's contribution to reading ability was studied both in children with reading difficulties and in children with typical reading ability. Decoding and comprehension was further divided into sub-components, and the contribution from non-verbal ability and general processing speed was also studied. The results demonstrated that decoding made the largest contribution to reading ability for children with reading difficulties, while language comprehension contributed the most for children with typical reading ability. The contribution of non-verbal ability was not significant, and general processing speed only made a significant contribution to decoding for typical children. The two factors in the Simple View of Reading, decoding and comprehension, together explained less of the variance in reading ability for children with reading difficulties than for children with typical reading ability.

  • 259.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier, Idrottsvetenskap, Karlstads universitet.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstads universitet.
    Working with perfectionism in elite sport: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy perspective2016In: Perfectionism in Sport, Dance and Exercise / [ed] Andrew Hill, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 203-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Gustafsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Hedström-Hulterstam, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Instagram, från inspiration till stress: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om kvinnors upplevelser, känslor och reflektioner kring användandet av Instagram2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how women, age 20-35, think and reflect on their use of Instagram and the pictures they are exposed to. We chose to use Grounded Theory as a method and the data was collected through semi structured interviews which were transcribed and later analysed. This was made parallel with the collection of the data. Through this process we created three different categories: Perfectionism on Instagram, The Filtered Life and Instaddiction. The result showed that a “perfect picture” on Instagram not only has to be a beautiful motive or a well done edit of a photo. A perfect picture can also refer to what the picture mediates, i.e. a happy relationship or a nice family life. The study also resulted in what we call The Instagram Paradox which means that the women in this study are drawn to the, according to themselves, perfect Instagram pictures despite the fact that they admit that these pictures actually make them feel bad and stressed. At the same time the women contribute to this paradox by publishing pictures on Instagram which, most of the time, appear as “perfect” and the stress that the women sometimes tend to experience seems to be handled cognitively and emotionally. The result also showed that the usage of Instagram could develop into a light addiction, something we chose to refer to as Instaddiction.

  • 261.
    Guézennec, Benedicte
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Säger en blick mer än tusen ord?: En kvalitativ studie om relationsskapande mekanismer i vården av flerfunktionshindrade ungdomar och unga vuxna inom en specifik verksamhet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka faktorer som inverkar på personalens relation till brukarna på ett korttidshem för flerfunktionshindrade ungdomar och unga vuxna, samt att granska hur dessa faktorer influerar varandra. Data har insamlats i huvudsak genom djupintervjuer men också utifrån ett självetnografiskt förhållningssätt. Analysmetoden som använts är Grounded Theory. Resultatet av studien visar att vårdpersonalens relation till brukarna kan kopplas till den nivå av relationell trygghet som upplevs gentemot brukarna på korttidshemmet. Den relationella tryggheten påverkas i sin tur av vårdgivarens personlighet, det upplevda relationella djupet mellan vårdgivaren och brukaren, samt graden av upplevd arbetsrelaterad stabilitet. Ju fler av dessa komponenter som uppnår tillfredställande nivåer, desto högre upplevs den relationella tryggheten, vilket påverkar den arbetsrelaterade motivationen samt graden av engagemang riktad mot brukaren positivt. De fynd som framkommer genom resultatanalysen sammanfattas i två modeller. Den ena tillhandahåller en allmängiltig förklaringsmodell för hur arbetsrelaterade relationer kan förstås utifrån deras givna kontexter – så kallad relationell motivation. Denna modell beskriver hur individers arbetssätt, anknytning och upplevda trygghet på arbetsplatsen påverkar den riktning som de arbetsrelaterade relationerna tar. Modellen utgör en grund för förståelsen av den andra, specifikt mot korttidshemmet, riktade modellen, vilken förklarar vårdpersonalens relation till brukarna. Studiens konklusion är att korttidshemmet bör sträva efter att maximera vårdpersonalens möjligheter till högkvalitativa kontakttillfällen med brukarna. För att detta ska vara möjligt, och för att höga nivåer av relationell trygghet ska kunna uppnås bland vårdgivarna, bör uppkomsten av störande yttre faktorer minimeras på arbetsplatsen.

  • 262.
    Hadjistavropoulos, H. D.
    et al.
    University of Regina, Canada.
    Pugh, N. E.
    University of Regina, Canada.
    Nugent, M. M.
    University of Regina, Canada.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ivanov, M.
    University of Regina, Canada.
    Butz, C. G.
    University of Regina, Canada.
    Marchildon, G.
    University of Regina, Canada.
    Asmundson, G. J. G.
    University of Regina, Canada.
    Klein, B.
    Federat University of Australia, Australia; Federat University of Australia, Australia; Australian National University, Australia; Swinburne University of Technology, Australia.
    Austin, D. W.
    Deakin University, Australia.
    Therapist-assisted Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for depression and anxiety: Translating evidence into clinical practice2014In: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 884-893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissemination study examined the effectiveness of therapist-assisted Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) when offered in clinical practice. A centralized unit screened and coordinated ICBT delivered by newly trained therapists working in six geographically dispersed clinical settings. Using an open trial design, 221 patients were offered 12 modules of ICBT for symptoms of generalized anxiety (n=112), depression (n=83), or panic (n=26). At baseline, midpoint and post-treatment, kpatients completed self-report measures. On average, patients completed 8 of 12 modules. Latent growth curve modeling identified significant reductions in depression, anxiety, stress and impairment (d=.65-.78), and improvements in quality of life (d=.48-.66). Improvements in primary symptoms were large (d=.91-1.25). Overall, therapist-assisted ICBT was effective when coordinated across settings in clinical practice, but further attention should be given to strategies to improve completion of treatment modules.

  • 263.
    Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.
    et al.
    University of Regina, Canada.
    Pugh, Nicole E.
    University of Regina, Canada.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Predicting Response to Therapist-Assisted Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depression or Anxiety Within an Open Dissemination Trial2016In: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Therapist-assisted Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is efficacious for treating anxiety and depression, but predictors of response to treatment when delivered in clinical practice are not well understood. In this study, we explored demographic, clinical, and program variables that predicted modules started and symptom improvement (i.e., Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 or Patient Health Questionnaire-9 total scores over pre-, mid-, and posttreatment) within a previously published open dissemination trial (Hadjistavropoulos et al., 2014). The sample consisted of 195 patients offered 12 modules of therapist-assisted ICBT for depression or generalized anxiety; ICBT was delivered by therapists working in six geographically dispersed clinics. Consistent across ICBT for depression or generalized anxiety, starting fewer modules was associated with more phone calls from therapists reflecting that therapists tended to call patients who did not start modules as scheduled. Also consistent for both ICBT programs, greater pretreatment condition severity and completion of more modules was associated with superior ICBT-derived benefit. Other predictors of response to treatment varied across the two programs. Younger age, lower education, taking psychotropic medication, being in receipt of psychiatric care and lower comfort with written communication were associated with either fewer program starts or lower symptom improvement in one of the two programs. It is concluded that monitoring response to ICBT may be particularly important in patients with these characteristics. Research directions for identifying patients who are less likely to benefit from ICBT are discussed.

  • 264.
    Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.
    et al.
    University of Regina, Canada.
    Pugh, Nicole E.
    University of Regina, Canada; 715 East 12th Ave, Canada.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Department Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Therapeutic Alliance in Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Depression or Generalized Anxiety2017In: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, ISSN 1063-3995, E-ISSN 1099-0879, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 451-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been limited research on therapeutic alliance in the context of therapist-assisted Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) when delivered in clinical practice. The present study investigated therapeutic alliance in ICBT delivered to patients seeking treatment for symptoms of depression (n=83) or generalized anxiety (n=112) as part of an open dissemination trial. ICBT was provided by 27 registered therapists or 28 graduate students working in six geographically dispersed clinics; therapist-assistance was delivered primarily through secure messages and occasionally telephone calls. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 were collected pre-, mid- and post-treatment, and the Therapeutic Alliance Questionnaire was assessed mid- and post-treatment. Therapeutic alliance ratings were high both at mid-treatment and post-treatment (above 80%). There was no relationship between therapeutic alliance ratings and improvement on primary outcomes. Among patients treated for depression, lower ratings of mid-treatment alliance were associated with concurrent treatment by a psychiatrist and fewer phone calls and emails from their therapist. Among patients treated for generalized anxiety, ratings of mid-treatment alliance were higher among registered providers as compared to graduate students. Multiple directions for future research on therapeutic alliance in ICBT are offered, including suggestions for developing a new measure of therapeutic alliance specific to ICBT and measuring therapeutic alliance throughout the treatment process. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley amp; Sons, Ltd.

  • 265.
    Hagman, William
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    When are nudges acceptable?: Influences of beneficiaries, techniques, alternatives and choice architects2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interventions aimed to change behavior (so called nudges) are becoming more and more popular among policymakers. However, in order to be able to effectively use nudges, it is important to understand when and why people find them acceptable. The objective of this thesis is therefore to improve the understanding of when nudges are judged to be acceptable. The thesis focuses on a model for behavioral change. The model contains two parts, nudge technique and acceptance of nudges. Nudge technique refers to how the nudge is designed to function in regard to psychological mechanism and functionality.

    The nudge technique part of the model is expanded and problematized from an ethical perspective in the first part of this thesis, by exemplifying psychological mechanisms behind different techniques and explaining why they might be intrusive to individuals’ freedom of choice. In the second part of this thesis it is discussed why acceptance is an important component of making nudging legitimate and effective. This is followed by a discussion of how acceptance is empirically measured. The empirical part of the thesis is based on four papers which all use a quantitative online survey approach to study the judgements of nudges from the general public.

    Paper 1 was a first attempt to measure whether nudges which are common in the nudge literature are acceptable interventions according to the general public. We found that the nudges that were categorized as pro-self were more likely to be rated as acceptable and less likely to be perceived as intrusive to freedom of choice compared to pro-social nudges. Furthermore, the effect of decision styles and worldview on acceptance was explored. In paper 2, we explored whether the difference between acceptance found for pro-social nudges and proself nudges could be increased by framing nudges as beneficial for society or individuals. The framing had no effect on acceptance but, as in paper 1, pro-social nudges were found to be more intrusive to freedom of choice compared to pro-self framed nudges. Moreover, different nudge techniques had different rates of acceptance even with the same explicit goal for the nudges. In paper 3, we examined whether the alternative to nudges affects the perceived acceptability and intrusiveness of default-changing nudge techniques. The alternatives given to the nudges were either to enforce the intended behavioral change with legislation or to do nothing at all in order to change the behavior. We find no difference in aggregated acceptance, however, the judgements vary depending on individuals’ worldview. Paper 4 explored if the choice architect’s (the creator/proposer of the nudge) political affiliation affects acceptance rating for proposed nudge interventions and legislation. We find that acceptance of both nudges and legislation increases with the level of matching between people’s political orientation and the choice architect’s political affiliation.

    Taken together, the findings suggest that there is more to creating an acceptable nudge than to merely take a nudge technique that was acceptable in one context and apply it in another. Moreover, nudges that are rated as more beneficial towards individuals compared to society at large are in general more likely to be found acceptable and less intrusive to freedom of choice. It is important to have knowledge about the target population (e.g. their decision styles, world-views, and political orientation) to avoid backfires when implementing nudges.  

    List of papers
    1. Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges
    2015 (English)In: Review of Philosophy and Psychology, ISSN 1878-5158, E-ISSN 1878-5166, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 439-453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When should nudging be deemed as permissible and when should it be deemed as intrusive to individuals’ freedom of choice? Should all types of nudges be judged the same? To date the debate concerning these issues has largely proceeded without much input from the general public. The main objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges in policy. In particular we investigate attitudes toward two broad categories of nudges that we label pro-self (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social (i.e. focusing on social welfare) nudges. In addition we explore how individual differences in thinking and feeling influence attitudes toward nudges. General population samples in Sweden and the United States (n=952) were presented with vignettes describing nudge-policies and rated acceptability and intrusiveness on freedom of choice. To test for individual differences, measures on cultural cognition and analytical thinking were included. Results show that the level of acceptance toward nudge-policies was generally high in both countries, but were slightly higher among Swedes than Americans. Somewhat paradoxically a majority of the respondents also perceived the presented nudge-policies as intrusive to freedom of choice. Nudge- polices classified as pro-social had a significantly lower acceptance rate compared to pro-self nudges (p<.0001). Individuals with a more individualistic worldview were less likely to perceive nudges as acceptable, while individuals more prone to analytical thinking were less likely to perceive nudges as intrusive to freedom of choice. To conclude, our findings suggest that the notion of “one-nudge- fits-all” is not tenable. Recognizing this is an important aspect both for successfully implementing nudges as well as nuancing nudge theory. 

    Keywords
    Nudge; Libertarian Paternalism; Acceptability; Autonomi
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119071 (URN)10.1007/s13164-015-0263-2 (DOI)
    Projects
    Neuroekonomi
    Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-08 Last updated: 2019-03-26
  • 266.
    Hagman, William
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges2015In: Review of Philosophy and Psychology, ISSN 1878-5158, E-ISSN 1878-5166, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 439-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When should nudging be deemed as permissible and when should it be deemed as intrusive to individuals’ freedom of choice? Should all types of nudges be judged the same? To date the debate concerning these issues has largely proceeded without much input from the general public. The main objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges in policy. In particular we investigate attitudes toward two broad categories of nudges that we label pro-self (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social (i.e. focusing on social welfare) nudges. In addition we explore how individual differences in thinking and feeling influence attitudes toward nudges. General population samples in Sweden and the United States (n=952) were presented with vignettes describing nudge-policies and rated acceptability and intrusiveness on freedom of choice. To test for individual differences, measures on cultural cognition and analytical thinking were included. Results show that the level of acceptance toward nudge-policies was generally high in both countries, but were slightly higher among Swedes than Americans. Somewhat paradoxically a majority of the respondents also perceived the presented nudge-policies as intrusive to freedom of choice. Nudge- polices classified as pro-social had a significantly lower acceptance rate compared to pro-self nudges (p<.0001). Individuals with a more individualistic worldview were less likely to perceive nudges as acceptable, while individuals more prone to analytical thinking were less likely to perceive nudges as intrusive to freedom of choice. To conclude, our findings suggest that the notion of “one-nudge- fits-all” is not tenable. Recognizing this is an important aspect both for successfully implementing nudges as well as nuancing nudge theory. 

  • 267.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att leda grupparbete2012In: Lärare som ledare: i och utanför klasssrummet / [ed] G. Berg, F. Sundh & C. Wede, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 153-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokens 17 kapitel beskriver olika perspektiv på lärare som ledare och hur ledarskapet utövas i klassrumsmiljön i samverkan med eleverna, i skolans vardag. Hur skolarbetet kan och bör ledas beror på den enskilda lärarens bedömning av lärandemiljön i det egna klassrummet, men också på faktorer som har att göra med skolan som arbetsplats, organisation och institution i samhället. Ytterst vilar ledarskapet på hur lärare förstår, förhåller sig till och hanterar skolans olikartade uppdrag.

    Områden som behandlas i boken är:

    • ledarstilar och psykologiska teorier
    • aspekter på ledarskap i klassrummet
    • elevinflytande och eget arbete
    • * ledarskap i grupparbete 
    • undervisning och lärande i helklass 
    • specialpedagogiska insatser 
    • lärares gemensamma ledarskap 
    • undervisning och bedömning 
    • lärare och rektorer i samverkan.
  • 268.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forskning om grupparbete2013In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac & Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 3, p. 27-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grupparbete är en vanligt förekommande arbetsform på alla nivåer i det svenska utbildningssystemet, från skola till universitet. Ofta används grupparbete som en av flera möjliga undervisningsformer utan att man funderar över dess möjligheter och konsekvenser. Ibland fungerar det väl och till belåtenhet för elever och studenter. Vid andra tillfällen uppstår mindre konstruktiva processer.

    Mer kunskap om grupparbeten som arbetsform har efterfrågats, både av studerande och av lärare. I Handbok för grupparbete presenteras viktiga aspekter att tänka på vid arbete i grupp och vad som händer när arbetsformen används i undervisning. I denna tredje upplaga av boken har alla kapitel vidareutvecklats och aktualiserats. Dessutom har antologin kompletterats med några för boken nya aspekter som är av intresse och bör beaktas för att skapa fungerande grupparbete i undervisning, nämligen ledarskap och bedömning vid grupparbete.

    Handbok för grupparbete vänder sig till alla som använder grupparbete som arbetsform, inom både universitet, högskola, skola och vuxenutbildning samt till dem som mer specifikt studerar grupprocesser inom olika utbildningsprogram. Även elever och studenter som ingår i någon form av studiegrupp, projektgrupp eller liknande kan ha stor glädje av bokens innehåll.

  • 269.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Group work as an incentive for learning – students’ experiences of group work2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, no 558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group work is used as a means for learning at all levels in educational systems. There is strong scientific support for the benefits of having students learning and working in groups. Nevertheless, studies about what occurs in groups during group work and which factors actually influence the students’ ability to learn is still lacking. Likewise, the question of why some group work is successful and other work results in the opposite is still unsolved. The aim of this article is to add to the current level of knowledge and understandings regarding the essence behind successful group work in higher education. This research is focused on the students’ experiences of group work and learning in groups, which is an almost non-existing aspect of research on group work prior to the beginning of the 21st century. A primary aim is to give university students a voice in the matter by elucidating the students’ positive and negative points of view and how the students assess learning when working in groups. Furthermore, the students’ explanations of why some group work ends up being a positive experience resulting in successful learning, while in other cases, the result is the reverse, are of interest. Data were collected through a study-specific questionnaire, with multiple choice and open-ended questions. The questionnaires were distributed to students in different study programs at two universities in Sweden. The present result is based on a reanalysis and qualitative analysis formed a key part of the study. The results indicate that most of the students’ experiences involved group work that facilitated learning, especially in the area of academic knowledge. Three important prerequisites (learning, study-social function and organization) for group work that served as an effective pedagogy and as an incentive for learning were identified and discussed. All three abstractions facilitate or hamper students’ learning, as well as impact their experiences with group work.

  • 270.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Group work is not one, but a great many processes – Understanding group work dynamics2012In: Encyclopedia of Mathematics Research / [ed] Joshua D Mathias; Sophia I Cleaves, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc , 2012, p. 153-167Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book discusses current research developments in the field of mathematics. Topics presented include exceptional groups, symmetric spaces and applications; LIE group analysis; graph groupoids and corresponding representations; fuzzy logic in molecular computing; closed-loop optimal fuzzy reasoning; nozzle design optimisation; a branch-and-price algorithm for the stochastic generalised assignment problem; parametric dual regularisation in a linear-convex mathematical programming and fast multilevel algorithms for diverse application in computational biology and bioinformatics.

  • 271.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grupparbete för alla – mångfald i grupper2013In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac & Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 3, p. 193-219Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grupparbete är en vanligt förekommande arbetsform på alla nivåer i det svenska utbildningssystemet, från skola till universitet. Ofta används grupparbete som en av flera möjliga undervisningsformer utan att man funderar över dess möjligheter och konsekvenser. Ibland fungerar det väl och till belåtenhet för elever och studenter. Vid andra tillfällen uppstår mindre konstruktiva processer.

    Mer kunskap om grupparbeten som arbetsform har efterfrågats, både av studerande och av lärare. I Handbok för grupparbete presenteras viktiga aspekter att tänka på vid arbete i grupp och vad som händer när arbetsformen används i undervisning. I denna tredje upplaga av boken har alla kapitel vidareutvecklats och aktualiserats. Dessutom har antologin kompletterats med några för boken nya aspekter som är av intresse och bör beaktas för att skapa fungerande grupparbete i undervisning, nämligen ledarskap och bedömning vid grupparbete.

    Handbok för grupparbete vänder sig till alla som använder grupparbete som arbetsform, inom både universitet, högskola, skola och vuxenutbildning samt till dem som mer specifikt studerar grupprocesser inom olika utbildningsprogram. Även elever och studenter som ingår i någon form av studiegrupp, projektgrupp eller liknande kan ha stor glädje av bokens innehåll.

  • 272.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inledning – tredje upplagan2013In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac & Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 3, p. 13-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grupparbete är en vanligt förekommande arbetsform på alla nivåer i det svenska utbildningssystemet, från skola till universitet. Ofta används grupparbete som en av flera möjliga undervisningsformer utan att man funderar över dess möjligheter och konsekvenser. Ibland fungerar det väl och till belåtenhet för elever och studenter. Vid andra tillfällen uppstår mindre konstruktiva processer.

    Mer kunskap om grupparbeten som arbetsform har efterfrågats, både av studerande och av lärare. I Handbok för grupparbete presenteras viktiga aspekter att tänka på vid arbete i grupp och vad som händer när arbetsformen används i undervisning. I denna tredje upplaga av boken har alla kapitel vidareutvecklats och aktualiserats. Dessutom har antologin kompletterats med några för boken nya aspekter som är av intresse och bör beaktas för att skapa fungerande grupparbete i undervisning, nämligen ledarskap och bedömning vid grupparbete.

    Handbok för grupparbete vänder sig till alla som använder grupparbete som arbetsform, inom både universitet, högskola, skola och vuxenutbildning samt till dem som mer specifikt studerar grupprocesser inom olika utbildningsprogram. Även elever och studenter som ingår i någon form av studiegrupp, projektgrupp eller liknande kan ha stor glädje av bokens innehåll.

  • 273.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olika sätt att arbeta i grupp2013In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac & Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 3, p. 83-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grupparbete är en vanligt förekommande arbetsform på alla nivåer i det svenska utbildningssystemet, från skola till universitet. Ofta används grupparbete som en av flera möjliga undervisningsformer utan att man funderar över dess möjligheter och konsekvenser. Ibland fungerar det väl och till belåtenhet för elever och studenter. Vid andra tillfällen uppstår mindre konstruktiva processer.

    Mer kunskap om grupparbeten som arbetsform har efterfrågats, både av studerande och av lärare. I Handbok för grupparbete presenteras viktiga aspekter att tänka på vid arbete i grupp och vad som händer när arbetsformen används i undervisning. I denna tredje upplaga av boken har alla kapitel vidareutvecklats och aktualiserats. Dessutom har antologin kompletterats med några för boken nya aspekter som är av intresse och bör beaktas för att skapa fungerande grupparbete i undervisning, nämligen ledarskap och bedömning vid grupparbete.

    Handbok för grupparbete vänder sig till alla som använder grupparbete som arbetsform, inom både universitet, högskola, skola och vuxenutbildning samt till dem som mer specifikt studerar grupprocesser inom olika utbildningsprogram. Även elever och studenter som ingår i någon form av studiegrupp, projektgrupp eller liknande kan ha stor glädje av bokens innehåll.

  • 274.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björnstjerna Hjelm, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En studie av ledningsgruppers samarbete inom svenska hjälporganisationer2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledningsgruppers samarbete har stor betydelse för gruppens förmåga att leda organisationen. Hur väl ledningsgruppen kan anpassa sig till kontext och uppgiften är viktiga faktorer. Med hjälp av SPGR genomförs under våren 2019 en studie av svenska hjälporganisationers ledningsgrupper. För att organisationerna så effektivt som möjligt ska kunna hjälpa de mest utsatta samhällsmedborgarna är ledarskapet centralt.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka och få en bild av hur ledningsgrupper inom svenska hjälporganisationer samarbetar och om och i så fall hur det påverkar deras förmågan att leda. Genom att komplettera SPGRS:s självskattningsenkät med fokusgruppssamtal är målsättningen att fördjupa förståelsen för de beteenden som visar sig i självskattningsenkäten.

    Fokus vid i presentationen är att redogöra för studien och presentera några preliminära resultat.

  • 275.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Einarsson, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gruppobservationer : Teori och praktik 2018 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruppobservationer kan användas för att studera och förstå grupper och grupprocesser. Denna bok belyser gruppobservationer ur ett forskningsperspektiv. Med utgångspunkt i en teoretisk modell visas olika sätt att systematisera och beskriva olika former av gruppobservationer. Modellen bygger på två dimensioner. Den första dimensionen handlar om det förhållningssätt eller den kunskapssyn som ligger till grund för den aktuella studien. Dimensionen skiljer mellan begreppen teoriprövande och teorigenererande. Den andra dimensionen avser vilken grad av struktur observationen har. För att beskriva dimensionen används benämningarna hög respektive låg grad av struktur.

    Modellens spännvidd och användbarhet visas genom att olika metoder för gruppobservationer presenteras. Därtill ges praktiska exempel på studier som författarna eller andra genomfört.

    I denna tredje uppdaterade upplaga har teoridelen utökats och delarna om observatörsroller och etiska överväganden bearbetats.

  • 276.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Einarsson, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gruppobservationer: Teori och praktik2013 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Så fort människor kommer samman i en grupp uppkommer interaktioner mellan medlemmarna. För att studera grupper och grupprocesser krävs tillgång till metoder för att registrera vad som sker i samspelet mellan människorna. Observation, som fokuseras i denna bok, kan vara en lämplig metod.

    Syftet med boken är att belysa gruppobservationer ur ett forskningsperspektiv. Med utgångspunkt i en teoretisk modell för gruppobservationer visas på ett sätt att systematisera och beskriva olika former av gruppobservationer. Modellen bygger på två dimensioner. Den första dimensionen handlar om det förhållningssätt eller den kunskapssyn som ligger till grund för studien. Dimensionen skiljer mellan begreppen teoriprövande och teorigenererande. Den andra dimensionen avser vilken grad av struktur observationen har. För att beskriva dimensionen används benämningarna hög grad av struktur respektive låg grad av struktur.

    I boken visas på den spännvidd som finns mellan olika sätt att praktiskt gå till väga vid observationer och det förhållningssätt eller syn på kunskap som ligger bakom olika tillvägagångssätt. Detta sker genom att belysa några metoder för gruppobservationer, ge en historisk tillbakablick samt presentera några praktiska exempel på studier som vi eller andra genomfört.

    Förhoppningen är att läsaren med hjälp av denna bok ska få en större insikt i och bättre förståelse för gruppobservation som metod samt att de illustrativa exempel som presenterats inspirerar till att själva genomföra gruppobservationsstudier.

  • 277.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Assessment of knowledge and abilities in cooperative learning2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When cooperative learning is used as pedagogical practice in Swedish compulsory schools teachers are expected to assess each student’s level of abilities in relation to knowledge requirements in the National Curriculum 2011. The request for individual assessment in addition to the demand of teaching collaboration abilities seems to be a challenge for teachers.

    The aim of this project is to study assessment of knowledge and abilities in cooperative learning, but also if it is possible to train teachers’ and students ability to assess by use of education.

    The study has an experimental longitudinal design with three experimental groups, randomly assigned to two different interventions or to a control group. Data are collected before, during and after the intervention, by means of several sources.

    The main purpose of this presentation is to present some preliminary results based on analysis of interviews with teachers.

    Preliminary results elucidate some of the teachers’ problems concerning assessment in cooperative learning as well as some pedagogical implications.  For both cooperative learning and assessment to function optimally it seems to be of vital importance that teachers have the necessary competence to construct clearly structured tasks, select abilities that are possible to assess but also have knowledge about how to assess these abilities during the group work.

    This presentation summarises and elucidates an urgent and basic problem in the pedagogical practice that may generate knowledge of importance for teachers’ professional practice and further development of cooperative learning in the classroom.   

  • 278.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Assessment of knowledge and abilities when working in groups: An intervention study in everyday classroom practice2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 279.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Intervention as a means to improving assessment practice in cooperative learning2019In: Cooperative Learning in Far-East Asia and the World: Achieving and Sustaining Excellence, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this workshop is to provide an opportunity for delegates to participate in an intervention as means for enhancing assessment skills in cooperative learning. To differentiate assessment of individuals' intellectual abilities, academic and social skills from the whole group's when using cooperative learning instructions is according earlier research a challenge for teachers (e.g. Forslund Frykedal & Hammar Chiriac, 2011; Ross & Rolheiser, 2003). In this workshop participants will take part in, discuss and reflect upon objects and methods concerning assessment in cooperative learning. This by, in small groups, use Social Interdependence Theoy's five elements (a) interdepedence, (b) accountability, (c) promotive interaction, (d) iterpersonal and small group skills and (e) group processes when reviewing and discerning assessable objects in cooperative situations. The discerned objects will then be presented, discussed nd reflected upon in cross-groups. Additionally, participation in the workshop also includes peer-assessment of group-members abilities and skills in terms of "two stars and a wish". During this interactive workshop, participants will work in different constellations, such as pairs, small groups and cross-groups, giving experiences in the interdependence between CL and assessment. An exercise that will give delegates assessment tools useful in pedagogical practice.

    References

    Forslund Frykedal, K., & Hammar Chiriac, E. (2011). Assessment of students' learning when working in groups. Educational Research, 3, 331-345.

    Ross, J., & Rolheiser, C. (2003). Student assessment practices in co-opertive learning. In R.M. Gillies & A.F. Ashman (Eds.), Co-operative learning. The social and intellectual outcomes of learning in groups (pp.119-135). New York: Routledge.

  • 280.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lärares ledarskap vid grupparbete2013In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac & Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 3, p. 139-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grupparbete är en vanligt förekommande arbetsform på alla nivåer i det svenska utbildningssystemet, från skola till universitet. Ofta används grupparbete som en av flera möjliga undervisningsformer utan att man funderar över dess möjligheter och konsekvenser. Ibland fungerar det väl och till belåtenhet för elever och studenter. Vid andra tillfällen uppstår mindre konstruktiva processer.

    Mer kunskap om grupparbeten som arbetsform har efterfrågats, både av studerande och av lärare. I Handbok för grupparbete presenteras viktiga aspekter att tänka på vid arbete i grupp och vad som händer när arbetsformen används i undervisning. I denna tredje upplaga av boken har alla kapitel vidareutvecklats och aktualiserats. Dessutom har antologin kompletterats med några för boken nya aspekter som är av intresse och bör beaktas för att skapa fungerande grupparbete i undervisning, nämligen ledarskap och bedömning vid grupparbete.

    Handbok för grupparbete vänder sig till alla som använder grupparbete som arbetsform, inom både universitet, högskola, skola och vuxenutbildning samt till dem som mer specifikt studerar grupprocesser inom olika utbildningsprogram. Även elever och studenter som ingår i någon form av studiegrupp, projektgrupp eller liknande kan ha stor glädje av bokens innehåll.

  • 281.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grupparbete – en arbetsform med dåligt rykte2011In: Pedagogiska magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 4, p. 6-10Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 282.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hempel, AndersLinköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grupparbete är en vanligt förekommande arbetsform på alla nivåer i det svenska utbildningssystemet, från skola till universitet. Ofta används grupparbete som en av flera möjliga undervisningsformer utan att man funderar över dess möjligheter och konsekvenser. Ibland fungerar det väl och till belåtenhet för elever och studenter. Vid andra tillfällen uppstår mindre konstruktiva processer.

    Mer kunskap om grupparbeten som arbetsform har efterfrågats, både av studerande och av lärare. I Handbok för grupparbete presenteras viktiga aspekter att tänka på vid arbete i grupp och vad som händer när arbetsformen används i undervisning. I denna tredje upplaga av boken har alla kapitel vidareutvecklats och aktualiserats. Dessutom har antologin kompletterats med några för boken nya aspekter som är av intresse och bör beaktas för att skapa fungerande grupparbete i undervisning, nämligen ledarskap och bedömning vid grupparbete.

    Handbok för grupparbete vänder sig till alla som använder grupparbete som arbetsform, inom både universitet, högskola, skola och vuxenutbildning samt till dem som mer specifikt studerar grupprocesser inom olika utbildningsprogram. Även elever och studenter som ingår i någon form av studiegrupp, projektgrupp eller liknande kan ha stor glädje av bokens innehåll.

  • 283.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hempel, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Konflikthantering vid grupparbete2013In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac & Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 3, p. 167-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grupparbete är en vanligt förekommande arbetsform på alla nivåer i det svenska utbildningssystemet, från skola till universitet. Ofta används grupparbete som en av flera möjliga undervisningsformer utan att man funderar över dess möjligheter och konsekvenser. Ibland fungerar det väl och till belåtenhet för elever och studenter. Vid andra tillfällen uppstår mindre konstruktiva processer.

    Mer kunskap om grupparbeten som arbetsform har efterfrågats, både av studerande och av lärare. I Handbok för grupparbete presenteras viktiga aspekter att tänka på vid arbete i grupp och vad som händer när arbetsformen används i undervisning. I denna tredje upplaga av boken har alla kapitel vidareutvecklats och aktualiserats. Dessutom har antologin kompletterats med några för boken nya aspekter som är av intresse och bör beaktas för att skapa fungerande grupparbete i undervisning, nämligen ledarskap och bedömning vid grupparbete.

    Handbok för grupparbete vänder sig till alla som använder grupparbete som arbetsform, inom både universitet, högskola, skola och vuxenutbildning samt till dem som mer specifikt studerar grupprocesser inom olika utbildningsprogram. Även elever och studenter som ingår i någon form av studiegrupp, projektgrupp eller liknande kan ha stor glädje av bokens innehåll.

  • 284.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sharing Your Nuts: Teacher Collaboration in Groups as a Means for Competence Development2012In: University Teaching and Faculty Development Research Compendium / [ed] Luis Miguel Villar Angulo; Olga María Alegre de la Rosa, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc , 2012, p. 289-Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is concerned with teaching for students at a university level and faculty development. This book will look at how teaching and research can be brought into a closer relationship. This book welcomes research-based articles on the practice of higher education, specifically those manuscripts that span a wide range of teaching and faculty development issues and trends occurring internationally.

  • 285.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sharing Your Nuts: Teacher Collaboration in Groups as a Means for Competence Development2012In: University Teaching and Faculty Development Research Compendium / [ed] Luis Miguel Villar Angulo; Olga María Alegre de la Rosa, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc , 2012, p. 89-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is concerned with teaching for students at a university level and faculty development. This book will look at how teaching and research can be brought into a closer relationship. This book welcomes research-based articles on the practice of higher education, specifically those manuscripts that span a wide range of teaching and faculty development issues and trends occurring internationally.

  • 286.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enhancing psychological literacy  through a group selection exercise.2018Other (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forming groups: Enhancing psychological literacy through a group selection exercise2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social and group psychology has much to offer in terms of applicable knowledge and the development of psychological literacy in students. One area that is particularly suited for application is the formation of groups: how we select group members, and how we understand how group roles can impact on the effectiveness of group work. In light of many university courses using group work as part of teaching and learning activities, this is an ideal opportunity in which to apply psychological knowledge to the students’ own learning practices. This paper reports on the use of a group selection exercise as part of a social/group psychology course at Linköping University. The students are enrolled in the psychologist programme - a five-year educational programme that results in students becoming licensed psychologists – which uses problem-based learning (PBL) throughout its entirety. PBL is a pedagogical approach that is based on problem-solving, self-directed learning and group interaction. The group selection exercise involves: a lecture, the group-selection exercise (in which students must allocate themselves into groups of 6-8 people on the basis of their existing knowledge of group psychology theory), a whole-class reflection and finally a focused reflection on the task in their newly formed groups. This paper will report on each part of this task and will discuss how it enables students to put their understanding of group psychological theory into practice.

  • 288.
    Hansson, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Diskursiva konstruktioner av den bildterapeutiska processen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att utifrån ett socialkonstruktionistiskt perspektiv och ett Foucault-inspirerat diskursanalytiskt ramverk visa på några av de sätt att tala om och förstå den bildterapeutiska processen som finns tillgängliga för och används av bildterapeuter. Syftet var även att beskriva hur dessa sätt att tala kan påverka bildterapeuter i det bildterapeutiska arbete de bedriver. Datainsamlingen genomfördes med semistrukturerade intervjuer med bildterapeuter. I resultatet lyftes tre distinkta sätt att tala om processen fram, som gav den tre olika innebörder. Dessa tre diskursiva konstruktioner framställde den bildterapeutiska processen som en blottläggande process, som en experimenterande process och som en reflekterande process. Det framkom också att de olika konstruktionerna kan möjliggöra för en bildterapeut att ta en informationssökande, kreativitetsbefrämjande respektive guidande position i terapiarbetet. Studien bidrog på så vis med att uppmärksamma och tydliggöra diskursers betydelse för studier av den bildterapeutiska praktiken.

  • 289.
    Hau, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kommunikation som den viktigaste polisstrategin vid fotbolls-VM 20062010In: Demonstrationer och sporthändelser: en bok om poliser, demonstranter, idrottssupportrar, kravaller och folkfest / [ed] Kjell Granström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2010, 1, p. 201-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 290.
    Hau, Stephan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Play and Mass Events at the World Cup in Football 20062007In: The British Psychological Society Social Psychology Section Conference, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 291.
    Haug, Thomas
    et al.
    Haukeland Hospital, Norway; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Nordgreen, Tine
    Haukeland Hospital, Norway; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Ost, Lars-Goran
    Haukeland Hospital, Norway; University of Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kvale, Gerd
    Haukeland Hospital, Norway; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Tangen, Tone
    Haukeland Hospital, Norway; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    University of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heiervang, Einar R.
    Haukeland Hospital, Norway; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Havik, Odd E.
    Haukeland Hospital, Norway; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Stepped care versus face-to face cognitive behavior therapy for panic disorder and social anxiety disorder: Predictors and moderators of outcome2015In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 71, p. 76-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate predictors and moderators of treatment outcome by comparing immediate face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy (FtF-CBT) to a Stepped Care treatment model comprising three steps: Psychoeducation, Internet-delivered CBT, and FtF-CBT for panic disorder (PD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Method: Patients (N = 173) were recruited from nine public mental health out-patient clinics and randomized to immediate FtF-CBT or Stepped Care treatment. Characteristics related to social functioning, impairment from the anxiety disorder, and comorbidity was investigated as predictors and moderators by treatment format and diagnosis in multiple regression analyses. Results: Lower social functioning, higher impairment from the anxiety disorder, and a comorbid cluster C personality disorder were associated with significantly less improvement, particularly among patients with PD. Furthermore, having a comorbid anxiety disorder was associated with a better treatment outcome among patients with PD but not patients with SAD. Patients with a comorbid depression had similar outcomes from the different treatments, but patients without comorbid depression had better outcomes from immediate FtF-CBT compared to guided self-help. Conclusions: In general, the same patient characteristics appear to be associated with the treatment outcome for CBT provided in low- and high-intensity formats when treated in public mental health care clinics. The findings suggest that patients with lower social functioning and higher impairment from their anxiety disorder benefit less from these treatments and may require more adapted and extensive (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 292.
    Hedman, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Andersson, E.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lindefors, N.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rück, C.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ljótsson, B.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Cost-effectiveness and long-term effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for severe health anxiety2013In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 363-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Severe health anxiety is a common condition associated with functional disability, making it a costly disorder from a societal perspective. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is a promising treatment but no previous study has assessed the cost-effectiveness or long-term outcome of ICBT for severe health anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness and 1-year treatment effects of ICBT for severe health anxiety. Method Cost-effectiveness and 1-year follow-up data were obtained from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing ICBT (n = 40) to an attention control condition (CC, n = 41). The primary outcome measure was the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI). A societal perspective was taken and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated using bootstrap sampling.

    RESULTS: The main ICER was -£1244, indicating the societal economic gain for each additional case of remission when administering ICBT. Baseline to 1-year follow-up effect sizes on the primary outcome measure were large (d = 1.71-1.95).

    CONCLUSIONS: ICBT is a cost-effective treatment for severe health anxiety that can produce substantial and enduring effects.

  • 293.
    Hedman, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Andersson, E.
    Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Sweden .
    Ljotsson, B.
    Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, E.
    Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Sweden .
    Schalling, M.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Lindefors, N.
    Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Sweden .
    Ruck, C.
    Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Sweden .
    Clinical and genetic outcome determinants of Internet- and group-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder2012In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 126, no 2, p. 126-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hedman E, Andersson E, Ljotsson B, Andersson G, Andersson E, Schalling M, Lindefors N, Ruck C. Clinical and genetic outcome determinants of Internet- and group-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Objective: No study has investigated clinical or genetic predictors and moderators of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) compared with cognitive behavioral group therapy for (CBGT) for SAD. Identification of predictors and moderators is essential to the clinician in deciding which treatment to recommend for whom. We aimed to identify clinical and genetic (5-HTTLPR, COMTval158met, and BDNFval66met) predictors and moderators of ICBT and CBGT. Method: We performed three types of analyses on data from a sample comprising participants (N = 126) who had undergone ICBT or CBGT in a randomized controlled trial. Outcomes were i) end state symptom severity, ii) SAD diagnosis, and iii) clinically significant improvement. Results: The most stable predictors of better treatment response were working full time, having children, less depressive symptoms, higher expectancy of treatment effectiveness, and adhering to treatment. None of the tested gene polymorphisms were associated with treatment outcome. Comorbid general anxiety and depression were moderators meaning that lower levels were associated with a better treatment response in ICBT but not in CBGT. Conclusion: We conclude that demographic factors, symptom burden, adherence, and expectations may play an important role as predictors of treatment outcome. The investigated gene polymorphisms do not appear to make a difference.

  • 294.
    Hedman, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Ljotsson, B.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Ruck, C.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Bergstrom, J.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kaldo, V.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Jansson, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Andersson, E.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Andersson, E.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Blom, K.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    El Alaoui, S.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Falk, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Ivarsson, J.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Nasri, B.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Rydh, S.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Lindefors, N.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in routine psychiatric care2013In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 128, no 6, p. 457-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveGuided Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for panic disorder has been shown to be efficacious in several randomized controlled trials. However, the effectiveness of the treatment when delivered within routine psychiatric care has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ICBT for panic disorder within the context of routine psychiatric care. MethodWe conducted a cohort study investigating all patients (n=570) who had received guided ICBT for panic disorder between 2007 and 2012 in a routine care setting at an out-patient psychiatric clinic providing Internet-based treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Panic Disorder Severity Scale-Self-report (PDSS-SR). ResultsParticipants made large improvements from screening and pretreatment assessments to posttreatment (Cohens d range on the PDSS-SR=1.07-1.55). Improvements were sustained at 6-month follow-up. ConclusionThis study suggests that ICBT for panic disorder is as effective when delivered in a routine care context as in the previously published randomized controlled trials.

  • 295.
    Hedman, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Lekander, Mats
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Mediators in Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Severe Health Anxiety2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the cognitive behavioral model of severe health anxiety (hypochondriasis) four central maintaining mechanisms are how the individual perceives the risk of disease and how negative its consequences would be, attention to bodily sensations, and intolerance of uncertainty. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of these putative mechanisms in Internet-delivered CBT for severe health anxiety. We analyzed data from an RCT where participants were randomized to Internet-delivered CBT (n=40) or to a control condition (n=41). Mediators and outcome, i.e. health anxiety, were assessed weekly throughout the treatment, enabling fulfillment of the criterion of temporal precedence of changes occurring in the mediator in relation to the outcome to be met. The results showed that reduced perceived risk of disease, less attention to bodily symptoms, and reduced intolerance of uncertainty significantly mediated improvement in health anxiety. The study supports the validity of the cognitive behavioral model of health anxiety. The findings have theoretical and clinical implications as they indicate processes that may be causally related to the improvements observed after CBT for health anxiety.

  • 296.
    Hedman, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Rueck, Christian
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Personality Change following Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Severe Health Anxiety2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 12, p. e113871-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits have traditionally been viewed as stable, but recent studies suggest that they could be affected through psychological treatment. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for severe health anxiety (DSM-IV hypochondriasis) has been shown to be effective in reducing health anxiety, but its effect on measures of personality traits has not been investigated. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of ICBT on personality traits in the three broad dimensions -neuroticism, extraversion and aggression. We hypothesized that participants in ICBT would reduce their level of neuroticism compared to controls that did not receive the active treatment. No specific predictions were made regarding extraversion and aggression. Data from a randomized controlled trial were used in which participants were allocated to 12 weeks of ICBT (n=40) or to a basic attention control condition (n=41). Personality traits were assessed with the Swedish Universities Scales of Personality and the primary outcome of health anxiety was the Health Anxiety Inventory. There was a significant interaction effect of group and time on neuroticism-related scales, indicating larger pre-to post-treatment reductions in the Internet-based CBT group compared to the control condition. Analyses at 6-month follow-up showed that changes were stable. Traits relating to extraversion and aggression were largely unchanged. This study is the first to demonstrate that a brief ICBT intervention for severe health anxiety causes long-term changes in measures of personality traits related to neuroticism. The treatment thus has a broader impact than just reducing health anxiety.

  • 297.
    Hedman, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    El Alaoui, Samir
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Lekander, Mats
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Internet- vs. group-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder: 4-Year follow-up of a randomized trial2014In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 59, p. 20-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is common, debilitating and associated with high societal costs. The disorder can be effectively treated with Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but no previous study has investigated the long-term clinical or health economic effects of ICBT for SAD in comparison to an evidence-based control treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ICBT compared to cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) four years post-treatment. We conducted a 4-year follow-up study of participants who had received ICBT or CBGT for SAD within the context of a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. The cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted taking a societal perspective. Participants in both treatment groups made large improvements from baseline to 4-year follow-up on the primary outcome measure (d = 1.34-1.48) and the 95% CI of the mean difference on the primary outcome was well within the non-inferiority margin. ICBT and CBGT were similarly cost-effective and both groups reduced their indirect costs. We conclude that ICBT for SAD yields large sustainable effects and is at least as long-term effective as CBGT. Intervention costs of both treatments are offset by net societal cost reductions in a short time.

  • 298.
    Hedman, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umea University.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    A 5-Year Follow-up of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder2011In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 13, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to be a promising method to disseminate cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Several trials have demonstrated that Internet-based CBT can be effective for SAD in the shorter term. However, the long-term effects of Internet-based CBT for SAD are less well known. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of Internet-based CBT for SAD 5 years after completed treatment. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod: We conducted a 5-year follow-up study of 80 persons with SAD who had undergone Internet-based CBT. The assessment comprised a diagnostic interview and self-report questionnaires. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (LSAS-SR). Additional measures of social anxiety were the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS). Attrition rates were low: 89% (71/80) of the participants completed the diagnostic interview and 80% (64/80) responded to the questionnaires. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Mixed-effect models analysis showed a significant effect of time on the three social anxiety measures, LSAS-SR, SIAS, and SPS (F(3,98-102) = 16.05 -29.20, P andlt; .001) indicating improvement. From baseline to 5-year follow-up, participants mean scores on the LSAS-SR were reduced from 71.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 66.1-76.5) to 40.3 (95% CI 35.2 - 45.3). The effect sizes of the LSAS-SR were large (Cohens d range 1.30 - 1.40, 95% CI 0.77 - 1.90). Improvements gained at the 1-year follow-up were sustained 5 years after completed treatment. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: Internet-based CBT for SAD is a treatment that can result in large and enduring effects. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01145690; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01145690 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5ygRxDLfK)

  • 299.
    Hedman, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Erland
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    The mediating effect of mindful non-reactivity in exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy for severe health anxiety2017In: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 50, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety, but little is known about mediators of treatment effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate mindful non-reactivity as a putative mediator of health anxiety outcome using data from a large scale randomized controlled trial. We assessed mindful non-reactivity using the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire-Non-Reactivity scale (FFMQ-NR) and health anxiety with the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI). Participants with severe health anxiety (N = 158) were randomized to internet-delivered exposure based CBT or behavioral stress management (BSM) and throughout the treatment, both the mediator and outcome were measured weekly. As previously reported, exposure-based CBT was more effective than BSM in reducing health anxiety. In the present study, latent process growth modeling showed that treatment condition had a significant effect on the FFMQ-NR growth trajectory (alpha-path), estimate = 0.18, 95% CI [0.04, 0.32], p = .015, indicating a larger increase in mindful non-reactivity among participants receiving exposure-based CBT compared to the BSM group. The FFMQ-NR growth trajectory was significantly correlated with the SHAI trajectory (13 -path estimate = -1.82, 95% CI [-2.15, -1.48], p amp;lt;.001. Test of the indirect effect, i.e. the estimated mediation effect (an) revealed a significant cross product of 0.32, which was statistically significant different from zero based on the asymmetric confidence interval method, 95% CI [0.59, -0.06]. We conclude that increasing mindful non-reactivity may be of importance for achieving successful treatment outcomes in exposure-based CBT for severe health anxiety.

  • 300.
    Hedman, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Optimal Cut-Off Points on the Health Anxiety Inventory, Illness Attitude Scales and Whiteley Index to Identify Severe Health Anxiety2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, p. e0123412-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Health anxiety can be viewed as a dimensional phenomenon where severe health anxiety in form of DSM-IV hypochondriasis represents a cut-off where the health anxiety becomes clinically significant. Three of the most reliable and used self-report measures of health anxiety are the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI), the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) and the Whiteley Index (WI). Identifying the optimal cut-offs for classification of presence of a diagnosis of severe health anxiety on these measures has several advantages in clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the HAI, IAS and WI as proximal diagnostic instruments for severe health anxiety defined as DSM-IV hypochondriasis. Methods We investigated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value on the HAI, IAS and WI using a total of 347 adult participants of whom 158 had a diagnosis of severe health anxiety, 97 had obsessive-compulsive disorder and 92 were healthy non-clinical controls. Diagnostic assessments were conducted using the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule. Results Optimal cut-offs for identifying a diagnosis of severe health anxiety was 67 on the HAI, 47 on the IAS, and 5 on the WI. Sensitivity and specificity were high, ranging from 92.6 to 99.4%. Positive and negative predictive values ranged from 91.6 to 99.4% using unadjusted prevalence rates. Conclusions The HAI, IAS and WI have very good properties as diagnostic indicators of severe health anxiety and can be used as cost-efficient proximal estimates of the diagnosis.

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