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  • 251. Petersson, L-G
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, S.-E.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hydrogen dissociation on clean and contaminated Pd studied with a Pd-MOS structure.1982In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 117, p. 676-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how a new combination of methods can be used in order to gain information on hydrogen dissociation on Pd and on its dependence on the electronic structure. With this method we can also detect changes in hydrogen pressure of about 1×10−11 Torr H2 corresponding to hydrogen coverages on the Pd surface of about 0.001 of a monolayer.

  • 252. Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, S.-E.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Surface reactions on Pd studied with a hydrogen sensitive MOS-structure and photoelectron spectroscopy1982In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. 25, no 6A, p. 818-825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last couple of years catalytic reactions on Pd surfaces have been studied at our department by means of a hydrogen sensitive Pd-MOS structure and work function measurements. These studies have been performed at atmospheric pressures with Ar and O2 as carrier gases. We have now extended this type of measurements to the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) region and also combined them with both UV and, in certain cases, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS, XPS) studies. With this technique we are able to detect about 0.001 of a monolayer of hydrogen, and changes in rate or equilibrium constants corresponding to changes in an energy coordinate of less than 10 meV. Furthermore, results from a Cd contaminated Pd-MOS structure indicates that the ability of Pd to dissociate H2 is related to a microscopic parameter and not to any general metal-like parameter.

  • 253. Petersson, L-G
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, S-E
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Surface reactions on Pd studied with a hydrogen sensitive MOS-structure andphotoelectron spectroscopy1982In: Physica scripta. T, ISSN 0281-1847, Vol. 25, p. 818-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last couple of years catalytic reactions on Pd surfaces have been studied at our department by means of a hydrogen sensitive Pd-MOS structure and work function measurements. These studies have been performed at atmospheric pressures with Ar and O2 as carrier gases. We have now extended this type of measurements to the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) region and also combined them with both UV and, in certain cases, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS, XPS) studies. With this technique we are able to detect about 0.001 of a monolayer of hydrogen, and changes in rate or equilibrium constants corresponding to changes in an energy coordinate of less than 10 meV. Furthermore, results from a Cd contaminated Pd-MOS structure indicates that the ability of Pd to dissociate H2 is related to a microscopic parameter and not to any general metal-like parameter.

  • 254.
    Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, S.-E.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The influence of small amounts of Ag on a hydrogen sensitive Pd-MOS structure1982Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Pd-MOS structure as a hydrogen sensor in catalytic reactions1983Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 256. Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Pd-MOS structure as a hydrogen sensor in catalytic reactions1984In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. A2, p. 1032-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By letting a catalytic reaction involving hydrogen occur on the Pd gate metal of a Pd–MOS structure the amount of hydrogen atoms on the surface can be monitored without any external probes by measuring the dipole induced by the hydrogen atoms that have diffused to the Pd–SiO2 interface. The ability to work over a wide pressure range (10-11 Torr to atm) makes the Pd–MOS structure an interesting device in the study of catalytic reactions. In this article, we will give a short review of some of the many applications of this component. We have combined this technique with other surface sensitive techniques such as UPS, XPS, work function measurements and mass spectrometry and, e.g., studied how the hydrogen adsorption–desorption processes are influenced by alloying the Pd surface with various amounts of Ag, thereby also changing the distribution of d states close to Fermi energy. We have also studied the H2+O→H2O reaction on Pd. It, e.g., turns out that the water reaction rate reaches a maximum when the oxygen coverage approaches zero and that the hydrogen atoms on the surface have a larger lateral mobility.

  • 257. Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hydrogen desorption versus electronic structure studies on Ag covered Pd with photoemission and a hydrogen sensitive MOS structure1984In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 30, p. 3055-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a hydrogen-sensitive Pd metal-oxide-semiconductor structure we have investigated how Ag overlayers affect the hydrogen adsorption and desorption properties of Pd. By varying the concentration of Ag in the top layer, we have continuously changed the distribution of d states close to the Fermi energy as determined by photoemission. For moderate amounts of Ag, only blocking of active hydrogen sites on the Pd surface occurs and no effects due to the variation in the electronic density of states can be detected.

  • 258. Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hydrogen detection during catalytic surface reactions: Evidence for activated lateral hydrogen mobility in the water forming reaction on Pd1984In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 52, p. 1806-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By use of a Pd-SiO2-Si structure as a hydrogen sensor, very small changes in the hydrogen pressure can be detected. Furthermore, such a structure can be used to detect hydrogen with perfect discrimination during a catalytic surface reaction. By using this technique, together with work-function and desorption measurements, in the study of the water-forming reaction on Pd, we conclude that hydrogen has an activated lateral mobility on Pd.

  • 259.
    Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The influence of Ag on the hydrogen desorption properties of Pd studied with photoemission and a hydrogen sensitive MOS structure1983Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The water forming reaction on palladium studied with work function, photoemission, and mass spectrometry on a hydrogen sensitive MOS structure1983Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 261. Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The water-forming reaction on Pd1985In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 161, p. 77-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water-forming reaction on Pd has been studied on a Pd---SiO2---Si (Pd-MOS) structure in the temperature range 323–473 K. The reaction is found to be of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type with the formation of OH beeing rate limiting. Since the Pd-MOS structure works as a sensitive hydrogen detector unique information on the behaviour of hydrogen during this catalytic reaction has been obtained. The reaction can be described in a model where the hydrogen atoms on the Pd surface have a large temperature activated lateral mobility and with no evidence of beeing in hot precursor states. At T = 473 K this means that for oxygen coverages 0.01 monolayers all hydrogen adsorbed will also react with oxygen. For smaller oxygen coverages unreacted hydrogen will not initially desorb towards the vacuum but towards the internal Pd surface of the Pd-MOS structure. Futhermore, hydrogen adsorption is blocked by adsorbed oxygen. The sticking coefficient for hydrogen on the bare Pd surface is, however, close to one and only weakly temperature dependent. An effect giving rise to a hysteresis in the work function versus oxygen coverage curve during oxygen adsorption - desorption is also discussed.

  • 262. Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Water production on palladium in hydrogen-oxygen atmospheres1985In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 163, p. 273-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the water production on Pd in various oxygen-hydrogen atmospheres in combination with work function measurements, photoelectron spectroscopy and hydrogen sensitive measurements on a Pd---SiO2---Si structure. The existence of a critical oxygen to hydrogen pressure ratio is confirmed. Above the critical ratio, the water production rate decreases with increasing oxygen pressure and increases with increasing hydrogen pressure. Below the critical ratio, the water production rate is proportional to the oxygen pressure and independent of the hydrogen pressure. These features, together with the variations in oxygen and hydrogen coverage, are described by a simple Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, assuming that hydrogen has a large lateral mobility and that both hydrogen and oxygen adsorption-dissociation is blocked by adsorbed oxygen.

  • 263.
    Petersson, L.-G.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fogelberg, J.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Oxygen coverage dependence in the water forming reaction from ammonia and hydrogen on a palladium surface1986Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Polese, D
    et al.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Martinelli, E
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Magna, G
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Dini, F
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Catini, A
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Paolesse, R
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Di Natale, C
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Sharing data processing among replicated optical sensor arrays2013In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 179, no SI, p. 252-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor networks prompt a great deal of research interest within the computer and analytical sciences. To this regard, one of the most important issues is concerned with the interpretation of data that are collected by different sensors. Due to sensors non-reproducibility, this problem may also persist even when many replicas of the same sensors are considered. In this case additional calibrations may be required to use a common knowledge database. Noteworthy, the same problem arises in case of sensors replacement. In this paper we demonstrate that in case of optical chemical sensors drawing inspiration from the connectivity strategy of the olfactory bulb, this problem can find a straightforward solution when an image sensor is used to measure the optical properties of an extended sensing layer. If the sensing layer is formed by a number of spots of different indicators, it is demonstrated that a common data processing can be applied to any replica of the sensing layer even if the indicators are spotted with different geometries and in different quantities.

  • 265. Riepl, M.
    et al.
    Östblom, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Svensson, S.C.T.
    Van, Der Gon A.W.D.
    Van Der Gon, A.W.D., Advalytix AG, Eugen-Sänger-Ring 4, D-85649 Brunnthal-Nord, Germany, Faculty of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Schaferling, M.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Molecular gradients: An efficient approach for optimizing the surface properties of biomaterials and biochips2005In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 1042-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of molecular gradients of alkanethiols with the structure HS-(CH2)m-X (m = 15, X = COOH, CH2NH 2, or CH3) and oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated alkanethiols with the structures HS-(CH2)15-CO-NH-Eg n (n = 2, 4, or 6), HS-(CH2)15-CO-NH-Eg 2-(CH2)2-NH-CO-(CH2) 4-biotin, and HS-(CH2)15-CO-NH-Eg 6-CH2-COOH were prepared on polycrystalline gold films. These gradients were designed to serve as model surfaces for fundamental studies of protein adsorption and immobilization phenomena. Ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, operating in scanning mode, were used to monitor the layer composition, gradient profiles, tail group conformation, and overall structural quality of the gradient assemblies. The gradient profiles were found to be 4-10 mm wide, and they increased in width with increasing difference in molecular complexity between the thiols used to form the gradient. The oligo(ethylene glycol) thiols are particularly interesting because they can be used to prepare so-called conformational gradients, that is, gradients that display a variation in oligo(ethylene glycol) chain conformation from all trans on the extreme Eg 2,4 sides, via an amorphous-like phase in the mixing regimes, to helical at the extreme Eg6 sides. We demonstrate herein a series of experiments where the above gradients are used to evaluate nonspecific binding of the plasma protein fibrinogen, and in agreement with previous studies, the highest amounts of nonspecifically bound fibrinogen were observed on all-trans monolayers, that is, on the extreme Eg2,4 sides. Moreover, gradients between Eg2 and a biotinylated analogue have been prepared to optimize the conditions for the immobilization of streptavidin. Ellipsometry and infrared spectroscopy reveal high levels of immobilization over a fairly broad range of compositions in the gradient regime, with a maximum between 50 and 60% of the biotinylated analogue in the monolayer. A pi gradient composed of (NH3+/COO-)-terminated thiols was also prepared and evaluated with respect to its ability to separate differently charged proteins, pepsin, and lysozyme, on a solid surface.

  • 266.
    Savage, S
    et al.
    ACREO AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Svenningstorp, H
    ACREO AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Unéus, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Kroutchinine, A
    ACREO AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Tobias, P
    ACREO AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Harris, C
    ACREO AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    SiC based gas sensors and their applications2000In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 353-3, p. 747-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and field-testing of hardy high-temperature sensors based on silicon carbide devices has to date shown promising results in several application areas. As the need to take care of the environment becomes more urgent, these small and relatively cheap sensors could be used to increase the monitoring of gases, or to replace or complement larger and more expensive sensor technologies used today. In this paper the development of Silicon Carbide MOSFET transistor sensors and Schottky diode sensors is described. The devices are tested in industrial applications such as monitoring of car exhausts and flue gases.

  • 267.
    Schmeisser, D
    et al.
    Brandenburg Tech Univ Cottbus, Germany.
    Bohme, O
    Brandenburg Tech Univ Cottbus, Germany.
    Yfantis, A
    Brandenburg Tech Univ Cottbus, Germany.
    Heller, T
    Brandenburg Tech Univ Cottbus, Germany.
    Batchelor, DR
    Brandenburg Tech Univ Cottbus, Germany.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dipole moment of nanoparticles at interfaces1999In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 380-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of heterogeneous interfaces are modified essentially by the presence of nanoparticles. We provide a model and give spectroscopic evidence that nanoscale clusters exist which have a metallic core and a shell of an almost perfect oxide. Such clusters produce a large dipole moment which manifests itself as shifts in core levels as seen by photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as non-Ohmic rectifying behavior in the device electrical properties.

  • 268.
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wu, Xiongyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ottosson, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Münger, E Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Atom-by-atom tuning of the electrostatic potassium-channel modulator dehydroabietic acid2018In: The Journal of General Physiology, ISSN 0022-1295, E-ISSN 1540-7748, Vol. 150, no 5, p. 731-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) is a naturally occurring component of pine resin that was recently shown to open voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels. The hydrophobic part of DHAA anchors the compound near the channel’s positively charged voltage sensor in a pocket between the channel and the lipid membrane. The negatively charged carboxyl group exerts an electrostatic effect on the channel’s voltage sensor, leading to the channel opening. In this study, we show that the channel-opening effect increases as the length of the carboxyl-group stalk is extended until a critical length of three atoms is reached. Longer stalks render the compounds noneffective. This critical distance is consistent with a simple electrostatic model in which the charge location depends on the stalk length. By combining an effective anchor with the optimal stalk length, we create a compound that opens the human KV7.2/7.3 (M type) potassium channel at a concentration of 1 µM. These results suggest that a stalk between the anchor and the effector group is a powerful way of increasing the potency of a channel-opening drug.

  • 269.
    Spetz, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Armgarth, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    HYDROGEN AND AMMONIA RESPONSE OF METAL-SILICON DIOXIDE-SILICON STRUCTURES WITH THIN PLATINUM GATES1988In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 1274-1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrogen and ammonia sensitivity of metal‐oxide‐semiconductor (MOS) structures with platinum gates between 3 and 70 nm thick was investigated. The response to these gases was measured as a shift in the capacitance‐voltage (CV) curve of the MOS structure along the voltage axis. The measurements were made at an elevated temperature, mainly at 150 °C, where chemical reactions take place on the surface of the catalytic metal. The main purpose of the investigation was to determine if hydrogen and ammonia are detected by similar mechanisms. It is concluded that hydrogen molecules are dissociated and hydrogen atoms give rise to a dipole layer at the metal‐oxide interface, similar to the behavior of hydrogen in hydrogen sensitive MOS structures with thick catalytic metal, normally Pd, gates. Ammonia, on the other hand, appears to be detected through surface potential changes of the Pt film, which are capacitively coupled to the semiconductor surface through voids in the thin metal film.

  • 270.
    Spetz, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Armgarth, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimization of ammonia-sensitive metal-oxide-semiconductor structures with platinum gates1987In: Sensors and Actuators, ISSN 0250-6874, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 349-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonia gas-sensitive MOS capacitors with platinum as a thin active metal gate have been studied. The influence of parameters such as the thickness and area of the platinum film on the ammonia sensitivity was investigated. Thicknesses of about 10 to 30 nm of platinum were found to be favourable for a large response to small ammonia concentrations. It was further observed that with aluminium as a thick contact material, the response to ammonia was independent of the area of the platinum film. Theoretical and experimental C(V curves were compared to elucidate the mechanism behnd the ammonia sensitivity. it is concluded that the sensitivity arises from the thin catalytic Pt film.

  • 271.
    Spetz, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enquist, F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Armgarth, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structure and ammonia sensitivity of thin platinum or iridium gates in metal-oxide-silicon capacitors1989In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 177, no 1-2, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures with thin discontinuous platinum or iridium gates have a strong sensitivity to ammonia gas. Surface potential changes caused by NH3-derived species adsorbed on the metal grains are assumed to be capacitively coupled to the semiconductor surface through the cracks in the metal film. This causes a negative shift along the voltage axis of the capacitance-voltage curve of the MOS capacitor. The structure of the platinum or iridium film is thus of crucial importance for the response to NH3. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were therefore performed with specially prepared substrates which enabled thin metal films on silicon dioxide to be studied by TEM without any further treatment of the films. TEM micrographs of platinum films showed that the metal coverage and crack density corresponded well to the NH3 sensitivity of the films. Iridium films with a reproducible film structure were made through evaporation of about 10 nm of iridium at a pressure below 2 × 10-7 Torr at room temperature. Iridium films prepared in that way exhibited a very good NH3 response. Heat treatments of platinum and iridium films were shown to influence the structure of the metal film. H2 and NH3 treatments (in synthetic air) initiated structural changes at lower temperatures. For platinum films a change in film structure was always coupled with a decrease in the speed of response to NH3. For metal films with very large grains the surface potential change due to NH3 did not couple under the whole metal grain, which provides strong support for the proposed model of NH3 sensitivity.

  • 272.
    Stehr, Jan Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Jan Olof G.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Evidence that fodipir (DPDP) binds neurotoxic Pt2+ with a high affinity: An electron paramagnetic resonance study2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 15813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxaliplatin typically causes acute neuropathic problems, which may, in a dose-dependent manner, develop into a chronic form of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which is associated with retention of Pt2+ in the dorsal root ganglion. A clinical study by Coriat and co-workers suggests that co-treatment with mangafodipir [Manganese(II) DiPyridoxyl DiPhosphate; MnDPDP] cures ongoing CIPN. These authors anticipated that it is the manganese superoxide dismutase mimetic activity of MnDPDP that explains its curative activity. However, this is questionable from a pharmacokinetic perspective. Another, but until recently undisclosed possibility is that Pt2+ outcompetes Mn2+/Ca2+/Zn2+ for binding to DPDP or its dephosphorylated metabolite PLED (diPyridoxyL EthylDiamine) and transforms toxic Pt2+ into a non-toxic complex, which can be readily excreted from the body. We have used electron paramagnetic resonance guided competition experiments between MnDPDP (10logKML ≈ 15) and K2PtCl4, and between MnDPDP and ZnCl2 (10logKML ≈ 19), respectively, in order to obtain an estimate the 10logKML of PtDPDP. Optical absorption spectroscopy revealed a unique absorption line at 255 nm for PtDPDP. The experimental data suggest that PtDPDP has a higher formation constant than that of ZnDPDP, i.e., higher than 19. The present results suggest that DPDP/PLED has a high enough affinity for Pt2+ acting as an efficacious drug in chronic Pt2+-associated CIPN.

  • 273.
    Suska, Anke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alehagen, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity, a New Biomarker in Heart Failure?2012In: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, ISSN 2155-9880, Vol. S2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salivary α-amylase activity is an increasingly investigated biomarker for the activation of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic imbalance is associated to several diseases, one of which is heart failure, and the aim of the present study was to test if salivary α-amylase activity might be a new biomarker in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Methods: In this pilot study, 48 elderly men (range 59-89 years), 24 patients with established chronic heart failure in NYHA class I to III, and 24 controls were included. In all participants, saliva was collected for three consecutive days at three time points (at awakening, 30 minutes later and in the late afternoon), and blood was sampled for analysis of NT-proBNP.

    Results: Within the whole group of participants, a statistically significant positive correlation between morning salivary α-amylase activity levels and serum NT-proBNP could be found, which was strongest for the measurement taken 30 minutes after awakening, as well as a significant negative correlation of awakening α-amylase activity levels with arterial blood pressure.

    Within the control group separately, higher daily salivary α-amylase activity output correlated with increasing levels of NT-proBNP, while within the patients, the strongest association of α-amylase activity measures were found to be a negative correlation with blood pressure.

    Conclusions: Our data supports the idea that sAA activity has the potential as a non-invasive index of adrenergic activity in specific pathological conditions, though for heart failure in particular the results were merely modest, which was likely due to the specific intake of beta-receptor blocking drugs by all patients. Due to the large variability of sAA activity levels, we expect a greater potential for monitoring its changes over time, which could prove a valuable surrogate biomarker for cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure.

  • 274.
    Suska, Anke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Belen Ibanez, Ana
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berghard, Anna
    Umea University, Department Mol Biol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden .
    G protein-coupled receptor mediated trimethylamine sensing2009In: BIOSENSORS and BIOELECTRONICS, ISSN 0956-5663, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 715-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new approach for the detection of trimethylamine (TMA) using a recombinant cell line of Xenopus laevis melanophores was developed. The cells were genetically modified to express the mouse trace amine-associated receptor 5 (mTAAR5), a G protein-coupled receptor from the mouse olfactory epithelium, which conferred high sensitivity to TMA. Cellular responses to TMA were analyzed by two different techniques, either by absorbance measurements using a microplate reader or by cellular imaging via an inverted microscope. A focused chemical screen allowed the discovery of additional, previously unknown stimuli of mTAAR5. The developed cell-based sensor demonstrated no sensitivity to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), making it suitable for a straightforward evaluation of TMA levels in fish tissue extracts. For the detection of TMA vapor, the cells were covered with agarose, which allowed for intact cell viability for at least 6 h in air. The developed gas measurement platform was able to detect TMA from I to 100 ppm within 35 min.

  • 275.
    Suska, Anke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Belen Ibanez, Ana
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Preechaburana, Pakorn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berghard, Anna
    Umeå University.
    G protein-coupled receptor mediated sensing of TMA2009In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE EUROSENSORS XXIII CONFERENCE, ISSN 1876-6196, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 321-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new approach for the detection of trimethylamine (TMA) using recombinant Xenopus laevis melanophores was developed. The cells were genetically modified to express the mouse trace amine-associated receptor 5 (mTAAR5), a G protein-coupled receptor from the olfactory epithelium, which conferred high sensitivity to TMA. A focused chemical screen allowed the discovery of additional, previously unknown stimuli of mTAAR5. The cell-based sensor demonstrated no sensitivity to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), making it suitable for a convenient evaluation of TMA levels in fish tissue extracts. The developed gas measurement platform was able to detect TMA from 1 to 100 ppm within thirty-five minutes.

  • 276.
    Suska, Anke
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Anderson, Tony
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Generation of biochemical response patterns of different substances using a whole cell assay with multiple signaling pathways2005In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 21, p. 727-734Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Suska, Anke
    et al.
    IFM .
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Biosensing with groups of melanophores with confined variability2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Poster vid konferensen "Eurosensors XX", Göteborg, Sweden, 17-20 sept.

  • 278.
    Suska, Anke
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ibanez, Ana Belen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Addressing variability in a Xenopus laevis melanophore cell line2008In: Assay and drug development technologies, ISSN 1540-658X, E-ISSN 1557-8127, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 569-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xenopus laevis melanophores can be used in high-throughput screens for guanine nucleotide binding protein coupled receptor ligands and have potential as biosensors. Inherent in this immortal cell line is a substantial variability, which macroscopic evaluations disregard. Here we demonstrate a systematic way to incorporate this natural variability in the evaluations. Clusters of similar cells from a sparsely seeded cell culture are examined by imaging changes in cell appearance, pigment motility, and cumulative displacements. The time evolution of the image intensity distributions of clusters upon a pigment-dispersing stimulus is used as a signature of the cell clusters, and their behaviors are classified by multivariate analysis. Conventional image subtraction procedures are used to highlight cumulative and transitory changes in the pigment dynamics, enabling characterization of multiple aspects of the cell response from a single experiment. Additionally, a simple way to accomplish standard optical density changes at the single-cell group level is shown. The present results also provide evidence that natural cell variability arising from a cell culture can enrich the diversity of responses from pigment-containing cells assays and underscore that in conventional macroscopic evaluations these aspects are overlooked and can lead to spurious results. © 2008 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  • 279.
    Suska, Anke
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Malik, Muhammad Ali
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Flexible cell patterning using magnetic nano-chaperons2007In: ISOEN 2007,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Svedhem, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöbom, Hans
    Biacore AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Löfås, Stefan
    Biacore AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Lars-Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöstrand, Sven-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Subtle differences in dissociation rates of interactions between destabilized human carbonic anhydrase II mutants and immobilized benzenesulfonamide inhibitors probed by a surface plasmon resonance biosensor2001In: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, E-ISSN 1096-0309, Vol. 296, no 2, p. 188-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of commercial biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance has made possible careful characterization of biomolecular interactions. Here, a set of destabilized human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) mutants was investigated with respect to their interaction kinetics with two different immobilized benzenesulfonamide inhibitors. Point mutations were located distantly from the active site, and the destabilization energies were up to 23 kJ/mol. The dissociation rate of wild-type HCA II, as determined from the binding to the inhibitor with higher affinity, was 0.019 s−1. For the mutants, dissociation rates were faster (0.022–0.025 s−1), and a correlation between faster dissociation and a high degree of destabilization was observed. We interpreted these results in terms of increased dynamics of the tertiary structures of the mutants. This interpretation was supported by entropy determinations, showing that the entropy of the native structure significantly increased upon destabilization of the protein molecule. Our findings demonstrate the applicability of modern biosensor technology in the study of subtle details in molecular interaction mechanisms, such as the long-range effect of point mutations on interaction kinetics.

  • 281.
    Svenningstorp, H
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Unéus, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Tobias, P
    Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    High temperature gas sensors based on catalytic metal field effect transistors2000In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 338-3, p. 1435-1438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalytic metal insulator silicon carbide field effect devices, MISiCFET, have been developed as gas sensitive devices. They functioned in a corrosive atmosphere of hydrogen / oxygen alternating pulses up to 775 degreesC. At 600 degreesC some devices operated with full gas response to hydrogen for 17 hours. Below a temperature of 500 degreesC the gas response of the devices was very stable with no base line drift for several days. MISiC Schottky diodes have been used for cylinder specific monitoring of an engine and exhausts and flue gas diagnosis. The MISiCFET devices will increase the number of possible applications for FET gas sensor devices.

  • 282. Svenningstorp, H.
    et al.
    Widén, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Salomonsson, P.
    Volvo TU, Applied Physics, 6130, Chalmers Teknikpark, SE-412 88 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Tobias, P.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Detection of HC in exhaust gases by an array of MISiC sensors2001In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 77, no 1-2, p. 177-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future legislations for car emissions make direct measurements in exhaust gases of hydrocarbon (HC) as well as CO and NOx interesting. Robust sensors that can stand the high temperature and rough environment in the exhaust gases are needed. Silicon carbide has the advantage of being a chemically very inert material, which, due to its high band gap, is a semiconductor even at temperatures around 800°C. Catalytic metal insulator silicon carbide Schottky diode sensors respond to gases like H2, HC, NOx in exhaust gases. The choice of catalytic metal, structure of the metal, and the operation temperature determines the response pattern to different gases. Here we will demonstrate that an array of different MISiC sensors to some extent predicts the HC concentration in gasoline exhaust gases. Chemometric methods are used for the evaluation of the signals. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 283.
    Svenningstorp, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tobias, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salomonsson, Per
    AB Volvo Technological Development, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of catalytic reactivity on the response of metal-oxide-silicon carbide sensor to exhaust gases1999In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 57, no 1-3, p. 159-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalytic metal insulator silicon carbide, MISiC, Schottky diodes are promising devices for on board exhaust diagnosis in cars. These sensors show a direct or indirect sensitivity to gases like H-2, CO, HC (hydrocarbons) and O-2. The catalytic reactivity of the sensor will effect the gas sensing conditions. In some situations knowledge about the reactivity of the catalytic surface may give more information about the exhaust gas composition. For instance, the sensor signal normally moves to a lower voltage in an ambient containing H-2 and HC, however, under certain conditions when exposed to rich gas mixtures, the HC response is opposite the one for H-2. Measurements performed by the MISiC sensors on simulated exhaust gas mixtures, either rich or lean, are shown here. Some fundamental studies of the HC response have been performed. Reaction limitation conditions are suggested as an explanation for the response of HC opposite the one of H-2.

  • 284.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Askendal, Agneta
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Ellipsometric in vitro studies on the activation of complement by human immunoglobulins M and G after adsorption to methylated silicon2001In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) or human immunoglobulin G (IgG) were adsorbed to dichlorodimethyl silane (DDS) treated silicon. Subsequently, the model surfaces were incubated in normal-, complement factor 1q (C1q)-complement factor B or complement factor 2 (C2)-depleted human sera at 37°C for up to 1.5 h. The serum deposition and binding of selected polyclonal complement antibodies into this layer were then quantified by null ellipsometry. Both types of precoated surfaces bound large amounts of anti-complement factor 3c (anti-C3c), anti-properdin and anti-C3d, after incubation in normal serum. In contrast to IgG coated surfaces, IgM coated surfaces bound no anti-C1q after the serum incubations and no anti-C3c deposition lag time was observed after incubations in EGTA serum. Upon immersions of IgM coated surfaces in the different sera, a rapid complement activation via a C1q factor B, and Ca2+-independent, but C2 dependent pathway, was indicated. When IgM was instead immobilized to APTES/glutaraldehyde surfaces, anti-C3c deposition was lower after incubations in EGTA than normal serum. The results suggest that, under the present experimental conditions, human IgM and IgG activate the complement system differently. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 285.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Surface Properties and Osseointegration2005In: The Osseointegration Book; from Calvarium to Calcaneus / [ed] Per-Ingvar Brånemark, Berlin: Quintessenz VerlagsGmbH , 2005, 1, p. -494Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      Branemark Osseointegration Center, Goteborg, Sweden. Comprehensive reference brings together the background and history of the subject and covers osseointegration from its origins, through theory to practice. Presents a wealth of data about the current applications and covers its origins in dentistry to facial reconstruction and orthopedics. High-quality color images.

  • 286.
    Testorf, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Annika M.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A model for switch-like phenomena in biological systems2001In: Biophysical Chemistry, ISSN 0301-4622, E-ISSN 1873-4200, Vol. 94, no 1-2, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a model for the activity of protein clusters based on a simultaneous desorption of an activator (agonist, substrate molecule, etc.) and an inactivator (antagonist, inhibitor, etc.) caused by the collision or interaction between two effector molecules (e.g. receptors, enzymes). This model gives rise to switch-like dose–response curves, which are difficult to explain by ordinary co-operativity. It fits with recent experimental results obtained on single cells. Some other interesting aspects of the model are also pointed out. The model is similar to the model used to explain steep ‘dose–response curves’ in heterogeneous catalysis, caused by the reaction between two different molecules or atoms on the surface of the catalyst.

  • 287.
    Testorf, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Forensic Science and Toxicology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Forensic Science and Toxicology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Characterization of [3H]flunitrazepam binding to melanin2001In: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, E-ISSN 1096-0309, Vol. 298, no 2, p. 259-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In both clinical and forensic toxicology, the analysis of hair for drugs is an important tool to determine drug use in the past or to verify abstinence from illegal drugs during extended periods. Melanin is proposed as one of the factors that influences drug incorporation to hair and we have characterized the binding of the drug flunitrazepam to melanin in vitro. The drug was 3H labeled and melanin granules from cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, were used according to the suggested standard for melanin studies. We observed a rapid Langmuir-like binding followed by a slower diffusion-limited binding that may be interpreted as an initial surface binding followed by deeper bulk binding. From three concentrations of melanin, with a 60-min incubation time, a mean saturation value of 180 ± 20 pmol/mg was calculated. The binding of a group of benzodiazepines and tranquilizers was compared to the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam by means of displacement experiments. These drugs showed binding characteristics similar to [3H]flunitrazepam except phenobarbital, which had a lower affinity to melanin. The method presented in this study allowed measurements with low melanin and drug concentrations and it has the strength of directly measuring the amount of drug bound to melanin, in contrast to previous indirect methods.

  • 288.
    Testorf, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öberg, Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The electric charge of pigment granules in pigment cells2001In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 16, no 1-2, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black pigment cells called melanophores change colour in response to environmental changes and have lately been studied as promising biosensors. To further elucidate the intracellular processes involved in the colour changes of these cells, and to find optimal biosensing principles, the electric charge of intracellular pigment granules, melanosomes, has been determined in vitro by electrophoresis. Melanosomes from the two extreme states in the cell colour change (aggregated and dispersed melanosomes) were measured. The charge was found to be −1.5·10−16 and −1.7·10−16 C, aggregated and dispersed melanosomes, respectively, without significant difference between the two conditions. This charge is of the same order of magnitude as the one of 1000 electrons. The origin of the melanosome charge, and the use of these findings in new biosensor principles, is discussed.

  • 289.
    Testorf, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Volume changes of individual melanosomes measured by scanning force microscopy2001In: Pigment Cell Research, ISSN 1755-1471, E-ISSN 1755-148X, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 445-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black pigment cells, melanophores, e.g. located in the epidermis and dermis of frogs, are large flat cells having intracellular black pigment granules, called melanosomes. Due to a large size, high optical contrast, and quick response to drugs, melanophores are attractive as biosensors as well as for model studies of intracellular processes; e.g. organelle transport and G-protein coupled receptors. The geometry of melanosomes from African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, has been measured using scanning force microscopy (SFM). Three-dimensional images from SFM were used to measure height, width, and length of the melanosomes (100 from aggregated cells and 100 from dispersed cells). The volumes of melanosomes isolated from aggregated and dispersed melanophores were significantly different (P<0.05, n=200). The average ellipsoidal volume was 0.14±0.01 (aggregated) and 0.17±0.01 μm3 (dispersed), a difference of 18%. The average major diameter was 810±20 and 880±20 nm for aggregated and dispersed melanosomes, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time SFM has been used to study melanosomes. This may provide an alternative non-destructive technique that may be particularly suitable for studying morphological aspects of various melanin granules.

  • 290.
    Tobias, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baranzahi, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast chemical sensing with metal-insulator silicon carbide structures1997In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 287-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is demonstrated that the current-voltage characteristics of platinum-thin insulator silicon carbide diodes react rapidly to changes of the concentration of oxygen and hydrocarbons in the ambient already at temperatures around 500 degrees C-600 degrees C, In this letter, we use moving gas outlets to, for the first time, estimate time constants of the response in the order of a few milliseconds. The short time constants of these sensors make them suitable for applications in combustion monitoring. The new method to modulate gas concentrations rapidly at surfaces has the potential to be a valuable tool for evaluation of device structures for fast chemical sensing.

  • 291.
    Tobias, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baranzahi, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schoner, A.
    IMC, Kista, Sweden .
    Rottner, K.
    IMC, Kista, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Studies of the ambient dependent inversion capacitance of catalytic metal oxide silicon carbide devices based on 6H- and 4H-SiC material1998In: Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials, Part 1-2, Trans Tech Publications , 1998, Vol. 264-2, p. 1089-1092Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platinum-oxide-silicon carbide structures change their capacitance upon gas exposure and are used as gas sensors. The decrease of the inversion capacitance within 750 to 900 degrees C due to hydrogen exposure is studied for 4H- and 6H-SiC,:both n- and p-type. A mechanism for the capacitance decrease is suggested which explains also the large change in the conductance of the structures.

  • 292.
    Tobias, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baranzahi, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göras, Anders
    MECEL AB, Åmål, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moving gas outlets for the evaluation of fast gas sensors1998In: EUROSENSORS XII, VOLS 1 AND 2, IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 1998, p. 761-764Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that platinum thin-insula :or-silicon carbide Schottky diodes operated at about 600 degrees C are fast enough to monitor the air fuel ratio in the individual cylinders in the exhaust from a petrol engine. These chemical sensors have time constants of the order of 1 ms. We describe a simple laboratory technique, which can be used to change the gas composition at a chemical sensor within milliseconds. It is based on mechanically oscillating gas outlets placed close to the sensor surface. The properties of and possibilities with such "moving gas outlets" are described.

  • 293.
    Tobias, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baranzahi, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salomonsson, Per
    AB Volvo Technological Development, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åbom, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Response of metal-insulator-silicon carbide sensors to different components in exhaust gases1998In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 47, no 1-3, p. 125-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of different components in simulated car exhaust gases on silicon carbide based field effect sensors are studied using a two-level factorial design. Strong effects are observed for H-2, hydrocarbons, and CO. The effects vary with temperature and can possibly be used for a multi-component analysis of exhaust gases.

  • 294.
    Tobias, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göras, Anders
    MECEL AB, Åmål, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moving gas outlets for the evaluation of fast gas sensors1999In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 58, no 1-3, p. 389-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for the evaluation of fast gas sensors is described. By using moving gas outlets, we can quickly change the ambient around a sensor. Different platinum-insulator-silicon carbide (MISiC) structures are investigated. Their sensor response contains fast components, which respond within milliseconds to a change in the ambient from a reducing gas to an oxidising gas and vice versa. Cylinder specific monitoring of car engines with the MISiC structures is discussed.

  • 295.
    Tobias, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nakagomi, S.
    Ishinomaki Senshu University, Japan.
    Baranzahi, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhu, R.
    Ishinomaki Senshu University, Japan.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrical characterization of chemical sensors based on catalytic metal gate - Silicon carbide Schottky diodes1998In: Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials, Part 1-2, Trans Tech Publications , 1998, Vol. 264-2, p. 1097-1100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IV-characteristics of platinum gate Schottky diodes with an interfacial layer of TaSix or Ta depends on gas ambient and they are therefore used as gas sensors, e.g. for combustion engine monitoring. Ideality factors and barrier heights depend on interfacial layers and temperature and are further investigated here. Gas sensitive Schottky diodes on both p-and n-type SIC are shown.

  • 296.
    Tobias, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svenningstorp, H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Omonsson, P. S.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of gas consumption on the response of metal oxide silicon carbide sensors to exhaust gases1998In: EUROSENSORS XII, VOLS 1 AND 2, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 1998, p. 249-252Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide based Schottky diodes w th catalytic gate metals are promising for diagnosis of exhaust gas from combustion engines. The forward voltage measured at a constant current changes from a low level in reducing gases to a high level in oxidising gases. Factorial design in two levels on synthetic exhausts reveal interesting details of the influence of the different components on the sensor signal. Contrary to earlier experiments, an increase of the concentration of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide increases the signal level. Hydrogen gas behaves as expected, an increased concentration increases the signal level. The total area of catalytic metal was much smaller in the new experiment and the different behavior of the sensor signal can probably be explained by consumption cf gases on catalytic metal surfaces.

  • 297.
    Tortora, Luca
    et al.
    University Roma Tor Vergata.
    Stefanelli, Manuela
    University Roma Tor Vergata.
    Mastroianni, Marco
    University Roma Tor Vergata.
    Lvova, Larisa
    University Roma Tor Vergata.
    Di Natale, Corrado
    University Roma Tor Vergata.
    DAmico, Arnaldo
    University Roma Tor Vergata.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paolesse, Roberto
    University Roma Tor Vergata.
    The hyphenated CSPT-potentiometric analytical system: An application for vegetable oil quality control2009In: SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL, ISSN 0925-4005, Vol. 142, no 2, p. 457-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The computer screen photo assisted technique (CSPT) has been used to develop a hyphenated optical-potentiometric sensing at-ray, based on porphyrinoid materials dispersed into PVC membranes. Sensing layers have been deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass slides, which were exploited as electrodes, for potentiometric measurements, and chromophore spots, to obtain CSPT data. Both measurements were contemporaneously carried out in the hyphenated sensing platform. The performances of the hyphenated sensing array were first tested for the detection of model analytes, characteristics of vegetable oil matrices, and then evaluated in the discrimination of real samples of olive and seed oils. The results obtained demonstrated that the hyphenated system affords a significant improvement of information and oils classification with respect to the individual potentiometric and optical components.

  • 298.
    Turner, Anthony
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gifford, Raeann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holub, Douglas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Method and Device for Measuring EnzymaticActivity of Polysaccharide-Hydrolysing Enzymes.2016Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A device and method for detecting and/or measuring a polysaccharide-hydrolysing activity of an enzyme and/or quantifying the amount of the enzyme in a sample employs a complex of a polysaccharide that is hydrolysable by the enzyme and an electrically active signal species or progenitor thereof such that action of the enzyme on the complex causes liberation of the signal species or progenitor.  Thus enzyme activity leads to free signal species which can be detected and quantified electrically.

  • 299. Uchida, H
    et al.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Unsupervised scanning light pulse technique for chemical sensing2004In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 103, no 01-Feb, p. 225-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A scanning light pulse technique (SLPT) operating in a totally unsupervised way suitable for chemical sensing and the efficient screening of new sensing materials is demonstrated. The procedure automatically determines inflexion points (optimum biasing condition) and photocurrent amplitudes from locally acquired i-V characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures that enables optimum biased measurements properly re-scaled to avoid spurious amplifying effects. Additionally, the procedure allows composing flat-band voltage shift patterns within the same experiment, and avoiding feedback mode measurements. Optimum bias patterns when used to modulate subsequent measurements, allow a fast recording mode. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 300.
    Ulrich, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Andersson, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    New Methods in Surface Science and Surface Analysis-Towards Biomimetic Sensing2007In: A Vinnova program conference: Multidisciplinary BIO,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

            

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