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  • 251.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic Photovoltaics over Three Decades2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 35, article id 1800388Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of organic semiconductors for photovoltaic devices, over the last three decades, has led to unexpected performance for an alternative choice of materials to convert sunlight to electricity. New materials and developed concepts have improved the photovoltage in organic photovoltaic devices, where records are now found above 13% power conversion efficiency in sunlight. The author has stayed with the topic of organic materials for energy conversion and energy storage during these three decades, and makes use of the Hall of Fame now built by Advanced Materials, to present his view of the path travelled over this time, including motivations, personalities, and ambitions.

  • 252.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Polymera och Organiska Solceller2007In: Energitinget,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 253.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Single Molecule Printing with Biomolecular Nanowires Complexed with Luminescent Conjugated Polyelectrolytes2007In: MRS Spring Meeting 2007,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 254.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Solar Light Collected in Plastic Photovoltaics2008In: ICSM 2008,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Tandem Solar Cells in Alternative Geometries2008In: Excitonic Solar Cells,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Woven Logic with Electrochemical Transistors2008In: CIMTEC 2008,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 257.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Admassie, Shimelis
    University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia .
    25th Anniversary Article: Organic Photovoltaic Modules and Biopolymer Supercapacitors for Supply of Renewable Electricity: A Perspective from Africa2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 830-847Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of materials in civilization is well demonstrated over the centuries and millennia, as materials have come to serve as the classifier of stages of civilization. With the advent of materials science, this relation has become even more pronounced. The pivotal role of advanced materials in industrial economies has not yet been matched by the influence of advanced materials during the transition from agricultural to modern societies. The role of advanced materials in poverty eradication can be very large, in particular if new trajectories of social and economic development become possible. This is the topic of this essay, different in format from the traditional scientific review, as we try to encompass not only two infant technologies of solar energy conversion and storage by means of organic materials, but also the social conditions for introduction of the technologies. The development of organic-based photovoltaic energy conversion has been rapid, and promises to deliver new alternatives to well-established silicon photovoltaics. Our recent development of organic biopolymer composite electrodes opens avenues towards the use of renewable materials in the construction of wooden batteries or supercapacitors for charge storage. Combining these new elements may give different conditions for introduction of energy technology in areas now lacking electrical grids, but having sufficient solar energy inputs. These areas are found close to the equator, and include some of the poorest regions on earth.

  • 258.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemomechanical devices from polymer conductors and semiconductors2001In: Encyclopedia of materials: science and technology. Vol. 3 / [ed] K. H. Jürgen Buschow, Robert W. Cahn, Merton C. Flemings, Bernard Ilschner, Edward J. Kramer, Subhash Mahajan, and Patrick Veyssière, Oxford: Elsevier , 2001, 2, p. 2531-2535Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer (CP) actuators are devices where the volume of a CP material is changed during a change of the state of oxidation or reduction of the polymer. The volume change is extracted as a geo-metrical change in uni- or bimorphs, where the active material may be combined with the passive supporting material. In bimorphs, which have an active layer supported on a passive Ælm, bending of the assembly occurs as the dimensional change is driven by electrochemistry.

  • 259.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ghosh, S.
    Phase engineering for enhanced electrochromism in conjugated polymers2001In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 46, no 13-14, p. 2031-2034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of nanostructured blends of electrochromic polymers formed by self-assembly is reported. We have prepared blends of a polythiophene derivative, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and polypyrrole, combining optical and electrochemical properties of the two polymers. The route towards these blends is based on self-assembly of the former polymer into a hydrogel, and subsequent electrochemical polymerisation of the latter using the conducting hydrogel matrix as a template. When used as electrodes, these materials show very fast electrochromic response. The route used in the present work is generic and may be extended to other polymers. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 260.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Mats R., Andersson
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    New polymers for plastic solar cells2007In: Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0361-0748Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 261.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Nyberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ghosh, S
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Conjugated polymer gels as 3-D electrodes.2001In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 221, p. 429-IEC-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Roman, L.S.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Johansson, D.M.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.R.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hummelen, J.C.
    Stratingh Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, Netherlands.
    Recent progress in thin film organic photodiodes2001In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 121, no 1-3, p. 1525-1528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review current developments in organic photodiodes, with special reference to multilayer thin film optics, and modeling of organic donor-acceptor photodiodes. We indicate possibilities to enhance light absorption in devices by nanopatterning as well as by blending, and also discuss materials science issues of nanostructure in blends and in vertically stratified multilayer devices. Our current best devices have external efficiencies of 30-50% in between 400-600 nm, and show fill factors of 0.54 illuminated under weak monochromatic light.

  • 263.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundström, V
    Chemical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Solar energy for electricity and fuels.2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45 (Suppl 1), p. S15-S23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  • 264.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Svensson, M.
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Gadisa, Abay
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Wang, Xiangjun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, M.R.
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Low bandgap alternating polyfluorene copolymers in plastic photodiodes and solar cells2004In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 31-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a comparative study of plastic photodiodes using four different copolymers of fluorene, with a variation of alkyl side chain length and chemical structure. Photodiode materials are formed by blending the polymers with a fullerene derivative and spincoating the blend solution. A photovoltage of 1 V is obtained in devices, where the anode is a doped polymer and the cathode is LiF/Al. Monochromatic quantum efficiencies are better than 40% over most of the absorption range, and under solar light AM 1.5 simulation, we reach energy efficiencies beyond 2%. The high fill factors obtained in some of the devices indicate that these are of interest for more elaborate optimisation. Reasons for the benign electrical transport are discussed. © Springer-Verlag 2004.

  • 265.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polymer optoelectronics - towards nanometer dimensions2003In: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NANO-INTERFACE CONTROLLED ELECTRONIC DEVICES, p. 65-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 266.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Alternating Copolymers and Alternative Device Geometries for Organic Photovoltaics2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, p. 138-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometries for these flexible materials compensate for the optical absorption by light trapping, and allow tandem cells.

  • 267.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers.
    Alternating Polyfluorenes Collect Solar Light in Polymer Photovoltaics2009In: ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH, ISSN 0001-4842, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 1731-1739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effort to improve the energy conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells has led to the design of novel donor polymers. To improve open circuit photovoltages (OCVs) and the spectral coverage of the solar spectrum, researchers have looked for materials with high HOMO values, an easily modified electronic structure, and sufficient electronic transport within the polymers. One advance in design from our laboratories has been the development of a class of alternating polyfluorene copolymers (APFOs), which can be combined with fullerenes to make bulk heterojunction materials for photovoltaic conversion. This Account describes copolymers of fluorene that we designed to expand the range the optical absorption of solar cells to include wavelengths out to 1000 nm. In most cases, we combine these polymers with acceptors from the fullerene family, typically the phenyl C-61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecule, to generate solar cell materials. The synthesis of alternating copolymers of fluorene with various donor-acceptor-don or elements provides the opportunity to shift both HOMO and LUMO, which we have followed by electrochemical spectroscopy. Moving the LUMO of the APFOs farther from the vacuum level eventually leads to a situation where the driving force for photo-induced charge transfer from polymer donor to fullerene acceptor goes to zero, resulting in inefficient charge generation. Moving the HOMO level closer to the vacuum level reduces the OCV of devices made from bulk heterojunction blends. As we move the bandgap toward lower energies and increase the overlap of optical absorption with the solar spectrum, both these events eventually occur. In devices based on these APFO/fullerene blends, the performance depends on the OCV, the photocurrent under solar illumination, and the fill factor. The fill factor is influenced by electrical transport and charge generation. Optimizing these parameters requires new solutions to the perennial conflict between optically thin devices, where electrical extraction of charge is not a limitation, and the optically thick devices, where extraction of charge is hampered by trapping and recombination. As a result, we have developed methods to trap light in optically thin devices. When the thin film flexible solar cells are folded, multiple reflection between adjacent solar cells leads to a longer path length for the photon through the devices and considerable improvement of the optical dissipation in the active material. These optical tricks also enable an alternative route to tandem devices, where two different bandgap materials are located on adjacent folds. Thus light not absorbed in one cell is reflected onto the next cell to produce an effective optical series arrangement. Using experiments and simulations of the light trapping effects, we demonstrate power conversion efficiency enhancements of up to a factor of 1.8.

  • 268.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Lars Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellstrom, Stefan
    Chalmers.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers.
    Polymer Photovoltaics with Alternating Copolymer/Fullerene Blends and Novel Device Architectures2010In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 22, no 20, p. E100-E116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of novel conjugated polymers, designed for the purpose of photovoltaic energy conversion, and their properties in polymer/fullerene materials and photovoltaic devices are reviewed. Two families of main chain polymer donors, based on fluorene or phenylene and donor-acceptor-donor comonomers in alternating copolymers, are used to absorb the high-energy parts of the solar spectrum and to give high photovoltages in combinations with fullerene acceptors in devices. These materials are used in alternative photovoltaic device geometries with enhanced light incoupling to collect larger photocurrents or to enable tandem devices and enhance photovoltage.

  • 269.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Wang, Xiangjun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Gadisa, Abay
    IPS/ÌFM Linköpings universitet.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Svensson, Mattias
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Perzon, Erik
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mammo, W
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Andersson, M.R.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Alternating fluorene copolymer/fullerene blend solar cells2005In: Organic Photovoltaics: Mechanisms, Materials and Devices / [ed] Sam-Shajing Sun, Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci, Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press , 2005, 1, p. 387-402Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently developed organic photovoltaics (OPVs) show distinct advantages over their inorganic counterparts due to their lighter weight, flexible shape, versatile materials synthesis and device fabrication schemes, and low cost in large-scale industrial production. Although many books currently exist on general concepts of PV and inorganic PV materials and devices, few are available that offer a comprehensive overview of recently fast developing organic and polymeric PV materials and devices.

    Organic Photovoltaics: Mechanisms, Materials, and Devicesfills this gap. The book provides an international perspective on the latest research in this rapidly expanding field with contributions from top experts around the world.  It presents a unified approach comprising three sections: General Overviews; Mechanisms and Modeling; and Materials and Devices. Discussions include sunlight capture, exciton diffusion and dissociation, interface properties, charge recombination and migration, and a variety of currently developing OPV materials/devices. The book also includes two forewords: one by Nobel Laureate Dr. Alan J. Heeger, and the other by Drs. Aloysius Hepp and Sheila Bailey of NASA Glenn Research Center.

    Organic Photovoltaics equips students, researchers, and engineers with knowledge of the mechanisms, materials, devices, and applications of OPVs necessary to develop cheaper, lighter, and cleaner renewable energy throughout the coming decades.

  • 270.
    J Lindgren, Lars
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barrau, Sophie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellstrom, Stefan
    Chalmers.
    Mammo, Wendimagegn
    Chalmers.
    Perzon, Erik
    Chalmers.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers.
    Synthesis, Characterization, and Devices of a Series of Alternating Copolymers for Solar Cells2009In: CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, ISSN 0897-4756, Vol. 21, no 15, p. 3491-3502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we report the synthesis, characterization. and photovoltaic properties of a series of six Conjugated polymers based on donor-acceptor-donor (DAD) structure. The polymers are obtained via Suzuki polymerization of different alkoxy-substituted DAD monomers together with a substituted fluorene or phenylene monomer. Application of polymers as light-harvesting and electron-donating materials in solar cells, in conjunction with both [60]PCBM and [70]PCBM as acceptors, show power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 2.9%, values obtained without extensive optimization work. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy and field-effect transistor (FET) mobility measurements of acceptor-polymer mixtures show that differences in substitution on the polymers affect morphology, mobility, and device performance. Within the series of polymers, all showing similar optical absorption and redox behavior, substituents play an important role in phase separation on a micrometer scale, which in turn has a large impact on device performance. The phase-separation behavior is clearly seen in [70]PCBM devices where the best-performing devices are obtained using the polymers with short alkoxy groups or no substituents together with a high speed of spin coating during device preparation.

  • 271.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Immerstrand, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biomedical applications of polypyrrole microactuators: from single-cell clinic to microrobots2000In: 1st Annual International, Conference On Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology. 2000, IEEE , 2000, p. 58-61Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microtools that will be useful for the positioning and investigation microstructures must operate relevant environments, such as cell culture media or blood plasma. They must also be comparatively strong, and preferably allow a muscle like mode of movement. This is given by a novel family of actuators based on conjugated polymers (like polypyrrole, PPy). By miniaturising these structures using standard photolithographic techniques, the authors can reduce the size down to 10-micrometer dimensions and build mechanically active microdevices. These can be moved and positioned by applying a potential to dope or undope the PPy. These novel structures are now being developed as a unique microactuator technology, suitable for operation in applications coupled to cell biology and biomedicine

  • 272.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemomechanical Devices from Conjugated Polymers2016In: Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering / [ed] Saleem Hashmi, Oxford: Elsevier, 2016, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer actuators are devices where the volume of a conjugated (or conducting) polymer material is changed during a change of the state of oxidation or reduction of the polymer. This volume change can be utilized to construct actuators, for instance as a single layer or fiber resulting in a linear actuator or assembled into a multilayer structure where the active material is combined with a passive supporting material forming bending actuator.

  • 273.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perpendicular Actuation with Individually Controlled Polymer Microactuators2001In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 76-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Actuator systems based on conducting polymers, such as polypyrole, with which three-dimensional movement can be controlled, are described. The Figure shows a combination of two such microactuators which are used to “kick” a glass bead across the surface of a silicon wafer. The microfabrication methods used to produce the systems are described and the potential uses, for example microrobotic arms, discussed.

  • 274.
    Jager, Edwin W.H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Immerstrand, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmgren Peterson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The cell clinic: closable microvials for single cell studies2002In: Biomedical microdevices (Print), ISSN 1387-2176, E-ISSN 1572-8781, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 177-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the development of a cell clinic. This is a micromachined cavity, or microvial, that can be closed with a lid. The lid is activated by two polypyrrole/Au microactuators. Inside the microvials two Au electrodes have been placed in order to perform impedance studies on single or a small number of cells. We report on impedance measurements on Xenopus leavis melanophores. We could measure a change in the impedance upon cell spreading and identify intracellular events such as the aggregation of pigment granules. The electrical data is correlated to optical microscopy.

  • 275.
    Jager, EWH
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smela, E
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Maryland, Dept Mech Engn, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Microfabricating conjugated polymer actuators2000In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 290, no 5496, p. 1540-1545Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer actuators can be operated in aqueous media, which makes them attractive for laboratories-on-a-chip and applications under physiological conditions. One of the most stable conjugated polymers under these conditions is polypyrrole, which can be patterned by means of standard photolithography. Polypyrrole-gold bilayer actuators that bend out of the plane of the wafer have been microfabricated in our laboratory. These can be used to move and position other microcomponents. Here we review the current status of these microactuators, outlining the methods used to fabricate them. We describe the devices that have been demonstrated as well as some potential future applications.

  • 276.
    Jansson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Francaviglia, Luca
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    La, Rui
    Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Balagula, Roman
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stehr, Jan Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Charles W.
    Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Morral, Anna Fontcuberta I
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Increasing N content in GaNAsP nanowires suppresses the impact of polytypism on luminescence2019In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 30, no 40, article id 405703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopies are employed to investigate effects of structural defects on carrier recombination in GaNAsP nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. In the NWs with a low N content of 0.08%, these defects are found to promote non-radiative (NR) recombination, which causes spatial variation of the CL peak position and its intensity. Unexpectedly, these detrimental effects can be suppressed even by a small increase in the nitrogen composition from 0.08% to 0.12%. This is attributed to more efficient trapping of excited carriers/excitons to the localized states promoted by N-induced localization and also the presence of other NR channels At room temperature, the structural defects no longer dominate in carrier recombination even in the NWs with the lower nitrogen content, likely due to increasing importance of other recombination channels. Our work underlines the need in eliminating important thermally activated NR defects, other than the structural defects, for future optoelectronic applications of these NWs.

  • 277.
    Jasiunas, Rokas
    et al.
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania.
    Melianas, Armantas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Felekidis, Nikolaos
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gulbinas, Vidmantas
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dead Ends Limit Charge Carrier Extraction from All-Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells2018In: ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 4, no 8, article id 1800144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extraction of photocreated charge carriers from a prototypical all-polymer organic solar cell is investigated by combining transient photocurrent and time-delayed collection field experiments with numerical simulations. It is found that extraction is significantly hampered by charges getting trapped in spatial traps that are tentatively attributed to dead ends in the intermixed polymer networkin photovoltaic devices based on the same donor polymer and a fullerene acceptor this effect is much weaker. The slow-down in charge extraction leads to enhanced recombination and associated performance losses. These effects are observed in addition to the dispersive behavior that is characteristic of charge motion in energetically disordered media. Upon annealing the effects of spatial traps diminish, rationalizing the doubling in device power conversion efficiency after annealing.

  • 278.
    Jespersen, Kim G
    et al.
    Chemical Physics Kemicentrum.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gadisa, Abay
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Sundström, Villy
    Chemical Physics Kemicentrum.
    Yartsev, Arkady
    Chemical Physics Kemicentrum.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Charge formation and transport in bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on alternating polyfluorene copolymers blended with fullerenes2006In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 7, p. 235-242Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 279.
    Jia, Ping
    et al.
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yinlong
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Zhibo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gong, Jijun
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Lin
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, J-M
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Electronic phase engineering induced thermoelectric enhancement in manganites2018In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 124, no 3, article id 034501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nano-structuring engineering and the introduction of magnetic scattering are effective ways to enhance the thermoelectric performance. In this work, we use the magnetic treatments on La0.4Pr0.225Ca0.375MnO3 to demonstrate that the electronic phase engineering can enhance the thermoelectric performance by simultaneously reducing the thermal conductivity and raising the power factor in a strongly correlated electron system. This study indicates that the magnetic treatment changes the phase separation state and impedes the growth of ferromagnetic metal (FMM) phase. The reduction of FMM phase suppresses the bipolar effect, which raises the Seebeck coefficient and the power factor, reduces the thermal conductivity, and therefore enhances the thermoelectric performance.

  • 280.
    Jia, Yuehua
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Yang, Liying
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Qin, Wenjing
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Yin, Shougen
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Wei, Jun
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Efficient polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with cesium acetate as the cathode interfacial layer2013In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 50, p. 565-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enhanced performance of polymer solar cells based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend was achieved by using cesium acetate (CH3COOCs) as cathode buffer layer. Under 100 mW/cm(2) white light illumination, the device with 0.8 nm thick CH3COOCs as cathode buffer layer exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as (4.16 +/- 0.02) %. Compared to the control devices without cathode buffer layer and with LiF as cathode buffer layer, the PCE is enhanced similar to 100% and similar to 31%, respectively. The introduction of the CH3COOCs buffer layer effectively improves the photo-generated charge collection. The Kelvin Probe measurement shows that the work function of the CH3COOCs is estimated to be -4.0 eV, which has an ideal energy band match with PCBM and a good property for electron collection. The static contact angle results indicated that the CH3COOCs with the hydrophobic CH3COO- group has an improved wettability between the buffer layer and the hydrophobic organic active layer surface, resulting in better interfacial contact and reduced contact resistance. The improved performance may be attributed to the dissociation of semi-conducting CH3COOCs upon deposition to liberate Cs with a low work function, which reduces the interface resistance of the active layer and the cathode and enhances the interior electric field that may result in efficient charge transportation. Therefore, the CH3COOCs interlayer could be a promising alternative to LiF to improve the efficiency of the electron collection of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  • 281.
    Jiang, Haiying
    et al.
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Zhen
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Lianjie
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhong, Anxing
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xuncheng
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Pan, Feilong
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wanzhu, Cai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Yi
    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Chen, Junwu
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Yong
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    A Highly Crystalline Wide-Band-Gap Conjugated Polymer toward High-Performance As-Cast Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 41, p. 36061-36069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new wide-band-gap conjugated polymer PBODT was successfully synthesized that showed high crystallinity and was utilized as, the active material in nonfullerene bulk-heterojunction, polymer solar cells (PSCs). The photovoltaic devices based on the as-cast blend films of PBODT with ITIC and IDIC acceptors showed notable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 7.06% and 9:09%, with high open-circuit voltages of 1.00 and 0.93 V that correspond to low energy losses of 0.59 and 0.69 eV, respectively. In the case of PBODT:ITIC, lower exciton quenching efficiency and monomolecular recombination are found for devices with small driving force. On the other hand, the relatively higher driving force and suppressed monomolecular recombination for PBODT:IDIC devices are identified to be the reason for their higher short-circuit current density (J(sc)) and higher PCEs. In addition, when processed with the nonchlorinated solvent 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, a good, PCE of 8.19% was still, achieved for the IDIC-based device. Our work shows that such wide-band-gap polymers have great potential for the environmentally friendly fabrication of highly efficient PSCs.

  • 282.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Zaifang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leiqiang, Qin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mao, Lin
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yazhong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Qin, Fei
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yanfeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Laminated Free Standing PEDOT:PSS Electrode for Solution Processed Integrated Photocapacitors via Hydrogen-Bond Interaction2017In: ADVANCED MATERIALS INTERFACES, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 4, no 23, article id 1700704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a novel lamination method employing hydrogen-bond interaction to assemble a highly conductive free standing poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film as a common electrode is demonstrated in a solution processed metal-free foldable integrated photocapacitor (IPC) composed of a monolithic organic solar cell (OSC) and a capacitor. The highlights of the work are:(1) micrometer free standing PEDOT:PSS electrode is successfully laminated onto a relatively large area (1 cm(2)) OSCs; (2) a free standing capacitor based on the PEDOT:PSS electrode is achieved; (3) the IPC demonstrates an overall efficiency of 2% and an energy storage efficiency of 58%, which is comparable with those of IPCs based on metallic common electrodes; (4) the novel lamination method for PEDOT:PSS electrode enables free standing PEDOT:PSS broad applications in solution processed flexible organic electronics, especially tandem or/and integrated organic electronic devices. Furthermore, the IPC is foldable with excellent cycling stability (no decay after 100 recycles at 1 mA cm(-2)). These results indicate that free standing PEDOT:PSS film is a promising candidate as common electrodes for IPCs to break the restrictions of metal electrodes. The demonstrated lamination method will greatly extend the applications of PEDOT:PSS electrodes to large area flexible organic electronic devices.

  • 283.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Yanxin
    Tsinghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yanfeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xue, Jie
    Tsinghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Weiwei
    Beijing Univ Chem Technol, Peoples R China.
    Qiao, Juan
    Tsinghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Limitations and Perspectives on Triplet-Material-Based Organic Photovoltaic Devices2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1900690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) have attracted broad attention and become a very energetic field after the emergence of nonfullerene acceptors. Long-lifetime triplet excitons are expected to be good candidates for efficiently harvesting a photocurrent. Parallel with the development of OPVs based on singlet materials (S-OPVs), the potential of triplet materials as photoactive layers has been explored. However, so far, OPVs employing triplet materials in a bulk heterojunction have not exhibited better performance than S-OPVs. Here, the recent progress of representative OPVs based on triplet materials (T-OPVs) is briefly summarized. Based on that, the performance limitations of T-OPVs are analyzed. The shortage of desired triplet materials with favorable optoelectronic properties for OPVs, the tradeoff between long lifetime and high binding energy of triplet excitons, as well as the low charge mobility in most triplet materials are crucial issues restraining the efficiencies of T-OPVs. To overcome these limitations, first, novel materials with desired optoelectronic properties are urgently demanded; second, systematic investigation on the contribution and dynamics of triplet excitons in T-OPVs is necessary; third, close multidisciplinary collaboration is required, as proved by the development of S-OPVs.

  • 284.
    Johansson, D.M.
    et al.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Granlund, T.
    Theander, M.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, M.R.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Synthesis and characterisation of polyfluorenes with light-emitting segments2001In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 121, no 1-3, p. 1761-1762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the synthesis and characterisation of two copolymers. They consists of poly(9-hexyl-9-(2'-ethylhexyl)fluorene) (HEH-PF) with a small amount of another polymer with a narrow band-gap. The synthetic route was designed to allow the incorporation of only one low band-gap segment per polymer chain. Photoluminescence measurements showed that energy transfer from the PF-segments to the low band-gap segments, did occur. In the solid state, all emissions were detected from the low band-gap segments with photoluminescence quantum yields up to 68%. One copolymer showed a low threshold for lasing (2 µJ/cm2) in a microcavity device.

  • 285.
    Johansson, D.M.
    et al.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Srdanov, G.
    UNIAX Corporation, 6780 Cortona Drive, Santa Barbara, CA 93117, United States.
    Yu, G.
    UNIAX Corporation, 6780 Cortona Drive, Santa Barbara, CA 93117, United States.
    Theander, M.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, M.R.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Synthesis and characterization of highly soluble phenyl-substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylenes)2000In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 2525-2529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the synthesis and characterization of soluble, high molecular weight phenyl-substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylenes). The studied polymers are poly(2-(2',5'-bis(2?-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl)- 1,4-phenylenevinylene) (BEHP-PPV) and copolymers of BEHP-PPV and poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV). Their photoluminescence and electroluminescence have been examined as well as their stability to air and light. The polymers emitted green and yellow light. Stability measurements showed increased stability compared to some previously known substituted PPVs.

  • 286. Johansson, DM
    et al.
    Theander, M
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Polymer Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Linkoping Univ, IFM, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Granlund, T
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Polymer Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Linkoping Univ, IFM, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, MR
    Synthesis and characterization of polyfluorenes with light-emitting segments2001In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1981-1986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new polymers consisting of poly(9-(2'-ethylhexyl)-9-hexylfluorene) (EHH-PF) with a small amount of substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) segments have been synthesized and characterized. The synthetic route was designed to allow the incorporation of only one (or zero) PPV segments per polymer chain. Photoluminescence measurements showed that energy transfer from the PF segments to the more narrow band-gap PPV segments did occur, both in solution and in film. In the solid state, all emissions were detected from the PPV segments with photoluminescence quantum yields up to 68%. One of the polymers has been used as the active material in a microcavity laser device. The threshold for lasing is 2 muJ/cm(2).

  • 287.
    Johansson, D.M.
    et al.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Chalmers Univ. Technol., SE-412 96, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Theander, M.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, M.R.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers Univ. Technol., SE-412 96, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Convenient synthetic route to poly(p-phenylene-1,2-diphenylvinylenes)2000In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 113, no 3, p. 293-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and characterization of two soluble poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s substituted with phenyl groups on the vinylene moiety is reported. The polymers are poly(1,4-phenylene-1,2-diphenylvinylene) (PPV-DP) and poly(1,4-phenylene-1,2-(3'-(2?-ethylhexyloxy))-diphenylvinylene) (PPV-mEHDP). The monomers containing chloromethyl groups were polymerized with excess potassium tert-butoxide in dioxane at room temperature. The polymerization conditions are optimized. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of the polymers showed an increase in the PL efficiency in film from 19% for PPV-DP to 37% for PPV-mEHDP. Both polymers emitted green light with higher intensity in film than in solution.

  • 288. Johansson, DM
    et al.
    Theander, M
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Polymer Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden UNIAX Corp, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Srdanov, G
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Polymer Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden UNIAX Corp, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Yu, G
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Polymer Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden UNIAX Corp, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, MR
    Influence of polymerization temperature on molecular weight, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence for a phenyl-substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylene)2001In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 34, no 11, p. 3716-3719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the synthesis and characterization of poly(2-(2",5'-bis(2"-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (BEHP-PPV) polymerized at different temperatures. The photoluminescence efficiencies in the solid state of BEHP-PPV obtained at 144 and 0 degreesC are 28% and 60%, respectively. H-1 NMR measurements showed a lower concentration of structural defects for BEHP-PPV obtained at lower temperatures, which can explain the increased photoluminescence efficiencies for these polymers. Polymerization temperatures below 0 degreesC decrease the molecular weight without changing the photoluminescence efficiency to any large extent. The electroluminescence efficiencies follow the trend in the photoluminescence efficiencies.

  • 289. Johansson, DM
    et al.
    Wang, XJ
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Yu, G
    Srdanov, G
    Andersson, MR
    Synthesis of soluble phenyl-substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylenes) with a low content of structural defects2002In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 35, no 13, p. 4997-5003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and characterization of two new soluble poly(p-phenylenevinylenes) (PPVs) are reported. The polymers are poly(2-2',5'-bis(octyloxy)benzene)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (BOP-PPV) and poly(2-(2',5'-bis(octyloxy)benzene)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (BOPM-PPV). Both polymers have been polymerized at high and low temperatures to study the formation of structural defects. It is shown that both methoxy groups as side chains and low polymerization temperatures decrease the content of defects in the final polymer. As a consequence, the polymers with lower concentration of defects exhibit higher electroluminescence yields in light-emitting diodes. In addition to this, the polymers with a low content of defects exhibited longer operational lifetimes in these devices. The highest photoluminescence quantum yield in the solid state and electroluminescence efficiency were found to be 72% and 1.74%, respectively.

  • 290.
    Johansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jullesson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liin, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zeglio, Erica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electronic polymers in lipid membranes2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, no 11242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical interfaces between biological cells and man-made electrical devices exist in many forms, but it remains a challenge to bridge the different mechanical and chemical environments of electronic conductors (metals, semiconductors) and biosystems. Here we demonstrate soft electrical interfaces, by integrating the metallic polymer PEDOT-S into lipid membranes. By preparing complexes between alkyl-ammonium salts and PEDOT-S we were able to integrate PEDOT-S into both liposomes and in lipid bilayers on solid surfaces. This is a step towards efficient electronic conduction within lipid membranes. We also demonstrate that the PEDOT-S@alkyl-ammonium: lipid hybrid structures created in this work affect ion channels in the membrane of Xenopus oocytes, which shows the possibility to access and control cell membrane structures with conductive polyelectrolytes.

  • 291.
    Johansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Mammo, W.
    Depts. Organ. Chem./Polymer Technol., Chalmers University of Technology, 412 83 Göteborg, Sweden, Addis Ababa University, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Svensson, M.
    Depts. Organ. Chem./Polymer Technol., Chalmers University of Technology, 412 83 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.R.
    Depts. Organ. Chem./Polymer Technol., Chalmers University of Technology, 412 83 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Electrochemical bandgaps of substituted polythiophenes2003In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1316-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemical bandgaps for different soluble substituted polythiophenes have been measured by cyclic voltammetry. The effect of substituents on the oxidation/reduction potentials is discussed. Bandgaps obtained by cyclic voltammetry have been found to be in general higher than optical bandgaps. Among regioregular polymers substituted with a phenyl group at position 3 of the thiophene ring, examples are found that give very symmetric voltammograms. Rationalization for this behaviour is discussed from a conformational point of view.

  • 292.
    Johansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Moving Redox Fronts in Conjugated Polymers Studies from Lateral Electrochemistry in Polythiophenes2004In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 151, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The propagation speed of the front of electrochemical conversion, from semiconductor to highly doped polymer, in films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) spin cast on insulating substrates was analyzed. Propagation of the p-doped zone in polymer electrochromic devices was imaged simultaneously with recording of electrochemical data. The current is proportional to the propagation speed and has a Tafel-like behavior when taking the resistive drop in the film into account. The resistivity in the film, which gradually lowers the propagation speed, was used for determination of the conductivity of the p-doped polymer. By combining these values with the doping charge injected into the film during front migration we estimated the hole carrier mobility for different doping levels. © 2004 The Electrochemical Society.

  • 293.
    Johansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Pettersson, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Conductivity of de-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)2002In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 129, no 3, p. 269-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conductivity of chemically and electrochemically de-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has been investigated in situ. We observe a decrease in the conductivity by 4-5 orders of magnitude. The change of conductivity is correlated to the change of electronic structure. We obtain the dielectric function of the polymer by spectroscopic ellipsometry and note that anisotropy is observed in both doped and neutral states. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 294.
    Jonforsen, M.
    et al.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ahmad, I.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Larsson, J.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Roman, L.S.
    Svensson, M.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, M.R.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Photodiodes made from poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene): polythiophene blends2001In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 119, no 1-3, p. 185-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A PPV-type polymer with the pyridopyrazine heterocycle (EHH-PPyPzV) has been synthesised and found to have high electron affinity according to electrochemical measurements. When used as the electron accepting material in single-layer-photodiodes, with a thiophene copolymer (PEOPT-co-PAAPT) as the electron donating material, IPCE (incident photon to current conversion efficiency) up to 1% was measured. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyse the blend morphology in the devices.

  • 295. Jonforsen, M
    et al.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, MR
    Synthesis and characterization of soluble and n-dopable poly(quinoxaline vinylene)s and poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene)s with relatively small band gap2002In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1638-1643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis and characterization of poly(quinoxaline vinylene)s and poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene)s with linear and branched aliphatic side chains are reported. The electron affinity of the polymers was measured with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and found to be highest for the pyridopyrazine vinylene polymers, Compared to CN-MEH-PPV, the pyridopyrazine vinylene polymers were easier to reduce, while the quinoxaline derivatives were harder. UV-vis absorption measurements showed that the polymers have relatively small band gaps.

  • 296.
    Jonforsen, M.
    et al.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Spjuth, L.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, M.R.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Synthesis and characterization of poly(quinoxaline vinylene)s and poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene)s with phenyl substituted side-groups2002In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 131, no 1-3, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(quinoxaline vinylene) and poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene) with 3(2'-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl side-groups have been synthesized and compared with similar polymers with purely aliphatic side-chains. The new polymers had smaller bandgaps, and from cyclic voltammetry it was seen that the phenyl substituted side-groups made the polymers easier to reduce, with half wave potentials of -1.02 and -1.33 V versus Ag/AgCl for the poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene) and poly(quinoxaline vinylene) respectively. The attachment of the phenyl substituted side-groups had counteracting effects on the stability towards photo-oxidation, which resulted in improved stability of the poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene) compared to its equivalent with purely aliphatic side-chains, while the poly(quinoxaline vinylene) showed decreased stability. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 297.
    Jullesson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wiring liposomes and chloroplasts to the grid with an electronic polymer.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel thylakoid based bio-solar cell capable of generating a photoelectric current of    0.7 µA/cm2. We have introduced an electro conductive polymer, PEDOT-S, to the thylakoid membrane. PEDOT-S intervenes in the photosynthesis, captures electrons from the electron transport chain and transfers them directly across the thylakoid membrane, thus generating a current. The incorporation of the electro conductive polymer into the thylakoid membrane is therefore vital for the function of the bio-solar cell. A liposomal model system based on liposomes formed by oleic acid was used to develop and study the incorporation of PEDOT-S to fatty acid membranes. The liposomes allow for a more controllable and easily manipulated system compared to the thylakoid membrane. In the model system, PEDOT-S could successfully be incorporated to the membrane, and the developed methods were applied to the real system of thylakoid membranes. We found that a bio-compatible electrolyte and redox couple was required for this system to function. The final thylakoid based bio-solar cell was evaluated according to performance and reproducibility. We found that this bio-solar system can generate a low but reproducible current.

     

     

  • 298.
    Kalldin, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lamination of Organic Solar Modules2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the Worlds energy demand is increasing we need more of our energy to be generated from resources that affect the climate as little as possible. Solar power could be the solution if there were solar panels with a less energy demanding production than the established silicon based solar modules.

    Printable organic solar cells will enable a cheap production process, thus they are mainly made out of polymers in solution. However, to be able to decrease the total cost of the solar modules the commonly used indium tin oxide (ITO) for the transparent electrode needs to be replaced by a less expensive material. If the cheap, high conductive and transparent polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) could replace ITO the cost of organic solar modules would significantly decrease.

    For PEDOT:PSS to be able to replace ITO there are requirements that have to be met. The transparent electrode needs to be apart from transparent, highly conductive, have a low contact resistance to the other materials in the organic solar cell and be printable.

    In this study it has been shown that the PEDOT:PSS film with Zonyl and Diethylene Glycol (DEG) as an secondary dopant, is capable of laminating to thin films made out of PEDOT:PSS, metal or a polymer fullerene blend. The contact resistances between two PEDOT:PSS films and PEDOT:PSS film and a metal film proved to be low. When laminating to a metal film an interlayer of Silver Nano Wires (AgNW) was needed to achieve a low contact resistance.

  • 299.
    Kaminorz, Y.
    et al.
    Institute of Physics, Condensed Matter Phys., Univ. P., Potsdam, Germany.
    Smela, E.
    Condensed Matter Phys. Chem. Dept., Ris Natl. Lab. FYS-124, P.O. B., Roskilde, Denmark.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Brehmer, L.
    Institute of Physics, Condensed Matter Phys., Univ. P., Potsdam, Germany.
    Andersson, M.R.
    Dept. Organ. Chem. Poly. Technol., Chalmers Univ. of Technol., S-412 96, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Characteristics of polythiophene surface light emitting diodes2000In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 103-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface light emitting diodes (SLEDs), in which previously microfabricated electrodes were coated with a conjugated polymer, were made with greatly different electrode spacings (250 nm and 10 or 20 µm) and with different electrode material combinations. The fabrication process allowed us to compare several electrode materials. The SLED structures also enabled imaging of the light emission zone with fluorescence video microscopy. Conventional sandwich structures were also made for comparison (electrode separation 50 nm). In this study, the emitting layer was poly[3-(2',5'-bis(1?,4?,7?trioxaoctyl)phenyl)- 2,2'-bithiophene] (EO-PT), a conjugated polymer based on polythiophene with oligo(ethyleneoxide) side chains. The current-voltage (I(V)) and light-voltage (L(V)) characteristics of the SLEDs were largely insensitive to electrode separation except at high voltages, at which the current in the devices with the largest separations was limited. Sandwich structures had the same light output at a given current. Light could be obtained in forward and reverse bias from indium tin oxide (ITO)-aluminum, gold silicide-aluminum, and gold silicide-gold SLEDs, but the turn-on voltages were lowest with the ITO-aluminum devices, and these were also the brightest and most reliable. Adding salt to the EO-PT increased the current and brightness, decreased the turn-on voltages, and made the I(V) characteristics symmetric, thus, a device with an electrode separation of 10 µm had the extraordinarily low turn-on voltage of 6 V. The location of the light emission was at the electron-injecting contact.

  • 300.
    Karani, Arfa
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Yang, Le
    Univ Cambridge, England; ASTAR, Singapore.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Futscher, Moritz H.
    AMOLF, Netherlands.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Ehrler, Bruno
    AMOLF, Netherlands.
    Greenham, Neil C.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Di, Dawei
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Perovskite/Colloidal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells: Theoretical Modeling and Monolithic Structure2018In: ACS ENERGY LETTERS, ISSN 2380-8195, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 869-874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal-halide perovskite-based tandem solar cells show great promise for overcoming the Shockley-Queisser single-junction efficiency limit via low-cost tandem structures, but so far, they employ conventional bottom-cell materials that require stringent processing conditions. Meanwhile, difficulty in achieving low-bandgap (amp;lt;1.1 eV) perovskites limits all-perovskite tandem cell development. Here we propose a tandem cell design based on a halide perovskite top cell and a chalcogenide colloidal quantum dot (CQD) bottom cell, where both materials provide bandgap tunability and solution processability. A theoretical efficiency of 43% is calculated for tandem-cell bandgap combinations of 1.55 (perovskite) and 1.0 eV (CQDs) under 1-sun illumination. We highlight that intersubcell radiative coupling contributes significantly (amp;gt;11% absolute gain) to the ultimate efficiency via photon recycling. We report an initial experimental demonstration of a solution-processed monolithic perovskite/CQD tandem solar cell, showing evidence for subcell voltage addition. We model that a power conversion efficiency of 29.7% is possible by combining state-of-the-art perovskite and CQD solar cells.

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