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  • 251.
    Jansson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Smart Neighbor Europe?"2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 252.
    Jansson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Taking Smart Power Seriously: The Classical Realist Legacy2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of smart power has gained currency in recent years, not least, or in particular, through the writings of Joseph Nye. This paper departs from the proposition that smart power is a deeply problematic notion, and this for several reasons. On the one hand, the term as such is infelicitously rhetorical, suggesting a distinction between smart and not-so-smart (dumb) strategies. On the other hand, from a conceptual point of view, the idea of smart power as a successful combination of soft and hard power comes dangerously close to triviality. The purpose of this paper is to take smart power seriously, claiming that the term actually covers a conceptual understanding and ideals of practice with much more depth than meets the eye, falling back on important elements of the classical realist tradition of international thought. By highlighting the connection between current, policy-oriented statements and understandings of smart power, and principal elements of classical realism, I attempt to bring increased theoretical depth and contour to the concept and – in effect – a re-interpretation of the idea of smart power. 

  • 253.
    Jansson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Return of History: Territorial Conflict and the Making of EU Grand Strategy2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The questions whether the EU possesses a “strategic culture” and is capable of developing a “grand strategy” has attracted considerable attention at the nexus of policy debates and the academic discourse on EU foreign relations. Arguably the salience of grand strategy increases in times of change, both as a condition for and a hindrance to necessary adaptation. The paper departs from the perception that the EU is challenged by external developments that involve armed territorial conflicts on its eastern and southern borders. In the main part I discuss different understandings of grand strategy and make the argument that polities have grand strategies whether they know it or not, and that grand strategies concern the institutionalized organization of knowledge which is in part a rational and conscious process but in significant ways concern tacit rules and routines of collective thought.  I conclude that developing appropriate responses to the diverse external challenges that faces the EU presumes a better understanding of the grand strategy it actually presents.

  • 254.
    Jansson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tema: Studiet av internationella relationer, statsvetenskapliga och andra perspektiv2000In: Politologen: organ för Statsvetenskapliga förbundet, ISSN 0345-9462, p. 1-4Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Jansson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jönsson, Christer
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Säkerhetspolitikens metaforer1990Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Jensen, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Kött, ett klimatpolitiskt problem?: En diskursanalys om den svenska riksdagspolitiska debatten gällande köttkonsumtion, köttproduktion och styrmedel2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to create an understanding of the current meat politics in Sweden. The focus is to identify discourses articulated about meat consumption and meat production, as well as examining how discourses legitimize or reject policy instruments at the national level. This study will also look at the climate change questions influence on the meat politics.

    The current and future meat consumption along with production is not seen as sustainable since the global consumption of meat is expected to rise 73 percent by 2050. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations alerts about the increasing climate impact, in terms of increased greenhouse gas emissions. From 1990 to 2013, Swedish meat consumption has increased by over 40 percent. Swedish consumption of meat reached the highest level in 2016, 87,7 kg per person and year. Public authorities at the national level and scientist argue that Swedish meat consumption needs to be reduced, but so far there has been few political actions to lower the meat consumption.

    To create an understanding why the meat policy is structured the way it is, a discourse theory inspired by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe is being used. The discourse theory is also used for analysis. Discourse analysis is used as a tool for analysing linguistic patterns with the purpose of identifying how it is spoken, debated about, and what the consequences are.

    The result of the thesis shows that there are five discourses that frames the Swedish parliament debate about the meat consumptions and production; climate, health, national, international and consumer discourse. The national discourse is the most dominate and has a profound influence on the meat policy in Sweden. Even though there is awareness of the negative impact from meat consumption and production, other values are prioritized. For example, biodiversity and Swedish agricultural economy take precedence. Therefore, the influence of the climate change question on the meat policy it not that prominent.  In the Swedish parliamentary debate, informative policy instruments are seen as the most appropriate way of governing meat consumption and production in a sustainable direction. Public authorities at the national level and scientist argue that economic policy instruments or regulations are necessary to lower the consumption. 

  • 257.
    Jobe, William
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Putting a MOOC for Human Rights in the hands of Kenyans: The Haki Zangu case for non-formal learning2014In: The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research goal of this project was to explore the use and effects of non-formal education and incentives in the context of a developing country. The practical aim of this project was to create, implement, and evaluate a platform about human rights that was available to any Kenyan for free in order to increase knowledge and engagement. Therefore, a non-formal massive open online course (MOOC) about human rights was designed and launched. The course was free and open to anyone in Kenya and offered both a digital badge and certificate from Stockholm University in Sweden upon completion. The course was called Haki Zangu (Kiswahili for “My Rights”), and it explored how using incentives such as a digital badge and certificate of completion affected learning outcomes. This course offered ubiquitous access based on principles of responsive web design and used audio recordings of the entire course content. The course is perpetual and still on-going, but after six months there were 160 participants who had enrolled, and ten participants had completed the course and received certificates and digital badges. The participants showed extensive enthusiasm and engagement for human rights issues, and they expressed desires to learn more and further spread knowledge about human rights. The current findings suggest that the availability of digital badges and certificates increased interest for participation and positively affected learning outcomes. Moreover, the use of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) format with incentives proved successful, combined with the contextualization and accessibility of the course content. Furthermore, the technical platform proved adequate for disseminating education for free in a developing country, and allowed for unencumbered access regardless of device. Lastly, a key challenge for future non-formal learning efforts in developing countries is the cost of Internet access.

  • 258.
    Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entreprenörskap och Företagande – Förutsättningar i projekt: En förstudie av socialfondsprojekt 20102011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att utreda i vilken utsträckning projekt med stöd från europeiska socialfonden (ESF-projekt) kan leda till entreprenörskap och företagande och i så fall hur.

    Detta har gjorts utifrån ett urval av 14 ESF-projekt från en mindre lista som Tillväxtverket anvisat. De utvalda projekten har studerats beträffande entreprenörskap och företagande, om detta kan bidra till att förhindra utslagning och underlätta återgång till arbetslivet. De utvalda projektens projektlogik har analyserats – hur de arbetat med entreprenörskap och företagande, de studerade projektens arbetsprocess och uppbyggnad – hur man praktiskt arbetat. Datainsamlingen har gjorts genom besök och telefonintervjuer samt via enkät.

    Studien fokuserar på att visa på lärorika exempel som illustrerar framgångsfaktorer och hinder i arbetet för att förändra, förbättra och förstärka sysselsättningspolitiken, vilken inbegriper arbetsmarknads och näringspolitik samt kopplingar till social- och socialförsäkringspolitiken. Studien har kompletterats, för ett urval av projekten, med en undersökning av målgruppen – individerna som deltar i projekten. Det är dessutom viktigt att både projektarrangörernas och deltagarnas erfarenheter speglas i slutsatserna då detta är avgörande för att kunna uppfylla studiens syfte.

    De huvudsakliga resultaten från vår studie är följande:

    • Entreprenörskap och företagande i olika former kan vara en typ av lösningar för att häva individers utanförskap.
    • Det måste finnas en koppling mellan projektens mål, interventionen och resultaten, dvs. programlogiken måste vara tydlig. För detta krävs bland annat att projekten är väl förankrade i den kontext de verkar i. Det krävs även samverkan mellan inblandade aktörer, inte minst vid rekrytering/anvisning av deltagare till projekten.
    • Projektledningen är en nyckelfaktor för projektets framgång.
    • Vilken typ och grad av utanförskap som representeras hos de individer som deltar i projekten är styrande för projektens inriktning och aktiviteter.
  • 259.
    Johansson, Jonna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Learning To Be(come) A Good European: A Critical Analysis of the Official European Union Discourse on European Identity and Higher Education2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the year 2007 when this thesis was completed the European Union could look back at fifty years of collaboration, which began with the signing of the Treaty of Rome in 1957 and which has developed from being mainly economic in character to incorporating a political as well as a social dimension at the European level. In 2007 the European Union also commemorated the twentieth anniversary of Erasmus, its higher education mobility programme. It is this relatively new political dimension which I have been interested in investigating in this thesis. More precisely, it is the political construction of a common European identity which is analysed using a critical discourse analysis approach. The major aim of this thesis has been two-fold. The first aim has been to investigate how the European is constructed in the discourse contained within the official European Union documents. I have been interested in analysing the various structures, in the form of ideas and norms which are used to construct 'the European'. The second aim has been to explore whether the role of higher educated, as constructed in the official European Union discourse, is given a similar identity-making role as education is argued to have in the nation-state according to the theory on national identity. I argue that there are three versions of European identity construction, i.e. cultural, civic, and neo-liberal, with their own relationship to higher education, present in the empirical material analysed, consisting of official European Union documents. Further, this thesis is also a study of the power of modern government. I argue that there is an increase in normative soft power where 'the Good European' is not something 'you' are but something 'you' become by being a responsible active citizen. Through the use of critical discourse analysis I illuminate the power which resides in the language in the discourse analysed. Thus, I have been interested in investigating how the discourse analysed works to both include and exclude individuals.

  • 260.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Statsvetenskap, Högskolan i Halmstad / Karlstads universitet..
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöstrand, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Kommunernas region": Kommunernas inflytande i en sydsvensk storregion2014In: Behöver vi en sydsvensk region?: Tio röster om möjligheter och fallgropar för medborgare, vård, näringsliv, politik och utveckling / [ed] Erik J. Rudvall, Kristianstad: Region Skåne , 2014, p. 91-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka möjligheter till verksamhetsutveckling ser kommunerna i de fyra berörda länen (Blekinge, Kalmar, Kronoberg och Skåne)? Vilka vinster kan kommunerna göra om länen slås samman och kommunerna får ett inflytande över den nya regionorganisationen? Vilka samverkansmöjlig-heter finns mellan kommunerna och mellan kommun och region? Vilken organisationsform krävs för att samverkan ska utvecklas på ett positivt sätt?

    Vi vill med andra ord analysera hur kommunerna förhåller sig till en uppväxlad regional nivå, i synnerhet inom tillväxtpolitikens område. Vi är intresserade både av frågor som rör organiseringen av regionnivån, och kommunernas roll i denna, och av hur kommunerna tror att en storregionreform kommer att påverka kommunernas handlingsutrymme och samverkan med varandra.

    När Region Skåne bildades var det en viktig utgångspunkt att kommunerna fick ett inflytande i den nya organisation (landstinget) som övertog det regionala utvecklingsansvaret. I många län sker nu ett samgående mellan landsting och regionförbund med utvecklingsansvar, vilket väcker frågan om vilken roll kommunerna bör få i förhållande till den nya regionorganisationen, ibland kallad regionkommun. Frågan gäller den nya Region Kronoberg men kan ställas om alla fyra berörda län vid en eventuell sammanslagning.

  • 261.
    Johansson Krafve, Linus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Public E-services and Electronic Identification –A Comparative Implementation Study of Swedish Public Authorities2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents an implementation study on the handling of electronic identification in three public authorities in Sweden. Electronic identification is a complex but very topical policy domain, largely tied to the general policy aspirations of e-government development. Theories on policy action, logic of appropriateness, garbage cans, and the dialectics of institutions and technology are used. The result highlights that the policy process of electronic identification in the three studied authorities could not be adequately explained from a traditional policy-implementation dichotomy. The action imperative to develop e-services is very strong and explains why and how electronic identification has been developed within the three authorities. The three authorities have very different institutional capacity to implement e-services with electronic identification. The available technology on electronic identification is inscribed with certain logics of appropriateness, that doesn’t sit equally easy with the administrative logics of appropriateness in all three authorities.

  • 262.
    Johansson, Viktor Alberto
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Navigating the Eastern Mediterranean: Interest-formation & State-action: Egypt, Israel, Turkey & the Republic of Cyprus2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines interest-formation and state-action in the Eastern Mediterranean countries of Egypt, Israel, Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus. In seeking answers to the questions on how interests of the respective countries can be explained, particularly within the area of natural gas, and possible consequences of different regional approaches, the study draws upon ideas in classical, structural, neoclassical realism and constructivism. The theoretical diversity enables the study to focus on international, state and domestic levels by way of qualitative content analysis as the selected methodology. The findings suggest that Egypt, Israel and Cyprus possess corresponding views in their regional outlook; including natural gas as a means for stability and economic growth, but also that these views contrast significantly with Turkey’s regional perspective. Additional findings show that interest-formation in all four states, despite coherence among Egypt, Israel and Cyprus, differentiates to a large degree. The chief reason is that interest-formation appears to occur within international, state and domestic levels. Regarding the second question, the study finds that the different and often conflicting regional approaches on natural gas of Cyprus and Turkey, which are based upon fundamentally different premises, pose risk for heightened tensions between both Cyprus, Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 

  • 263.
    Jonsson, Hannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science .
    Pålsson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science .
    Perceptions from within: A minor field study about the discourses of human rights in Uganda2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 a member of the Ugandan parliament presented a draft law called ”the Anti-homosexuality bill”. The bill included further restrictions against homosexuality, which already is a crime in Uganda. For instance it suggested that homosexuals should be sentenced to death. The world reacted strongly to this draft law and proclaimed it to violate principles of universal human rights. Media, political leaders and non-governmental organisations all over the world condemned the draft law and a discussion about human rights in Uganda rose. The perception of the international society, criticising the draft law, seemed to be that human rights are universal and should be valid in every state of the world, whereas the message from Ugandan politicians indicated that they ought to be able to legislate without any external interference.

    This thesis aims to define discourses of human rights within the Ugandan society. We will focus on the Ugandan government and the Ugandan civil society and we will distinguish differences between urban and rural areas. To be able to define a discourse of human right in the Ugandan civil society we performed a field study in the country during eight weeks from April to June 2010. This was made possible through a minor field study scholarship (MFS), funded by SIDA. With our base in the capital Kampala we travelled around the country to visit and interview organisations in both urban and rural areas. The gathered data was then analysed and compared with the data of the Ugandan government, which was achieved through text analyses.

    Our thesis will show that there are apparent differences in discourses and perceptions of human rights. We divide the studied areas into three discourses; the government, national NGOs and regional NGOs. In the last part of our thesis we will present conclusions and reflections about the result of the field study.

  • 264.
    Jonsson, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Rättfärdigandet av det extrema: En diskursanalys av säkerhetiseringen av droger i Filippinerna2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to determine the impact of text and language in the form of how political speech can affect and form a discourse that excludes a certain category of people and how such an exclusion leads to exercise of power beyond normal, democratic rules of state intervention towards said group of people. This is a case study investigating the drug war of the Philippines, initiated by the country’s president Rodrigo Duterte, and his speeches related to the drug issue. The method of use is discourse analysis and the study is based upon the international relations theory of securitization by the so called Copenhagen School, consisting of Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver & Jaap de Wilde.

    Among the key findings are the picture of a discourse, formed by political speech, where individuals using or dealing with drugs are described as a threat is a central aspect, alongside with discursive elements such as a collective identity, human rights aspects, economic arguments, the future of the nation, certain values and the judicial system. These elements and values are given meaning as reference objects and within the discourse that makes them part of the establishment of a notion where people who use or deal with drugs are regarded as a threat and therefore can be legitimate subjects of exercise of power outside of the normal rules of democratic authority.

    Keywords: securitization, drugs, Philippines, discourse analysis, Copenhagen School, extra- judicial executions, otherness.

  • 265.
    Jutterdal, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Hedberg, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Friluftsdagar - tradition eller norm2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Friluftsdagar är ett inslag i skolans verksamhet som ofta förknippas med fysisk aktivitet. Dessa friluftsdagar förekommer som ett visst antal halv- eller heldagar per läsår och antalet dagar varierar mellan skolorna. Friluftsdagarna är sedan Lpo -94 inte statligt reglerade utan det är upp till rektor på varje skola att besluta om förekomsten av dessa dagar. Friluftsdagar har en lång historia och syftet med dagarna har förändrats över tid. Idag kan man dock skönja att fokus ligger på hälsa och miljö.

    Vår uppsats beskriver friluftsdagarnas utveckling kopplat till Bo Rothsteins teori om förhållandet mellan samhälleliga normer och politiska institutioner. Vi problematiserar friluftsdagarna och söker samband mellan statens intentioner och friluftsdagarnas syfte.

     

    Folkhälsofrågan klättrar allt högre upp på den politiska dagordningen och man kan se en tydlig brytpunkt då staten tar till sig folkhälsofrågan och bildar statens folkhälsoinstitut. Statens folkhälsoinstitut arbetar idag utifrån det nationella folkhälsomålet att skapa samhälleliga förutsättningar för en god hälsa på lika villkor för hela befolkningen. Detta övergripande mål har brutits ned i 11 delmål och skolan har getts ansvar att arbeta särskilt med 6 av dessa mål. Regeringen talar idag om den hälsofrämjande skolan och pekar på att hela skolans verksamhet ska genomsyras av en hälsotanke.

     

    Folkhälsofrågan får allt större fokus då staten beslutar att det är en viktig fråga och börjar arbeta aktivt med den. Trots detta, minskar friluftsdagarna i antal, vilket flera organisationer reagerar på. Minskningen av friluftsdagar väcker frågor, då friluftsdagarna många gånger symboliserar mer än en dag utanför skolans byggnad. Det är idag en lärodag där hälso- och miljöfrågor tas upp och lärs ut.

  • 266.
    Jägestedt, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Implementering av Lvux12 i SFI: En fallstudie baserad i Linköping2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates how the new school curriculum, Lvux12, have been implemented in Linköping, with focus on the education Swedish for Immigrants (SFI). A lot of criticisms have been aimed at the SFI educations around the country and this is partly what the reform is based on, to be able to improve the education to the better. Despite this reform, criticisms are still being heard, so is the implementation of the reform really a success and has it been any changes?

    In this essay there are mainly two analytical perspectives being used; bottom-up and top-down. Based on these, the empirical materials collected through interviews are analyzed in comparison with already existing publications about the implementation process.

    The focus of the essay is concentrated to the information process, the adaptation level at micro level relative the directive from macro level, and also implementation barriers. It proves that there are some problems during the information process which did not execute the way described in the publications prior to the implementation. It has also emerged implementation barriers related to this since the information didn’t reach through, probably due to poor structure or due to pure reluctance. One big problem is the lack of follow-up and evaluation, both at local and national level.

    Even if it has been possible to enforce many adaptations and it has been possible to work with the reform from the micro level, it is still missing resources and some organizational support from further progress.

    The question whether the implementation has been a success or not is complex and a hard one to answer. There are many aspects to consider and different results points in different directions. Over all, the conclusion has to be that the implementation is a success, although with several possibilities for improve­ment.

    The question still has many question marks left and it is both relevant and important to continue to investigate the subject to reach appropriate measures. A lot is working well, but it can always get better and one has never learnt enough.

  • 267.
    Kaba, Idlir
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Role of Identity Perceptions on Security: The Western Balkans Case2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis tries to provide valuable insight and explain the role of identity perceptions on security as a means to avert conflicts and security threats. The aim is to provide an identity based explanation to security problems. Constructivism and „social identity theory‟ are its theoretical points of departure which help us understand how we construct social identities and have the tendency to be prejudicial towards others. Our prejudices and negative identity perceptions play a major role in security issues.

    We will use process tracing to find how identity perceptions are constructed and how they affect security. More explicitly we will trace the process of how identities were affected by historical events as well as the ethnocentric interpretation of these historical events. For thorough analysis, Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia are chosen as case studies. The findings will hopefully propose better solutions to security problems and built knowledge applicable to other similar security threats.

  • 268.
    Kaharevic, Ahmed
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. 1995.
    Imagining the Iraqi National Identity Before and After the US Invasion of 2003: Perception of the Sunni-Arab ethnicity2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This masters thesis analyses how Iraqi national identity is constructed before and after 2003. It explores what relation the national identity has to Sunni-Arab ethnicity.

    The study is qualitative and uses social constructivism as a methodological outline. Qualitative interviews are done with six Iraqi-Arab-Sunnis living in Sweden. Diaspora is not an analytical scope. The theoretical framework consists of Benedict Anderson’s theory about nations and nationalism where imagined communities is a key concept. Furthermore, Thomas Hylland Eriksen’s theory about ethnicity and nationalism where social identification is a central concept.

    Drawn conclusions are that Iraqi nationalism, partly constructed by Sunni hegemony, is the main identification and what the community is imagined from. Sunni ethnicity is mostly rejected, and a Sunni community barely exists. Unlike previous research which argues that Sunnis have redefined themselves through Sunni ethnicity. Iraqi nationalism is constructed against the anomaly which is other nations Iran and the US. It is also constructed by idealizing and remembering the past from a nationalistic perspective. It is constructed as kinship, as equal and with pride. However, the Sunni hegemony implies that Iraqi nationalism is not equal but privileges Sunni ethnicity. Sunni ethnicity is barely visible, but mostly post 2003 through victimhood. Sunni ethnicity was under communicated before 2003 but is over communicated after 2003, especially amongst national institutions. An exclusion of Sunni ethnicity occurs amongst national institutions post 2003.

  • 269.
    Karlsson, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Realizing the UNCRC in Sweden: A Three-Dimensional Study of Discourses on Children's Rights in Foster Care Placement Processes2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite being a strong advocate for children’s rights in the international community, Sweden has received critique from the Committee on the Rights of the Child regarding the high number of children who have been removed from their families and that are currently living in foster homes. Previous research has not dealt with the issue of children’s rights in foster care placement processes in Sweden, nor has it included Sweden in discourse analyses on children’s rights, or sufficiently explored the relationship between discourse and implementation of the UNCRC. I use theories on discourse and translation in order to provide a comparative analysis of the articulations of children’s rights relevant for foster care placement processes in the UNCRC, and on the national and local level in Sweden. The analysis points to both similarities and differences in the discourses and identifies six aspects of the Swedish discourse that make certain activities in foster care placement processes possible, desirable and inevitable.

  • 270.
    Karlsson, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Staten och Våldet: En fallstudie från ett liberalt och ett socialdemokratiskt perspektiv2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Protesterna i samband med WTO mötet i Seattle, USA, 1999 är allmänt betraktade som startskottet för våld i samband med stora demonstrationer rörande globalisering. I juni 2001 stod Göteborg, Sverige, som värd för EU:s ministermöte samt George W Bush besök. I dessa samt ett flertal andra stora demonstrationer rörande globalisering kom våld att överskugga mötets såväl som demonstranternas sakfrågor. Våldet utövades både av aktivister samt av polisen som statens ordningsmakt. Denna uppsats fokuserar på våldsproblematiken från statens sida; hur polisen kan upprätthålla statens säkerhet och samtidigt fungera som medborgarnas garanti för att skydda deras rättigheter.

    Sverige har haft socialdemokratiskt styre under nästan hela 1900-talet och att säga att det har påverkat samhällsutvecklingen torde knappast vara en överdrift. USA å andra sidan benämns ofta som Frihetens land och liberalismens principer kan sägas vara inbäddade i det amerikanska samhället. Med anledning av detta syftar denna uppsats att undersöka om det är möjligt att i Seattle och i Göteborg förstå staternas agerande i våldsproblematiken från ett liberalt respektive socialdemokratiskt perspektiv.

    Uppsatsen har formen av en kvalitativ idéanalys med fallstudie som metod. Fallstudien har passat mycket bra i denna uppsats då den fokuserar på relationer och processer samt präglas av ett holistiskt synsätt.

    Syftet kan sägas vara besvarat då flera exempel tas upp för att visa hur man kan förstå statens agerande med hjälp av ideologierna. Exempelvis försvarades användningen av våld i Göteborg med att säkerheten ansågs bli bättre. Detta hänvisas i uppsatsen till den socialdemokratiska idén om statens funktion att se till det gemensamma goda. Även i Seattle försvarades användningen av våld, genom de undantagstillstånd som inrättades, av att säkerheten höjdes. Denna gång hänvisades istället till den liberala idén om staten som främjare av den individuella friheten. Slutsatsen är därmed att denna uppsats ej kanförklara USA:s eller Sveriges ageranden med hjälp av liberalismen eller socialdemokratin, man kan däremot förstå dem. Ideologier är idéer som man med rätt medel kan urskilja där man letar efter dem.

  • 271.
    Karsten, Simona
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Jellyfish Invasion: Finding connections between the increase of jellyfish and politics2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research proves that marine environments are the fastest degrading environments on earth. Yet existing environmental institutions are not robust enough to protect our oceans from further degradation. The Jellyfish Invasion serves as a practical example for demonstrating the environmental status of our oceans. The increase of jellyfish is mainly caused by anthropogenic disturbance, and addresses the unsustainability with a continuing status quo of exploitation. EU is one of the main drivers of environmental awareness and environmental policy on the global arena of international conventions. EU commits to large investments in environmental sustainability and provides an extensive policy-network containing comprehensive measures. Although these formal environmental institutions, there exists informal institutions of implementation deficit in environmental matters. The global arena is often said to be characterized of the theory of the tragedy of the common, this theory seems also applicable within the EU.

  • 272.
    Khosrawi, Heshmat
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vad särskiljer invandrarföretagare från svenska företagare i Linköpings kommun?: What distinguishes immigrant entrepreneurs from Swedish entrepreneurs in Linkoping Municipality?2014Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min studie var att beskriva vilka hinder invandrarföretagare möter i inom Linköpings kommun.

    För att få ett resultat har jag ställt 4 olika forskningsfrågor om byråkrati,skattebestämmelser, myndighetsspråk och vardagsspråk som  huvudsyfte.

    Mitt tillvägagångssätt har baserats på 7 intervjuer med personer som har olika bakgrund och jobbar inom skiftande organisationer och företag. Som aktörer har jag valt Skatteverket, Nulink och Nyföretagarcentrum i Linköping.

    De personer som jag har gjort intervju med heter Susanne Eriksson(företagare), Elin Walin (företagare), Ali Reza Ghodoosi(företagare) och Maryam Azmand (tidigare företagare).

    När jag har tittat på resultatet då ser jag ett tydligt och starkt mönster kring informanternas uppfattningar om mina indikatorer.

    Om man tittar på myndigheters svar då ser man en tendens kring uppfattning av byråkrati, skattebestämmelser samt myndighetsspråk. Jag ser nämligen också att det finns tydliga skillnader mellan företagare som är inrikes födda med företagare med utländsk bakgrund vad gäller förståelse kring mina frågeställningar.

    I mitt arbete slås jag av att en informant ser byråkrati som något negativt och personer med utländsk bakgrund har svårt att uppfatta myndighetsbyråkrati.

    Jag tycker också att det är intressant att de officiella personerna tycker att skattereglerna har blivit enklare medan invandrarföretagare tycker att det är svårt med skatteregler. När jag tittar på vardagsspråk som mitt huvudsyfte så tycker förstås jag att företagare med utländsk bakgrund bör se det svenska språket som nyckel till allting precis såsom språkläraren tycker. Slutligen ser jag ett klart och tydligt mönster mellan svenska företagare och invandrarföretagare vilket innebär att svenska företagare har lätt att anpassa sig efter gällande regler mot bakgrunden av att svenska är modersmål för dem medan invandrarföretagare har problem med anpassning till regler och lagar vilket beror på det svenska språket som ett hinder, enligt min tolkning.

  • 273. Kotov, V.
    et al.
    Nikita, E.
    Rokingo, A.
    Stokke, O.
    Viktor, D.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science .
    Implementation of International Environmental Commitments in Countries in Transition1997In: Most, ISSN 1120-7388, E-ISSN 1573-7063, Vol. 7, p. 103-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 274. Kousis, Maria
    et al.
    Gooch, Geoffrey
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Methods on Inquiry2001In: Globalism, Localism and Identity: fresh perspectives on the transition to sustainability / [ed] Tim O'Riordan, London: Earthscan Ltd , 2001, p. 82-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global economic and social forces are affecting everyone, everywhere. However, their influence is shaped by local communities' interpretation of these forces and responses to them. Social identities provide a guide; they are the product of history, culture, economy, patterns of governance and degree of community cohesion. How the global and the local connect and reconfigure at various scales and through different cultures is explained in this forward-looking volume. The book's thesis, namely that localism is the crucial complement to globalism, is supported by a range of European case studies. Local responses to globalizing forces depend on the nature of the interlinkages in governance from international structures, through multilateral organizations to nation states, regions and localities, as these are mediated through social-local identity. The contributors draw on numerous themes in examining the interaction between the global and the local, such as decay and revitalization, local identity and empowerment, opportunism through sustainability and governance for the transition. This is a pioneering publication utilizing an innovative person-centred methodology. It makes an original and important contribution to the study of contemporary societies and is aimed at anyone interested in the social, economic, political, cultural and environmental implications of any move towards sustainability.

  • 275.
    Krasniqi, Ardita
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    ”I mitt hemland var jag på toppen, i Sverige är jag på botten”: En studie som undersöker vilka hinder som utländska akademiker upplever inför inträdandet på den svenska arbetsmarknaden.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige finns det många utländska akademiker som varken jobbar inom det dom är utbildade till i sitt hemland eller arbetade med i sitt hemland. Anledningen till att de utländska akademikerna inte jobbar inom sitt yrke beror på att de upplever olika hinder i samhället, från myndigheter men också från sina nätverk och kontakter när de ska etablera sig på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Denna studie har som syfte att undersöka vilka dessa hinder är och redogöras utifrån fem olika analysenheter; utbildning och kompetens, svenska språket, arbete och praktik, relationen till och med myndigheter och slutligen nätverk och kontakter. Denna studie kommer också att redogöra för hur akademikerna gått förbi dessa hinder för att etablera sig snabbare på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Analysenheterna kommer att analyseras utifrån analysverktygen implementering, styrning (governance) och ansvarsutkrävande.   Några slutsatser är bland annat att de utländska akademikerna inte får sina utbildningar från hemlandet fullt godkända så de tvingas antingen läsa om utbildningen eller delar av den, det svenska språket är mycket central del vid jobbsökning där studierna visar att de som bryter på svenska har det svårare att etableras på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Relationen med och till myndigheter är positiv och negativ beroende på vem man frågar; de som fått bra stöd från Arbetsförmedlingen är positiva medan de som inte fått bra stöd från Arbetsförmedlingen är negativa. Slutligen ses även nätverk och kontakter som mycket viktiga eftersom för de utländska akademikerna handlar det främst om vilka nätverk de ingår och vilka kontakter man har; för mycket kontakt och hjälp från sina landsmän leder till lägre kvalificerat arbete med lägre lön, medan svenska kontakter är svårare att skapa och behålla. 

  • 276.
    Kuhn, Tatjana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The International Science Programme in Bangladesh: A case of self-interest, interdependence or social empowerment?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze different forms of North-South development assistance with regard to its widespread critique and to examine whether the field of international research capacity building holds alternative development cooperation strategies that have the potential to reconcile some of the criticisms. The focus is on the International Science Programme (ISP) and the empirical research carried out in Bangladesh and Sweden on the ISP-Bangladesh collaboration in the form of semi-structured interviews constitutes the core case study evidence. Three theoretical perspectives – realism, interdependence liberalism and constructivism – provide the framework of the case study and serve as guiding tools to understand the ISP’s role and motivations as an actor in international relations. The main goal is to investigate whether the ISP can be best perceived as an instance of self-interest, interconnectedness or social empowerment.

  • 277.
    Kulanovic, Aneta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Det offentliga ledarskapet av artificiell intelligens: Hur kan utmaningar med AI hanteras?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how the public leadership is challenged by artificial intelligence and how public organisations in Sweden should lead their work according to this. The purpose focuses on how research defines artificial intelligence and which challenges that can be found, also what Sweden’s policy documents and leaders in public organisations highlights as important topics with AI and leadership. The thesis starts with the methodological and theoretical approaches. The theoretical framework is based on collaborative leadership which is mostly built on ‘t Hart, Torfing and Haugs views on collaborative leadership. The analysis consists of three parts. The first part focuses on what AI is and what its challenges are, according to international research. The second part focuses on what Sweden’s policy documents highlights about AI and what that means to public leadership. Lastly, the third part focuses on how leaders within public organisations reason with challenges that exist with AI and leadership. The thesis result is that to be able to overcome the challenges that exist with AI in public organisations leadership is essential. The analysis of the research articles, policy documents and leaders statements comes to the conclusion that collaborative leadership is the most efficient and productive way to overcome the challenges that are identified.

  • 278.
    Kunushevci, Fitim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Föreningslivets integrationsarbete och främjandet av socialt kapital: Utförare och brukares uppfattningar om nyttan av föreningslivets integrationsinsatser i Norrköping och Västervik2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The voluntary sector in Sweden is changing. This is reflected on the dynamic cooperation with public sector in their integration efforts. As a result of this partnership, the newly established integration funds’ have been built around the principle of reciprocity between associations and immigrants applying for asylum. But can the associations’ increase the level of social capital and create conditions for integration within the different arenas of society? The purpose is to identify the content of efforts and perceived integration benefits of examined projects among the associations in Norrköping and Västervik municipalities’. Furthermore, both the perceived and actual benefit aspects of the analysis are evaluated based on Robert Putnam's idea of social capital. The methodological starting points of the content analysis and perceived utility among performers’ and users’ identify different inconsistencies between project content, perceptions of the performers’ and the users’ experiences. The changed performance role of the voluntary sector supports the thesis of hybridization, where legal constructions, economic stimulus requirements, as well as requirements and goals from the local level have created incentives for both old and new associational values to merge. A majority of the associations confirmed by perceptions of performers’ and users’ have not been able to be confirmed by actual quality values and benefits, which can question the promotion of social capital. In cases where associations can be confirmed to contribute to a promotion basis for social capital, the results indicate different ways associations take through bridging versus bonding social capital. Furthermore, the aim of the work is different depending on focus areas and objectives. In conclusion, the results support the hypothesis that interaction between these types of social capital appears to contribute to the best possible conditions in this incremental integration process that enables different resources to be conveyed and made available to individuals.

  • 279.
    Kurtovic, Amar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Gränsöverskridande medborgares tankesätt: En intervjustudie om etableringen av den bosniska diasporan i Sverige.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den bosniska diasporan i Sverige är en etablerad grupp av individer som deltar både i samhället i Sverige och samhället i Bosnien och Hercegovina. Studien baseras på semi-strukturerade intervjuer som har gjorts på bosnier i Sverige och inom dessa intervjuer så identifieras och analyseras olika relevanta teman och mönster. I denna studie ifrågasätter jag genom vilka gränsöverskridande aktiviteter den bosniska diasporan etablerar sin närvaro i båda samhällena. Studien belyser de politiska, ekonomiska och sociokulturella aktiviteter som den bosniska diasporan i Sverige upprätthåller genom transnationella nätverk som binder samman Sverige och Bosnien och Hercegovina. Jag undersöker även hur den bosniska diasporan bildades i Sverige samt vad det innebär att vara en gränsöverskridande medborgare för den grupp av individer som den bosniska diasporan i Sverige består av. Den bosniska diasporan i Sverige etablerar sin närvaro genom en rad olika gränsöverskridande aktiviteter som består av politiskt, ekonomiskt och sociokulturellt engagemang till hemlandet, Bosnien och Hercegovina.

  • 280.
    Kurtovic, Amar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Gränsöverskridande medborgares tankesätt: En intervjustudie om etableringen av den bosniska diasporan i Sverige2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den bosniska diasporan i Sverige är en etablerad grupp av individer som deltar både i samhället i Sverige och samhället i Bosnien och Hercegovina. Studien baseras på semistrukturerade intervjuer som har gjorts på bosnier i Sverige och inom dessa intervjuer så identifieras och analyseras olika relevanta teman och mönster. I denna studie ifrågasätter jag genom vilka gränsöverskridande aktiviteter den bosniska diasporan etablerar sin närvaro i båda samhällena. Studien belyser de politiska, ekonomiska och sociokulturella aktiviteter som den bosniska diasporan i Sverige upprätthåller genom transnationella nätverk som binder samman Sverige och Bosnien och Hercegovina. Jag undersöker även hur den bosniska diasporan bildades i Sverige samt vad det innebär att vara en gränsöverskridande medborgare för den grupp av individer som den bosniska diasporan i Sverige består av. Den bosniska diasporan i Sverige etablerar sin närvaro genom en rad olika gränsöverskridande aktiviteter som består av politiskt, ekonomiskt och sociokulturellt engagemang till hemlandet, Bosnien och Hercegovina.

  • 281.
    Kvist, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Ett miljöpolitiskt dilemma: En analys av mediedebatten kring gruvprojektet I Norra Kärr2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to critically review and interpret the media debate concerning the mining project at Norra Kärr. The aim is also to bring forth and analyze the difficulties and problems that lie hidden in the arguments that outline the debate. The method used for the investigation is a contextual idea analysis. The method aims to examine the main concepts of the argument, if there are unspoken premises and investigate whether there are contradictory arguments. There is also room for an investigation of the validity of arguments. The scientific foundation and theory is based on ecological modernization, which addresses the relationship between ecology and technology and economic growth. The mining project in Norra Kärr is a very complicated and problematic matter. The debate imbued with arguments that are illogical. The major problematical issues are based in arguments that are deficient and every now and then paradoxical.

  • 282.
    Lindblad, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Moyo, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Tre miljöorganisationers lobbyingarbete i EU: Hur Världsnaturfonden WWF, Greenpeace Sverige och Jordens Vänner ser på sina förutsättningar att påverka EU2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of our thesis is to describe how Swedish environmental organizations view their resources for lobbying towards the environmental and climate politics of the European Union (EU). Furthermore, we intend to describe how the Swedish environmental organizations lobby towards the EU, and what their views are on lobbying as a democratic method to influence politics. To obtain the material for this study we have interviewed Världsnaturfonden WWF, Greenpeace Sweden and Friends of the Earth Sweden. The results have been analysed by the Theory of Democracy by Robert Dahl, and by the democratic dilemma with lobbying.The result of the thesis is that the environmental organizations view their resources as being sufficient for lobbying towards the EU, and see themselves as being able to influence the EU. They do however experience difficulties in lobbying towards the EU, mainly because of deficient financial resources and competition with the influential industry lobbyists.Our conclusion is that the environmental organizations see democratic problems with lobbying, which are mainly unequal access to EU’s decision-making process and EU’s lack of transparency. The organizations do however value lobbying as a democratic method because of the benefits for decision-makers and citizens.

  • 283.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Gabriella
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Electronic services in the public sector: A conceptual framework2013In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic services provided by governmental organizations, here referred to as public e-services, are frequently discussed in the e-government literature. There is, however, little consensus on the meaning of the concepts used to describe and discuss these e-services, and hence, the literature is full of synonymous terms and concepts. This paper is conceptual and presents efforts to understand e-services in the public sector domain by unpacking the public e-service concept into three dimensions; as being (1) a service, (2) electronic, and (3) public (as contrasted to being private). Based on a hermeneutic analysis, these dimensions are discussed in a number of combinations, illustrating that a multi-dimensional take on public e-services must be adopted in order to capture the complexity of governmentally supplied e-services and contribute to theory development, as well as practical utility.

  • 284.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Gabriella
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public e-services in 3D: Conceptualizing public e-services in three dimensions2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is conceptual and presents efforts to understand e-services in the public sector domain by decomposing the public e-service concept into three dimensions; as being (1) a service, (2) electronic, and (3) public (as contrasted to being private). Based on a three-dimensional model, these dimensions are discussed in a number of combinations, illustrating that most scholars in the e-government field fail to describe more than one or two of these dimensions, omitting important aspects of public e-services. In order to better describe and understand the complexity of governmentally supplied e-services it is argued that researchers need to adopt a three-dimensional view on public e-services.  

  • 285.
    Lindvall, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Konservatismen under Churchill, Thatcher och Cameron: En idéanalys av valmanifest och partiledarnas biografier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study how the conservatism have changed in the conservative party in the United Kingdom and what influence the party leader seems to have over the party ideology. To answer this purpose an idea analysis is used and a material consisting of election manifestos from three periods of the party´s history (Churchill, Thatcher and Cameron) but even political biographies of the leaders. The result shows some difference between the manifestos and the leaders, but even some similarities. One difference, but also a similarity over time, is the view of a cooperation in Europe. Churchill’s manifestos are positive to a cooperation between nations in Europe, Thatcher and Cameron there manifestos share the same skeptics against a further European cooperation. One similarity over time is the support for family as one of the central values in the country. About the leaders and the manifestos there are some similarities, but also some difference between them. Example of similarities are Churchill and the manifestos support full employment, Thatcher and the manifestos support aim on inflation. Cameron is personally divvied in his relation to trade unions and so is the manifestos.  One difference between Churchill and the manifestos is that Churchill accepted capital punishment, but the manifestos never take a stand in this issue. Thatcher and the manifestos don’t share the same view on homosexuality rights, Thatcher is negative and the manifestos not even take a stand. Cameron´s view on privatization is unown, but the manifestos are positive.  

  • 286.
    Linnefell, William
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Framväxt och utveckling av radikala högerpopulistiska partier i norden: En jämförelse mellan Sverigedemokraterna och Sannfinländarna2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Populism has been an integral part of the Finnish political system since the late 1950's. At that time the Agrarian Populist Party, better known as The Rural Party, emerged and thrived for decades until the party financially broke down in the 1990's. Reemerging on the political scene as the True Finns, the party is more radical and more influential than ever, gaining enough support to be the third largest party of the 2011 parliamentary election. Sweden, Finland’s neighbor, in contrast has a history with very little populist presence or radical right populist parties (RRP-parties). However, during the 2010 parliamentary election the Sweden Democrats attained seats in the parliament for the first time in history.

    In this thesis, these cases, with their different historical backgrounds, are analyzed to explain the rise and growth of RRP-parties. Many political scientists have tried to answer this question before, focusing on system-oriented and contextual factors, but often neglecting factors that incorporate the political actors themselves. What this thesis adds to the previous research is a perspective on the rise and growth of RRP-parties based on the dynamism between system-oriented factors and actor-oriented factors.

    The theoretical discussion indicates that some system-oriented and contextual factors are significant when explaining the rise and growth of RRP-parties. At the same time, actor oriented factors such as the legacy of the RRP-party and the mainstream party strategies prove to be influential on the electoral strength of the RRP-party.

    These theoretical approaches are then used and combined in a comparative analysis, which imply two important things. First, the legitimacy of the RRP-party itself is an aspect that does explain the rise and growth of RRP-parties. Second, in the case of Sweden, the system-oriented and contextual factors alone were not able to explain the rise and growth of the Sweden Democrats. Together these findings stress that the dynamic perspective between system-oriented and actor-oriented factors truly is meaningful when trying to explain rise and growth of RRP-parties.

  • 287.
    Magnus, Roback
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Borgerlig Framtid?: En studie av utsikterna för ett nytt borgerligt parti utifrån det organisationsteoretiska perspektivet och i jämförelse med de fyra allianspartierna2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the new Swedish political party, Borgerlig Framtid (Bourgeois Future) in comparison with the other bourgeois parties in Swedish politics. It uses the (theoretical aspect), organization theoretical perspective on why new political parties is being formed. This perspective means that new political parties emerged when the existing once fail to align themselves with voters preferences.

    Two questions is being answered “What similarities and differences exist between the Bourgeois Future and the four bourgeois parliamentary parties?” and “Are there based on the organization theoretical perspective space for Bourgeois Future in Swedish politics?”

    The answers to these questions are that between Bourgeois Future and (some of) the other bourgeois parties there are many similarities but also some big differences and that there might be room for Bourgeois Future in Swedish politics but that depends on whether if the differences that exist appear as important or not to the voters.

  • 288.
    Mancheva, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Global Governance in the Brazilian Amazon: Co-Management of Land Resources2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to critically asses the different actors participating in the multilevel management of land resources in the Brazilian Amazon, through the theoretical framework of global governance studies and resource co-management. Four principles of adaptive resource co-management from existing theory were used: co-management as power sharing, comanagement as institution building, co-management as good governance, and co-management as trust building. During the analysis of the empirical material it became apparent that one side of the interaction between different actors in the Brazilian Amazon was not covered in previous literature, and that was the formation of horizontal and/or vertical partnerships between independent entities, or “co-management as network creation”. These partnerships, lasting or not, are established for the achievement of the common aim and lead to gains for all parties involved.

  • 289. Mannberg, Mariann
    et al.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Communicative planning - Friend or foe? Obstacle and opportunities for implementing sustainable development locally2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing understanding of the potential of spatial planning to constitute a co-ordinating arena for sustainable development, and planning processes are expected to merge all dimensions of sustainability. Since the concrete manifestation of spatial planning takes place at a micro level, it all boils down to the need for bringing together stakeholders at municipal level in a well functioning planning processes. Alongside this viewpoint, there is also an increasing awareness of the need for a decentralization of such processes, bringing them closer to the grassroots. Communicative planning is a planning ideal and a theoretical stream that has developed from this new 'paradigm'. It is based on citizen participation as a win-win situation, where the planning process builds a social sustainability, in turn enhancing the likelihood of the process to be successful. However, global and national visions of sustainability and local implementation are in many ways separate from one another. Bringing it further, to the individual level, the gaps are even wider. These gaps make the daily job for the planner increasingly complex and difficult. This article aims to contribute to understanding the characters of these gaps by describing them as four threats. The discussion is purely theoretical and based on the eight proposals of Goodin and Dryzek (2006) on possible pathways from micro-level deliberation towards the macro political system. However, the seed of the discussion is based on the authors' joint experiences from a number of evaluations of planning processes carried out in a Swedish context. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

  • 290.
    Mantovani, Riccardo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    The US-Cuba relations in the early sixties, the nineties and the recent reconciliationprocess: And the reciprocal effects on Russia, Canada and the Vatican.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The US-Cuba relations have been problematic for half a century; however, in December 2014, both countries announced the restoration of their bilateral ties. Over the decades, these relations have also had reciprocal effects on other countries like Russia, Canada and the Vatican. First of all, the thesis provides a brief historical background of the US-Cuba relations from 1898 to 1959 to understand their context before the Cuban Revolution. It then examines the main happenings of the US-Cuba relationship and its reciprocal effects on Moscow, Ottawa and the Holy See during three distinct time periods: the early sixties, the nineties and from 2008 to the present. In order to do this, the study is divided in three case studies, one for each interval, and analyses through the help of the realist, defensive realist and liberal theories the actions taken by these five countries to face the developments of the US-Cuba relations. It finds that Havana’s foreign policy has always been driven by the same wish for the survival of its revolution, the US still aims at changing the Cuban government although it is gradually reducing the sanctions against it, while Russia, Canada and the Vatican have basically kept unchanged their approach toward Cuba throughout the decades. Finally, the recent US-Cuba thaw is not completed yet because these two countries still have to tackle some crucial issues.

  • 291.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Balanced and integrated e-government implementation – exploring the crossroad of public policy-making and information systems project management processes2018In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 191-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify and elaborate on the various interpretations and implications of e-government as a process of public policy-making and as an act of information systems (IS) project management. The paper contributes to the search for a theoretical conceptualization by bridging policy project management and policy-making in public sector organizations at a crossroad of e-government to improve sustainable e-government research. Design/methodology/approach: The research design of this paper focus on a model balancing the two research fields; public policy-making and analysis, and project management in the IS field. Through this model, four critical aspects of the processes are identified: objective, incentives/motivation, input/trigger and coordinative actor. These critical aspects are illustrated through findings from four case studies that are re-analyzed here. The cases show how the conceptual model through different dimensions can balance the two perspectives to reach a more sustainable outcome of e-government. Findings: The paper shows that the two perspectives on e-government – public policy-making and project management – can be balanced and thereby reach a more sustainable outcome at this crossroad. The case studies re-visited in this paper are compared and serves as illustrations of these perspectives and different configurations of them in search for the crossroad. Research limitations/implications: A main contribution of the paper is that e-government projects should be studied in, and taking both public policy-making and IS project management into account to be sustainable and successful. Even if the case studies have been conducted in Sweden, the conceptual results in this paper can be analytically generalized into other setting. However, there is a need for more comparative and conceptual studies in the field of e-government to shed light on the multi-faceted crossroads illustrated in this paper. Practical implications: The paper offers new insights on how to integrate, bridge and even balance the two aspects of e-government policy aspects and projects management to achieve more sustainable and successful e-government. Originality/value: The paper contributes to the literature by shedding light on the crossroad of policy aspects and IS project management approaches in the e-government field. The paper points at the need to further develop the understanding and design of e-government at the crossroad of information system models and political science concepts. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 292.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Frågor om tillit ... : praktik, teknik och organisation i samspel kring säkra offentliga e-tjänster: en diskussionsbok baserad på forskningsprojektet "Säkra offentliga e-tjänster - en fråga om tillit och organisering" vid Linköpings universitet 2008-20112011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är det Helt okej att lämna in deklarationen på nätet eller via ett SMS. Lika vanligt är det att i första hand gå till en kommuns hemsida för att hitta öppettider på atervinningsstationen, leta böcker i bibliotekets  katalog eller för att söka upp telefonnumret till socialförvaltningen. Detta är exempel på offentliga e-tjänster.

    Offentliga e-tjänster är tjänster då informations- och kommunikationsteknik används i relationer mellan offentlig förvaltning och medborgare.

    Men det är inte alltid så att offentliga e-tjänster bara ökar tillgänglighet och effektiviserar förvaltningen. Hur görs de säkra? Kan alla använda dessa tjänster på samma sätt? Behöver de som arbetar i förvaltningen ändra sina sätt att arbeta? Skapas nya sätt att fuska? Hamnar de offentliga organisationerna i händerna på företagen som utvecklar tekniken?

    Det finns många problem och utmaningar med offentliga e-tjänster. I denna bok diskuterar forskare från Linköpings universitet hur utmaningar kring tilllit till offentliga e-tjänster kan tolkas och kanske även hanteras. Forskare från statsvetenskap och informatik har samarbetat. Här får Du en del svar och tips, men även frågor och nya perspektiv som kan vara viktiga för Dig som utvecklar, arbetar med eller bara nyttjar offentliga e-tjänster.

  • 293.
    Melén, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Mellanöstern - Dess Asabiyah och rentierism: En kvalitativ textanalys av det saudiska kungadömets sociala baser och distributionsmodeller2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Saudi Arabia, Rentier state, Asabiyah, Neopatrimonialism and Saudi Vision 2030.

  • 294.
    Michailovskyte, Giedre
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Diversification of Contemporary Diplomacy - the Rise of Dance Diplomacy2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the diversification of contemporary diplomacy in a deeper manner by choosing the concept of dance, which has never been chosen before. Theoretical andhistorical analysis of dance diplomacy helps us to answer the main research question of thestudy how does dance diplomacy contribute to the diversification of contemporary diplomacy. This research paper utilizes a qualitative methodology with the interpretative, historical, descriptive and cultural approaches and uses qualitative methods of literature review, content analysis, comparative analysis and theory triangulation. In this study we seethat dancers and choreographers complement today's diplomats, we find that the implications of cultural diversity expand an understanding of contemporary diplomacy, and that new emerging practices of dance diplomacy contribute to “new diplomacy” findings. Furthermore, practices of dance diplomacy could be described as parts of cultural diplomacy, public diplomacy, instruments of soft power or forms of nonverbal communication. This illustrates that contemporary diplomacy is somehow shaped by culture, public, power and communication, and therefore it could be understood from all these perspectives. Besides this, a chosen historical perspective and a background of the dance diplomacy help us to see that dance diplomacy is a natural consequence of the evolution of diplomacy. At last, it is relevant for the academic society to ground it on a scientific theoretical basis, which could expand our understanding of contemporary diplomacy.

  • 295.
    Mikaelsson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Makedoniens haltande demokratiseringsprocess2009In: Nordisk Østforum, ISSN 0801-7220, E-ISSN 1891-1773, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 131-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macedonia is one of the new countries of East-Central Europe that dreamt of democracy and a return to Europe following the collapse of communism. The dream persists, but progress towards its realization has so far been slow. The triple transition needed in the transformation of Macedonia into a stable liberal democracy is not yet fully implemented - the country remains a grey-zone democracy struggling to deal with a weak economy and lingering ethnic tensions. The article explores Macedonia's triple transition and explains why the transformation has been so difficult. It is argued that Macedonia's transitional problems are likely to persist for some time and that the political trajectory has still to be determined. Macedonia will need to progress in all three transitional dimensions if the country is to reach its goal of future membership of the European Union and NATO.

  • 296.
    Mikaelsson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Promoting Democracy: Sweden and the democratisation process in Macedonia2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation contributes to an increased understanding of democracy promotion. Empirically, the study focuses on the multi-faced democratisation process in Macedonia; the official Swedish policy for democracy promotion; and actual Swedish attempts to promote democracy in Macedonia in the period 2000–2006. Theoretically, the study advances an analytical framework, which serves to bring clarity to democracy promotion as a concept. It is argued that democracy promotion embodies six structural components, and should be understood as activities adopted and/or supported by foreign actors, as part of a relationship between the democracy promoter and the recipient country, based on a set of motives and shaped through the use of different strategies, methods and channels. Moreover, the issue of impact is investigated. The analytical framework is used to investigate the character of Swedish democracy promotion, and to develop a typology of the roles of democracy promotion in democratisation processes. It is argued that the Swedish policy for democracy promotion is permeated by a Swedish democratic self-image, eclectic theoretical reflection, and flexibility. In addition, it is argued that Sweden is primarily driven by altruistic and ideological motives, and acts to promote legal and societal democracy, and that the allocation of democracy promotion resources is based on theoretical as well as practical considerations. Macedonia’s democratisation process is analysed, and on the basis of the Swedish attempts to promote democracy in Macedonia, the study advances a typology of the roles of democracy promotion in democratisation processes, these being: educator, initiator, and supporter. Together with the analytical framework, this role typology provides new possibilities to study, and understand, democracy promotion.

  • 297.
    Mikaelsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inspireras av andra: En inventering av metoder för kvalitetssäkring och utveckling av forskarutbildningen vid IEI2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sverige är en av världens ledande forskningsnationer, och för att behålla den positionen är det av vikt att landets lärosäten bedriver forskarutbildning av hög kvalitet. Vid Linköpings universitet faller ett stort ansvar på Institutionen för Ekonomisk och Industriell utveckling (IEI). Institutionen, som omfattar cirka 435 medarbetare (varav 153 är doktorander)1, är Linköpings universitets största, och forskarutbildning bedrivs där inom 24 olika forskningsmiljöer tillhörande såväl den filosofiska som den tekniska fakulteten. Dessa forskningsmiljöer har hittills varit relativt isolerade från varandra och endast ett begränsat kunskapsutbyte har förekommit dem emellan gällande hur forskarutbildningen kan kvalitetssäkras. Med syftet att förändra denna situation och främja ett ökat kunskapsutbyte mellan forskningsmiljöerna beslutade forskarutbildningsrådet vid IEI att under verksamhetsåret 09/10 genomföra en inventering av angreppssätt och metoder för kvalitetssäkring och utveckling av forskarutbildningen inom institutionen. Tanken bakom uppdraget var att fånga upp goda exempel på hur forskarutbildning bedrivs inom IEI, samt att sammanställa och förmedla dessa erfarenheter tillbaka till forskningsmiljöerna.

    Arbetet genomfördes av Rickard Mikaelsson, lektor i Statsvetenskap, och Kjell Simonsson, professor i Hållfasthetslära (hädanefter benämnda utredarna eller utredningsgruppen), och har avrapporterats i form av denna skrift samt via presentationer vid IEI under 09/10.

  • 298.
    Mikaelsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Unit of Humanities, Department of Education and Business Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Challenges to local e-democracy: A conceptual analysis of a bottom-up study of e-democracy practices in a multicultural Swedish municipality2011In: / [ed] Peter Parycek, Manuel J. Kripp, Noella Edelmann, Krems, Austria: Edition Donau-Universität Krems , 2011, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes off from a case study of an e-dialogue - a form of e-democracy in a multicultural Swedish municipalty. In spite of high policy pressure and cómmitment the application was a failure. We thus discuss four potential challenges to e-democracy based on the case study, with general implications. We have identified four challenges: the limits of technology; the lack of issues; the lack of real influence; and a weak sense of community. While these may explain failure, if addressed they may also open up possibilities for success.

  • 299.
    Mikaelsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Department of Education and Business Studies, Högskolan i Gävle.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Challenges to local e-democracy: A conceptual analysis of a bottom-up study of e-democracy practices in a multicultural Swedish municipality2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes off from a case study of an e-dialogue - a form of e-democracy in a multicultural Swedish municipality. In spite of high policy pressure and commitment the application was a failure, We thus discuss four potential challenges to e-democracy based on the case study, with general implications, We have identified four challenges: the limits of technology; the lack of issues; the lack of real influence; and a weak sense of community. While these may explain failure, if addressed they may also open up possibilities for success,

  • 300.
    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    The right of free movement: A story of securitisation and control in the UK or the story of Ion Popescu2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently in Britain there has been an on-going discussion on the right of European citizens to move to, work and reside freely in any European Union member-state. British politicians and media, stepping on the significant number of Eastern Europeans who moved to the United Kingdom, articulated a securitising discourse representing them as ‘benefit tourists’ and criminals who threaten the integrity of the welfare system and social cohesion. However, this is only part of the securitisation story. This paper argues that the securitisation of mobile European citizens and, consequently of the right of free movement itself, is used as governmentality in order to allow in the country only those who are needed and keep the rest out, and at the same time to raise support for a renegotiation of the relationship between Britain and the European Union. It will be demonstrated that the securitisation process takes place through policies and everyday practices on the one hand, and through the securitising discourse articulated by politicians and media on the other. Moreover, the possibility of securitisation having a long-lasting effect by creating a security rationale in which all future policies would be embedded is assessed.

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