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  • 251.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning – experiences from Sweden2016Inngår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 272-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the factors influencing stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning, together with stakeholder experiences of participation in such processes. The article presents findings from a survey of 60 Swedish municipalities and detailed case studies of energy and climate planning in five Swedish municipalities to explore which stakeholders are involved, how and why they are involved, and the impacts of participation on both stakeholder experiences. The results of this study provide insight into the role of stakeholders in municipal energy and climate planning.The study proceeds as follows: the Introduction is followed by a discussion of theoretical perspectives on stakeholder participation and energy and climate planning. The Methods used to conduct the study are presented, followed by Results and Analysis. In the subsequent Discussion, the authors propose a conceptual approach that may assist municipalities in development of energy and climate strategies. The Analysis and Discussion inform Conclusions in which the authors advocate early and active stakeholder engagement in energy and climate strategy planning and emphasise the possible utility of their conceptual approach in supporting stakeholder participation.

  • 252.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies: lessons from planning processes in five municipalities2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities have traditionally had significant powers and played a major role in implementing national energy strategies. This paper describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. The questions raised in the paper are: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five Swedish municipalities, how do municipalities include stakeholders in the process, and in what ways do stakeholders influence outcomes? Results suggest that a number of key factors influence the development of municipal climate and energy strategies and their content. These include the importance of a clear, shared vision and engaged politicians; the size and organisational structure of the municipality and its willingness and capability to act; the organisation of the process and extent to which stakeholders have been involved and feel included; the need for clarity about financial aspects, such as planned financing of implementation; the need for greater clarity concerning selection of targets and their relevance to global climate and energy trends. By illustrating the characteristics of the municipal climate and energy planning processes in five Swedish municipalities, the study makes a contribution to the research on local governments and sustainable development in general, and specifically to the growing literature on municipal climate and energy planning. The study and its results may be used to inform policy-makers on the national and local levels about the factors influencing municipal energy planning and the importance of involving stakeholders and citizens in the strategic work to reduce climate impacts and energy consumption.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies: lessons from planning processes in five municipalities
  • 253.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies: lessons from planning processes in five municipalities2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. This will help answers the research questions: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five Swedish municipalities; and, what lessons can be learnt from these cases which may be applicable to other municipalities in Sweden, the EU and other countries?

  • 254.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sustainable energy and climate strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish municipalities2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 213-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities have traditionally had significant powers and played a major role in implementing national energy strategies. This paper describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. The questions raised in the paper are: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five municipalities, do these municipalities include stakeholders in the process, if so how, and do the stakeholders influence the content of strategies? Results suggest that a number of factors influence the development of municipal climate and energy strategies and their content. These include the importance of a clear, shared vision and engaged politicians; the size and organisational structure of the municipality and its willingness and capability to act; the organisation of the process and extent to which stakeholders not only have been involved but also felt included; the need for clarity about financial aspects, such as planned financing of implementation; and the need for greater clarity concerning selection of targets and their relevance to global climate and energy trends. The study and its results may be used to inform policy-makers on the national and local levels about factors influencing municipal energy planning and also contribute to a discussion on benefits and problems of involving stakeholders and citizens in the strategic work to reduce climate impacts and energy consumption.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 255.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hermelin, Brita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för studier av samhällsutveckling och kultur, Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Den attraktiva regionen: kommunens roll i nationella infrastruktur satsningar2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom fallstudien av BanaVäg Motala-Mjölby undersöker detta paper hur kommunerna och lokala verksamheter genom planeringsinsatser, initiativ och samarbeten stärker effekterna och nyttan av tillgång till förstärkt fysisk infrastruktur för persontransporter. Studien avgränsas geografiskt till Motala och Mjölby centralorter, till Skänninge tätort, och till att belysa de lokalsamhälleliga effekterna. 

  • 256.
    Fenton, Paul
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Energikontoret Östra Götaland.
    Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish Municipalities2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report forms part of the research project “Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies – development and potential”, which is financed by the Swedish Energy Agency’s Sustainable Municipality programme. In this research project, case studies of the processes to develop energy strategies in five municipalities were prepared. The five municipalities were participants in the Sustainable Municipality programme’s second phase, which began in 2008, and represent different types of municipality, in terms of geography and population.

    This report presents analysis of the five case studies, using a policy theoretical perspective to focus on issues including how problems and solutions are identified and formulated, which solutions are proposed, which actors are included or excluded from the process, and which local resources are used or not used in the process. The report reflects on the implications of increasing stakeholder cooperation in energy planning processes and using different types of organisational approaches during the development of energy and climate strategies.

    Each case study began with an inventory of publically-available documents shaping the context for energy and climate strategies in each municipality. These documents were compiled in time lines showing the documents or decisions influencing energy planning in each municipality. Subsequently, group interviews were held with participants in planning processes in each of the five municipalities. In addition, individual interviews took place with stakeholders who had been active in the processes. Interviews were recorded and then transcribed. The results from the document study and interviews were then compiled in a summary of each municipality’s energy planning process, forming the basis for the analysis in this report.

    The case studies highlight both similarities and differences with regard to the organisation of work to develop and introduce energy strategies. All municipalities established, at an early stage, internal organisations for the process and throughout the processes, the organisational form, participants and their role, and division of tasks and responsibilities were fairly clear. For example, all five municipalities made use of Steering Groups and Working Groups, although the extent of the roles which these groups played – and the background of their members - varied. Four municipalities had a Reference Group in which external stakeholders were represented. A number of other constellations, including thematic working groups, were present in some but not all municipalities.

    The municipalities also took different steps in their energy planning processes and identified different drivers stimulating their activities. Participants from one municipality considered the Sustainable Municipality programme as a pivotal moment in their strategic energy work, whereas others felt the programme did not significantly influence their approach or outputs. The report identifies a number of factors influencing the development and implementation of municipal energy strategies, as well as a strategy’s scope and content.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies
  • 257.
    Fenton, Paul
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moving from high-level words to local action: governance for urban sustainability in municipalities2017Inngår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, nr 26-27, s. 129-133Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable development goals emphasize the need formulti-level governance to stimulate actions across many levelsand involving actors from multiple sectors. Cities and humansettlements are critical sites for implementation of theseuniversal objectives, indicating the need for local action thatserves global and local interests. This paper reviews recentliterature on this theme, illustrating challenges andopportunities influencing local action, with particular focus onmunicipalities. The partial implementation and limitedevaluation of previous initiatives such as Local Agenda 21 arehighlighted, suggesting past experiences offer insights intohow the SDGs may be implemented. The review suggestsresearch may support municipal action by illustrating how andin what ways municipalities can integrate the SDGs in strategy,policy and practice.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 258.
    Fenton, Paul
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy: studies of biogas for transport in two European cities2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 725-742Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of renewable energy – particularly in transport – in cities may facilitate the transition away from fossil fuels, improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Past studies on this topic have focused on system modelling of diffusion pathways, technology characteristics and also estimations of future availability of renewable energy, whilst neglecting the agency of producers and users. This article assesses barriers to the diffusion of biogas for transportation in cities from a system and actor perspective. Using document studies and interviews in the cities of Basel, Switzerland, and Odense, Denmark, we identify the presence of conflicting political priorities and shifting strategic objectives, resulting in mixed signals concerning the role and viability of biogas for transportation. This underlines the importance of public sector support and coherent design and implementation of strategy and policy enabling the diffusion of renewable energy.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 259.
    Fenton, Paul
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Environm and Hlth Adm, Sweden.
    Paschek, Fanny
    Univ Greenwich, England.
    Projects, participation and planning across boundaries in Gottingen2018Inngår i: Regional Studies, Regional Science, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 81-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores efforts to coordinate strategies promoting sustainable development - with specific focus on mobility and transport in climate change mitigation - across administrative boundaries in the city and county of Gottingen, Germany. The paper questions the possibility to develop and align strategic objectives and implementation across administrative boundaries when relying on short-term project funds. The experiences of key stakeholders in Gottingen are presented, with reference to empirical data from a document and interview study. Results indicate that reliance on short-term, project-based funding from external sources offers both opportunities and challenges for locally and regionally integrated strategy formulation and implementation. Five factors shaping the strategy space of actors are used to frame the analysis, with findings suggesting the need for further research on how local authorities overcome capacity and resource limitations, particularly with respect to complex challenges such as climate change.

  • 260.
    Fransson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Carlsson, Kristofer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Kombinerad produktion av biogas och biodiesel på gårdsnivå: en investeringsbedömning ur ett ekonomiskt och miljömässigt perspektiv2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att göra en investeringsbedömning av en anläggning för kombinerad produktion av biogas och biodiesel åt lantbruksföretaget Lindhs Djur & Natur AB. Utgångspunkt är det koncept för kombinerad produktion av biogas och biodiesel på gårdsnivå som Ageratec AB utvecklat. Konceptet utgår från att glycerolfasen som bildas vid biodieselproduktion är ett värdefullt substrat vid biogasproduktion. Scandinavian Biogas Fuel AB har därför på uppdrag från Ageratec AB utvecklat och optimerat en biogasprocess för samrötning av glycerol och gödsel.

    För att kunna göra en relevant investeringsbedömning så granskas investeringen både ur ett ekonomisk och miljömässigt perspektiv. Den ekonomiska analysen består av en investeringskalkyl för två olika amorteringstider där teorier för nuvärdesanalys tillämpas. Den ekonomiska analysen kompletteras även med en känslighetsanalys där sannolika utfall av det ackumulerade nuvärdesnettot simuleras enligt principen för Monte Carlo metoden. För att göra en investeringskalkyl samt en ekonomisk känslighetsanalys skapades med hjälp av Bo Persson, Xice AB ett program i Visual Basic/MS Excel. I programmet kan valda ingångsvariabler tilldelas sannolikhetsfördelningar för att sedan simulera utfallet av det ackumulerade nuvärdesnettot. Miljöanalysen består av en kvantitativ och en kvalitativ del där de tillsammans utgör ett utförligt beslutsunderlag av investeringens miljöpåverkan. Den kvantitativa delen kommer att behandla investeringens påverkan av utsläpp av växthusgaser där den funktionella enheten är kg koldioxidekvivalenter per år. Den kvalitativa miljöanalysen behandlar investeringens övriga miljökonsekvenser jämfört med ett nollalternativ då ingen investering genomförs.

    Den anläggning som anses vara det lämpligaste investeringsalternativet består av en biodieselprocessor med kapacitet att producera 600 m3 liter biodiesel per år samt ett biogassystem som producerar ca 1000 MWh elektricitet respektive ca 1650 MWh värme per år. De största materialflöderna genom produktionssystemet är rapsfrö och återvunnen matolja som sedan omförestras till biodiesel. Glycerolfas samrötas med nötflytgödsel där den bildade biogasen förbränns i ett kraftvärmeverk.

    Investeringsbedömningen visar att en investering i kombinerad produktion av biogas och biodiesel har möjlighet att ge avkastning och miljömässiga vinster. Investeringen är i detta fall speciellt känslig för prisvariationer vad gäller biodiesel, rapsfrö och återvunnen matolja. Investeringen har också en stor kostnad för grundinvestering.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 261.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental and economic conditions of landfill mining: The development and application of a systems analysis approach2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining is a relatively unproven, still uncertain concept for extracting resources from landfills. Previous studies in the field have mainly focused on solving local environmental problems related to leaching and other landfill management issues, or characterizing the material composition of various landfills. Few, however, have used a systematic approach when evaluating the environmental and economic potential of landfill mining, and fewer still have quantified this potential. Furthermore, discussions regarding the technical, legal, and organizational conditions of landfill mining are largely lacking. This lack of knowledge and experience creates uncertainties that make most landfill mining initiatives high-risk investments and consequently hinders the development of knowledge in the field. The purpose of this thesis is therefore to present the development and application of a systems analysis approach for evaluating the economic and environmental potential of landfill mining designed to handle the uncertainties surrounding this concept.

    The approach aims to incorporate all relevant processes related to landfill mining, and to combine LCA methodology with Monte Carlo simulation to incorporate the inherent uncertainties into the result. The approach is based on one or more scenarios, the results of which can be compared with each other, as well as with a reference scenario. The scenarios are constructed using five different aspects that have been identified in previous studies as being relevant for the environmental and economic potential: landfill characteristics, organizational setup, policies and legislation, market conditions, and technology. These scenarios can be set up on a variety of levels, from identifying the impact of strategic policies regarding landfill mining to evaluating small landfill mining projects. The environmental analysis uses LCA and produces results on a global and regional scope, while the economic analysis is done from a project owner’s perspective using direct revenues and costs. Results from the approach can be used not only to see the net result for each scenario, but also to recognize which processes contribute the most to the result, and how important these are relative to other processes.

    Results from the environmental potential show the resource potential and climate implications of mining all, or parts of, the Swedish municipal solid waste landfills. The metal content in these landfills corresponds to about three years of ferrous and up to eight years of non-ferrous scrap usage in Sweden. Additionally, the amount of combustible material is enough to cover the Swedish demand for more than five years. If all the landfills in the study were to be remediated and mined of resources, over 50 million metric tons of CO2-equivalent emissions can be avoided, comparable to Swedish annual emissions. The positive result can mainly be attributed to the avoided emissions, created by the material and energy recycling processes.

    The economic potential has been analyzed from a landfill owner’s perspective by including direct costs and revenues in the evaluation. The thesis shows that by integrating material recovery into an already planned remediation project, the economic result can improve under certain circumstances. Two of the most important factors, in addition to the material composition of the landfill, were found to be the landfill tax and ownership of, and access to, a combined heat and power plant.

    In summary, the thesis shows that there are many potential benefits from recovering resources from landfills, although they are dependent on a variety of factors. Three types of key factors contributing to the environmental and economic potential of landfill mining have been found: site-specific factors,  project factors, and external factors. By using the systems analysis approach presented in this thesis, the absolute and relative impact of these factors, regarding both environmental and economic impact for a specific landfill mining project, can be identified.

    Delarbeid
    1. A novel approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A novel approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, s. 24-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Studies concerning landfill mining have historically focused on reclamation of land space and landfill remediation. A limited number of studies, however, have evaluated landfill mining combined with resource recovery, most of them being pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction. This implies that many uncertainties remain related to landfill mining. With a growing interest in environmental concerns around the globe, the environmental evaluation of large-scale projects has become an increasingly important issue. A common way of conducting such an evaluation is to use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). However, LCA by itself might not take into account all the inherent uncertainties in landfill mining. This article describes an approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining that combines the principles of Life Cycle Assessment and Monte Carlo Simulation. In order to demonstrate its usability for planning and evaluation purposes, the approach is also applied to a hypothetical landfill mining case by presenting examples of the types of results it can produce. Results from this approach are presented as cumulative probability distributions, rather than a single result figure. By presenting results in this way, the landfill mining practitioner will get a more complete view of the processes involved and will have a better decision base.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2013
    Emneord
    Life Cycle Assessment; Landfill mining; Remediation; Resource recovery; Environmental assessment; Monte Carlo Simulation
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86054 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.05.045 (DOI)000322802300003 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    FormasVinnova
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-12-06 Laget: 2012-12-06 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13
    2. Resource and Climate Implications of Landfill Mining A Case Study of Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Resource and Climate Implications of Landfill Mining A Case Study of Sweden
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 742-755Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the amount of material deposited in Swedish municipal solid waste landfills, how much is extractable and recyclable, and what the resource and climate implications are if landfill mining coupled with resource recovery were to be implemented in Sweden. The analysis is based on two scenarios with different conventional separation technologies, one scenario using a mobile separation plant and the other using a more advanced stationary separation plant. Further, the approach uses Monte Carlo simulation to address the uncertainties attached to each of the different processes in the scenarios. Results show that Swedens several thousand municipal landfills contain more than 350 million tonnes (t) of material. If landfill mining combined with resource recovery is implemented using a contemporary stationary separation plant, it would be possible to extract about 7 million t of ferrous metals and 2 million t of nonferrous metals, enough to meet the demand of Swedish industry for ferrous and nonferrous metals for three and eight years, respectively. This study further shows that landfill mining could potentially lead to the equivalent of a one-time reduction of about 50 million t of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon-dioxide equivalents), corresponding to 75% of Swedens annual emissions.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Wiley-Blackwell: No OnlineOpen, 2013
    Emneord
    environmental assessment, industrial ecology, landfills, metals, recycling, resource recovery
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100487 (URN)10.1111/jiec.12039 (DOI)000325461500012 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-11-08 Laget: 2013-11-08 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13
    3. Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 42, s. 137-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation.

    Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP.

    Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Landfill mining, Resource recovery, Remediation, Monte Carlo analysis, Economic potential
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106711 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2015.04.008 (DOI)000357348500017 ()25962826 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-05-19 Laget: 2014-05-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-05bibliografisk kontrollert
    Download (pdf)
    omslag
  • 262.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining2015Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 42, s. 137-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation.

    Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP.

    Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material.

  • 263.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A novel approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, s. 24-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies concerning landfill mining have historically focused on reclamation of land space and landfill remediation. A limited number of studies, however, have evaluated landfill mining combined with resource recovery, most of them being pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction. This implies that many uncertainties remain related to landfill mining. With a growing interest in environmental concerns around the globe, the environmental evaluation of large-scale projects has become an increasingly important issue. A common way of conducting such an evaluation is to use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). However, LCA by itself might not take into account all the inherent uncertainties in landfill mining. This article describes an approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining that combines the principles of Life Cycle Assessment and Monte Carlo Simulation. In order to demonstrate its usability for planning and evaluation purposes, the approach is also applied to a hypothetical landfill mining case by presenting examples of the types of results it can produce. Results from this approach are presented as cumulative probability distributions, rather than a single result figure. By presenting results in this way, the landfill mining practitioner will get a more complete view of the processes involved and will have a better decision base.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 264.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Resource and Climate Implications of Landfill Mining A Case Study of Sweden2013Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 742-755Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the amount of material deposited in Swedish municipal solid waste landfills, how much is extractable and recyclable, and what the resource and climate implications are if landfill mining coupled with resource recovery were to be implemented in Sweden. The analysis is based on two scenarios with different conventional separation technologies, one scenario using a mobile separation plant and the other using a more advanced stationary separation plant. Further, the approach uses Monte Carlo simulation to address the uncertainties attached to each of the different processes in the scenarios. Results show that Swedens several thousand municipal landfills contain more than 350 million tonnes (t) of material. If landfill mining combined with resource recovery is implemented using a contemporary stationary separation plant, it would be possible to extract about 7 million t of ferrous metals and 2 million t of nonferrous metals, enough to meet the demand of Swedish industry for ferrous and nonferrous metals for three and eight years, respectively. This study further shows that landfill mining could potentially lead to the equivalent of a one-time reduction of about 50 million t of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon-dioxide equivalents), corresponding to 75% of Swedens annual emissions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 265.
    Fu, Jiabin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Challenges to increased use of coal combustion products in China2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity accounts for much of the primary energy used in China, and more thanthree-quarter of the total electricity is generated by coal combustion. Coal burningcombined with flue gas cleaning system generates large quantity of coal combustionproducts (CCPs), which has caused significant environmental and economic burden tothe economy, ecology and society. Of great importance are thus different applicationswhich contribute to the increased use of CCPs. This thesis looks at an overview ofCCPs production and utilization all around the world and investigates current CCPsapplications as well as potential technically sound and economically justifiedtechnologies. Results of this thesis show that CCPs utilization rate in differentcountries varies widely from 13% to 97%. Worldwide, a significant proportion ofCCPs from the main producers, e.g. China, the United States and India, is still beingdisposed off, resulting in a low-level of overall utilization of these products. It isevident that the amount of CCPs produced substantially exceeds consumptionsbecause of various existing obstacles and limitations. In order to formulate effectiveapproaches, identifying challenges to increased use of CCPs is of great weight. The aimof this thesis is to analyze current and potential utilizations of CCPs and morespecifically address factors that inhibit or promote the use of CCPs from coal-firedpower plants in China.

    Savings of natural resources, energy, emissions of pollutants, GHG emissions anduseful land were found as the major incentives for CCPs utilization. In China, a ban ofsolid clay bricks was also found to be a very powerful measure to stimulate thedevelopment of other by-product based wall materials while saving useful land andprotecting the environment. However, this strong support from the government hasnot been fully implemented, which seriously hampered CCPs uses. Results presentedin this thesis also show that high transportation cost of low unit-value CCPs,competition from available natural materials and spatial variation in supply-demandposes three of the most important barriers to the increased use of CCPs in China.Industrial organizations with assistances from the government have shown to be offundamental importance for formulating approaches to take in overcoming thebarriers.

    This thesis emphasized that transforming laboratory- and pilot-scale technologies intocommercial productivity is of the highest priority for increased use of CCPs. Aconceptual model of CCPs Eco-Industry Park (EIP) as a potential effective solutionwas proposed. Mutual economic and environmental benefits can be achieved throughthe collaboration between different industries in the CCPs EIP. And other feasiblerecommendations of initiatives from both the government and industries were alsodiscussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 266. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Fältström, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mitigating Microplastics Pollution in Urban Water Systems: Flow, actors, and control measures2023Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Water pollution has long been considered a challenge in urban areas. Urban wastewater and stormwater act as transport pathways for pollutants from urban areas to receiving waters. Microplastics are a pollution problem of growing concern. As part of the zero-pollution action plan for 2050, the European Commission has set the target to reduce emissions of microplastics to the environment by 30% from 2016 to 2030. The majority of the microplastics originate from sources on land, and urban areas are viewed as particular hotspots. More knowledge is needed on the sources and pathways of microplastics within the urban area, such as to and from urban water systems. To be able to reduce microplastics pollution, there is also a need to understand where control measures can be introduced and make an impact in terms of reduced loads to the environment. For control measures to be implemented, there is also a need to understand the incentives and challenges that the actors, who have a responsibility related to the flows, encounter when working with pollution control.   

    The aim of this thesis was to contribute to enhanced understanding of flows of microplastics in urban water systems and how the flows can be controlled, in order to facilitate mitigation actions for these flows. This aim was addressed by identifying and quantifying sources with emissions to urban wastewater and stormwater and pathways from the urban water system, with inspiration from the method substance flow analysis. The estimated sources were also compared to measurements in raw wastewater and stormwater from four different catchments to identify matches and differences. Further, control measures were introduced to the quantified sources and pathways. Municipal officials, who can implement the control measures, were also interviewed about their incentives and challenges when controlling microplastics and other pollutants in the urban water system.   

    The emissions of microplastics to stormwater were estimated to be much higher than those to wastewater. Tyre wear particles and cigarette butts were estimated to be the largest sources. While stormwater measurements confirmed tyre wear particles, cigarette butts, and paint particles, which was another large source according to the source estimates, could not be confirmed. Instead, the samples contained other types of microplastics. These mismatches indicate that large flows of microplastics may come from sources that have yet to be identified and quantified. The largest source to wastewater was estimated to be synthetic fibres (mainly polyester) released during laundry washing. Polyester also had the largest share in the wastewater measurements. Untreated stormwater was the largest pathway to receiving waters, followed by treated stormwater. Treated wastewater and overflows had comparatively small emissions. The measures introduced to wastewater had the potential to reduce the load of microplastics in the wastewater by half. However, as wastewater treatment retain most of the microplastics, and because the largest emissions came from stormwater, this reduction made a small difference in terms of total loads to receiving waters. Reduced urban traffic, changed driving behaviour, and more stormwater treatment, were also required to reduce emissions of microplastics from the urban water system to receiving waters by 30% in accordance with the EU target.   

    Three types of incentives for pollution control among the municipal officials were identified. One incentive was that pollution control positively affected other aspects that were seen as important, such as that it had economic benefits or increased water- and sludge quality. Another incentive was a perceived responsibility for water quality, for the environment, or to be role models. A third incentive was a “pressure” to act from the local environmental control authorities or through local politics. The challenges for pollution control were primarily related to insufficient resources in terms of time, finances, and knowledge. Changing, limited, or lack of legislation was also identified as a challenge. Other identified challenges, such as unclear responsibilities and unclear expectations of the work, can be alleviated with a strategy or plan, but a plan did not ease all challenges. Support, in terms of financial means and guidance, is also needed so that actions set out in the plans can be implemented.  

    So far, the control measures for microplastics related to urban water systems have primarily been preventive and focused on restricting use of microplastics in certain applications. There are no restrictions on emissions yet. If such restrictions come, where they are placed will impact the type of measures that will be introduced. This, in turn, will have consequences at the system level: for example, if it will lead to emissions in another part of the system, and which actors will be responsible for managing the pollution. 

    Delarbeid
    1. Towards control strategies for microplastics in urban water
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Towards control strategies for microplastics in urban water
    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 27, nr 32, s. 40421-40433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics (plastic particles < 5 mm) is a pollution of growing concern. Microplastic pollution is a complex issue that requires systematic attempts to provide an overview and avoid management solutions that have marginal effects or only move the pollution problem. Substance flow analysis (SFA) has been proposed as a useful tool to receive such an overview and has been put forward as valuable for substance management. However, as the research on microplastics has only emerged recently, detailed and reliable SFAs are difficult to perform. In this study, we use three SFA studies for three pollutants (cadmium, copper and pharmaceuticals) to compare flows and strategies to control the flows. This in order to seek guidance for microplastic management and evaluate potential strategies for controlling microplastics. The analysis shows that there has been rigorous control on different levels to abate pollution from cadmium, copper and pharmaceuticals, but where in the system the major control measures have been carried out differ. For microplastics, there are many potential solutions, both in terms of preventive actions and treatment depending on the type of source. When forming management plans for microplastics, the responsibility for each measure and the impact on the whole urban system should be taken into consideration as well as which receiving compartments are particularly valuable and should be avoided.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020
    Emneord
    Control strategies; Pollution management; Stormwater; Substance flow analysis; SFA; Wastewater; Urban water
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-168530 (URN)10.1007/s11356-020-10064-z (DOI)000548518400018 ()32666462 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Linkoping University

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-08-28 Laget: 2020-08-28 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-10
    2. Microplastic Types in the Wastewater System: A Comparison of Material Flow-Based Source Estimates and the Measurement-Based Load to a Wastewater Treatment Plant
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Microplastic Types in the Wastewater System: A Comparison of Material Flow-Based Source Estimates and the Measurement-Based Load to a Wastewater Treatment Plant
    2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikkel-id 5404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics are omnipresent in the environment, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been highlighted as a transport pathway. The aim of this study is to contribute to increased understanding of microplastic sources in wastewater and test the possibilities of source tracking. Previous research has focused either on estimating microplastic contribution from various sources or on quantifying occurrence based on measurements. In this paper, these two approaches are compared. Microplastic types detected in the influent to a WWTP in Sweden are compared with estimations of sources in the WWTP catchment area. The total load from the identified sources was estimated to 1.9-14 tonnes/year, and the measurement-based load was 4.2 tonnes/year. In general, there was a good agreement between the two approaches; microplastic types with large shares at the inlet also had large contributions in the source estimates. An exception was cellulose acetate, which was not found at the inlet despite a large theoretical contribution. Many uncertainties remain, which lead to large intervals for the source estimates. The comparison can give an indication into which part of the intervals is most likely. Investigating more WWTPs with different characteristics and including particle morphology will further increase the understanding of sources that contribute to the presence of microplastics in wastewater.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    MDPI, 2021
    Emneord
    FTIR; polymer; substance flow analysis; source tracking; stormwater
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-177867 (URN)10.3390/su13105404 (DOI)000662503900001 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Water and Wastewater Association [16-111]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-07-06 Laget: 2021-07-06 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-10
    3. Upstream pollution control by water utilities in Sweden: incentives and challenges
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Upstream pollution control by water utilities in Sweden: incentives and challenges
    2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 1400-1414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not designed to handle many harmful substances that are present in the wastewater. The substances can also be transferred to the sewage sludge, which can make it unsuitable as a fertiliser. To alleviate these problems, Sweden has a practice called upstream work (uppstromsarbete) that aims to prevent harmful substances from entering the wastewater via efforts to control the pollution closer to the source. Upstream work has produced positive results in terms of reduced pollution in water and sludge and is seen as an important practice by both practicians and policymakers. In this paper, we investigate the incentives and challenges for upstream work as experienced by practitioners at municipal water utilities. The results show that there are two types of incentives: one related to practical problems and the other related to a perceived responsibility for the wastewater system and for the environment. The challenges were primarily related to an insufficient organisational structure for upstream work, manifested in unclear responsibilities, lack of prioritisation, and insufficient resources. The findings can be used to expand and initiate pollution control upstream of the WWTP as part of the urban water management, as well as decision support for policymakers.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    IWA Publishing, 2021
    Emneord
    Barriers; Drivers; Pollution control; Pollution prevention; Sewage sludge; Source control; Upstream work; Urban waters; Wastewater
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-180369 (URN)10.2166/wp.2021.047 (DOI)000703211400001 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Water and Wastewater Association [16-123]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-10-18 Laget: 2021-10-18 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-10
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    fulltext
    Download (png)
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  • 267. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Fältström, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Towards the Control of Microplastic Pollution in Urban Waters2020Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Water pollution has long been considered a challenge in urban areas, and new types of pollution are continuously introduced to society. Urban wastewater and stormwater act as transport pathways of pollution from urban areas to receiving waterways. Microplastics are a new type of pollution that is being highlighted as problematic, and the presence of microplastics is widespread in the environment. The knowledge about behaviour, sources and transport pathways is still limited. Still, there have been suggestions for ways to control microplastic pollution. Moreover, many other pollutants have been introduced, and to a various extent controlled, in the urban water system before, which means that there are strategies for pollution control in place.

    The problem of microplastic pollution is receiving attention from both research and policy. Therefore, there is a need to simultaneously explore ways to handle the pollution and learn more about the flows of microplastics. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of flows of microplastics in urban waters and investigate strategies and measures that can control the flows. This aim has been addressed through three different studies presented in the three appended papers. The empirical material was gathered between 2017 and 2020 using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The flows of microplastics were investigated using a quantitative approach with inspiration from substance flow analysis. Strategies and measures to control pollution were investigated by means of analyses of documents, literature review and interviews.

    In terms of flows, the results show that laundry seems to be a large contributor to the wastewater system, while the contribution from cigarette filters was smaller than anticipated. Littering, in general, as well as paint, are potentially important sources of microplastics where the understanding is very limited. In terms of strategies and measures to control the flows, there are both preventive and treatment options for microplastics. As microplastics are a diverse pollutant group, several different solutions are needed. Some aspects that influence control efforts are related to the properties and behaviour of the specific pollutant and can therefore be more or less suitable for different pollutants. Other aspects are more general, such as what compartments are seen as valuable and prioritised in terms of protection. Further, treatment moves the pollution from the water to another medium, and this movement also needs to be considered.

    Challenges in terms of changing, limited or even lack of legislation, as well as unclear responsibility, and problems with collaboration among urban actors also impact the possibilities to control pollution. The case of microplastics also raises questions about when and how pollution should be controlled and by whom. Further, emerging practices in the urban water system, such as source separation, pipe-separation, and water reuse, will have implications for how pollution will be handled in the future.

    Delarbeid
    1. Towards control strategies for microplastics in urban water
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Towards control strategies for microplastics in urban water
    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 27, nr 32, s. 40421-40433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics (plastic particles < 5 mm) is a pollution of growing concern. Microplastic pollution is a complex issue that requires systematic attempts to provide an overview and avoid management solutions that have marginal effects or only move the pollution problem. Substance flow analysis (SFA) has been proposed as a useful tool to receive such an overview and has been put forward as valuable for substance management. However, as the research on microplastics has only emerged recently, detailed and reliable SFAs are difficult to perform. In this study, we use three SFA studies for three pollutants (cadmium, copper and pharmaceuticals) to compare flows and strategies to control the flows. This in order to seek guidance for microplastic management and evaluate potential strategies for controlling microplastics. The analysis shows that there has been rigorous control on different levels to abate pollution from cadmium, copper and pharmaceuticals, but where in the system the major control measures have been carried out differ. For microplastics, there are many potential solutions, both in terms of preventive actions and treatment depending on the type of source. When forming management plans for microplastics, the responsibility for each measure and the impact on the whole urban system should be taken into consideration as well as which receiving compartments are particularly valuable and should be avoided.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020
    Emneord
    Control strategies; Pollution management; Stormwater; Substance flow analysis; SFA; Wastewater; Urban water
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-168530 (URN)10.1007/s11356-020-10064-z (DOI)000548518400018 ()32666462 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Linkoping University

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-08-28 Laget: 2020-08-28 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-10
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 268.
    Fältström, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Sweden Water Res AB, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Towards control strategies for microplastics in urban water2020Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 27, nr 32, s. 40421-40433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics (plastic particles < 5 mm) is a pollution of growing concern. Microplastic pollution is a complex issue that requires systematic attempts to provide an overview and avoid management solutions that have marginal effects or only move the pollution problem. Substance flow analysis (SFA) has been proposed as a useful tool to receive such an overview and has been put forward as valuable for substance management. However, as the research on microplastics has only emerged recently, detailed and reliable SFAs are difficult to perform. In this study, we use three SFA studies for three pollutants (cadmium, copper and pharmaceuticals) to compare flows and strategies to control the flows. This in order to seek guidance for microplastic management and evaluate potential strategies for controlling microplastics. The analysis shows that there has been rigorous control on different levels to abate pollution from cadmium, copper and pharmaceuticals, but where in the system the major control measures have been carried out differ. For microplastics, there are many potential solutions, both in terms of preventive actions and treatment depending on the type of source. When forming management plans for microplastics, the responsibility for each measure and the impact on the whole urban system should be taken into consideration as well as which receiving compartments are particularly valuable and should be avoided.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 269.
    Fältström, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Sweden Water Res AB, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Exploring how municipalities address microplastics pollution in stormwater - a case study in a Swedish municipality2024Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how municipalities have addressed the microplastics issue in relation to stormwater. Municipal officials in a Swedish municipality with different roles in relation to microplastics in stormwater and project managers with responsibility for plans and strategies related to microplastics were interviewed. Most measures had been introduced to limit dispersal of infill from artificial turfs, followed by measures against plastic litter. Despite the issue being prioritised by the governing politicians, and formalised in a plan, lack of resources was still a challenge to the implementation of more measures. This study gives insights into how a municipality handles a pollutant that is not subject to strict regulations. The results can be used to inform future policy for, and management of, microplastics as well as other contaminants of emerging concern, especially concerning the type of guidance needed by an actor group responsible for implementing measures.

  • 270.
    Fältström, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Upstream pollution control by water utilities in Sweden: incentives and challenges2021Inngår i: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 1400-1414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not designed to handle many harmful substances that are present in the wastewater. The substances can also be transferred to the sewage sludge, which can make it unsuitable as a fertiliser. To alleviate these problems, Sweden has a practice called upstream work (uppstromsarbete) that aims to prevent harmful substances from entering the wastewater via efforts to control the pollution closer to the source. Upstream work has produced positive results in terms of reduced pollution in water and sludge and is seen as an important practice by both practicians and policymakers. In this paper, we investigate the incentives and challenges for upstream work as experienced by practitioners at municipal water utilities. The results show that there are two types of incentives: one related to practical problems and the other related to a perceived responsibility for the wastewater system and for the environment. The challenges were primarily related to an insufficient organisational structure for upstream work, manifested in unclear responsibilities, lack of prioritisation, and insufficient resources. The findings can be used to expand and initiate pollution control upstream of the WWTP as part of the urban water management, as well as decision support for policymakers.

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    fulltext
  • 271.
    Fältström, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Sweden Water Research, Lund, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hagman, Marinette
    Sweden Water Research, Lund, Sweden.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    Sweden Water Research, Lund, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kommunperspektiv på uppströmsarbete i Sverige i dag och i framtiden2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppströmsarbete inom vattensektorn är viktigt för att minska miljöförore­ningar i samhället och förhindra att föroreningar hamnar i kretsloppet av vatten och näringsämnen. Rapporten är ett första försök att beskriva upp­strömsarbetet i svenska VA-organisationer och hur det kan komma att se ut i framtiden. För att utveckla uppströmsarbetet behöver kommunerna mer vägledning och plattformar för erfarenhetsutbyte.

    I kommunerna pågår det uppströmsarbete för olika sorters vatten: spill­vatten, dagvatten och råvatten till dricksvattenproduktion. Projektet har undersökt hur kommunerna arbetar med alla tre vattentyperna. De tre hänger också ihop eftersom dagvatten och vatten från reningsverk kan rinna ut i recipienter som även fungerar som råvattentäkter. Vanligast är uppströmsarbete för spillvatten, dels för att skydda reningsprocessen och recipienten, dels för att höja slammets kvalitet. Uppströmsarbete startade redan på 1960-talet med kontroll av industriavlopp, men begreppet lan­serades först på 1990-talet. I Svenskt Vattens Revaq-certifiering av slam är uppströmsarbete en viktig del. Uppströmsarbete för dagvatten är svårare att genomföra än för spill- och råvatten eftersom det saknas gränsvärden och riktlinjer.

    Projektet identifierade först genom en litteraturgenomgång de verktyg som kan användas i uppströmsarbete. En enkätundersökning genomfördes sedan med 44 VA-organisationer, och tolv av dem valdes ut för intervjuer. Totalt medverkade 87 kommuner. Organisationerna fick berätta om sina behov och bidra med goda exempel. Majoriteten av dem som svarade på enkäten har någon form av uppströmsarbete. Arbetet fungerar för det mesta bra och anses vara viktigt. De flesta av organisationerna har mindre än en heltidstjänst för uppströmsarbete. Flera upplever att man skulle kunna göra mer, men att det kan vara svårt att avsätta tid och pengar när det inte är klarlagt vad arbetet innebär eller går att visa mätbart positiva effekter. Sam­arbetet med tillsynsmyndigheterna är viktigt, men ser olika ut i olika kom­muner. Här behövs det mer kunskap när det gäller hur ett samarbete kan och bör se ut.

    Enkäten och intervjuerna visar att det finns behov av vägledning, framför allt när det gäller dagvatten och hantering av fett i avloppssystemet, men även för uppströmsarbetet i stort. Det behövs också möjligheter till erfa­renhetsutbyte, till exempel ett nationellt nätverk och en konferens eller ett seminarium med fokus på uppströmsarbete.

    Huvudförfattare till rapporten är Emma Fältström, doktorand på Linkö­pings universitet och Sweden Water Research.

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    Kommunperspektiv på uppströmsarbete i Sverige i dag och i framtiden
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  • 272.
    Fältström, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Sweden Water Res AB, Sweden.
    Olesen, Kristina Borg
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Microplastic Types in the Wastewater System: A Comparison of Material Flow-Based Source Estimates and the Measurement-Based Load to a Wastewater Treatment Plant2021Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikkel-id 5404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics are omnipresent in the environment, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been highlighted as a transport pathway. The aim of this study is to contribute to increased understanding of microplastic sources in wastewater and test the possibilities of source tracking. Previous research has focused either on estimating microplastic contribution from various sources or on quantifying occurrence based on measurements. In this paper, these two approaches are compared. Microplastic types detected in the influent to a WWTP in Sweden are compared with estimations of sources in the WWTP catchment area. The total load from the identified sources was estimated to 1.9-14 tonnes/year, and the measurement-based load was 4.2 tonnes/year. In general, there was a good agreement between the two approaches; microplastic types with large shares at the inlet also had large contributions in the source estimates. An exception was cellulose acetate, which was not found at the inlet despite a large theoretical contribution. Many uncertainties remain, which lead to large intervals for the source estimates. The comparison can give an indication into which part of the intervals is most likely. Investigating more WWTPs with different characteristics and including particle morphology will further increase the understanding of sources that contribute to the presence of microplastics in wastewater.

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    fulltext
  • 273.
    Georgiadou, Maria
    et al.
    European Commission.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Proietti, Stefano
    ISINNOVA.
    Fredriksson Möller, Björn
    ETIP Bioenergy.
    Sfetsas, Themistoklis
    Qlab.
    Salonen, Petteri
    Finrenes.
    Stålhandske, Jonas
    Biofrigas Sweden.
    Innovative technologies for biomethane production: Review of the current state of the art2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 274.
    Giulianelli, Ambra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Vasudevan Sulochana, Mukessh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Evaluation of compatibility of design methods for circular business models:: A study of Swedish companies2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialization and globalization of companies has promoted fast, easy and profitable business solutions. A linear business model (LBM) is seen as the most common way to do business. However, recent studies have enlightened how LBMs are detrimental to the health and biological cycles of the earth and its inhabitants. To prevent this, circular business models (CBM) are being introduced as a feasible while still profitable solution. CBMs are defined by Oghaze & Mostaghel, (2018), as the “…rationale of how an organisation creates, delivers, and captures value with slowing, closing, or narrowing flows of the resource loops”, as they base their business on products and services designed to close or slowing the resource loops, decreasing the overall need of virgin resources. 

    However, to make these major changes in the current way of designing products and services has to be made, taking into consideration the change in design objectives from a linear to a circular model. Today, there are many circular design methods (DM) developed by academia to aid designers in designing sustainable products and services, however, the uptake of such DMs in the industry is quite low. Such a low level of uptake is often due to a poor fit between the DM and the context it is adopted in, which does not aid its seamless integration in existing processes. 

    Therefore, this research aims to identify DM characteristics that will aid industries to be adopted or adapted by companies transitioning towards CBMs. To do so, three research questions were developed: i) What are the most critical internal and external drivers in a company that enable the successful adoption of a circular design method?  ii) What are the contextual barriers that companies encounter when adopting or adapting circular design methods? iii) How can the design method adopted or adapted be evaluated to improve their implementation in a company?

    To answer these research questions, a survey was initially carried out, and subsequent interviews were conducted amongst participants of five different companies from various sectors and expertise. The survey and interviews were grounded in previous research concerning types of CBM and different types of barriers and drivers influencing the adoption of circular DMs.  The result from the survey indicates that the ability to make trade-offs when confronted with sustainability aspects, management commitment to a CBM, good communication and sharing of environmental knowledge, both through different departments and with external actors like suppliers, as well as allocating resources such as time, personnel, funds, and having clear business incentives are needed to promote the use of circular DMs. From the interviews, it was also found that barriers to the effective use of DMs are lack of environmental knowledge throughout the supply chain and wrong identification of actors in the supply chain as well as limited communication with external actors. Furthermore, the research revealed several characteristics of the DMs such as simplicity, flexibility and informativity need to be adapted to leverage and overcome the identified contextual drivers and barriers respectively, for their successful deployment within the companies.  

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 275.
    Golinska-Dawson, Paulina
    et al.
    Poznań University of Technology, Poland.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Werner-Lewandowska, Karolina
    Poznań University of Technology, Poland.
    Challenges and research issues for remanufacturing in PaaS from theory to industry perspective2023Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 276.
    Gomolka, Beth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Service Offering Uncertainty Analysis Tool2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Companies that seek to venture into providing services in addition to providing products have many business issues to consider as there are many differences between providing service and product offerings.  One factor that needs to be considered in service offerings is the aspect of time, as services are offered for an extended period of time, creating a unique type of relationship between the customer and the service provider.  With product offerings, the point of sale is usually the end of the product provider and customer relationship.  The added time aspect in the service offering brings with it the issues of uncertainty as service contracts are made for a certain period of time in the future, where things are unknown.

     

    This thesis looked at types of uncertainties important to service offerings, especially in the manufacturing industry.  The uncertainties have an impact on how service offering contracts are constructed, as they can affect the profit and costs of the service provider. The three types of uncertainties that were examined were product malfunction uncertainty, service delivery uncertainty, and customer requirement uncertainty. Using these three types of uncertainty, mathematical models were constructed to represent the cost and revenue of different contract types. The different contract types were identified through a case study with a product manufacturer in Sweden.  Different probability distributions were selected to model the three types of uncertainty based on a literature review.  The mathematical models were then used to construct a software program, the uncertainty simulator tool, which service contract designers can use to model how uncertainties affect cost and revenue in their contracts.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 277.
    Granberg Lomyr, Mikaela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Urban mining i praktiken: Hur kan återvinning av markförlagda kablar integreras i infrastrukturs-planeringen och vilka kostnadsposter kan användas vid projektbererdning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    För att hantera den ökande befolkningen i världen behöver jordens resurser användas mer effekt vilket till exempel kan göras genom att återvinna material som inte längre fyller någon funktion. Området Urban mining handlar om att frigöra material som inte längre används i den urbana miljön och göra dem tillgängliga för nya produkter. I Sverige förläggs olika typer av infrastruktursystem i marken och när de inte längre används får de vanligtvis ligga kvar. Resursbasen som bland annat urkopplade elkablar utgör har identifierats i tidigare studier som intressant att ta upp i samband med markingrepp, då de innehåller värdefulla metaller. Att förädla malm till ren metall är dessutom mer kostsamt, ur både ekonomiskt och miljömässigt perspektiv, än att återvinna produkter som inte längre används.Studien har omfattat intervjuer med elnätsägaren i Linköping om hur beslut fattas kring elnätets förvaltning samt en praktisk pilotstudie i utvecklingsorten Vikingstad. Personer på olika strategisk nivå intervjuades och styrande dokument som ägardirektiv för verksamheten granskades. Därefter identifierades möjligheter och hinder för att kabelupptagning ska ske i större utsträckning än idag samt vart i den strategiska processen frågan behöver integreras. I Vikingstad var planen att både förnya och förstärka elnätet på sträckor där kablar som skulle kopplas ur låg. Under pilotstudien undersöktes vilka extra moment som upptagningen krävde, vad momenten innebar för kostnader, vilken tid de tog samt vilka intäkter som kabelskrotet genererade.Elnätsägarna regleras av energimarknasinspektionens intäktsram och branchorganisationen Svensk energi har en central roll för ökad och spridd kunskap hos Sveriges elnätsägare. Dessa två intressenter har därför viktiga roller i ställningstagandet om huruvida urkopplade elnätskablar ska tas upp eller ej. Hos elnätsägaren i Linköping är det när beslut tas om vilka förstärknings- eller förnyelseprojekt som ska genomföras som möjligheten till integrering av upptagning av urkopplade kablar bör undersökas. Detta då fallspecifika parametrar som fördelaktig ny sträckning och omkopplingsmöjligheter är avgörande för genomförbarheten. Resultatet från pilotstudien visar att fyra typer av moment är nödvändiga för att ta upp urkopplade kablar: ”schaktning och friläggning”, ”lyfta upp kabel ur schakt”, ”samla ihop kabel och kabelband” samt ”återställning”. Av dessa moment påverkar ”schaktning och friläggning” kostnaderna mest om extra djup krävs och ”lyfta upp kabel ur schakt” är mest kostsamt om det finns många andra system kring kabeln som ska tas upp. Det ekonomiska resultatet visar att tre procent av kostnaderna på sträckorna där kablar togs upp kan allokeras till upptagningen.Slutligen konstateras att fördelar som ökad miljöprestanda och frigjord plats för nya system i marken bör beaktas i större utsträckning hos elnätsägaren. Kostnader och intäkter kan också styras om för att motivera elnätsägarna mer, då upptagningen i dagsläget medför ökade kostnader för dem. För att underlätta budgetering av förstärknings- eller förnyelseprojekt med integrerad kabelupptagning presenteras kostnadsposter för de sammanslagna momenten upptagningen innebär, baserade på olika grundförutsättningar. Exempel på framtida studier för att öka kunskapen om och möjligheterna att ta upp urkopplade kablar är fler pilotstudier för att erhålla ett mer generaliserbart dataunderlag samt att undersöka hur ekonomiska värden av kabelupptagning kan fördelas mer fördelaktigt för elnätsägarna.

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  • 278.
    Granér, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    The future of captured CO2: Analysis of the role of carbon capture, storage and utilisation in a sustainable Europe2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The energy transition is one of the largest challenges our global society is facing. In 2015, the United Nations acknowledged the Paris Agreement, where the world’s nations were united to limit the global warming well below 2 °C in comparison with pre-historic levels. One of the measures to tackle this challenge that have been proposed by both the International Energy Agency and the European Union is carbon capture and storage or utilisation (CCUS). The concept of CCUS is relatively old but has in light of climate mitigation measures been identified as vital since carbon dioxide (CO2) either can be permanently stored or sequestered into products and materials. Previous research has shown a large potential in CCUS, and that it has a key role in enabling and achieving net-zero climate scenarios. However, large-scale and widely distributed CCUS facilities has not yet been deployed, and it is not fully clear which aspects that are the most important affecting the deployment and how this can be facilitated. This study aims to investigate the current and future market of captured CO2 in Europe during the next decade. The study aims to fill the knowledge gap on how policies affect the development of CCUS, the drivers and barriers that current actors have identified within the field, and lastly, possible pathways in which CO2 can be used.

    This study was performed using a literature scoping review and interviews with relevant CCUS actors in different parts of the value-chain. The results show CCUS is recognised as an important tool within the European Union to reach the climate goals set out by the European Commission. The development and further deployment of CCUS are however prevented due to economic and legislative barriers, of which low carbon pricing, such as the EU ETS, is identified as the main barrier against making CCUS commercially competitive. Additional legislative barriers are connected to the cross-national trade and export of CO2, as well as a lacking framework on verification and monitoring of captured CO2 and the trade with carbon removal credits. The results also show that CCUS initially will be developed at industrial clusters in the North-West Europe, where shared infrastructure is recognised as an enabler due to sharing risks of investments. The main focus within Europe is on offshore storage rather than CCU due to its large sequestering potential, although CCU can be relevant in regions lacking infrastructure for the transportation of CO2. Regarding the investigated utilisation options, synthetic fuels, building materials, and polymers have been identified to have high potential even if they are not believed to have a high influence as a climate mitigation measure in comparison with CCS.

    It is concluded that viable business models and cost-effective infrastructure solutions are essential for the European CCUS industry. Much of the deployment is however dependent on clear, beneficial frameworks and policies stating the rules and facilitating the economics of CCUS. Nevertheless, it is expected that especially the European CCS sector will grow in Europe in the upcoming decade, although the role of CCU should not be neglected. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    The future of captured CO2
  • 279. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Can we go circular?: On the multifaceted challenges of facilitating shredder fines valorisation in the Swedish context2020Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In concomitance with the growing developments around the circular economy concept in the region, the resource recovery and recycling of industrial production residues is increasingly being envisaged in the European Union and its member states. The role of the recycling industry has become ever important in this context. The shredding industry is based on shredding discarded products such as end-of-life vehicles, and municipal white goods, and subsequent retrieval of (primarily) metals. Shredder fines (or fines) is a heterogeneous fine-granular production residue of this industry, which is currently disposed of. Shredder fines presents, and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future, several challenges that need to be addressed. It creates a disposal problem given the shrinking landfill availability and incurs handling costs to the shredding industry. Furthermore, it reduces our resources efficiency in general.

    This thesis aims to contribute knowledge on the challenges of facilitating the valorisation of shredder fines in the context of Sweden. In doing so, the current situation concerning fines and its management was investigated by addressing the research questions; 1) What is the resource potential of fines generated at the studied shredding plant, and 2) Why is the current disposal-oriented management of shredder fines sustained in Sweden. There, a systems perspective was employed, where the research questions were addressed on the material, actor, and institution levels, based on three scientific articles, which are appended.

    The studied material carries a certain amount of potentially recoverable resources, nevertheless shows a significant need for upgrading pertaining to the user requirements and regulatory standards of different recovery applications. The full recovery of fines requires integrated processes that could simultaneously harness these resource opportunities and resolve the material constraints. When it comes to the current practice of managing fines in Sweden, the utilisation in landfill covering offers the shredding companies a secure outlet for the material, given it is a well-established practice that has evolved over decades of operations and there is still a significant demand for landfill cover materials. Additionally, it provides shredding companies with a legislatively-compliant low-cost disposal option for managing fines. On the other hand, the complex materiality, lack of marketability of secondary raw materials (SRMs), and unfavourable governmental regulation of waste recovery create strategic disincentives for shredding companies in opting for fines valorisation.

    Fines valorisation calls for change in the well-established current practice of utilising the material in landfill covering. Thus, drastic policy measures such as phasing out landfilling and mandating resource recovery and recycling of fines are required to remove the incentives for fines disposal and compel the shredding industry to seek valorisation alternatives for its management. In order to ensure long-term sustenance, applications based on fines valorisation need favourable and more predictable circumstances and settings on different societal levels. There, secure outlets for potential fines-derived SRMs is one of the essential elements. Governmental interventions to create demand and alleviate valorisation investments via market and financial instruments play a significant role in that regard. The other primary requirement to facilitate fines valorisation in the long term is to set clear market and regulatory playing rules. Established supply and demand structures would enable clear pricing mechanisms for fines-derived SRMs and accurate economic assessments of fines valorisation, thus reducing the investment risk for shredding companies. On the other hand, clear regulatory standards and favourable regulatory practices would reduce the uncertainty of the realisation of valorisation applications and gain trust among actors.

    Delarbeid
    1. Guiding future research on the valorisation of shredder fine residues: A review of four decades of research
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Guiding future research on the valorisation of shredder fine residues: A review of four decades of research
    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 09, s. 150-164Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of tonnes of shredder fines are generated and disposed of globally, despite compelling reasons for its recovery. The absence of a review of previous literature, however, makes it difficult to understand the underlying reasons for this. Thus, this study attempts to investigate and assess what, to what extent, and in what ways shredder fines have been addressed in previous research. In doing so, guidelines are drawn for future research to facilitate the valorisation (upgrading and recovery) of shredder fines. Previous research concerning shredder fines was identified with respect to three main research topics. The material characterisation studies are predominantly confined to the occurrence of metals due to their recovery and contamination potential. The process development studies have often undertaken narrowly conceived objectives of addressing one resource opportunity or contamination problem at a time. Consequently, the full recovery (the retrieval of valuable resources and the bulk-utilisation as substitute material) potential of shredder fines has been largely overlooked. The main limitation of policy and regulation studies is the absence of in-depth knowledge on the implications of governmental waste- and resource-policies (macro-level) on actors’ incentives and capacities (micro-level) for fines valorisation, which is necessary to understand the marketability of fines-derived resources. Undertaking a systems perspective is the key to recognising not only the different aspects within the individual research topics but also the inter-relations between them. It also facilitates the internalisation of the inter-relations into topical research.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Padova, Italy: CISA Publisher, 2020
    Emneord
    Shredder fines, Shredder residue, Valorisation, Recovery, Systems perspective
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-167032 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2019.13868 (DOI)000521799700019 ()
    Prosjekter
    Mistra closing the loop II
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-06-25 Laget: 2020-06-25 Sist oppdatert: 2021-09-12bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Potential valorisation of shredder fines: Towards integrated processes formaterial upgrading and resource recovery
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Potential valorisation of shredder fines: Towards integrated processes formaterial upgrading and resource recovery
    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 154, artikkel-id 104590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of process development based on a comprehensive understanding of the material characteristics and the marketability of recoverables is the primary reason why the valorisation of shredder fines has not been realised in practice. In response, a systematic approach was undertaken consisting of 1) strategic sampling and material characterisation, 2) establishing gate and regulatory requirements of potential valorisation applications, and 3) initial feasibility assessment of the selected applications, to guide future research.

    The material was sampled over ten weeks in order to obtain both average values and variations of the physical and chemical composition. Thus weekly, primary fractions and sieved fractions ZA (7.10–5.00 mm), ZB (5.00–3.35 mm), ZC (3.35–2.00 mm), ZD (2.00–0.25 mm), and ZE (0.25–0.063 mm) were prepared, and analysed, and benchmarked against the requirements pertaining to five potential applications. The mercury and aluminium concentrations are the biggest challenge in copper smelting and only ZA and ZB show significant potential. Energy recovery is limited to ZA, ZB, and ZC, provided the chlorine and metals concentrations are decreased. Regarding the recovery as bulk-material in construction, the reduction of the metal content would likely be a pre-requisite.

    The utilisation of fines in the individual applications would either leave a significant amount of fines un-valorised or overlook the recovery of valuable resources. The upgrading of the material to suit the different applications would also require addressing multiple material constraints simultaneously. Therefore, realising the full resource potential of shredder fines would require the integration of different upgrading and recovery processes.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2020
    Emneord
    Shredder fines, Valorisation, Upgrading, Recovery, Characterisation, User requirements
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-167036 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.104590 (DOI)000540553600036 ()2-s2.0-85075936986 (Scopus ID)
    Prosjekter
    Mistra Closing the loop II
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra)Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-06-25 Laget: 2020-06-25 Sist oppdatert: 2021-09-12bibliografisk kontrollert
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    fulltext
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    presentationsbild
  • 280.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Drivers and barriers of shredder fines valorisation2019Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 281. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Valorisation of heterogeneous industrial residues towards a circular economy: A systems-oriented investigation on how to facilitate shredder fines valorisation in the Swedish context2021Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of circular economy in the European region the role of the recycling industry has become ever important. Shredder fines (or fines) is a heterogeneous fine-granular production residue of the shredding industry, and is currently disposed of. Shredder fines presents a disposal problem and incurs handling costs to the shredding industry. More importantly, its disposal reduces the resources efficiency of our society. This thesis aims to contribute systems-oriented knowledge to facilitate the valorisation of shredder fines in the Swedish context. In doing so, it contributes to two knowledge. Knowledge area one portrays the current picture concerning fines management in terms of the underlying factors of the current practice of fines management and the market prospects for secondary construction aggregates. Knowledge area two showcases the potential approach to initiate process development in terms of assessments of the resource potential of fines and the environmental impact of fines-valorisation. 

    The findings of knowledge area one show that the studied shredding company is more inclined towards continuing on the current disposal-oriented management of fines. That is because of both incentives for utilising fines as landfill cover materials and disincentives for valorising fines, created by various policy, market, and organisational factors. On the other hand, a significant need exists to improve the prospects of secondary aggregates in the construction aggregates market. Currently, the market is chiefly characterised by processes and underlying structures that sustain dominant primary aggregates utilisation, whereas secondary aggregates utilisation is situational and driven by different supply chain actors due to different individual reasons.

    The findings of knowledge area two show that process development for fines valorisation has several technical and environmental challenges. The resource potential assessment of the fines shows that the initial technical feasibility of fines valorisation is considerable, however different resource recovery strategies would require different levels of processes for upgrading and resource recovery. The ex-ante life cycle assessment of fines valorisation shows that potential fines valorisation is environmentally more promising compared to landfill-related disposal, however, different resource recovery strategies would create different levels of environmental impacts and present different needs for improvements.

    Facilitating fines valorisation calls for different measures on the institution and actor levels. Drastic policy measures are required to remove the incentives for the disposal of the material and compel shredding companies to seek valorisation alternatives. In order to ensure long-term sustenance of fines valorisation, fines-derived secondary raw materials need secure outlets and clear market and regulatory playing rules for their generation and application. Additionally, environmentally feasible and cost effective upgrading and resource recovery processes have to be developed.

    The origin of circular economy is grounded in restoring the environmental balance and reducing the throughput of natural resources in anthropogenic systems. Nevertheless, the current conceptualisation of circular economy is predominantly focusing on the economic progress, which somewhat promotes “business as usual”. This thesis attempts to reinstate the original resource conservation idea of circular economy in relation to heterogeneous industrial residue valorisation.

    Delarbeid
    1. Guiding future research on the valorisation of shredder fine residues: A review of four decades of research
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Guiding future research on the valorisation of shredder fine residues: A review of four decades of research
    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 09, s. 150-164Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of tonnes of shredder fines are generated and disposed of globally, despite compelling reasons for its recovery. The absence of a review of previous literature, however, makes it difficult to understand the underlying reasons for this. Thus, this study attempts to investigate and assess what, to what extent, and in what ways shredder fines have been addressed in previous research. In doing so, guidelines are drawn for future research to facilitate the valorisation (upgrading and recovery) of shredder fines. Previous research concerning shredder fines was identified with respect to three main research topics. The material characterisation studies are predominantly confined to the occurrence of metals due to their recovery and contamination potential. The process development studies have often undertaken narrowly conceived objectives of addressing one resource opportunity or contamination problem at a time. Consequently, the full recovery (the retrieval of valuable resources and the bulk-utilisation as substitute material) potential of shredder fines has been largely overlooked. The main limitation of policy and regulation studies is the absence of in-depth knowledge on the implications of governmental waste- and resource-policies (macro-level) on actors’ incentives and capacities (micro-level) for fines valorisation, which is necessary to understand the marketability of fines-derived resources. Undertaking a systems perspective is the key to recognising not only the different aspects within the individual research topics but also the inter-relations between them. It also facilitates the internalisation of the inter-relations into topical research.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Padova, Italy: CISA Publisher, 2020
    Emneord
    Shredder fines, Shredder residue, Valorisation, Recovery, Systems perspective
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-167032 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2019.13868 (DOI)000521799700019 ()
    Prosjekter
    Mistra closing the loop II
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-06-25 Laget: 2020-06-25 Sist oppdatert: 2021-09-12bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Potential valorisation of shredder fines: Towards integrated processes formaterial upgrading and resource recovery
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Potential valorisation of shredder fines: Towards integrated processes formaterial upgrading and resource recovery
    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 154, artikkel-id 104590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of process development based on a comprehensive understanding of the material characteristics and the marketability of recoverables is the primary reason why the valorisation of shredder fines has not been realised in practice. In response, a systematic approach was undertaken consisting of 1) strategic sampling and material characterisation, 2) establishing gate and regulatory requirements of potential valorisation applications, and 3) initial feasibility assessment of the selected applications, to guide future research.

    The material was sampled over ten weeks in order to obtain both average values and variations of the physical and chemical composition. Thus weekly, primary fractions and sieved fractions ZA (7.10–5.00 mm), ZB (5.00–3.35 mm), ZC (3.35–2.00 mm), ZD (2.00–0.25 mm), and ZE (0.25–0.063 mm) were prepared, and analysed, and benchmarked against the requirements pertaining to five potential applications. The mercury and aluminium concentrations are the biggest challenge in copper smelting and only ZA and ZB show significant potential. Energy recovery is limited to ZA, ZB, and ZC, provided the chlorine and metals concentrations are decreased. Regarding the recovery as bulk-material in construction, the reduction of the metal content would likely be a pre-requisite.

    The utilisation of fines in the individual applications would either leave a significant amount of fines un-valorised or overlook the recovery of valuable resources. The upgrading of the material to suit the different applications would also require addressing multiple material constraints simultaneously. Therefore, realising the full resource potential of shredder fines would require the integration of different upgrading and recovery processes.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2020
    Emneord
    Shredder fines, Valorisation, Upgrading, Recovery, Characterisation, User requirements
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-167036 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.104590 (DOI)000540553600036 ()2-s2.0-85075936986 (Scopus ID)
    Prosjekter
    Mistra Closing the loop II
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra)Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-06-25 Laget: 2020-06-25 Sist oppdatert: 2021-09-12bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Current Practice of Managing the Waste of the Waste: Policy, Market, and Organisational Factors Influencing Shredder Fines Management in Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Current Practice of Managing the Waste of the Waste: Policy, Market, and Organisational Factors Influencing Shredder Fines Management in Sweden
    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 22, artikkel-id 9540Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling-industry residue called shredder fines (fines) presents a disposal problem,incurs handling costs, and reduces resource efficiency in general. This study aims to identify thechallenges of facilitating fines valorisation in the Swedish context. Hence, the shredding companyperspective of the underlying factors that sustain the current practice of fines management isestablished by studying the case of a specific shredding company using semi-structured interviews.Utilisation in landfill covering offers the company a secure outlet and a legislatively-compliant lowcostdisposal option for fines. Additionally, lack of specific regulatory standards, unfavourableregulation of waste reutilisation, and lack of market demand for secondary raw materials (SRMs)create disincentives to develop valorisation options. Also, the lack of corporate-level focus on theissue has resulted in a lack of organising for and capacities to improve the handling of the material.Initiating fines valorisation needs to challenge these prevailing circumstances and thus necessitatesgovernmental interventions. Simultaneously, favourable conditions for SRM utilisation are needed;that is, established outlets for fines-derived SRMs and clear regulatory and market playing rulesthat reduce uncertainty and investment risk of developing tailored processes for upgrading andresource recovery need to be available.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Switzerland: , 2020
    Emneord
    current practice; fines valorisation; policy; market; organisation
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-171418 (URN)10.3390/su12229540 (DOI)000594571200001 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, DIA 2013/036
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra)Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research [DIA 2013/036]; Linkoping University Library

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-11-16 Laget: 2020-11-16 Sist oppdatert: 2021-09-12
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (png)
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  • 282.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Environmental potential of shredder fines valorisation2022Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 154, s. 223-231Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of tonnes of shredder fines are disposed of annually across the world. In Sweden, fines are primarily utilised in landfill covering. Given the decreasing landfilling and the increasing environmental concerns, the valorisation of this residue is becoming ever important. In order to guide sustainable investment decisions and governance of fines valorisation, this study aimed to assess the environmental potential of different valorisation alternatives. In doing so, three conceptual valorisation process schemes were formulated together with the shredding industry, each based on principally different resource recovery strategies: 1) maximising copper re-covery, 2) maximising construction aggregates recovery, and 3) optimising full resource recovery. A streamlined life cycle assessment (LCA) of these valorisation alternatives was performed in relation to the impact categories of climate change, ozone depletion, acidification, and resource depletion. The results of this study generally suggest that in the context of Sweden, Alternatives 1 and 3 are preferable over Alternative 2 regarding all the impact categories. There, Alternative 3 is more preferable regarding climate change, while Alternative 1 is preferable regarding the other impact categories. Several environmental hot spots occur along the different life cycle stages of the fines-derived secondary raw materials. The Monte Carlo simulation of the parameter un-certainties generally confirms the overall LCA findings.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 283.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Current Practice of Managing the Waste of the Waste: Policy, Market, and Organisational Factors Influencing Shredder Fines Management in Sweden2020Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 22, artikkel-id 9540Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling-industry residue called shredder fines (fines) presents a disposal problem,incurs handling costs, and reduces resource efficiency in general. This study aims to identify thechallenges of facilitating fines valorisation in the Swedish context. Hence, the shredding companyperspective of the underlying factors that sustain the current practice of fines management isestablished by studying the case of a specific shredding company using semi-structured interviews.Utilisation in landfill covering offers the company a secure outlet and a legislatively-compliant lowcostdisposal option for fines. Additionally, lack of specific regulatory standards, unfavourableregulation of waste reutilisation, and lack of market demand for secondary raw materials (SRMs)create disincentives to develop valorisation options. Also, the lack of corporate-level focus on theissue has resulted in a lack of organising for and capacities to improve the handling of the material.Initiating fines valorisation needs to challenge these prevailing circumstances and thus necessitatesgovernmental interventions. Simultaneously, favourable conditions for SRM utilisation are needed;that is, established outlets for fines-derived SRMs and clear regulatory and market playing rulesthat reduce uncertainty and investment risk of developing tailored processes for upgrading andresource recovery need to be available.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 284.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Market prospects of secondary construction aggregates in Sweden2022Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 360, artikkel-id 132155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition towards a circular economy is being increasingly envisaged in Europe. Increased utilisation of secondary construction aggregates poses a great opportunity in this regard given its potential to avoid waste disposal, natural resource extraction, and reduce costs. Nevertheless, the Swedish construction aggregates market is dominantly characterised by primary aggregates utilisation. This study employs a qualitative approach to analyse the Swedish construction aggregates market from the user perspective in order to identify the challenges of increased utilisation of secondary aggregates. The dominant and systematic utilisation of primary aggregates is chiefly driven by market processes allowing economic advantages and convenience for the users in doing so, whereas the situational and non-systematic utilisation of secondary aggregates is opportunistically driven by different actors in order to seize opportunities such as avoided costs and improved environmental performance. The realisation of increased secondary aggregates utilisation needs to be first facilitated via changes to the institutional structure that makes such materials a priority issue for the supply chain actors, which necessitates national-level policy interventions and supply chain actor collaborations. Second, the competitiveness of secondary aggregates needs to be lifted to a comparable state to that of primary aggregates, which necessitates the development of specific sectoral application standards and vertical integration of secondary aggregates supply by construction corporations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 285.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Guiding future research on the valorisation of shredder fine residues: A review of four decades of research2020Inngår i: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 09, s. 150-164Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of tonnes of shredder fines are generated and disposed of globally, despite compelling reasons for its recovery. The absence of a review of previous literature, however, makes it difficult to understand the underlying reasons for this. Thus, this study attempts to investigate and assess what, to what extent, and in what ways shredder fines have been addressed in previous research. In doing so, guidelines are drawn for future research to facilitate the valorisation (upgrading and recovery) of shredder fines. Previous research concerning shredder fines was identified with respect to three main research topics. The material characterisation studies are predominantly confined to the occurrence of metals due to their recovery and contamination potential. The process development studies have often undertaken narrowly conceived objectives of addressing one resource opportunity or contamination problem at a time. Consequently, the full recovery (the retrieval of valuable resources and the bulk-utilisation as substitute material) potential of shredder fines has been largely overlooked. The main limitation of policy and regulation studies is the absence of in-depth knowledge on the implications of governmental waste- and resource-policies (macro-level) on actors’ incentives and capacities (micro-level) for fines valorisation, which is necessary to understand the marketability of fines-derived resources. Undertaking a systems perspective is the key to recognising not only the different aspects within the individual research topics but also the inter-relations between them. It also facilitates the internalisation of the inter-relations into topical research.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 286.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Potential valorisation of shredder fines: Towards integrated processes formaterial upgrading and resource recovery2020Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 154, artikkel-id 104590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of process development based on a comprehensive understanding of the material characteristics and the marketability of recoverables is the primary reason why the valorisation of shredder fines has not been realised in practice. In response, a systematic approach was undertaken consisting of 1) strategic sampling and material characterisation, 2) establishing gate and regulatory requirements of potential valorisation applications, and 3) initial feasibility assessment of the selected applications, to guide future research.

    The material was sampled over ten weeks in order to obtain both average values and variations of the physical and chemical composition. Thus weekly, primary fractions and sieved fractions ZA (7.10–5.00 mm), ZB (5.00–3.35 mm), ZC (3.35–2.00 mm), ZD (2.00–0.25 mm), and ZE (0.25–0.063 mm) were prepared, and analysed, and benchmarked against the requirements pertaining to five potential applications. The mercury and aluminium concentrations are the biggest challenge in copper smelting and only ZA and ZB show significant potential. Energy recovery is limited to ZA, ZB, and ZC, provided the chlorine and metals concentrations are decreased. Regarding the recovery as bulk-material in construction, the reduction of the metal content would likely be a pre-requisite.

    The utilisation of fines in the individual applications would either leave a significant amount of fines un-valorised or overlook the recovery of valuable resources. The upgrading of the material to suit the different applications would also require addressing multiple material constraints simultaneously. Therefore, realising the full resource potential of shredder fines would require the integration of different upgrading and recovery processes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 287.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Residue products often pose a huge challenge to material recycling industry. Especially heterogenic and fine granular residues. It increases the cost and reduces the efficiency of material separation and recovery. Currently, the most common practice is to landfill such residue products. However, decreasing availability of landfills, increasing landfill costs, and new policy instruments require higher rates of resource recovery. In spite of that, business initiatives for recovering secondary raw material from residue products are often deterred by stringent environmental legislation emphasizing human toxicity concerns. Shredding industry plays a huge role in the context of circular economy via recycling important waste streams such as end-oflife vehicles (ELVs), municipal white goods, construction and demolition waste, and different industrial wastes. The core business model of industrial shredding is driven by recovering different metals while a variety of residue products including plastics, rubber, foam, wood, glass, and sand are generated. Shredder fine residue (also called shredder fines) is a fine granular residue product with intrinsic heterogeneity, which is produced by the shredding industry. A share of 15-20% of the input would end up as shredder fines in a typical plant.

    The overall aim of this study is to draw technical, market and regulatory boundary conditions for improved material recovery from shredder fines. Thereby to build a framework of principal guidelines to support systematic identification, development, and evaluation of different valorization options for shredder fines. The outcome of this study is also envisioned to provide generic conclusions to the valorization of heterogenic residue products in general.

    The study is performed in collaboration with a major shredding company in Sweden. The methodology reflects the Swedish context and consists of two phases. During the initial phase, firstly, the overall shredding industry structure of Sweden is studied to understand the governing regulatory framework, level of competition, and the scale of operation. Secondly, the collaborating company is studied to gain knowledge on technical feasibility of implementing recovery processes, economic, business and market aspects, and implications of national and local legislation, from the shredding company perspective. Empirical methods such as interviews and study of documentation are used in this phase.

    During the second phase, detailed material and elemental characterization tests are performed on shredder fine samples. Thereby the distribution of basic elements, metals, heating value, and ash, in shredder fines as well as across different size fractions of shredder fines is established. The results are compared and contrasted against literature values. An extensive survey is also carried out to identify potential users for different materials which are possibly recoverable from shredder fines. Such potential users are then mapped against materials. Leaching tests are also performed to assess the mobility of heavy metals and thereby the potential environmental risk and human toxicity.

    As the main contribution of this study, knowledge is developed and synthesized, boundary conditions are set, and principal guidelines of general relevance are drawn in order to facilitate improved valorization of fine granular residue products.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 288.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Initial feasibility assessment of potential applications for valorisation of shredder fines: A Swedish case study on gate requirements and legislative conditions2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Shredder fines is a residue of the shredding industry and is currently landfilled or used as landfill cover in Sweden. Throughout the time, the heterogeneity and small particle size have rendered resource recovery and recycling of it challenging. In spite of that, European policies envisioning circular economy, in concomitance with stringent resource recovery requirements and increased landfill taxes are challenging the current disposal practices of the shredding industry. As an attempt to address this issue, the present study has developed a systematic approach for performing an initial assessment of the feasibility of several selected mainstream applications for valorisation of shredder fines.

    First, sampling of shredder fines from a major shredding plant was obtained twice a week over a 10 weeks period. The main focus of the sampling program was to encompass the variation in the material’s physical and chemical composition. The two samples from each week were then mixed and divided into six subsamples. That is, one original fraction and five size fractions; ZA (7.10-5.00 mm), ZB (5.00-3.35 mm), ZC (3.35-2.00 mm), ZD (2.00-0.25 mm), and ZE (0.25-0.063 mm). These sub-samples were subsequently sent for laboratory analysis for characterisation of contaminants, potentially valuable metals and energy recovery related properties. Second, three potential main stream applications for shredder fines were identified based on existing research on similar industrial residues (e.g. municipal waste incineration bottom ash) and current practices of the Swedish shredding industry. The selected applications are; Smelting for copper, Energy recovery in cement kilns and municipal solid waste incinerators, and Substitution of aggregates in concrete making and road construction. Third, the gate requirements of potential users and legislative requirements with regards to the identified applications were established, and the characteristics of shredder fines were benchmarked against them.

    As far as copper smelting is concerned, the presence of high concentrations of lead and chromium is the biggest challenge. Otherwise, the fractions; ZA, ZB, and ZD show some potential due to manageable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury. Concerning energy recovery, the calorific value apparently narrows down the options to municipal waste incinerators. There, the chlorine concentration only allows utilisation of the ZC fraction whereas heavy metal concentrations are too high with regards to all the fractions. With regards to the use as substitute material in construction, legislative requirements in Sweden for total content and leachate content of metals are too strict for shredder fines.

    In conclusion, the benchmarking reveals the need for prior upgrading of shredder fines with respect to the different applications. Thus, integrated upgrading processes that could handle the complexity of the material in terms of contaminants and valuable recoverables is needed in order to achieve holistic valorisation of the material.

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    fulltext
  • 289.
    Guo, Zhengang
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Industrial Engineering and Intelligent Manufacturing, Ministry of Industry, China; Information Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China .
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    Key Laboratory of Industrial Engineering and Intelligent Manufacturing, Ministry of Industry, China; Information Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China; Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, China .
    Lv, Jingxiang
    Key Laboratory of Road Construction Technology and Equipment, Ministry of Education, School of Construction Machinery, Chang'an University, China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Liu, Ying
    James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, U.K..
    An Online Learning Collaborative Method for Traffic Forecasting and Routing Optimization2020Inngår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 22, nr 10, s. 6634-6645Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) have provided promising opportunities to solve problems in urban traffic. With the help of IoT technologies, online data from road segments are captured by monitoring devices, while real-time data from vehicles are collected through preinstalled sensors. Based on these data, a CPS model is constructed to depict real-time status and dynamic behavior of road segments and vehicles. An online learning data-driven model is developed to extract prior knowledge and enhance collaboration between road segments and vehicles by combining short-term traffic forecasting and real-time routing optimization. A case study based on Xi’an city is presented to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method, showing a reduction in the travel time with reasonable computation time, without much compromising the travel distance and fuel consumption. This work potentially strengthens the transparency and intelligence of urban traffic systems.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 290.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rationale for the development of a Swedish local authority-adapted standard supporting sustainability management2008Inngår i: 11th QMOD ConferenceQuality Management and Organizational Development Attaining Sustainability From Organizational Excellence to SustainAble Excellence, 20-22 August, 2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 291.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Energikontoret Östra Götaland.
    Aktörssamverkan i lokala strategiska energi-och klimatplaneringsprocesser: Slutrapport från forskningsprojektet Hållbara energi-och klimatstrategier- lärdomar ch potential2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska kommuner har en lång tradition av energiplanering. Dock har verkningsfullheten avkommunernas energistrategiska arbete varit föremål för diskussion. Syftet med det här projektet vardärför att analysera kommuners arbete med att ta fram och genomföra kommunala energistrategiersamt att reflektera över hur/om ett vidgat systemperspektiv genom ökad aktörssamverkan kan bidramed kunskaper till det lokala energistrategiska arbetet.Utifrån projektets resultat har vi sammanställt ett antal rekommendationer som stöd till kommuner ideras arbete med att införa, implementera och utveckla det energistrategiska arbetet. Dessarekommendationer sammanfattar också de huvudsakliga resultat som vi vill skicka med kommunernai deras arbete. Det energistrategiska arbetet bör hanteras som en del i en långsiktig verksamhet och intesom ett projekt Både kommunens politiska majoritet och opposition bör vara med i processen att utvecklaenergistrategin och de ska ha en aktiv roll under hela processen Informera och utbilda politiker om de lokala energisystemen för engagemang och delaktighet Vid målformulering bör de som berörs av målen involveras Koppla mål och åtgärder till den ekonomiska uppföljning som redan görs i kommunen. Energistrategen bör sitta i ledningsgruppen för att möjliggöra att det energistrategiskaarbetet blir en del av det övergripande strategiska arbetet För att säkra kontinuitet i arbetet bör energistrategen ha en tillsvidareanställning och inteprojektanställning Det behövs stöd för kommunernas utåtriktade energistrategiska arbete från regional ochnationell nivå. Formulera en öppen process med en bred regional systemsyn Att samverka kan bidra till mycket positivt samtidigt som det kan göra processen merkomplex. Reflektera därför över vilka aktörer som bör vara med, varför de ska involveras, näri processen de ska involveras samt hur de ska involveras. Det är möjligt att det krävs olikametoder eller struktur för olika aktörsgrupper. Utveckla en förståelse för andra aktörersperspektiv och agendor. Det är viktigt att ha en fungerande samverkan mellan kommun och lokalt energibolag

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 292.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hedström, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vasilev, Dimitar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lokal implementering av Agenda 2030 och Globala målen: en kort översikt av regioners och kommuners erfarenheter, möjligheter och utmaningar2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med Agenda 2030 och FN:s 17 Globala mål för hållbar utveckling initierades en ny era för det globala hållbarhetsarbetet med tydligt fokus på målstyrning, där samverkan och integration är nyckelbegrepp. Globala målen skulle kunna bidra till ett mer proaktivt och allomfattande hållbarhetsarbete genom att arbetet bättre operationaliseras och integreras i såväl internationella, nationella, regionala som lokala policyer och strategier. Men det kan också finnas en risk att denna nya globala Agenda kan leda till det bara är retoriken och inramningen som ändras och inte praktiken. Hur man ska gå tillväga på regional och lokal nivå för att implementera Globala målen finns inte särskilt tydligt beskrivet i Agenda 2030. Det pågår dock mycket aktivitet kopplat till de globala målen på såväl regional som lokal nivå, vilket betyder att erfarenhetsbanken för implementering av de globala målen växer för varje dag.

    Regioner och kommuner är institutioner som står för kontinuitet och långsiktighet i det lokala och regionala hållbarhetsarbetet. Då flera av målen är av mellankommunal och kommunal art skulle de regionala och lokala nivåerna kunna utgöra eller bidra till plattformar och ha samordnande roller för strategisk samverkan kring hållbarhetsfrågor i allmänhet och de globala målen i synnerhet.

    Det finns redan ett utvecklat hållbarhetsarbete inom kommuner och regioner. Därför är det viktigt att reflektera över hur det kan förhållas till de Globala målen för undersöka hur de kan integreras i processerna istället för att bli separata projekt. Det är även viktigt att reflektera över redan existerande samverkansformer och arenor. De globala målen skulle kunna ses som ett instrument för att samordna den flora av hållbarhetsinitiativ som redan finns i de regionala och kommunala kontexterna, vilket skulle kunna bidra till att man ökar verkningsfullheten i det existerande hållbarhetsarbetet och ”levlar” (höjer) hållbarhetsprestandan till nästa nivå.

    Den här rapporten, som är en förstudie, är den första inom forskningsprojektet ”Förbättrad regional och lokalhållbarhetsprestanda genom integrering av FN:s globala hållbarhetsmål (LETS[1]). Projektet fyller en viktig funktion i att samla, sammanställa, analysera och kommunicera erfarenheter och därmed bidra med ny kunskap och inspiration till tillvägagångssätt för regioner och kommuner som står i begrepp att integrera de globala målen. Syftet med den här studien, som är en förstudie till LETS, och den här rapporten är inte att var heltäckande och allomfattande, utan den fyller främst funktionen att utgöra underlag för de kommande etapperna i forskningsprojektet LETS vad gäller tex. urval av djupstudieobjekt, litteratursökning etc. Den ger en översiktlig bild av kunskapsläget våren 2018 med utgångspunkt från forskningsfrågorna i forskningsprojektet LETS. Syftet med att sammanställa det här underlaget i en rapport fyller förhoppningsvis en funktion som inspiration till de kommuner och regioner som idag är i eller ska påbörja processen att implementera Globala målen.

    Studien baseras på dels en genomgång av vetenskaplig litteratur och andra rapporter och dels en övergripande intervjustudie med miljö/hållbarhetsstrateger (eller motsvarande) i 15 kommuner och 4 regioner i Sverige. Medan litteraturstudien har ett internationellt perspektiv är intervjustudien mer fokuserad till svenska förhållanden (vilket också är fokus för forskningsprojektet LETS).

    I litteraturundersökningen har vi även gått tillbaka till tidigare globala initiativ, som Agenda 21 och Milleniemålen, för att reflektera över vilka lärdomar som kan dras från dessa processer och hur det kan utnyttjas i arbetet med de Globala målen.

    De globala målen har beskrivits i en rad olika publikationer under de senaste åren, men är först nyligen dessa har börjat ge exempel på hur målen omsatts i praktik, vilket ju inte är särskilt överraskande. Utifrån de artiklar och rapporter vi studerat för den här rapporten har vi valt ut ett antal teman, utifrån forskningsprojektets övergripande syfte och frågeställningar. Rapporten ger bland annat exempel på de utmaningar och möjligheter med regional och lokal implementering som vi identifierat i litteraturen. Många av både möjligheterna och utmaningarna som litteraturen beskriver handlar om samverkan och det tvärsektoriella arbetssättet. Den inneboende komplexiteten hos de Globala målen seglar upp som en av utmaningarna, och detta kopplat till hur En av utmaningarna, som nämns på flera ställen i litteraturen är Globala målens inneboende komplexitet och svårigheten att anpassa målen och indikatorerna till lokal nivå. Andra utmaningar som identifierats är svårigheten att samla intressenter med rätt kunskap och engagemang. Vidare diskuteras data som en utmaning och då handlar det om tillgång till data och tillgång till tillförlitliga data. Samordning kunskap är andra aspekter som pekas ut som utmaningar. Bland de möjligheter som vi identifierat i litteraturgenomgången. När det gäller utmaningar handlar det mycket om att hållbarhetsarbetet kan få ett uppsving, att det kan underlätta beslutsfattande, öka resurseffektivitet samt underlätta för kunskapsbyggande. Vidare nämns att detta gemensamma ramverk skulle kunna underlätta för att visualisera och jämföra hållbarhetsarbetet mellan olika organisationer samt att det kn underlätta för samarbete kring dessa frågor eftersom man pratar samma hållbarhetsspråk.

    Det finns även ett stort antal vetenskapliga artiklar och olika rapporter som beskriver olika slags verktyg som ska stötta och underlätta för implementeringen av Globala målen. Det finns verktyg som ger stöd till såväl inventering som mätning och uppföljning. Men det finns också verktyg för att underlätta samverkan mellan olika aktörer.

    Utifrån de intervjuer vi gjort för den här studien kan vi konstatera att många kommuner och regioner är i uppstartsfasen av att implementera Global målen. Det handlar i stor utsträckning om att integrera målen i strategier och att förankra och kommunicera. Utifrån intervjuerna kan vi utläsa att den främsta potentialen som kommunerna och regionerna i den här studien ser med Globala målen handlar om att få struktur och stöd i sina processer för hållbar utveckling. En annan potential är att få ett gemensamt hållbarhetsspråk som fungerar över organisationsgränser och nationsgränser. De hinder som kommunerna och regionerna upplever är framförallt koppade till svårigheten att konkretisera Globala målen och att omsätta dem i lokal praktik i kärnverksamheten. En annan utmaning som flera nämnde var svårigheten att mäta och följa upp arbetet med målen.

    Trots att vi har identifierat en mängd utmaningar, både genom litteraturgenomgången och i de intervjuer vi gjort för den här studien, ser vi också att det finns en tilltro till och en potential i att implementera Globala målen i regioner och kommuner. Genom att utgå från redan existerande hållbarhetsarbete, identifiera vad som redan görs och hur det kan stärkas upp genom tydligare koppling till Globala målen skulle de kunna underlätta för ett mer sammanhållet och systematiskt hållbarhetsarbete internt i organisationerna men även för samverkan kring dessa frågor med andra aktörer. Tid är en viktig resurs i detta sammanhang och därför behöver det avsättas tid för att jobba med dessa frågor i organisationerna och man måste låta arbetet ta tid. 2030 är inte långt borta, men hållbarhetsarbetet i kommunerna och regionerna behöver ett längre perspektiv än så.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Lokal implementering av Agenda 2030 och Globala målen : en kort översikt av regioners och kommuners erfarenheter, möjligheter och utmaningar
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  • 293.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Allt eller inget?: om kommunens roll i det hållbara lokalsamhället2010Inngår i: Samtal pågår...: från forskare till politiker och tjänstemän i kommuner / [ed] Tora Friberg, Sabrina Thelander, Norrköping: Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier, Linköpings universitet , 2010, 1, s. 59-65Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Är det bättre med stora än med små kommuner? Kommer folkrörelsepartierna att bli mer kampanj- och väljarorienterade i framtiden? Hur formas en boendepolitik för det goda åldrandet? Lokala transportstrategier – hur och för vem? Hur påverkas kommunledningars samverkan om gymnasieskolan av att det finns friskolor? Är kulturekonomi framtidens lokala tillväxtmotor?</p><p>Dessa och andra frågor behandlas i denna bok. Den är ett led i Centrum för kommunstrategiska studiers, CKS, arbete med att bygga en dialog – utveckla goda samtal – mellan Linköpings universitet och medlemskommunerna i CKS. Den innehåller fjorton olika artiklar, inlägg, som forskare författat för att förmedla sina resultat, men också för att stärka en dialog med politiker och tjänstemän i kommunerna. Inläggen spänner över många olika ämnen och frågeställningar. De är i vissa fall konkreta och koncisa i andra fall beskrivande och reflekterande. Alla är de av kommunstrategisk karaktär.</p><p>I en kommun fattas en mängd olika politiska beslut kring de mest skiftande ämnen. Det kräver kunskap, reflektion och gedigna beslutsunderlag. Då kan forskares analyser och kunskapsproduktion vara till nytta. För att en fördjupad och samhällsrelevant forskning ska komma till stånd behövs emellertid reaktioner från politiker och tjänstemän. Det finns alltså ett ömsesidigt beroende. Det kan hanteras genom samtal i vilka forskare, politiker och tjänstemän kan utbyta erfarenheter, tankar och kunskaper. Inläggen i denna bok visar att samtal pågår.

  • 294.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    How to make standardised environmental management systems (EMSs) a more powerful tool in local authorities2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 295.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Implementation of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) according to ISO 14001 and EMAS in local authorities2000Inngår i: The 2000 Eco-Management and Auditing Conference + Research Workshop on Corporate Environmental Management, European Research Press , 2000Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 296.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bruhn-Tysk, Sara
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lindqvist Östblom, Annica
    Linköpings universitet.
    Integrating environmental management tools towards environmental sustainable decision-making2001Inngår i: SUSPLAN 2001: The Transformation to Sustainable Planning - Decision-making, Models and Tools, 2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 297.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mapping environmental management system initiatives in Swedish Local authorities: a national survey2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 298.
    Gustafsson (f.d. Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Strategiskt och verkningsfullt?: Ledningsverktygs bidrag till kommuners hållbarhetsarbete2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommuner kan pekas ut som nyckelaktörer i arbetet för en mer hållbar utveckling. De verkar nära medborgarna och utgör en länk mellan medborgare och nationella/internationella myndigheter och aktörer. Vi har haft förmånen att under en tioårsperiod följa svenska kommuners arbete med att organisera och systematisera arbetet för ett mer hållbart lokalsamhälle. Under den tiden har vi sett en trend som innebär att det har blivit allt vanligare att kommuner tar på sig ansvar utöver det lagstadgade och arbetar mer proaktivt för ett hållbart lokalsamhälle. Det finns en uppsjö av verktyg som kommuner (och andra organisationer) kan använda för att få stöd i detta arbete. Många är förenklade och anpassade varianter av ISO 14001 och EMAS, som är internationellt accepterade verktyg, för att strukturera och systematisera miljöarbetet i en organisation.

    Den här rapporten är en syntes av de studier som vi har genomfört under det senaste decenniet. Det empiriska underlaget baseras främst på intervjuer (allt från fokusgruppintervjuer till telefonintervjuer), dokumentstudier och observationer. Rapporten syftar till att diskutera om och hur ledningsverktyg kan bidra till ett mer effektivt och verkningsfullt strategiskt miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete i kommuner. Centralt för syntesen har varit att reflektera över de verktyg som kommunerna väljer att använda, på vilket sätt verktygen används samt hur detta arbete integreras i den kommunala organisationen.

    Vår forskning tar sin utgångspunkt i miljöperspektivet i hållbar utveckling i och med att vi initialt studerade hur kommuner arbetar med att införa standardiserade miljöledningssystem. Vi har följt många kommuner från deras första, ofta trevande, försök till att införa miljöledningssystem till att de har ledningssystem som integrerar miljöperspektivet med de övriga perspektiven i hållbar utveckling. Denna utveckling beskriver vi i de tre utvecklingsfaserna: interna miljöledningssystem, mogna miljöledningssystem samt hållbarhetsledningssystem. Utvecklingen har gått från en ganska snäv systemsyn, både vad gäller innehåll och aktörer i systemen, till en vidare systemsyn där olika perspektiv och flera aktörer involveras. Ett internt miljöledningssystem kännetecknas bland annat av att det främst är miljöexperterna i organisationen som är involverade, att miljöledningen sker särkopplat från verksamhetsstyrningen och att kommunerna ofta väljer att begränsa detta arbete till de tekniska förvaltningarna. I ett moget miljöledningssystem har miljöledningsarbetet en mer central roll i organisationen där de flesta verksamheter och de flesta anställda är involverade. Ett moget miljöledningssystem innebär också att kommunen har en större kunskap om vilket angreppssätt som passar de lokala förutsättningarna. Det resulterar ofta i lokalt utarbetade modeller för hur miljöledningssystemsarbetet ska organiseras och implementeras. Många kommuner inser efter en tid att det är svårt att hantera miljöfrågan i ett separat system som är skiljt från den övriga styrningen och flera upplever att de andra perspektiven i hållbar utveckling borde kunna hanteras med samma systematik som miljöfrågorna. Därför har det blivit allt vanligare att kommuners miljöledningssystem utvecklats till hållbarhetsledningssystem. Dessa har liknande egenskaper som ett moget miljöledningssystem vad gäller intern spridning och position, men det omfattar alla tre perspektiven i hållbar utveckling och bygger på en bredare samverkan där även externa intressenter är inkluderade.

    En av rapportens viktigaste slutsatser är att det är svårt för kommuner att styra i riktning mot en mer hållbar utveckling. En anledning till det är begreppet ”hållbar utvecklings” komplexitet. Det är ett begrepp som har visat sig ha olika innebörd för olika aktörer. Verksamhetsstyrning utgår från att man har tydliga mål och om man vill styra för en mer hållbar utveckling är det viktigt att ha en viss samsyn kring vad det är man vill uppnå. Ett sätt att underlätta införandet av ett miljö- och hållbarhetsledningssystem är att utgå från de strukturer och ansvarsposter som redan existerar i organisationen samt att utforma ett arbetssätt som är anpassat till dem som ska använda det. Annars riskerar ledningssystemet att bli en hyllvärmare, som inte får något genomslag i det praktiska arbetet, och som därmed begränsas i verkningsfullhet. Vi tror att ledningsverktyg kan bidra med struktur och inspiration för kommuners arbete med att organisera och systematisera sitt miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete, men det är viktigt att kommunerna reflekterar över varför de gör den här typen av insats samt om dessa gör nytta i förhållande till kommunens huvudprocesser.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Strategiskt och verkningsfullt?: Ledningsverktygs bidrag till kommuners hållbarhetsarbete
  • 299.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Management and stakeholder participation in local strategic energy planning: – examples from Sweden2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid environmental degradation and consumption of natural resources is a growing global concern, leading to the awareness that environmental sustainability is a critical new strategic objective. Municipalities are important actors when it comes to energy efficiency and improve environmental sustainability. One important tool to promote this work is implementing a local energy and/or climate strategy. How such local strategies are and could be designed in order to make a difference and promote sustainable energy solutions will be in focus for this paper. In order to promote strategic energy work at the local level, the, Swedish Energy Agency initiated a program called Sustainable Municipalities. As a part of this program participating municipalities were mandated to develop local energy and climate strategies.

    This paper aims at creating a general overview of approaches to, and uses of, local energy strategies among the participants in the Sustainable Municipalities program. This overview includes: analyzes of whether energy plans or strategies are present, which issues these plans address, what actors that are included, and whether follow-up is pursued.

    We will elucidate local energy strategies from a management perspective, and discuss if and how the composition of actors influence suggested goals and measures, if there were plans for implementation and follow-ups. Our theoretical ambitions are to integrate theories on how to manage an efficient energy strategic planning and on how to achieve successful stakeholder participation. This in order to discuss weaknesses and strengths in existing municipal energy planning practices and how to improve energy planning in relation to those theories.

    Document studies and structured telephone interviews with representatives from 60 municipalities were used to collect data. Around 75 percent of the municipalities in the study had adopted local energy strategies. This figure is surprisingly low; given that participation in the sustainable Municipalities program required energy strategies. In general, processes to develop a strategy included different parts of the municipality, and resulted in concrete measures. There were no correlations between included actors, and measures suggested and themes in the strategies. Most commonly occurring were strategies related to public buildings and other buildings owned by municipality owned companies. The most commonly suggested measures were related to transports. Almost all respondents claimed that they performed follow-ups and that this was planned for already in the set-up phase.

    Ten out of sixty respondents, who mainly were managers or strategists, meant that they were they alone were the main driving actors in strategic energy issues.

    The studied municipalities had not adopted energy plans or strategies to a higher degree compared to other Swedish municipalities. Cooperation is often broad within the municipalities but limited when it comes to external actors. The content of the energy plans do not always reflect the content of the measures and goals. The rather limited participation in the process could affect the impact and legitimacy of the strategies in the organizations.

  • 300.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Management and stakeholder participation in local strategic energy planning – Examples from Sweden2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 205-212Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to improving energy efficiency and environmental sustainability, municipalities are important actors. The Swedish Energy Agency initiated a program called Sustainable Municipalities to support strategic energy activities at the local level. Participating municipalities were mandated to develop local energy and climate strategies. This study gives a general overview of how the 60 participants in the Sustainable Municipalities program developed and used energy strategies. The paper focuses on analyses of whether energy plans or strategies are present, and if present, how the municipalities address the issues, what actors are involved, and whether follow-up of the strategies is pursued. The empirical data were collected using structured telephone interviews and other studies. The paper elucidates local energy strategies from a management perspective, discuss whether and how the composition of actors influences suggested goals and measures, and explore whether there were plans for implementation and follow-ups. The theoretical ambitions are to integrate theories on how to manage efficient strategic energy planning with theories on how to achieve successful participation of stakeholders. These theories are used to discuss weaknesses and strengths in existing municipal energy planning practices and potential improvements.

    The results from this paper show that only 75% of the municipalities adopted local energy strategies. In addition, it was revealed that the processes to develop the strategies generally included several municipal actors although other stakeholders were rarely represented. The strategies resulted in concrete measures; however, there were no clear correlations between included actors, suggested measures, and identified themes in the strategies. The rather limited participation in the process could affect the impact and legitimacy of the strategies.

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