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  • 251.
    Ivner, jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Guidelines för energi- och klimatstrategiskt arbete enligt lagen om kommunal energiplanering2009Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 252.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lathund för inventering till energiplaner: Arbetsmaterial i projektet Energiplanering i Östergötland2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna lathund tar upp källor man kan använda sig av för att göra en övergripande inventering av en kommuns energisystem. Materialet är primärt framtaget för att underlätta arbetet för deltagande kommuner i projektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Rapporten är uppbyggd i två delar: kommunen som geografiskt område och kommunen som organisation. Lathunden tar inte upp hur materialet ska analyseras eller presenteras i en energiplan.

  • 253.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Biogas på gårdsnivå i Östergötland: Utvärdering och rekommendationer2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The project ”Biogas på gårdsnivå” (Biogas at farm-level) ran between 2007 and 2010. This project aimed at investigating design and feasibility of biogas plants of farm-level size. Overall goal for the project was to initialise 4-6 pilot plants in the region of Östergötland, Sweden. The project also aimed at providing training in small-scale biogas production for interested actors, including analyses of opportunities for interested farms-owners. The project was financed by the European Agricultural Fund for Agricultural Development and the Regional Development Council in Östergötland.

    Activities in the project included education, study visits, and pilot studies on conditions for biogas production on more than 20 farms. The project did not lead to a pilot plant, since there was no or little economical feasibility for biogas production at single entities. To large extent the project has therefore been of exploratory nature and during the project period increasing attention has been paid to forming clusters where several actors cooperate for more economically beneficial production solutions. This development towards more collaboration between different actors has probably been positive for biogas opinion in the region.

    Among the participants the project has been highly appreciated and the activities have led to significant learning. The main criticisms towards the project among participants concern administrative procedures.

    The authors recommend that if a new project is formed, it should build on the knowledge and networks created during this project. Furthermore, focus should be on continued support collaboration for biogas production and a new project would probably benefit from cooperation with other existing regional initiatives and research. Finally, it is recommended that a follow-up project allocates resources on dissemination activities to spread information on results and good practice nationally and internationally.

  • 254.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Follow-up of local energy and climate strategies: A study of six small Swedish municipalities2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities are important actors in the transition of energy systems towards renewable energy resources and efficient energy use. One mean to manage and develop local energy systems is using energy and climate strategies. Sweden has a long history of energy-planning, which effectiveness has been debated. However, in the light of climate change, many Swedish local authorities have adopted energy and/or climate strategies in recent years. These strategies are intended to clarify, prioritize and suggest measures for achieving energy and climate related goals. To be able to assess the strategies’ effectiveness it is important to identify progress and goal achievement. There is little knowledge whether and how local authorities do this kind of follow-up.The aim of this paper is to explore approaches to energy strategy follow-up in six small and medium-sized local authorities in Sweden. Based on interviews with representatives from six Swedish municipalities, this paper discusses prerequisites for energy and climate strategy follow-up. Challenges for the follow-up, such as methodological descriptions, organization and lack of high quality data are identified and discussed. A conceptual model for a systematic approach to follow-up is presented. Conclusions on how a systematic approach to follow-up could facilitate organizational learning and a more strategic approach to energy issues are drawn. It is also discussed how a developed practice could be beneficial in terms of common methodologies and possibilities to request better statistical data from the national level.

  • 255.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Miljöaspekter på ersättning av konventionell värmeproduktion med industriell restvärme: analys av potential i Östergötland och Örebro län2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk industri är känd för att använda stora mängder energi i sina processer. En stor del av energin kyls bort som restvärme. Exakt hur stor potential det finns när det gäller att ta tillvara restvärme är dock inte helt känt. Den här rapporten är en del av ett projekt, initierat av Länsstyrelserna i Östergötland och Örebro län, med syfte att kartlägga hur stor potential för tillvaratagande av restvärme det finns i de två länen. Syftet med den här rapporten är att beskriva miljöpåverkan från tillvaratagande av restvärme i fjärrvärmenät, dels generellt i förhållande till ett antal typfall och dels i förhållande till den potential som identifierats inom projektet. Rapporten är uppdelad i två delar, där den första delen bygger upp ett ramverk för hur miljöpåverkan per levererad MJ fjärrvärme varierar beroende på inblandning av restvärme i fjärrvärmeleveransen. I den andra delen används detta ramverk för att analysera potentiella förändringar i miljöpåverkan vid ökat utnyttjande av industriell restvärme enligt underlagsdata som tagits fram i ett annat delprojekt.

  • 256.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Volition and Environmental Assessment in Swedish Municipal Energy Plans2009Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several policy instruments for managing energy systems at the local level, for municipal energy planning, which is a means for local authorities to manage the local energy system. This article analyses the municipal Energy Planning which has been required by Swedish law since 1997. Recent energy plans are compared with earlier plans. The aim is to see if recent energy plans are different and if the observed differences can be explained by the impact of external factors, for example other policy instruments.

    The results show that the both the scope of expressed volition and environmental assessments have changed substantially between the two sets of energy plans studied. Newer energy plans include more goals for transports and information, but fewer goals for environmental aspects. Environmental assessments are more commonly occurring in the newer plans, but focus to large extent on emissions of carbon dioxide and climate change. It is concluded that these differences can largely be explained by a rather weak legislation, which allows external factors to influence the energy planning process. It is further concluded that it is important to include environmental assessments in the energy planning process to avoid problem shifting. Such assessments must include more environmental consequences than simply the emissions of carbon dioxide.

  • 257.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karin, Westerberg
    Malmö University.
    Ljung, Stina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Approaches to participation in local energy-planning: Examples from a swedish region 2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2010 ERSCP-EMSU Conference In Delft & Cape Town October 25-29, 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper presents a study in which ten small local authorities were asked how they would like to approach local stakeholders in their energy-planning. Based on the answers this paper discusses participation in an energy-planning context and shows how goals and methods may differ according to the different target groups the local authorities wish to reach. The different approaches to stakeholder participation are then categorised into four categories – participation as capacity building, participation as a way to create acceptance, participation as a way to change behaviour and participation as partnership building – and discussed in relation to participation literature.

  • 258.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fysisk planering och fjärrvärmeexpansion i praktiken: Förstudie om beslutsprocessen vid kommunal planering och fjärrvärmeexpansion i nyexploaterade områden2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a pre-study with the aim to map today’s practice when it comes to the connection between district heating expansion and municipal spatial planning. The project was financed by the Swedish District Heating Association and the Swedish Energy Agency and was part of the research programme Fjärrsyn. A reference group consisting of three representatives from the district heating industry followed the progress of the project.

    The empirical studies were performed in two parts: one brief study and one deeper study. In the first part representatives from 55 Swedish local authorities were interviewed with the aim to map whether they had planned for new development areas in the last five years and, if so, whether the areas were connected to district heating. Based on the results from the first part six of the municipalities were chosen for a deeper study. The aim of the deeper study was to map the process from spatial planning to connection of new areas to district heating, and to identify barriers and drivers for such district heating expansion. Three respondents were interviewed from each municipality; a planner, an energy advisor and a representative from the district heating company.

    Results from the first part showed that most municipalities (90%) that had planned for new developments in the last five years also possessed at least one area that was connected to district heating. The main reason for not connecting new areas was low profitability because of large distances and low heat demand. Also the deeper study indicated low profitability as the main reason for not connecting newly developed areas to district heating.

    Two other observations were made in the deeper study:

    • Dialogue between district heating companies and local authorities is often sparse
    • There are probably knowledge gaps and lack of understanding between spatial planners and district heating companies

    Empirical evidence from this study shows that the role of the district heating company in the planning process is often limited to calculating whether district heating expansion is economically feasible. There was however one exception to this general observation: in one municipality there is an ongoing dialogue with frequent meetings between representatives from the district heating company and the local authority.

    One reason for the sparse dialogue between planners and the district heating company can be the different professional cultures and different goals for the organisations. Another reason could be lack of knowledge about how spatial planning affects the conditions for district heating.

    More frequent dialogue between local authorities and district heating companies could improve the conditions for district heating in new developments. This dialogue should ideally start at the strategic level within municipal energy planning and overall planning. The dialogue should thereafter continue throughout the municipal planning process.

    Also broader cooperation between district hearing companies and local authorities could facilitate district heating expansion. Cooperation helps building common visions for the future local energy system, which in turn may also reduce vulnerability of joint projects.

    Based on the results from this pre-study, four new research projects were developed. One proposed project builds on the observation of the sparse dialogue between district heating companies and local authorities. Issues to be explored could be: What potential gains are there in broad cooperation between district heating companies and local authorities?

  • 259.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner: Användarhandledning2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna handledning är en del av projektet ”Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner”, ett forskningsprojekt som genomförts vid Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och har bedrivits parallellt med samverkansprojektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Några av Östergötlands kommuner har fungerat som bollplank och testfall för framtagna metoder. Under 2010 kommer samtliga kommuner i projektet att arbeta med de framtagna metoderna i arbetet med sina energiplaner.

    Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:

    1. ta fram nollalternativ
    2. stämma av åtgärder mot energi‐ och miljömål
    3. stämma av åtgärdspaket mot nollalternativ

    Projektet resultat och metoder har sammanställts i tre delar: en Metodrapport, en Användarhandledning, samt en Exempelsamling med generaliserade exempel på åtgärder som kan finnas i energiplaner. Metodrapporten beskriver vetenskapliga metoder och val och ger en inblick i praktiska och teoretiska överväganden som gjorts under projektets gång. Målgruppen för metodrapporten är de som vill veta mer om den vetenskapliga grunden till verktygen. Användarhandledningen beskriver hur verktygen är uppbyggda och hur de är tänkta att användas. Målgruppen är främst de som är intresserade av att förstå hur verktygen är uppbyggda, kanske för att kunna göra egna kompletteringar. Exempelsamlingen är i sig ett av delverktygen. Samtliga rapporter finns att ladda ner från Linköping University Electronic Press, http://www.ep.liu.se/, eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland, http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/ostergotland/. Excelfiler går att beställa från författarna eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland.

  • 260.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner: Exempelsamling2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna exempelsamling är en del av projektet ”Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner”, ett forskningsprojekt som genomförts vid Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och har bedrivits parallellt med samverkansprojektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Några av Östergötlands kommuner har fungerat som bollplank och testfall för framtagna metoder. Under 2010 kommer samtliga kommuner i projektet att arbeta med de framtagna metoderna i arbetet med sina energiplaner.

    Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:

    1. ta fram nollalternativ
    2. stämma av åtgärder mot energi‐ och miljömål
    3. stämma av åtgärdspaket mot nollalternativ

    Projektet resultat och metoder har sammanställts i tre delar: en Metodrapport, en Användarhandledning, samt en Exempelsamling med generaliserade exempel på åtgärder som kan finnas i energiplaner. Metodrapporten beskriver vetenskapliga metoder och val och ger en inblick i praktiska och teoretiska överväganden som gjorts under projektets gång. Målgruppen för metodrapporten är de som vill veta mer om den vetenskapliga grunden till verktygen. Användarhandledningen beskriver hur verktygen är uppbyggda och hur de är tänkta att användas. Målgruppen är främst de som är intresserade av att förstå hur verktygen är uppbyggda, kanske för att kunna göra egna kompletteringar. Exempelsamlingen är i sig ett av delverktygen. Samtliga rapporter finns att ladda ner från Linköping University Electronic Press, http://www.ep.liu.se/, eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland, http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/ostergotland/. Excelfiler går att beställa från författarna eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland.

  • 261.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner: Metodrapport2010Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Denna rapport är en del av projektet ”Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner”, ett forskningsprojekt som genomförts vid Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och har bedrivits parallellt med samverkansprojektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Några av Östergötlands kommuner har fungerat som bollplank och testfall för framtagna metoder. Under 2010 kommer samtliga kommuner i projektet att arbeta med de framtagna metoderna i arbetet med sina energiplaner.

    Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:

    1. ta fram nollalternativ
    2. stämma av åtgärder mot energi‐ och miljömål
    3. stämma av åtgärdspaket mot nollalternativ

    Projektet resultat och metoder har sammanställts i tre delar: en Metodrapport, en Användarhandledning, samt en Exempelsamling med generaliserade exempel på åtgärder som kan finnas i energiplaner. Metodrapporten beskriver vetenskapliga metoder och val och ger en inblick i praktiska och teoretiska överväganden som gjorts under projektets gång. Målgruppen för metodrapporten är de som vill veta mer om den vetenskapliga grunden till verktygen. Användarhandledningen beskriver hur verktygen är uppbyggda och hur de är tänkta att användas. Målgruppen är främst de som är intresserade av att förstå hur verktygen är uppbyggda, kanske för att kunna göra egna kompletteringar. Exempelsamlingen är i sig ett av delverktygen. Samtliga rapporter finns att ladda ner från Linköping University Electronic Press, http://www.ep.liu.se/, eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland, http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/ostergotland/. Excelfiler går att beställa från författarna eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland.

  • 262.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lathund för sammanställning av energiplan2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna lathund för sammanställning av energiplan är att beskriva vad som bör ingå i ett kommunalt energiplansdokument samt hur innehållet kan presenteras och paketeras. Materialet är framtaget inom ramen för projektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”, ett samverkansprojekt mellan Linköpings universitet och Regionförbundet Östsam. Projektet är finansierat av Naturvårdsverket och Regionförbundet Östsam. Lathunden kommer att användas för att sammanställa energiplanerna i de kommuner som deltar i projektet . Innehållet i lathunden har tagits fram med inspiration från redan existerande energiplaner från Motala, Helsingborg, Falun, Boxholm, Kil, Kungälv, Norrköping, Finspång, Eksjö, Trollhättan, Landskrona, Hultsfred och Lilla Edet. Dessutom har innehåll från utkast till energiplaner från Vadstena, Söderköping och Valdemarsvik använts.

    Själva sammanställningen har utgått från tidigare erfarenheter och forskning inom kommunal energiplanering. Även Klimatkommunernas dokumentguide och Uthållig kommuns handbok för energi‐ och klimatstrategier har använts som inspiration. Samtliga källor finns angivna när de används i texten. Författarna vill påpeka att denna lathund inte är någon allomfattande handbok, utan ett arbetsunderlag som säkerligen kan utvecklas och förfinas. Synpunkter på innehållet eller önskemål om kompletteringar mottas tacksamt!

    Mer information om projektet och författarnas övriga publikationer inom  energiplaneringsområdet finns på www.energiplanera.se.

  • 263.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Uppföljning av energiplaner: Erfarenheter från sex svenska kommuner2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport bygger på en mindre studie av olika kommuners erfarenheter från uppföljning av energiplaner. Materialet är framtaget som bakgrundsmaterial för projektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”, ett samverkansprojekt mellan Regionförbundet Östsam, Linköpings universitet, Energikontoret Östra Götaland och Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet är finansierat av Naturvårdsverket och Regionförbundet Östsam. Författarna vill påpeka att studien inte är någon heltäckande beskrivning av uppföljning av energiplaner, utan är ett axplock av erfarenheter från ett antal små och medelstora kommuner.

    I samband med projektet sker ytterligare utvecklingsarbete. Resultat och rapporter finns tillgängliga på www.energiplanera.se och Linköping University Electronic Press

  • 264.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Westerberg, Karin
    Energikontoret, Östra Östergötland.
    Energiplanering i Östergötland : Ett samverkansprojekt för att stötta framtagande av kommunala energiplaner/klimatstrategier: Slutrapport2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Energiplanering i Östergötland, som pågick under 2009 och 2010, genomfördes som ett samverkansprojekt mellan 8 mindre kommuner i Östergötland, Regionförbundet Östsam och Linköpings universitet. Projektets syfte var att ge kommunerna stöd i att ta fram energiplaner, med målet att alla Östergötlands kommuner skulle ha en aktuell plan efter projektets slut. Genom projektet har kommunerna haft tillgång till olika typer av stöd, från workshopar till beräkningsverktyg.

    Kommunerna har valt att organisera sitt arbete på olika sätt; några har organiserat arbetsgrupper ledda av en tjänsteman, andra har valt att tillfälligt anställa energi- och klimatrådgivaren eller en extern konsult för att leda processen. Alla kommuner utom en har uppnått projektets mål och har ett utkast till, eller antagen, energiplan vid projekttidens slut. Den kommun som inte nått ända fram, står nu i beredskap att inleda en planeringsprocess.

    Författarna av denna rapport har identifierat följande förutsättningar som lyckosamma för genomförandet av en energiplaneringsprocess:

    • Engagerade chefstjänstemän som förfogar över tid och resurser till projektet

    • Det finns redan ett engagemang i kommunen för energifrågor och/eller vana att arbeta strategiskt i andra projekt• Tillgång till en engagerad och kunnig person i form av energi- och klimatrådgivare eller konsult som kan stötta arbetet

    • Stöttning från nätverk och den regionala nivån med kompetens, verktyg och processtöd.

    Ett antal mindre gynnsamma omständigheter och risker har också identifierats:

    • Låg kunskap om energifrågor i den egna organisationen

    • Inga extra resurser tilldelas det energistrategiska arbetet• Låg kvalitet på de kommunala energibalanserna som finns i den nationella statistiken och ovilja från energiföretag och industri att lämna ut statistikuppgifter

    • Konsulter/energi- och klimatrådgivare drar det största lasset i energiplaneringen, vilket innebär begränsad insyn/påverkansmöjlighet och risk för att viktig kunskap inte stannar i den kommunala organisationen.

    Baserat på erfarenheterna från projektet ges följande rekommendationer:

    • Personella resurser måste avsättas inom kommunen även om man tar hjälp av konsulter under arbetet. Den kommunala organisationen måste bygga upp kunskap inom energi- och miljöområdet om man ska följa med i utvecklingen och leva upp till energipolitiska mål.

    • Redan under arbetet med energiplanen måste planering för implementerings- och uppföljningsarbete göras. För detta krävs ett aktivt arbeta för att integrera energifrågorna i det dagliga arbetet och i kommunens årliga uppföljningsrutiner.

    • Stöttning av mindre kommuners energiplaneringsarbete från regionalt håll, till exempel med sammanställning av datamaterial för nulägesanalys och uppföljning, underlättar lokal kompetensutveckling.

    Slutligen, formuleringen av en energiplan är bara början på det energistrategiska arbetet. Det är först när energifrågorna har en självklar och viktig plats i det vardagliga arbetet på kommunen som man kan göra stora förändringar.

  • 265.
    Johannes, Lundahl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Insamlingssystemets påverkan på utsorteringsgrad och renhet av matavfall till biogasproduktion2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Produktionen av biogas är en viktig komponent för skapandet av ett fossilfritt samhälle. Rötning av det matavfall som uppstår i hushållen är en central källa till att producera biogas och biogödsel. Regeringen har satt upp etappmålet att till 2018 sortera ut minst 40 % av matavfallet från hushåll, storkök, butiker och restauranger så att energi kan utvinnas eller att 50 % av matavfallet samlas in så antingen energi kan utvinnas eller växtnäring tas till vara på.

     

    Det här examensarbetet utfördes på initiativ av Tekniska verken i Linköping AB med syftet att studera och kartlägga hur olika fastighetsnära insamlingssystem för matavfall påverkar biogasproduktion med avseende på mängd och kvalitet på biogas och biogödsel. Det har dessutom studerats om det finns andra faktorer som påverkar insamlad mängd och renhet på matavfallet. Rapporten är tänkt att utgöra beslutsunderlag för Tekniska verken inför en eventuell omställning av rådande insamlingssystem.

     

    Resultaten i studien visade att system där matavfall läggs i ett separat fack eller kärl har något högre utsorteringsgrad av matavfall jämfört med optisk sortering. Detta innebär att en omställning till fyrfackskäl eller separata kärl skulle kunna ge högre utsorteringsgrad än dagens optiska sortering. Därför konstateras det i studien att insamlingssystemet troligtvis har en påverkan på utsorteringsgraden av matavfall. Renhetsgraden är hög för samtliga studerade system, därför är det troligt att en omställning av insamlingssystem för villor i Linköping kommun kan genomföras utan att kompromissa med renheten på matavfallet. Det konstateras även i studien att det finns yttre faktorer som påverkar mängd och renhet på det matavfall som samlas från hushållen. Litteraturstudier och intervjuer med utvalda kommuner med hög utsorteringsgrad visade att faktorer som informationskampanjer och användarvänlighet kring matavfallsinsamling har en påverkan på insamlingsresultatet. Dock kan det inte bestämmas till vilken grad de yttre faktorerna påverkar resultatet.

     

    För framtida studier rekommenderas att inkludera fler plockanalyser för att få en tydligare bild av hur resultatspridningen ser ut för de olika insamlingssystemen. Detta skulle leda till en större säkerhet i slutsatserna om hur de olika insamlingssystemen påverkar insamlingsresultatet för matavfall. Vidare är det möjligt att en strukturerad intervjustudie med fokus på enstaka utvalda faktorer skulle kunna avgöra vilken påverkan en isolerad yttre faktor har på insamlingsresultatet.

  • 266.
    Johansson, B.
    et al.
    Dept. Environ. Ener. Syst. Studs., Lund Univ., Gerdagatan 13, SE-223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Energy and environmental costs for electric vehicles using CO2-neutral electricity in Sweden2000Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 25, nr 8, s. 777-792Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles (EVs) may provide an alternative for CO2-neutral transportation services. This article analyses the cost of energy and emissions from using electricity produced from Swedish renewable energy sources in electric vehicles, and compares it with the cost of an alternative in which biomass-based methanol is used in internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). These costs do not include vehicle and battery costs. Cost estimates of electricity, calculated using a marginal cost perspective, include production costs as well as the cost of distribution and vehicle recharging. The energy cost per km for vehicles using electricity is calculated to be 30-70% of the cost of biomass-based methanol, depending on the general level of electricity demand, the need for grid upgrading, and the assumed cost of biomass-based methanol. A high general electricity demand in society would require expensive condensing plants to supply the vehicles, whereas with a lower demand, cheaper cogeneration and wind power plants could be utilised. An electric vehicle, used as the average Swedish car, would, during its lifetime, have energy and environmental costs 30 000-40 000 SEK ($4000-5400) lower than the current state-of-the art ICEVs using biomass-based methanol. An electric vehicle used mainly in the city centre might have energy and environmental costs which are 130 000-140 000 SEK ($17 000-19 000) lower than a current methanol-fuelled car. With future improvements in the energy efficiency and environmental performance of ICEVs the difference will be significantly reduced. If battery costs were included in the cost calculations, EVs would not be cost competitive with future ICEVs, even if battery costs are reduced to $100/kWh. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Electric vehicles (EVs) may provide an alternative for CO2-neutral transportation services. This article analyses the cost of energy and emissions from using electricity produced from Swedish renewable energy sources in electric vehicles, and compares it with the cost of an alternative in which biomass-based methanol is used in internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). These costs do not include vehicle and battery costs. Cost estimates of electricity, calculated using a marginal cost perspective, include production costs as well as the cost of distribution and vehicle recharging. The energy cost per km for vehicles using electricity is calculated to be 30-70% of the cost of biomass-based methanol, depending on the general level of electricity demand, the need for grid upgrading, and the assumed cost of biomass-based methanol. A high general electricity demand in society would require expensive condensing plants to supply the vehicles, whereas with a lower demand, cheaper cogeneration and wind power plants could be utilized. An electric vehicle, used as the average Swedish car, would, during its lifetime, have energy and environmental costs 30 000-40 000 SEK ($4000-5400) lower than the current state-of-the art ICEVs using biomass-based methanol. An electric vehicle used mainly in the city centre might have energy and environmental costs which are 130 000-140 000 SEK ($17 000-19 000) lower than a current methanol-fuelled car. With future improvements in the energy efficiency and environmental performance of ICEVs the difference will be significantly reduced. If battery costs were included in the cost calculations, EVs would not be cost competitive with future ICEVs, even if battery costs are reduced to $100/kWh.

  • 267.
    Johansson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Interdisciplinary Requirement Engineering for Hardware and Software Development: from a Hardware Development Perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity in products is increasing, and still there is lack of a shared design language ininterdisciplinary development projects. The research questions of the thesis concern differencesand similarities in requirement handling, and integration, current and future. Futureintegration is given more focus with a pair of research questions highlighting obstacles andenablers for increased integration. Interviews were performed at four different companieswith complex development environments whose products originated from different fields;hardware, software, and service. Main conclusions of the thesis are: Time-frames in different development processes are very different and hard to unite. Internal standards exist for overall processes, documentation, and modification handling. Traceability is poorly covered in theory whilst being a big issue in companies. Companies understand that balancing and compromising of requirements is critical fora successful final product. The view on future increased interdisciplinary development is that there are more obstaclesto overcome than enablers supporting it. Dependency is seen as an obstacle inthis regard and certain companies strive to decrease it.The thesis has resulted in general conclusions and further studies is suggested into morespecific areas such as requirement handling tools, requirement types, and traceability.

  • 268.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Defensiv strategi för återvinning av metaller2014Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen satsar på gruvor i stället för återvinning. Mindre än 1 procent av de flesta sällsynta metallerna återvinns när de tas ur drift. I stället hamnar de på soptippar eller i naturen, skriver sju forskare i en slutreplik.

  • 269.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Deponier som gruvor: Förekomst och förutsättningar för att utvinna basmetaller från svenska deponier2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ända sedan den första gruvan i de paleolitiska samhällena för 450 000 år sedan (Lewis och Clark, 1964) har människan successivt flyttat metallresurser från jordskorpan in till samhället i byggnader, infrastruktur, produkter och avfallshögar. Det pågår således ett geologiskt skifte (Johansson, 2013), som accelererade i samband med industrialiseringen, där metaller omlokaliseras till den bebyggda miljön på bekostnad av de geologiska reserverna. Vissa forskare menar att människan har blivit en geologisk kraft så till den grad att för vissa metaller som järn och koppar är mängderna jämförbara i samhället med reserverna i jordskorpan (Lichtensteiger, 2002;. Elshkaki et al, 2004; Spatari et al. 2005, Müller et al, 2006; Halada et al, 2009; Johansson, 2013).

    Soptippar, eller mer formellt deponier, är ett av förråden ovanför jordytan som har fått allt mer uppmärksamhet, eftersom de i sin roll av att vara i slutet av materialflödet fångar upp en stor andel av metallerna på ett avgränsat område. Om deponier definieras i vid mening till att inkludera alla former av avfallsupplag, dvs. även till exempel gruvavfall, så återfinns troligen 50 % av alla uppgrävda metaller i dessa inaktiva förråd (Johansson et al., 2013; Kapur, 2006; Graedel and Kapur 2006). Ur ett globalt perspektiv innebär detta att exempelvis mängden koppar i avfallsupplag motsvarar hälften av de kvarvarande mängderna i jordskorpans reserver (Johansson et al., 2013).

    Även om avfallsupplag avgränsas till inflöden av industriellt avfall (exklusive gruvavfall) och hushållsavfall så är metallinnehållet signifikant. Materialflödesanalyser av koppar och järn har påvisat att mellan 10-20 % av metallerna ovanför jordytan finns i dessa förråd (Johansson et al., 2013). Visserligen är deponering av hushållsavfall idag begränsad, men sedan industrialiseringen har deponeringen varit den vanligaste avfallshaneringsmetoden i Sverige. Detta innebär att i stort sett varje by har sin egen soptipp med stora mängder metaller och andra resurser placerade på hög. Uppskattningsvis finns över 4000 kommunala soptippar i Sverige med varierande storlek (Frändegård et al., 2013).

    Vid sidan av kommunala soptippar finns det även industriella soptippar som är placerade direkt i anknytning till en verksamhet. Uppskattningar har antytt att det finns upp till 1000 industriella soptippar i Sverige. Till skillnad från hushållsavfall deponeras fortfarande signifikanta mängder industriellt avfall i form av till exempel schaktmassor och aska (Naturvårdsverket, 2012a). Det saknas dock mer detaljerade studier av mängderna av olika metaller i industriella och kommunala deponier samt de tekniska och institutionella förutsättningarna för att bryta dessa metaller. Kan deponier vara framtidens gruvor?

  • 270.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Framtidens gruva är hållbar2014Inngår i: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, Vol. 06-24, s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges mineralpolitik är ensidigt fokuserad på att förbättra förutsättningarna för traditionell gruvnäring. Trots det växer intresset för att utvinna metaller från rivna byggnader, omodern teknisk utrustning, soptippar och infrastruktursystem.

  • 271.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Landfill Mining: Institutional challenges for the implementation of resource extraction from waste deposits2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the thesis is to examine the institutional conditions for the implementation and emergence of landfill mining. The result shows that  current policy makes it difficult for landfill mining operators to find a market outlet for the exhumed material, which means that landfill mining may result in a waste disposal problem. Regulations also restrict accessibility to the material in landfills. Therefore, it has generally been municipal landfill owners that perform landfill mining operations, which directs learning processes towards solving landfill problems rather than resource recovery. Landfill mining is not, however, necessarily to be perceived as a recycling activity. It could also be understood as a remediation or mining activity. This would result in more favorable institutional conditions for landfill mining in terms of better access to the market and the material in the landfill.

    The regulatory framework surrounding landfills is based on a perception of landfills as a source of pollution, a problem that should be avoided, capped and closed. Extracting resources from landfills, challenges this perception and therefore results in a mismatch with the regulatory framework. On the other hand, the material in mines is typically regarded in the formal institutions as a positive occurrence. Mining activities are regarded as the backbone of the Swedish economy and therefore receive various forms of political support. This favorable regulatory framework is not available for secondary resource production. Based on the identified institutional conditions, institutional challenges are identified. The core of these challenges is a conflict between the policy goal of increased recycling and a non-toxic environment. Secondary resources are typically punished through strict requirements for marketability, while primary resources are supported through subsidies such as tax exemptions. The authorities lack capacity to manage the emergence of unconventional and complex activities such as landfill mining. The institutional arrangements that are responsible for landfills primarily perceive them as pollution, while the institutions responsible for resources, on the other hand, assume them to be found in the bedrock.

    The major contribution of the thesis is to go beyond the potential-oriented studies of landfill mining to instead focus on how institutions relate to landfill mining. In order to move towards a resource transition with dominant use of secondary resources a new institutional order is proposed.

    Delarbeid
    1. An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, s. 35-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Stocks of finite resources in the technosphere continue to grow due to human activity, at the expense ofdecreasing in-ground deposits. Human activity, in other words, is changing the prerequisites for mineralextraction. For that reason, mining will probably have to adapt accordingly, with more emphasis on theexploitation of previously extracted minerals.This study reviews the prevailing concepts for mining the technosphere as well as actual efforts to doso, the objectives for mining, the scale of the initiatives, and what makes them different from other reuseand recycling concepts. Prevailing concepts such as “urban mining,” however, are inadequate guides tothe complexity of the technosphere, as these concepts are inconsistently defined and disorganized, oftenoverlapping when it comes to which stocks they address. This review of these efforts and their potentialis therefore organized around a new taxonomy based on the umbrella concept technospheric mining,defined as the extraction of technospheric stocks of minerals that have been excluded from ongoinganthropogenic material flows.An analysis on the basis of this taxonomy shows that the prevailing mining initiatives are generallyscattered and often driven by environmental factors, in which metal recovery is viewed as an additionalsource of revenue. However, development of technology, specialized actors and new business modelsand policy instruments, could lead to technospheric mining operations becoming a profit-drivenbusiness.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2013
    Emneord
    Resource management, Metal stocks, Secondary resources, Recycling, Urban mining.
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77301 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.04.007 (DOI)000322802300004 ()
    Prosjekter
    Urban mining: laying the foundation for a new line of business
    Forskningsfinansiär
    FormasVinnova
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-11-23 Laget: 2012-05-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Transforming dumps into gold mines. Experiences from Swedish case studies
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Transforming dumps into gold mines. Experiences from Swedish case studies
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 5, s. 33-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the transformation of landfills from dumps toan alchemist’s dream – gold mines – by highlighting five Swedishcase studies where the landfill has been extracted. It is shown thatlandfills are embedded in broader socio-technical systems, includingtechnology, policies, culture, norms, markets, and networks.These artifacts have aligned into mutual dependencies under thenotion that landfills are garbage dumps, which has entrapped thelandfill in the prevailing “dump regime”. At the present time there isa window of opportunity to escape the “dump regime.” Dumps arebeing challenged by the circular economy, which has establishedinstability in the regime. However, for landfills to transform into“gold mines” creative entrepreneurs with the capacity to understandthe emergent properties of deposition – i.e. giving rise to aresource base – will be key. For further transformation, specializedmining actors, collaboration and further exogenous changes suchas higher metal prices are necessary.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2012
    Emneord
    Alchemy, Escaping lock-in, Landfill mining, Resource policy, Waste regimes.
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85347 (URN)10.1016/j.eist.2012.10.004 (DOI)
    Prosjekter
    Landfill mining for integrated remediation and resource recovery: economic and environmental potentials in Sweden
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Formas
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-11-23 Laget: 2012-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production: a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production: a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 41, s. 72-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and contrasts the level of Swedish governmental subsidies to two different ways of producing metal: the metal recycling sector and the metal mining sector. In 2010, the metal mining sector was subsidized by € 40 million and the metal recycling sector € 0.6 million. If the exemption from landfill tax is considered a subsidy, the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector changes drastically to approximately € 4000 million. Regardless of how the concept “subsidy” is defined, the metal mining sector in total and per tonne of metal produced is fundamentally more highly subsidized than the metal recycling sector. The value added per tonne of metal produced for the metal recycling sector appears to be higher than for the metal mining sector. The current dominant trend in the Swedish mineral strategy is nevertheless to increase the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2014
    Emneord
    Subsidy, Recycling, Mining, Metal, Policy
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97469 (URN)10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.04.001 (DOI)000341338400009 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vinnova
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    JEL Classification: H23; L72; Q38; Q53

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-09-12 Laget: 2013-09-12 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. A new dawn for buried garbage?: An investigation of the marketability of previously disposed shredder waste
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A new dawn for buried garbage?: An investigation of the marketability of previously disposed shredder waste
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 60, s. 417-427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the market potential of disposed shredder waste, a resource that is increasingly emphasized as a future mine. A framework with gate requirements of various outlets was developed and contrasted with a pilot project focusing on excavated waste from a shredder landfill, sorted in an advanced recycling facility. Only the smallest fraction by percentage had an outlet, the metals (8%), which were sold according to a lower quality class. The other fractions (92%) were not accepted for incineration, as construction materials or even for re-deposition. Previous studies have shown similar lack of marketability. This means that even if one fraction can be recovered, the outlet of the other material is often unpredictable, resulting in a waste disposal problem, which easily prevents a landfill mining project altogether. This calls for marketability and usability of deposited waste to become a central issue for landfill mining research. The paper concludes by discussing how concerned actors can enhance the marketability, for example by pre-treating the disposed waste to acclimatize it to existing sorting methods. However, for concerned actors to become interested in approaching unconventional resources such as deposited waste, greater regulatory flexibility is needed in which, for example, re-deposition could be allowed as long as the environmental benefits of the projects outweigh the disadvantages.

    Emneord
    Landfill mining; Disposed waste; Marketability; Policy; Technology
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129541 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2016.05.015 (DOI)000397357100043 ()27216727 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Innovation Agency, VINNOVA

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-06-20 Laget: 2016-06-20 Sist oppdatert: 2017-04-20bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. The institutional capacity for a resource transition: A critical review of Swedish governmental commissions on landfill mining
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The institutional capacity for a resource transition: A critical review of Swedish governmental commissions on landfill mining
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 70, s. 46-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of minerals from waste deposits could potentially double the recycling flows while offering an opportunity to address the many problematic landfills. However, this type of activity, i.e., landfill mining, brings many advantages, risks and uncertainties and lacks economic feasibility. Therefore, we investigate the capacity of the Swedish authorities to navigate the environmental, resource, and economic conditions of landfill mining and their attitude to support such radical recycling alternatives towards a resource transition.

    By analyzing three governmental commissions on landfill mining, we show how the authorities seem unable to embrace the complexity of the concept. When landfill mining is framed as a remediation activity the authorities are positive in support, but when it is framed as a mining activity the authorities are negative. Landfill mining is evaluated based on how conventional practices work, with one and only one purpose: to extract resources or remediation. That traditional mining was a starting point in the evaluation becomes particularly obvious when the resource potential shall be evaluated. The resource potential of landfills is assessed based on metals with a high occurrence in the bedrock. If the potential instead had been based on metals with low incidence in the Swedish bedrock, the potential would have been found in the human built environment.

    Secondary resources in landfills seem to lack an institutional affiliation, since the institutional arrangements that are responsible for landfills primarily perceive them as pollution, while the institutions responsible for resources, on the other hand, assume them to be found in the bedrock. Finally, we suggest how the institutional capacity for a resource transition can increase by the introduction of a broader approach when evaluating emerging alternatives and a new institutional order.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2017
    Emneord
    Landfill mining, resource policy, frame analysis, Institutional capacity, transition
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134563 (URN)10.1016/j.envsci.2017.01.005 (DOI)000396957400006 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Innovation Agency; VINNOVA

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-02-16 Laget: 2017-02-16 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13
  • 272.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Omformulera Svensk metallpolitik2015Inngår i: Landets Fria Tidning, ISSN 2001-7448, , s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I form av produkter som elektronik, infrastruktur och konstruktionsmaterial, flyttar människan enorma mängder metaller från gruvor i jordskorpan in i våra samhällen. Människan har blivit en geologisk kraft och en del forskare menar att vissa metallmängder i den byggda miljön är jämförbara i storlek med de mängder som finns kvar i jordskorpans reserver. I Sveriges samlade el- och telenät finns till exempel lika mycket koppar som det finns kvar i Aitikgruvan utanför Gällivare, en av Europas största koppargruvor. En stor del av metallerna är alltjämt i användning, men lika stora mängder har förlorats i olika avfallshögar som gruvavfall och soptippar. Utöver återvinningen av metaller från det årliga avfallsflödet, till exempel pantburkar, finns det således en stor potential att uppnå en bättre samhällelig resurseffektivitet. I dagsläget återvinns dessutom endast ungefär hälften av alla metalltyper som samlas in som avfall. Kritiska metaller som sällsynta jordartsmetaller återvinns inte alls, vilket innebär att medan prospekterare letar efter dessa metaller i jordskorpan låter vi de som redan finns nära oss gå förlorade.

  • 273.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Politikerna hämnar metallåtervinning2014Inngår i: Avfall och Miljö, ISSN 0284-1827, nr 3, s. 1s. 44-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Indirekt stödje staten gruvsektorn med enorma summor pengar varje år. Det leder till ojämna marknadsvillkor och att återvinningsbranschen inte utvecklas i den takt som den skulle kunna, exempelvis via landfill mining.

  • 274.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Why don’t we mine the landfills?2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many reasons to mine landfills. For example, metals are increasingly shifting location from the Earth’s crust through human society into landfills. These new mines are located closer to the market, in contrast to traditional mines in the countryside where the metals are deep inside the crust requiring huge amounts of energy to be extracted. In addition, metals in the landfill pose a potential threat to humans, nature, and the environment. Despite this, landfills are not commonly mined. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to answer the question, Why don’t we mine the landfills? This question has been approached by analyzing different factors, such as the resource potential, institutional conditions, and to some degree technical methods considered important in order to realize a mining operation, above as well as below ground. In addition, the potential of landfills as mines will be contrasted with other metal stocks currently mined in order to understand what drives resource extraction from some metal stocks but not others. Information was mainly gathered through interviews, document studies, and literature reviews between 2010-2013.

    Metals are currently extracted from the Earth’s crust, in-use as they successively turn into waste, and tailing ponds. These stocks have greater mining potential than landfills. For example, there are more metals in the Earth’s crust as well as in-use. Single tailing ponds contain more metals than landfills. Furthermore, the waste in tailings is homogeneous and has a similar composition to ore, thus similar technology already in ownership to process the ore can be used to reprocess old tailings. Landfills, on the other hand, are usually heterogeneous and contain a mix of various wastes. At the same time, there are no methods to uncover the contents of a landfill and thereby identify particularly valuable ores, which makes it difficult to estimate the resource potential of single landfills. Metals in-use are also situated in a heterogeneous environment, but through state regulation on source separation are made more homogenous and predictable.

    However, there are homogeneous landfills with fairly predictable content. But these landfills are not mined either, which largely can be explained by institutional conditions. Researchers, officials, legislators, and policy makers have long manifested the idea of landfills as the end station for worthless rubbish, and if landfills have any value it is negative, as a dump. For this  reason, mining the landfill is a mismatch with the current strategy to isolate, cap, and close landfills and thereby becomes a challenging operation. At the same time as landfills are closed, mines are opened up with the support of the government. For example in 2010, the Swedish mining sector was subsidized with € 4 billion. This support is one of many factors that contribute to keeping the price of metals as a commodity down, which could make metal extraction from other stocks indirectly unfeasible. In addition, metals in landfills are not available on demand, although they lack a function, since landfills are owned by someone. The metals in the Earth's crust as well as in-use, on the other hand, are made available by exempting the ownership.

    If the demand for metals continues to increase, while being depleted in the Earth’s crust, additional sources for recycling need to be accessible. Compared to the risk associated with the schemes in outer space and the deep sea, the metals in the landfills seem less distant. However, there is no pressure today from policies to initiate something so awkward, unorthodox and “dirty” as extracting metals from landfills. The metal prices are too low and what is profitable and thus possible to mine from the Earth’s crust, i.e., reserves, is constantly redefined, with the help of governmental support through research funding of technological development and subsidization of the mining operation, which reduces costs.

    Delarbeid
    1. An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, s. 35-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Stocks of finite resources in the technosphere continue to grow due to human activity, at the expense ofdecreasing in-ground deposits. Human activity, in other words, is changing the prerequisites for mineralextraction. For that reason, mining will probably have to adapt accordingly, with more emphasis on theexploitation of previously extracted minerals.This study reviews the prevailing concepts for mining the technosphere as well as actual efforts to doso, the objectives for mining, the scale of the initiatives, and what makes them different from other reuseand recycling concepts. Prevailing concepts such as “urban mining,” however, are inadequate guides tothe complexity of the technosphere, as these concepts are inconsistently defined and disorganized, oftenoverlapping when it comes to which stocks they address. This review of these efforts and their potentialis therefore organized around a new taxonomy based on the umbrella concept technospheric mining,defined as the extraction of technospheric stocks of minerals that have been excluded from ongoinganthropogenic material flows.An analysis on the basis of this taxonomy shows that the prevailing mining initiatives are generallyscattered and often driven by environmental factors, in which metal recovery is viewed as an additionalsource of revenue. However, development of technology, specialized actors and new business modelsand policy instruments, could lead to technospheric mining operations becoming a profit-drivenbusiness.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2013
    Emneord
    Resource management, Metal stocks, Secondary resources, Recycling, Urban mining.
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77301 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.04.007 (DOI)000322802300004 ()
    Prosjekter
    Urban mining: laying the foundation for a new line of business
    Forskningsfinansiär
    FormasVinnova
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-11-23 Laget: 2012-05-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Transforming dumps into gold mines. Experiences from Swedish case studies
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Transforming dumps into gold mines. Experiences from Swedish case studies
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 5, s. 33-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the transformation of landfills from dumps toan alchemist’s dream – gold mines – by highlighting five Swedishcase studies where the landfill has been extracted. It is shown thatlandfills are embedded in broader socio-technical systems, includingtechnology, policies, culture, norms, markets, and networks.These artifacts have aligned into mutual dependencies under thenotion that landfills are garbage dumps, which has entrapped thelandfill in the prevailing “dump regime”. At the present time there isa window of opportunity to escape the “dump regime.” Dumps arebeing challenged by the circular economy, which has establishedinstability in the regime. However, for landfills to transform into“gold mines” creative entrepreneurs with the capacity to understandthe emergent properties of deposition – i.e. giving rise to aresource base – will be key. For further transformation, specializedmining actors, collaboration and further exogenous changes suchas higher metal prices are necessary.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2012
    Emneord
    Alchemy, Escaping lock-in, Landfill mining, Resource policy, Waste regimes.
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85347 (URN)10.1016/j.eist.2012.10.004 (DOI)
    Prosjekter
    Landfill mining for integrated remediation and resource recovery: economic and environmental potentials in Sweden
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Formas
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-11-23 Laget: 2012-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production: a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production: a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 41, s. 72-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and contrasts the level of Swedish governmental subsidies to two different ways of producing metal: the metal recycling sector and the metal mining sector. In 2010, the metal mining sector was subsidized by € 40 million and the metal recycling sector € 0.6 million. If the exemption from landfill tax is considered a subsidy, the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector changes drastically to approximately € 4000 million. Regardless of how the concept “subsidy” is defined, the metal mining sector in total and per tonne of metal produced is fundamentally more highly subsidized than the metal recycling sector. The value added per tonne of metal produced for the metal recycling sector appears to be higher than for the metal mining sector. The current dominant trend in the Swedish mineral strategy is nevertheless to increase the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2014
    Emneord
    Subsidy, Recycling, Mining, Metal, Policy
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97469 (URN)10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.04.001 (DOI)000341338400009 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vinnova
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    JEL Classification: H23; L72; Q38; Q53

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-09-12 Laget: 2013-09-12 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 275.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production: a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling2014Inngår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 41, s. 72-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and contrasts the level of Swedish governmental subsidies to two different ways of producing metal: the metal recycling sector and the metal mining sector. In 2010, the metal mining sector was subsidized by € 40 million and the metal recycling sector € 0.6 million. If the exemption from landfill tax is considered a subsidy, the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector changes drastically to approximately € 4000 million. Regardless of how the concept “subsidy” is defined, the metal mining sector in total and per tonne of metal produced is fundamentally more highly subsidized than the metal recycling sector. The value added per tonne of metal produced for the metal recycling sector appears to be higher than for the metal mining sector. The current dominant trend in the Swedish mineral strategy is nevertheless to increase the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector.

  • 276.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The institutional capacity for a resource transition: A critical review of Swedish governmental commissions on landfill mining2017Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 70, s. 46-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of minerals from waste deposits could potentially double the recycling flows while offering an opportunity to address the many problematic landfills. However, this type of activity, i.e., landfill mining, brings many advantages, risks and uncertainties and lacks economic feasibility. Therefore, we investigate the capacity of the Swedish authorities to navigate the environmental, resource, and economic conditions of landfill mining and their attitude to support such radical recycling alternatives towards a resource transition.

    By analyzing three governmental commissions on landfill mining, we show how the authorities seem unable to embrace the complexity of the concept. When landfill mining is framed as a remediation activity the authorities are positive in support, but when it is framed as a mining activity the authorities are negative. Landfill mining is evaluated based on how conventional practices work, with one and only one purpose: to extract resources or remediation. That traditional mining was a starting point in the evaluation becomes particularly obvious when the resource potential shall be evaluated. The resource potential of landfills is assessed based on metals with a high occurrence in the bedrock. If the potential instead had been based on metals with low incidence in the Swedish bedrock, the potential would have been found in the human built environment.

    Secondary resources in landfills seem to lack an institutional affiliation, since the institutional arrangements that are responsible for landfills primarily perceive them as pollution, while the institutions responsible for resources, on the other hand, assume them to be found in the bedrock. Finally, we suggest how the institutional capacity for a resource transition can increase by the introduction of a broader approach when evaluating emerging alternatives and a new institutional order.

  • 277.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Transforming dumps into gold mines. Experiences from Swedish case studies2012Inngår i: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 5, s. 33-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the transformation of landfills from dumps toan alchemist’s dream – gold mines – by highlighting five Swedishcase studies where the landfill has been extracted. It is shown thatlandfills are embedded in broader socio-technical systems, includingtechnology, policies, culture, norms, markets, and networks.These artifacts have aligned into mutual dependencies under thenotion that landfills are garbage dumps, which has entrapped thelandfill in the prevailing “dump regime”. At the present time there isa window of opportunity to escape the “dump regime.” Dumps arebeing challenged by the circular economy, which has establishedinstability in the regime. However, for landfills to transform into“gold mines” creative entrepreneurs with the capacity to understandthe emergent properties of deposition – i.e. giving rise to aresource base – will be key. For further transformation, specializedmining actors, collaboration and further exogenous changes suchas higher metal prices are necessary.

  • 278.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berglund, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, s. 35-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stocks of finite resources in the technosphere continue to grow due to human activity, at the expense ofdecreasing in-ground deposits. Human activity, in other words, is changing the prerequisites for mineralextraction. For that reason, mining will probably have to adapt accordingly, with more emphasis on theexploitation of previously extracted minerals.This study reviews the prevailing concepts for mining the technosphere as well as actual efforts to doso, the objectives for mining, the scale of the initiatives, and what makes them different from other reuseand recycling concepts. Prevailing concepts such as “urban mining,” however, are inadequate guides tothe complexity of the technosphere, as these concepts are inconsistently defined and disorganized, oftenoverlapping when it comes to which stocks they address. This review of these efforts and their potentialis therefore organized around a new taxonomy based on the umbrella concept technospheric mining,defined as the extraction of technospheric stocks of minerals that have been excluded from ongoinganthropogenic material flows.An analysis on the basis of this taxonomy shows that the prevailing mining initiatives are generallyscattered and often driven by environmental factors, in which metal recovery is viewed as an additionalsource of revenue. However, development of technology, specialized actors and new business modelsand policy instruments, could lead to technospheric mining operations becoming a profit-drivenbusiness.

  • 279.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A new dawn for buried garbage?: An investigation of the marketability of previously disposed shredder waste2017Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 60, s. 417-427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the market potential of disposed shredder waste, a resource that is increasingly emphasized as a future mine. A framework with gate requirements of various outlets was developed and contrasted with a pilot project focusing on excavated waste from a shredder landfill, sorted in an advanced recycling facility. Only the smallest fraction by percentage had an outlet, the metals (8%), which were sold according to a lower quality class. The other fractions (92%) were not accepted for incineration, as construction materials or even for re-deposition. Previous studies have shown similar lack of marketability. This means that even if one fraction can be recovered, the outlet of the other material is often unpredictable, resulting in a waste disposal problem, which easily prevents a landfill mining project altogether. This calls for marketability and usability of deposited waste to become a central issue for landfill mining research. The paper concludes by discussing how concerned actors can enhance the marketability, for example by pre-treating the disposed waste to acclimatize it to existing sorting methods. However, for concerned actors to become interested in approaching unconventional resources such as deposited waste, greater regulatory flexibility is needed in which, for example, re-deposition could be allowed as long as the environmental benefits of the projects outweigh the disadvantages.

  • 280.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A NEW DAWN FOR THE BURIED GARBAGE?: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MARKETABILITY FOR PREVIOUSLY DISPOSED WASTE2015Inngår i: Sardinia 2015: 15th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium / [ed] Raffaello Cossu et al, Padova, Italy, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the market potential of disposed waste, a resource that is increasingly emphasized as a future mine. A framework with gate requirements of various outlets was developed and contrasted with excavated waste sorted in an advanced recycling facility. Only the smallest fraction by percentage had an outlet, the metals (8%), which were sold according a lower quality class. The other fractions (92%) were not accepted for incineration, construction materials or even re-deposition. Previous studies have shown similar lack of marketability. This means that even if one fraction can be recovered, the outlet of the other material is often unpredictable, resulting in a waste disposal problem, which easily prevents a landfill mining project altogether. However, the potential in landfills could better be exploited if technology and regulations adapts to disposed garbage.

  • 281.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology,, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experimentalizing the organization of objects: Re-enacting mines and landfills2016Inngår i: Organization, ISSN 1350-5084, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 840-863Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we draw upon ‘After-ANT’ scholarship to generate openings for a shift from purely deconstructive studies of object organization to a more straightforward generation of concrete and specific alternative trajectories towards the future by way of ontological experimentation. Through careful empirical investigation of a mine and a landfill, and how these are enacted in practice in different topological registers, we show how mines and landfills are intertwined; enacted sometimes as similar and in other cases as different types of objects, thus shaping the paths of becoming for those bundles of relations that become enacted as either a ‘mine object’ or a ‘landfill object’. Mapping these practices generates openings for interventions suggesting how things could be made different in some specificity; in this case, for example, the appreciation of what constitutes ‘natural resources’. The overarching purpose of this article is to intervene in current debates regarding the potential merits of drawing upon Object-Oriented Philosophy as an inspiration in critical organizational studies. While we are highly sympathetic to calls for more experimental object studies, we are hesitant towards Object-Oriented Philosophy as a source of inspiration due to its specific metaphysical underpinnings. To clarify what we find to be at stake here, we conclude the article by situating After-ANT in a wider landscape of thought, discussing the contrast between broadly pragmatist research approaches, such as After-ANT, and Object-Oriented Philosophy. Finally, we try to spell out how we believe this contrast reverberates upon how we understand the purpose and potential of critical social science.

  • 282.
    Kaddoura, Mohamad
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; CIRAIG, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tillman, Anne-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Is Prolonging the Lifetime of Passive Durable Products a Low-Hanging Fruit of a Circular Economy?: A Multiple Case Study2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 18, artikkel-id 4819Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending the lifetime of passive products, i.e., products that do not consume materials or energy during the use phase, by implementing product-service systems (PSS) has a potential to reduce the environmental impact while being an attractive and straightforward measure for companies to implement.

    This research assesses the viability of introducing PSS for passive products, by documenting five real product cases of prolonging the lifetime through repair or refurbishment and by quantifying, through life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC), the change in environmental and economic outcome.

    The environmental impact (measured as global warming potential over the life cycle) was reduced for all cases because extraction and production dominated the impact. This reduction was 45–72% for most cases and mainly influenced by the number of reuses and the relative environmental burden of the components whose lifetime was prolonged. The costs for the company (measured as LCC from the manufacturer’s perspective) decreased too by 8–37%. The main reason that costs reduced less than the environmental impact is that some costs have no equivalent in LCA, e.g., administration and labor costs for services. The decreases in both LCA and LCC results, as well as the willingness of the companies to implement the changes, demonstrate that this measure can be financially attractive for companies to implement and effectively contribute to a circular economy.

  • 283.
    Kairento, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Nygårds, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Export of municipal environmental technology knowledge: An analysis of previous activities and incentives 2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerating urbanisation and greenhouse gas emissions cause some of the world’s important environmental problems, which leads to an increasing awareness of the importance of sustainable environmental technology systems. Sweden has had a very strict environmental legislation since the 1970’s, with Swedish municipalities responsible for local environmental technology service systems. This has led municipal companies to be very experienced of some of the functions related to waste management, waste-to-energy and district heating.

    Municipal companies often receive international visits where the foreign delegates sometimes request Swedish municipal knowledge regarding how to design and manage sustainable systems in their home regions. Therefore, the idea of municipal knowledge export has been up for discussion. This study aims to analyse the municipal companies’ previous experiences of knowledge export, which includes looking at what incentives and barriers they perceive therein. The work also investigates what knowledge municipal companies export and what approaches they choose, as well as what role they and other actors think municipal companies should have in order to best benefit Swedish environmental technology export.

    The project was designed as a qualitative interview study, where the main data collection was carried out in semi-structured interviews with decision-makers in municipal energy and waste companies. Interesting companies were found using desktop research. Data collection was complemented by a survey where municipal companies were asked about their involvement in knowledge export.

    The results show that municipal companies export knowledge such as consulting and advisory services, education and project management. They offer knowledge for example within managing waste systems, operating district heating plants, as well as public awareness and citizen participation. Some companies have started subsidiaries dedicated specifically to export ventures, while others offer personnel as sub-consultants to private companies. Most export took place as projects run by the municipal companies themselves, often financed by development aid funds.

    The most important incentives motivating municipal companies to start or continue their export endeavours include motivating employees, becoming an attractive employer, contributing to reducing environmental impact where it is most needed, and external initiatives or requests. The most prominent barriers were related to lack of resources, cultural and political differences, and challenges related to marketing.

    The municipal companies and other actors in governmental and private organisations appear to have different perceptions of the significance of municipal knowledge and the role municipal companies should play, in order to best contribute to Sweden’s environmental technology export. In general, the interviewed municipal companies tend to seek a more active role in the export, whereas the other actors would prefer municipal companies to be more focused on promoting the export from their home region.

  • 284.
    Kaldma, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Ahlbeck, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    The challenges and improvement opportunities in a product-service sale process from a salesperson’s perspective: A case study at Scania2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to identify how a salesperson perform the product-service sale process, through investigating the salesperson’s conditions, challenges, and improvement opportunities within. Based on this, recommendations are given regarding how the product-service sale process can be improved, and how to develop the ideal sale process. The research is conducted from a salesperson’s perspective, since it is the role who interacts the most with the product-service sale process. 

    To fulfil the objective, service design methodologies are utilized, and a case company is studied. Data is collected from 23 interviews, two focus groups and one ideation generation workshop, held at two different markets, and with people at the case company and salespeople responsible for selling services. The findings from the just mentioned methods are analysed by a thematic approach and with service design tools, and are, lastly, discussed with support from relevant literature from the literature study. 

    The thesis results in many different findings. One of the findings regards which and how actors influence the sale process, and how they are structured. The actors, and especially the salesforce, are structured differently at different markets. The salesforce has either an integrated structure or a separated structure. Another finding is that the identified challenges are similar to common uncertainties and challenges within a product-service system, and the conditions, that are not met, reflects necessary conditions within a value-based sale. Challenges regarding how sales of services are too time consuming, there is a mismatch between the service’s price and packaging to customer needs, and there is a complex communication structure in the salesforces. These three challenges are considered as the most important. 

    Recommendations are given at two levels. At the first level ideas for future actions. with the aim to solve challenges and fulfil conditions, are presented. Meanwhile, at the second level, ideal examples regarding development process, relationships and information flows, salesforce and sale process, for the case company, to strive towards, with the aim to create ideal conditions for a product-service sale, are presented.

  • 285.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Literature Review of Life Cycle Costing in the Product-Service System Context2016Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 47, s. 186-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A transition from a product-selling to a Product-Service Systems (PSS) business model incurs a transition in costs from customer to provider. Due to this shift in cost ownership, Life Cycle Costing (LCC) is used by providers and customers to better understand the PSS costs spanning from design to end-of-life. Through a literature review the paper determines that there are similarities in the approach to LCC for specific types of PSS e.g. availability type, but further research needs to be undertaken to identify commonalities between different types of PSS. The review also discerned that the terminology for LCC is not consistent and sometimes it is used to identify only the costs incurred by a specific actor. Furthermore, the end-of-life stage and the implications of a second life for a remanufactured PSS in LCC are also yet to be fully understood. A number of challenges associated with obtaining quality data for costing within PSS were identified. These include the lack of availability, the relevancy due to use of pre-PSS data that does not reflect the redesign of products and services to fit in PSS and challenges associated with the design paradox. Finally, a lack of empirical studies is noted.

  • 286.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Using life cycle costing (LCC) to select circular measures: A discussion and practical approach2020Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of circular measures in businesses constitutes a solution to future resource scarcity, which has yet to gain momentum. To select and implement such measures, companies, with limited resources need practical and easy-to-use guides that help them understand the financial outcomes while leading them towards more circular solutions. To this end, a guideline based on Life Cycle Costing (LCC), which fulfils the aforementioned criteria, has been created. The guideline directs the companies towards measures at the top of the CE hierarchy and LCC is used to assess profitability and provide information on material circularity. Its development follows the Design Research Methodology (DRM) and is based on using LCC at three case companies when selecting circular measures and on literature. Insights on the companies’ processes and decision criteria as well as the LCC results are presented. One identified critical criterion is the profitability of a circular measure, but comparing the LCC of alternatives is only an adequate measure of profitability, if the alternatives are functionally equivalent and of equal value for the customer, otherwise revenue and customer costs need to be compared as well. In addition, because labour is included in LCC, by categorizing the costs companies can be guided towards exchanging material costs with labour costs. Concerning circularity, in this comparative context, the difference in material cost between the alternatives can be used to measure circularity performance without additional effort. Finally, customization of products was also identified in the company research as a barrier to the implementation of various circular measures.

  • 287.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Promotion of Environmental Technology Export: Governmental Initiatives and Business Concepts2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative and quantitative study examines governmental initiatives and business concepts as approaches to promote the export of environmental technology. Here, environmental technology refers to technologies (products, services, organizational models, and large-scaled technical systems) whose development and use actually provide or intends to provide a better environmental performance than their relevant alternatives from a life cycle perspective. Using literature reviews, surveys and interviews, this thesis collects primary and secondary data from national government level, private Swedish environmental technology firms and Swedish municipality-owned firms.

    Three main research questions guide this thesis. These questions address how different governments in selected countries promote the export of environmental technologies and how private Swedish environmental technology firms perceive the effectiveness of  governmental export promotion initiatives in realising export. In a complementary view, the thesis focuses on fundamental components of business concepts for export of environmental technologies by municipality-owned companies. These three units of analysis (i.e. – governmental initiatives, private companies and municipality-owned companies) are influenced by the characteristics of the environmental technology sector in Sweden.

    The main results from the study suggest three conclusions. First, governmental initiatives intended to promote the export of environmental technology are largely similar to approaches that intend to promote the export of “conventional” technology. These initiatives can be categorised as: financial aid programs, information programs, education and training programs, and trade mobility related programs. When it comes to perceived effectiveness of governmental promotion initiatives by private firms, results indicate that firms that accessed more than one type of governmental promotion, particularly those including financial support, perceived governmental promotion as contributing to realising export. For municipality-owned companies exporting environmental technology, the thesis proposes seven fundamental components of a business concept as: market (including regulation), finance, resources, activities, partnership (private-public partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Among these factors, regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy are particular to environmental technologies.

    These results suggest a dynamic balance between generic and tailored export promotion initiatives for environmental technology exporters, with much attention to program implementation as is given to program content formulation. The components proposed for municipality export opens up a potentially new research trajectory on environmentally conscious design that considers technological as well as non-technological changes based on large-scaled environmental technology systems for system-wide environmental improvements.

    Delarbeid
    1. Promoting the export of environmental technologies: governmental initiatives in selected countries
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Promoting the export of environmental technologies: governmental initiatives in selected countries
    2013 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid international and widespread diffusion of environmental technologies remains an essential requirement within the framework of sustainable development. Export offers a desired means for technology diffusion due to its strategic flexibility compared to other means such as foreign direct investment and aid. However, the export of environmental technologies is stifled by market failures. Among other reasons and as a response to such market failures, several governments are formulating initiatives to promote the export of environmental technologies. Although diffusion promotion is highlighted as an important research focus, a systematic overview of governmental initiatives that aim to promote environmental technology export is not available in the literature. This gap in the literature makes it difficult to analyse program effectiveness, and identify best practices. Using documentation from export promotion and export credit agencies in eight selected countries across Asia, Europe, and North America, we discuss governmental initiatives that aim to promote the export of environmental technologies. Our synthesis reveals that governmental promotion can be categorised according to alternative promotional services and is applied across target country(ies), environmental technology type(s), firm size(s),  and firm involvement in export. In addition, using theories from market failure and diffusion studies, we discuss similarities and differences between country initiatives. Trends indicate a focus on support for small and medium sized environmental technology exporters but interesting differences emerge with the choice of target markets, technologies, and the specific export promotion services.

    Emneord
    Environmental technology; Export promotion; Market failure; Governmental initiatives
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108728 (URN)
    Prosjekter
    Megatech
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vinnova
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-07-02 Laget: 2014-07-02 Sist oppdatert: 2014-11-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 222-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Environmental technology, Technology diffusion, Market failures, Perceived effectiveness, Firm-level analysis
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102196 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.11.013 (DOI)000356194300023 ()
    Prosjekter
    Megatech
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-12-03 Laget: 2013-12-03 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06
    3. Design of business concept with environmental technology
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Design of business concept with environmental technology
    2013 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, strategies for sustainable development are arguably among the most discussed issues among political, public and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by major trends such as climate change, rapid urbanization, critical material and energy resource depletion. To facilitate sustainable development, deep structural and wide reaching changes seem needed in current technologies, infrastructure, businesses and institutions. In the academic discourse, different concepts, methods and tools, have been proposed and continue to be expounded within the framework of sustainable development. Notable among them include the concepts of ecodesign, and product and service systems design. These concepts have contributed to environmental improvements but have been challenged by critics to be expanded beyond products and services to include non-technological changes in order to deliver system wide environmental improvements.

    Departing from this background, the goal of this article is twofold, first to offer an expanded view on environmental conscious design of products and services with large scaled sociotechnical systems and then to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems. In doing this, we offer a new way of describing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems which incorporates non-technological dimensions such as meeting formal and informal expectations. We propose a set of components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology offering. These components are: market (including regulations), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Among these factors, regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy were  found as particular for environmental technology diffusion.

    Emneord
    Environmental technology, Innovation management, Business model, Technology diffusion
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108729 (URN)
    Prosjekter
    BMEX (Business models for market expansion of Swedish municipal environmental technologies)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-07-02 Laget: 2014-07-02 Sist oppdatert: 2015-06-02bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 288.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stimulating the diffusion of environmental technologies through export2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary environmental problems represent complex societal challenges, and as these problems become increasingly global, the international diffusion of environmental technologies is essential. One way to diffuse technologies internationally is through export. Despite the potential benefits from the adoption of environmental technologies, their export is stifled by externalities and free-rider problems.

    From this background, the aim of this thesis is to analyse how to stimulate the diffusion of environmental technologies through export. This aim is operationalised using four research questions, which focus on governmental initiatives to promote environmental technology export and their perceived effectiveness among targeted firms, obstacles to and drivers for export among municipally owned companies, the use of international city networks to facilitate environmental technology export and components of business concepts for environmental technology export. These questions are explored in the Swedish context using document analyses, interviews and internet surveys in a compilation thesis which consists of a cover essay and an appendix of five scientifically peer-reviewed and published journal articles.

    The conclusions are that governmental export promotion initiatives are often generic for all kinds of exporters, including environmental technologies, and comprise financial support, information provision, education and training, and trade and mobility-related programs, often with little incorporation of the specific characteristics of environmental technologies which many exporters perceive as ineffective. Municipally owned companies experience different barriers to and drivers for engaging in international activities compared to privately owned companies, and are often involved in international projects which are not always commercial export. International city networks serve as important arenas for bi-directional information sharing and learning regarding market characteristics, environmental challenges and potential solutions, building legitimacy for technologies and their suppliers. Regarding components of business concepts for the export of environmental technologies, regulation, legitimacy and private-public partnership are identified as particularly important based on the complexity and systemic nature of environmental technologies.

    Altogether, this thesis makes a contribution by conceptualising the export of environmental technologies with emphasis on technology characteristics, the technology supplier including their business concepts, obstacles to and drivers for export, technology adopters and their characterisation, communication channels and the diffusion context. For policy makers, a dynamic approach to environmental technology export promotion, in which specific attributes of environmental technologies and their suppliers are considered along their international business development, is suggested as a complement to existing generic initiatives. The possibility to provide such support should be reconciled with resource effectiveness, heterogeneity among companies and the complementary role of governmental interventions to market initiatives. Finally, partnerships between publicly and privately owned companies are suggested as particularly relevant since they build on the long-term experience, functioning proof-of-concept and legitimacy of publicly owned companies together with the competitiveness and flexibility of privately owned companies. These attributes could help overcome the liabilities of foreignness and newness, as well as resource constraints which challenge environmental technology export.

    Delarbeid
    1. Promoting the export of environmental technologies: An analysis of governmental initiatives from eight countries
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Promoting the export of environmental technologies: An analysis of governmental initiatives from eight countries
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, E-ISSN 2211-4653, Vol. 17, s. 73-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Export represents a means for the diffusion of environmental technologies with potential socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, environmental technology providers experience export barriers which stifle export and thus several governments continue to formulate export promotion initiatives towards this sector. Although export promotion is identified as essential in the environmental technology policy literature, it is yet to receive attention as to which initiatives are available in different countries including their potential relevance for environmental sustainability. Such knowledge is fundamental for policy learning and transfer including identification of good practices.

    To address this knowledge gap, we use market failure and comparative public policy theories to analyse export promotion initiatives from export promotion and export credit agencies across eight countries in Asia, Europe, and North America. Three major conclusions emerge: (1) governmental initiatives to promote environmental technology export can be categorised under financial aid, information provision, education and training, and trade mobility programs; (2) policy choices regarding promotion initiatives are mediated by the institutional context and interests of policy actors (3) relevant aspects of such initiatives for environmental sustainability include the incorporation of particular environmental technology characteristics in initiative formulation, and the prioritisation between different technology and markets types for implementation.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2016
    Emneord
    Environmental technology; Export promotion, Market failure, Comparative public policy, Technology policy
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122234 (URN)10.1016/j.envdev.2015.09.009 (DOI)000372791500008 ()
    Prosjekter
    Megatech project
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-24 Laget: 2015-10-24 Sist oppdatert: 2018-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 222-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Environmental technology, Technology diffusion, Market failures, Perceived effectiveness, Firm-level analysis
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102196 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.11.013 (DOI)000356194300023 ()
    Prosjekter
    Megatech
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-12-03 Laget: 2013-12-03 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06
    3. Export of environmental technologies by publicly-owned companies: Approaches, drivers and obstacles among Swedish municipal companies
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Export of environmental technologies by publicly-owned companies: Approaches, drivers and obstacles among Swedish municipal companies
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 24, nr 12, s. 2175-2196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the export of environmental technology by publicly-owned companies. The export of such technologies has the potential to contribute to economic competitiveness and environmental sustainability. However, research on this emerging topic has so far largely focused on privately-owned SMEs compared to publicly-owned companies. Using interviews with twelve Swedish municipally-owned companies which develop such systems and a survey with thirty-six others, we analyse their approaches, drivers for and obstacles to export. These companies use a combination of different approaches such as subsidiaries, independent projects, licensing and private-public partnerships to engage in export. However, in contrast to private companies which are often driven by internal factors such as extra sales, these municipally-owned companies are largely motivated by external factors such as customer requests and opportunities to contribute to environmental sustainability. Furthermore, their main export barriers relate to differences between the business culture and political systems in their home and target markets. Their export experiences are influenced by their municipal ownership, the types of technologies they develop and the institutional contexts within which they operate. This study reveals an actor type struggling to find a balance between domestic obligations and commercialization in international markets.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
    Emneord
    publicly-owned companies, global sustainability, large technical systems, technology diffusion, export, waste management
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133042 (URN)10.1080/09654313.2016.1251881 (DOI)000390144900005 ()
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Tekniska Verkens Industrial Ecology Research Programme under the BMEX project (Business Models for Market Expansion of Swedish Municipal Companies)

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-12-08 Laget: 2016-12-08 Sist oppdatert: 2018-03-23bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Analyzing international city networks for sustainability: A study of five major Swedish cities
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Analyzing international city networks for sustainability: A study of five major Swedish cities
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 134, nr part A, s. 61-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies five Swedish cities, their membership in international city networks, the different motivations for such membership, and their administrations’ expected and perceived benefits. Particular focus is put on sustainability, environmental technology, and municipal companies as potential beneficiaries of such network membership. This study is motivated by the fact that city networks can potentially contribute to global sustainability goals by accelerating the diffusion of innovations, giving members access to bidirectional information flows, improving the user-producer relationship, and providing legitimacy in the potential recipient regimes.

    The study relies on a documentation review, the collection of data from the websites of the studied cities and numerous international city networks, and interviews with city officials responsible for international city networks. It was found that four of the five studied cities are active members of international networks for sustainability, but also that there are large gaps between the two largest cities and the rest when it comes to the number of memberships and the geographical outreach they have through the networks they belong to.

    Some city officials claim that it is easier to be active in national networks than in international networks, due to time requirements and coordination among so many members. However, city officials see benefits for their municipal companies when they are members of international networks, and these companies are usually independent when it comes to choosing and administering their memberships. It was found that it is difficult to measure direct benefits from network membership, and link improvements in the studied cities to participation in a particular network (with the exception of groups created for a specific infrastructure project, reported as “networks” by the administrations). In addition, there is no apparent direct correlation between membership and diffusion of environmental solutions from municipal companies. However, the administrations expect indirect benefits such as gaining legitimacy and access to milieus where they can share information and best practices, which could lead to the improvement of both local and global environmental conditions.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2016
    Emneord
    Legitimacy;Information Flows;Knowledge Sharing;Municipal Companies;Environmental Technology
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121814 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.093 (DOI)000382409700007 ()
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA); Swedish Energy Agency; Tekniska Verken AB

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-07 Laget: 2015-10-07 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-01
    5. Components of business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Components of business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 128, s. 156-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for sustainable development are arguably part of the most discussed issues among political and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by global challenges such as climate change, urbanization, and critical natural resource depletion. Sustainable development will require deep structural and wide-reaching changes in current institutions, technologies, and businesses. Furthermore, new approaches are needed to facilitate the development, diffusion, and implementation of environmental technologies. In the academic discourse different concepts, e.g., ecodesign and Product/Service System design, have been proposed within the framework of sustainable development. To deliver even more system-wide environmental improvements, these concepts have been challenged to be expanded in focus beyond products and services to include large technical systems encompassing non-technological dimensions. Motivated by these, the goal of this article is twofold. First, to offer an expanded view on ecodesign of product/service systems using a perspective of large technical systems. Second, to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems such as district heating supply, waste management, and renewable energy systems. Using qualitative semi-structured interviews and company documentation analysis, this study examines five companies that develop and diffuse large scaled environmental technology systems. As a result of these case studies, we propose components of business concepts that incorporate both technological and non-technological dimensions. Our proposed business concept components are: market (including regulation), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy are particularly important in the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2016
    Emneord
    Large technical systems, Business model, Technology diffusion, Product/Service System, Ecodesign
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122235 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.10.040 (DOI)000378568800013 ()
    Prosjekter
    BMEX project
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: We are grateful to Tekniska Verken's Industrial Ecology Research Programme for their financial support to undertake this study as part the BMEX project (Business Models for Market Expansion of Swedish Municipal Companies). We also want to express our sincere gratitude to the interviewees for making time to participate in the interviews. Special thanks also go to Sahar Sadri of Linkoping University for taking part in conducting the interviews.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-24 Laget: 2015-10-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-01bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 289.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Clausen, Jens
    Boderstep Institute for Innovation and Sustainability, Germany.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 290.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Clausen, Jens
    Hannover, Germany.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation: a study of business development organizations and cluster initiatives in a Swedish and a German region2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-innovation continues to gain support as a driving force for sustainable development. In this regard, pressing questions include how to stimulate the development, diffusion and use of eco-innovations. Often, firms engaged with eco-innovation need to connect to intermediary organizations (e.g. business development organizations, regional clusters, universities, financers, incubators) to get hold of necessary resources to tackle the challenges in the innovation process. This article analyses the functions of such intermediary organizations for eco-innovation by focusing on public–owned business development organizations and cluster initiatives in the Region Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.  We synthesise at least eight functions of intermediaries for eco-innovation as: (i) forecasting and road mapping (ii) resource mobilization (iii) networking and partnerships (iv) commercialization (v) technical consulting (vi) information scanning and distribution (vii) sector branding and legitimation (viii) prototyping and piloting.  The support functions often take a “one-size-fits-all” approach with few initiatives particularly tailored for eco-innovations. This can be explained by the market complementarity roles of public intermediaries, their resource constraints and the cross-sectoral nature of eco-innovation. Even though, intermediary functions are often appreciated by clients and financers, it is often difficult to establish a causal relation between the support and eco-innovation outcomes, a challenge which undermines the existence of intermediaries themselves. Despite these challenges, potential good practices point to a mix between general “one-size-fits-all” and tailored support activities for different types of eco-innovations and firms. Furthermore, interaction between various types of intermediaries is important since there are often numerous actors and initiatives working with eco-innovation which can confuse firms. When it comes to stimulating radical eco-innovations, a proactive approach to intermediation is particularly important. 

  • 291.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    del Río, Pablo
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A technological innovation systems approach to analyse the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, s. 1136-1148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on intermediaries faces challenges regarding how to conceptualise and empirically demonstrate the system-level impact of intermediaries. Thus, researchers and policy analysts may experience difficulties in grasping the potential contributions of intermediaries beyond individual projects and firms to aggregate levels of an innovation system. This article combines innovation intermediary and technological innovation systems literature to develop fundamentals of an approach for analysing how organisations acting as intermediaries support firms in eco-innovation and potentially contribute to technological innovation system functions. The operationalisation of the analytical approach is illustrated using case studies on a total of eight support organisations acting as intermediaries in the region of Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. For researchers and policy analysts, the analytical approach presented in this article offers the opportunity for a step-by-step, comprehensive and transparent analysis of different types of intermediaries, their roles, and potential contributions to innovation system functions.

  • 292.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gonzaléz, Pablo del Rio
    Institute for Public Policies and Goods Madrid, Spain..
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A function of innovation systems approach for analysing the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws from two bodies of literature, innovation intermediaries and technological innovation systems, to develop an approach for analysing the functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation. The link between the functions of innovation intermediaries and the functions of technological innovation systems has seldom been explicitly established in the scientific discourse and thus this article contributes to theoretical development in both literatures. To the technological innovation systems literature, this article addresses the lack of attention to the functions of innovation intermediaries who are a critical part in the formation of networks and also contribute to a number of innovation system functions. To the innovation intermediary literature, the functional approach advocates for a synthesis and consensus building in the literature regarding intermediary functions in view of the several redundancies and ambiguities on the subject matter. Empirical operationalization of the analytical approach including methodological choices from case studies in Region Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany are also discussed. The results of our analysis show that the functions of the innovation intermediaries are particularly relevant for the overall goals of an innovation system as compared to the configuration of intermediary actors. Particular challenges with a functional approach in this context include the difficulties of establishing a causal relation between the support functions of intermediaries and eco-innovation outcomes in firms.

  • 293.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    An approach for analyzing public support systems for eco-innovations: Lessons from two German and Swedish regions2014Inngår i: 18th Annual Interdisciplinary Entrepreneurship Conference, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 294.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Boosting eco-innovation: The role of public support organizations2014Inngår i: XXV ISPIM Conference on Innovation for sustainable Economy and Society, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a multidisciplinary and systematic review of 45 journal articles and two case interviews to investigate the role of public support organizations in the development of eco-innovations. Even though eco-innovations are regarded as a driving force within sustainable development, entrepreneurs developing such innovations face barriers such as lack of some technical expertise, limited financial, time and human resources. Generally, two aspects are needed for eco-innovation support i.e. support for technology as well as business development. The selected public support organizations offered business development support through networking, bridging and financing. However, preliminary findings on their current support activities indicate bridging to other actors who can provide technical expertise such as environmental impact assessment and eco-design could be a promising addition to business development. Potential further research includes deeper empirical investigations on the role of public support actors in the development of eco-innovations.

  • 295.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Internationalisation among Swedish biogas companies: drivers, barriers and business models2016Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 296.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Clausen, Jens
    Borderstep Institute for Innovation and Sustainability.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Roles of intermediaries in supporting eco-innovation2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 205, s. 1006-1016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-innovation is an approach to environmental sustainability. However, the process of eco-innovation can be challenging especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, SMEs might seek external support to tackle some of their challenges in eco-innovation. In this article, we focus on one type of organization providing and also assisting SMEs to access support, intermediaries, i.e. an organization or body that acts as an agent or broker in the innovation process. Intermediaries support firms in the innovation process through various generic and customised activities. To identify such activities and describe the roles intermediaries take in eco-innovation, we conducted interviews and documentation analysis on selected intermediaries in two regions – Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. The identified roles among our cases include: (i) forecasting and road mapping, (ii) information gathering and dissemination, (iii) fostering networking and partnerships, (iv) prototyping and piloting, (v) technical consulting, (vi) resource mobilisation, (vii) commercialisation, and (viii) branding and legitimation. In relation to the specific characteristics of eco-innovations, the intermediary roles such as prototyping and piloting, information gathering and dissemination, and branding were directly targeted at validating the environmental benefits of eco-innovations to tackle their “double externality” challenge. However, we found little intermediation activities from our cases directed explicitly at policy change for eco-innovation. For policy makers, our results suggest a complementary use of different types of intermediaries to support eco-innovation.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-09-17 10:56
  • 297.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dugand, Santiago Mejiá
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Promoting the export of environmental technologies: An analysis of governmental initiatives from eight countries2016Inngår i: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, E-ISSN 2211-4653, Vol. 17, s. 73-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Export represents a means for the diffusion of environmental technologies with potential socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, environmental technology providers experience export barriers which stifle export and thus several governments continue to formulate export promotion initiatives towards this sector. Although export promotion is identified as essential in the environmental technology policy literature, it is yet to receive attention as to which initiatives are available in different countries including their potential relevance for environmental sustainability. Such knowledge is fundamental for policy learning and transfer including identification of good practices.

    To address this knowledge gap, we use market failure and comparative public policy theories to analyse export promotion initiatives from export promotion and export credit agencies across eight countries in Asia, Europe, and North America. Three major conclusions emerge: (1) governmental initiatives to promote environmental technology export can be categorised under financial aid, information provision, education and training, and trade mobility programs; (2) policy choices regarding promotion initiatives are mediated by the institutional context and interests of policy actors (3) relevant aspects of such initiatives for environmental sustainability include the incorporation of particular environmental technology characteristics in initiative formulation, and the prioritisation between different technology and markets types for implementation.

  • 298.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kairento, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nygårds, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Export of environmental technologies by publicly-owned companies: Approaches, drivers and obstacles among Swedish municipal companies2016Inngår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 24, nr 12, s. 2175-2196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the export of environmental technology by publicly-owned companies. The export of such technologies has the potential to contribute to economic competitiveness and environmental sustainability. However, research on this emerging topic has so far largely focused on privately-owned SMEs compared to publicly-owned companies. Using interviews with twelve Swedish municipally-owned companies which develop such systems and a survey with thirty-six others, we analyse their approaches, drivers for and obstacles to export. These companies use a combination of different approaches such as subsidiaries, independent projects, licensing and private-public partnerships to engage in export. However, in contrast to private companies which are often driven by internal factors such as extra sales, these municipally-owned companies are largely motivated by external factors such as customer requests and opportunities to contribute to environmental sustainability. Furthermore, their main export barriers relate to differences between the business culture and political systems in their home and target markets. Their export experiences are influenced by their municipal ownership, the types of technologies they develop and the institutional contexts within which they operate. This study reveals an actor type struggling to find a balance between domestic obligations and commercialization in international markets.

  • 299.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejia-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental Technology Export Promotion: A study of governmental initiatives in selected countries2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction-This report is based on structured literature reviews and brainstorming sections on governmental export promotion initiatives for environmental technology in selected countries. It is intended to answer two fundamental questions: why governments intervene to promote environmental technology export and how this intervention is actually executed. These questions emerged in-light of two general challenges: 1) the lack of vivid scientific insights with robust theoretical underpinnings on governmental efforts to promote environmental technology export, 2) the necessity to diffuse environmental technology across borders based on the facts that some environmental technologies have a pressing demand in countries other than their home origin and that most emerging economies are now facing environmental challenges which have long existed in many developed countries.

    Approach-A structured literature review which covered public export promotion agencies and export credit agencies in the top three environmental technology exporting countries (Germany, USA, and Japan); Scandinavian environmental technology competitors to Sweden (Finland, Denmark, Norway); other European competitor (Austria) and China as an emerging exporter was employed to identify governmental export promotion initiatives. For a deeper insight Austria, Denmark and Sweden were purposively selected for an analysis into their public ‘‘action’’ plans to promote environmental technology including exports. The empirical findings were then discussed in brainstorming sections using theories and best practices to come out with conclusions, some recommendations and further questions.

    Findings-The economic justification for government involvement in export promotion is based on the theory of asymmetric information and other market failures. The market has so far not shown enough signs of inherently diffusing environmental technologies to the desired societal level, thus the need for government intervention. Governmental intervention for environmental technology export promotion are organised by one or a combination of the following in the reviewed countries: by prioritized target countries; by prioritized environmental technologies; by alternative services (information, financial, training and education, trade and mobility related programs); by firm size (large vs. small) and by firm stage in internationalization. With regards to specific action plans, crosscutting focus remains on support for small and medium enterprises; strategies in Austria and Denmark to promote environmental technologies in aggregation focus on policy information provision to enterprises whiles technology and business development is given priority in Sweden.

    Concluding remarks-The report concludes with some remarks and further questions to stir up the debate and understanding on governmental initiatives for environmental technology export promotion. Highlights include 1) the recommendation for the provision of more detailed market information to export oriented firms recognizing the importance of externalities involved in gathering such information by private firms, 2) the need for mutual collaboration between governmental export promotion agencies and their initiatives which could be confusingly large within a country and  3) a hybridization of focus on policy instruments and technology & business development in-line with the complex ecosystem of interactions between market information and the innovation of environmental technologies.

    Further questions-Several questions remain to be answered. Among them include: 1) Which theories could be used to justify governmental intervention through export promotion of environmental technologies? 2) What, When and How to measure the effectiveness of such governmental export promotion initiatives and 3) How the inherent characteristics of environmental technologies have (or should) influence their export promotion remain to be answered.

  • 300.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejiá-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Promoting the export of environmental technologies: governmental initiatives in selected countries2013Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid international and widespread diffusion of environmental technologies remains an essential requirement within the framework of sustainable development. Export offers a desired means for technology diffusion due to its strategic flexibility compared to other means such as foreign direct investment and aid. However, the export of environmental technologies is stifled by market failures. Among other reasons and as a response to such market failures, several governments are formulating initiatives to promote the export of environmental technologies. Although diffusion promotion is highlighted as an important research focus, a systematic overview of governmental initiatives that aim to promote environmental technology export is not available in the literature. This gap in the literature makes it difficult to analyse program effectiveness, and identify best practices. Using documentation from export promotion and export credit agencies in eight selected countries across Asia, Europe, and North America, we discuss governmental initiatives that aim to promote the export of environmental technologies. Our synthesis reveals that governmental promotion can be categorised according to alternative promotional services and is applied across target country(ies), environmental technology type(s), firm size(s),  and firm involvement in export. In addition, using theories from market failure and diffusion studies, we discuss similarities and differences between country initiatives. Trends indicate a focus on support for small and medium sized environmental technology exporters but interesting differences emerge with the choice of target markets, technologies, and the specific export promotion services.

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