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  • 251.
    Forkstam, Christian
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Elwér, Åsa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Petersson, Karl Magnus
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Instruction effects in implicit artificial grammar learning: A preference for grammaticality2008Ingår i: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1221, nr 24, s. 80-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human implicit learning can be investigated with implicit artificial grammar learning, a paradigm that has been proposed as a simple model for aspects of natural language acquisition. In the present study we compared the typical yes–no grammaticality classification, with yes–no preference classification. In the case of preference instruction no reference to the underlying generative mechanism (i.e., grammar) is needed and the subjects are therefore completely uninformed about an underlying structure in the acquisition material. In experiment 1, subjects engaged in a short-term memory task using only grammatical strings without performance feedback for 5 days. As a result of the 5 acquisition days, classification performance was independent of instruction type and both the preference and the grammaticality group acquired relevant knowledge of the underlying generative mechanism to a similar degree. Changing the grammatical stings to random strings in the acquisition material (experiment 2) resulted in classification being driven by local substring familiarity. Contrasting repeated vs. non-repeated preference classification (experiment 3) showed that the effect of local substring familiarity decreases with repeated classification. This was not the case for repeated grammaticality classifications. We conclude that classification performance is largely independent of instruction type and that forced-choice preference classification is equivalent to the typical grammaticality classification.

  • 252.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Rosenbaum, Laura
    Georgia State University.
    Smith, Jennifer
    Georgia State University.
    Varjas, Kristen
    Georgia State University.
    Meyers, Joel
    Georgia State University.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    A cross-cultural study on students' reasons for defending or not defending as a bystander to bullying2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 253.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Bystanders to bullying: Fourth- to seventh-grade students' perspectives on their reactions2014Ingår i: Research Papers in Education, ISSN 0267-1522, E-ISSN 1470-1146, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 557-576Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the present study was to investigate bystander actions in bullying situations as well as reasons behind these actions as they are articulated by Swedish students from fourth to seventh grade. Forty-three semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with students. Qualitative analysis of data was performed by methods from grounded theory. The analysis of the student voices of being a bystander in bullying reveals a complexity in which different definition-of-situation processes are evoked (a) relations (friends and social hierarchy), (b) defining seriousness, (c) victim’s contribution to the situation, (d) social roles and intervention responsibilities, and (e) distressing emotions. There are often conflicted motives in how to act as a bystander, which could evoke moral distress among the students. Our analysis is unique in that it introduces the concept of moral distress as a process that has to be considered in order to better understand bystander actions among children The findings also indicate bystander reactions that could be associated with moral disengagement, such as not perceiving a moral obligation to intervene if the victim is defined as a non-friend (‘none of my business’), protecting the friendship with the bully, and blaming the victim.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 254.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Fourth- to seventh grade students' perspectives on bystander roles and bullying situations2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 255.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Wood, Laura
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Smith, Jennifer
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Varjas, Kristen
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Meyers, Joel
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Students’ views of factors affecting their bystander behaviors in response to school bullying: a cross-collaborative conceptual qualitative analysis2018Ingår i: Research Papers in Education, ISSN 0267-1522, E-ISSN 1470-1146, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 127-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to focus on how students articulate and discuss what factors influence students’ decisions to defend or not defend victims when witnessing bullying. In this unique qualitative cross-collaborative study, where two research teams collected interviews from two cultural contexts, eighty-nine students with an age-range from 9 to 14 years old participated. Participants included 43 Swedish students and 46 US students (50 girls, 39 boys). The interviews were analysed through a collaborative qualitative analysis aimed at constructing shared concepts of our data as a whole. The results revealed five broad factors among the students when they reasoned about how they act as a bystander in bullying situations: (a) informed awareness, (b) bystander expectations, (c) personal feelings, (d) behavioural seriousness, and (e) sense of responsibility. The results indicated that each of these considerations could make the students more or less likely to defend as well as to defend in a certain way. According to these five broad factors, students seemed to adjust their bystander acts, which suggests that students’ bystander acts vary depending on situational factors that influence bystanders’ interpretations of bullying and decision-making about how to respond to observed bullying.

  • 256. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Forsblad (Kristiansson), Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Distributed cognition in home environments: The prospective memory and cognitive practices of older adults2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I explore how older people make use of, and interact with, their physical environment in home and near-by settings to manage cognitive situations, specifically prospective memory situations. Older adults have in past research been shown to perform better on prospective memory in real-life settings than what findings in laboratory-like settings predict. An explanation for this paradox is that older adults has a more developed skill of using the environment for prospective memory than younger adults. However, research investigating this explanation has primarily been based on self-reports.

    I contribute to the understanding of this skill by doing two related things. First I introduce distributed cognition, a theoretical perspective that primarily has been used within professional and socio-technical environments, to the research field of prospective memory in everyday life. Second I present a cognitive ethnography conducted during two years across eight home, and near-by, environments and old-age retired persons, for which I have used theoretical concepts from distributed cognition to analyze observations.

    The analysis shows rich variations in how participants use common cultural cognitive tools, invent their own cognitive tools, deliberately and incidentally shape more or less functional spaces, make use of other physical features, orient themselves toward and make sense of cognitive resources. I complement both prospective memory and distributed cognition research by describing both the intelligent shaping and use of space. Furthermore, by taking a distributed cognitive perspective I show that prospective memory processes in home environments involve properties, and the management, of a multipurpose environment.

    Altogether this supports the understanding of distributed cognition as a perspective on all cognition. Distributed cognition is not a reflection of particular work practices, instead it is a formulation of the general features of human cognition. Prospective memory in everyday life can be understood as an ability persons have. However, in this thesis I show that prospective memory can also be understood as a process that takes place between persons, arrangements of space, and tools.

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    Distributed cognition in home environments: The prospective memory and cognitive practices of older adults
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    presentationsbild
  • 257.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Lära i samarbetssituationer2009Ingår i: Dynamics Within and Outside the Lab: Proceedings from the 6th GRASP conference, Lund University, May 2008 / [ed] Stefan Jern & Johan Näslund, Linköping: LiU-tryck , 2009, 1, s. 81-93Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Group-work is at method that facilitates students’ learning of team skills and academic knowledge. However, research show that the method is unusual in the Swedish schools. The present article accounts for a theoretical model, which describes the pattern of interaction, and the students’ experiences that emerge as they try to handle a group-work situation. The model elucidates four different conditions, which may have influence on the students’ work. The four conditions are (a) a difference of ambition, (b) group assignment, (c) group composition and (d) creation of trust. These conditions are discussed and problemized, with respect to the role of teachers and their influence when using group-work and how they can realize a well-functioning group-work.

  • 258.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för pedagogik och didaktik i utbildning och skola (PeDiUS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Att göra det okända känt: Om bedömning av kunskaper och färdigheter vid arbete i grupp2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An encompassing knowledge interest in this project is to study what happens in the meetingbetween group work and assessment in the pedagogical practice. There seems to be adilemma between the demand for individual assessment of student’s knowledge and abilitiesand the demand of teaching collaboration abilities through group work. A previous studyconcerning teachers’ management of group work as classroom activity (Hammar Chiriac &Forslund Frykedal, 2010) reveals that assessment is a highly relevant factor when organisinggroup work in a school setting. In addition, teachers seem to experience difficulties andacknowledge some challenges and problems about assessing students working in a group. Toour knowledge this is a rather neglected research area and very little attention has been paid toresearch on assessment of students’ performance in collaborative situations.The main purpose in this study is to explore and comprehend teachers’ conceptions ofdifficulties and worries in connection with assessing students in collaborative situations.Furthermore, we intend to scrutinize what knowledge previous research may provide as acontribution to proficiency about assessment of group work.In the empirical study we have applied a grounded theory methodology and data havebeen assembled by means of group interviews. The informants were teachers, from forms 5-9in the nine-year compulsory school in Sweden.Previous research provides little theoretical knowledge or useful tools aiding the teachersin their task but comprises more of self- and peer assessment and how group members couldcontribute to the assessment.The result shows that teachers rather use informal than formal assessment. The informalassessment is mostly done by circulating in the classroom and observing the groups.Additionally, the result discloses that the teachers have difficulties to concretize and putwords on what and how they assess. In the discussion we present some pedagogicalimplications, which may be useful in the pedagogical practice. The pedagogical implicationsare based on empirical results and previous research.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Att göra det okända känt: Om bedömning av kunskaper och färdigheter vid arbete i grupp
  • 259.
    Forsyth, Katherine
    et al.
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Lowndes, Bethany
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Region Östergötland, Katastrofmedicinskt centrum. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Matthew, Sztajnkrycer
    Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Heller, Stephanie
    Mayo Clinic, Department of Emergency Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Hallbeck, Susan
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Blocker, Renaldo
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Improving Instructions to Stop the Bleed2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2017 Annual Meting, Santa Monica: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, HFES , 2017, s. 588-592Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stop The Bleed initiative was developed by the Department of Homeland Security to educate lay providers in bleeding reduction strategies. The current study evaluated: (1)three tourniquet instructions using a simulated tourniquet task and (2)participant confidence levels in tourniquet use and lay provider training. Thirty participants with limited clinical experience applied a tourniquet to a simulated limb using one of three instruction sets. Twelve of these participants (40%) participated in a tourniquet training session and focus group to discuss each instruction set. Participants preferred the most simple and pictoral instruction set, and identified opportunities for improvement in each set. Participant confidence in tourniquet use increased significantly following the task and the focus group. After the focus group, participant confidence in instructing lay providers on proper tourniquet use significantly increased. Adding key steps, contextual pictures, and indicators of success to instructions could support lay providers stop the bleed in life-threatening situations

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Improving Instructions to Stop the Bleed
  • 260.
    Frank, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Dzebic, Lajla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Förstagångsmammor välbefinnande: – Betydelsen av sociala relationer och stöd för nyblivna mammors mentala mående2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förstagångsmammors välbefinnande är ett diskuterat ämne med mycket tidigare forskning bakom sig. Studiens syfte var att undersöka huruvida det finns ett samband mellan förstagångsmammors fysiska och psykiska välbefinnande och olika faktorer som relationer samt stöd från social omgivning och sjukvård med en kvantitativ analysmetod. Enkäter skickades ut till sociala medier och utefter det sammanställdes resultatet via SPSS. Resultatet av denna studie visar att förstagångsmammor är i behov av stöd från sjukvård och social omgivning. En bra relation till framförallt partner och vänner är viktigt för det mentala måendet. Tidigare psykiska besvär, medicinering för psykiska besvär och diagnostisering av personlighetsstörning påvisar en stor risk att drabbas av förlossningsdepression. En besvärlig förlossningsupplevelse kan också bidra till en förlossningsdepression och deltagarna upplevde att de fått bättre information från sjukvården kring de psykiska bieffekterna av att föda barn än de fysiska bieffekterna, något som sa emot tidigare forskning. 

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    Förstagångsmammors välbefinnande - Betydelsen av sociala relationer och stöd för nyblivna mammors mentala mående
  • 261.
    Frankenstein, Katri
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lundberg, Loviisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    LAURA: Kognitiv beteendeterapi för kvinnor med psykisk ohälsa till följd av en traumatisk förlossning: En randomiserad kontrollerad studie av internetadministrerad vägledd självhjälpsbehandling2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the effect of internet- administered guided self-help for women suffering from psychological problems following traumatic childbirth. The eight-week treatment program consisted of written chapters based on cognitive behavioral therapy. 56 participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 28) or a waiting list group (n = 28).The results showed that post-traumatic symptoms decreased as a result of the treatment, with large within-group effects measured by both the Traumatic Event Scale (TES) (d = 1.33) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (d = 1.3). The difference between the groups was only significant when measured by the IES-R in which case the between-group effect was large (d = 0.97). The proportion of the participants who showed clinically significant improvement was considerably greater in the treatment group than in the waiting list group. For other measured outcomes, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), the difference between the groups were not significant,however the treatment group showed significant improvements between pre-and post measurements on all accounts.LAURA is most likely the first study to examine the treatment of psychological problems following traumatic childbirth. The results are promising and overall show that internet-administered cognitive behavioral therapy reduces post-traumatic symptoms following a traumatic childbirth, indicating a decrease in symptoms of anxiety and depression, and an improvement in quality of life.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    LAURA_Frankenstein_Lundberg
  • 262.
    Frankl, My
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm Centre Dependency Disorders, Sweden.
    Philips, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm Centre Dependency Disorders, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Berggraf, Lene
    Research Institute, Norway.
    Ulvenes, Pal
    Research Institute, Norway.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, nr 5, s. 482-488Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to make the first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test, using the Swedish translation - a test developed to screen the ability to experience, express and regulate emotions. Data was collected from a clinical sample (N=82) of patients with depression and/or anxiety participating in randomized controlled trial of Internet-based affect-focused treatment, and a university student sample (N=197). The internal consistency for the total score was satisfactory (Clinical sample =0.88/Student sample =0.84) as well as for all the affective domains, except Anger/Assertion (=0.44/0.36), Sadness/Grief (=0.24/0.46) and Attachment/Closeness (=0.67/0.69). Test retest reliability was satisfactory (ICCamp;gt;0.77) for the total score and for all the affective domains except for Sadness/Grief (ICC=0.04). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a six-factor solution and did only moderately match the tests original affective domains. An empirical cut-off between the clinical and the university student sample were calculated and yielded a cut-off of 72 points. As expected, the Affect Phobia test showed negative significant correlations in the clinical group with measures on depression (r(xy)=-0.229; pamp;lt;0.01) and anxiety (r(xy)=-0.315; pamp;lt;0.05). The conclusion is that the psychometric properties are satisfactory for the total score of the Affect Phobia Test but not for some of the tests affective domains. Consequently the domains should not be used as subscales. The test can discriminate between individuals who seek help for psychological problems and those who do not.

  • 263.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Adolescents Selling Sex and Sex as Self-Injury2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There are today only a few population-based studies in the world investigating the prevalence of and associated risk-factors with adolescents selling sex and so far no earlier population-based study has been found investigating adolescents motives for selling sex. Further, to use sex in means of self-injury (SASI) is a behaviour that has been highlighted in Sweden the last years but it is a new field of research and a behaviour in need of conceptualization.

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the prevalence of, associated risk factors with, motives for and manifestations of adolescents selling sex and the use of sex as self-injury (SASI). For the thesis, two nationally representative cross-sectional population surveys with third year students at Swedish high schools were collected in 2009 (n = 3498, mean age 18.3 +/- 0.6 years, response rate 60.4%) and in 2014 (n = 5839, mean age 18.0 +/- 0.6 years, response rate 59.7%). Further, the motives and manifestations of SASI were investigated in an anonymous self-selected, open-ended questionnaire published on websites of non-governmental organizations offering help and support to women and adolescents (n = 199, mean age 27.9 +/- 9.3 years). Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data analyses.

    In the 2009 population-based survey, 1.5% (n = 51) of the adolescents reported having sold sex on at least one occasion, but in 2014 the prevalence was slightly lower at 0.9% (n = 51). SASI was reported by 3.2% of girls (n = 100) and 0.8% of boys (n = 20). Both selling sex and SASI were associated with various adverse factors such as experience of sexual abuse, emotional and physical abuse, poor mental health and self-injury. Adolescents selling sex had sought help and support for different problems and worries to a greater extent compared to peers. Contact with healthcare for various psychiatric problems such as suicide attempts, depression and eating disorders was common for adolescents using SASI. Further analysis showed that adolescents selling sex are a heterogeneous group in regard to underlying motives for selling sex, which included emotional and material reasons as well as pleasure. Depending on their underlying motives, adolescents selling sex were found to differ in regard to compensation received, age of the buyer, means of contact with the buyer, sexual orientation, experience of sexual abuse and the use of SASI. By using data from an open-ended questionnaire, SASI was described as deliberate or self-inflicted sexual situations that could include psychological and physical harm. SASI was used as a way to regulate negative feelings, such as anxiety, or to get positive or negative confirmation and the behaviour could be hard to stop.

    In conclusion, selling sex and SASI occurs among Swedish adolescents and the behaviours are associated with sexual, physical and emotional abuse and poor mental health, including trauma symptoms. In regard of the motives and manifestations of SASI, the behaviour could be compared to direct self-injurious behaviours. Data from this thesis suggest that more attention should be paid in healthcare to recognizing adolescents selling sex and SASI in order to prevent further traumatization and victimization.

    Delarbeten
    1. Adolescents selling sex: Exposure to abuse, mental health, self-harm behaviour and the need for help and support - a study of a Swedish national sample
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Adolescents selling sex: Exposure to abuse, mental health, self-harm behaviour and the need for help and support - a study of a Swedish national sample
    Visa övriga...
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 81-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Selling sex is not uncommon among adolescents and we need to increase our knowledge of how this affects them. The aim of this study was to investigate adolescents who sell sex regarding sexual, mental and physical abuse, mental health as estimated by using the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (HSCL-25), self-harm behaviour and the adolescents' experience of receiving help and support. The study was carried out on a national representative sample of adolescents (mean age 18.3 years) in Swedish high schools in the final year of their 3-year programme. The study had 3498 participants and a response rate of 60.4%. Of the adolescents, 1.5% stated that they had sold sexual services. The selling of sex was associated with a history of sexual, mental and physical abuse. Poorer mental health and a higher degree of self-harm behaviour were reported among the adolescents who had sold sex. Help and support was sought to a greater extent by adolescents who had sold sex but these adolescents were not as satisfied with this help and support as the other adolescents. Adolescents that sell sex are a group especially exposed to sexual, mental and physical abuse. They have poorer metnal health and engage in more self-harm behaviour than other adolescents. They are in need of more help and support than other adolescents ant it is reasonable to assert that more resources, research and attention should be directed to this group to provide better help and support in the future.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Informa Healthcare, 2013
    Nyckelord
    adolescents, child abuse, help and support, mental health, self-harm behaviour, selling sex
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91850 (URN)10.3109/08039488.2012.679968 (DOI)000316956800001 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-03 Skapad: 2013-05-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-12-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Adolescents motives for selling sex in a welfare state - A Swedish national study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Adolescents motives for selling sex in a welfare state - A Swedish national study
    Visa övriga...
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 81, s. 286-295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to money or other compensation, other motives for selling sex may be important in a welfare country such as Sweden. The aim of this study was to carry out an exploratory investigation of adolescents motives for selling sex in a population-based survey in Sweden. A total of 5839 adolescents from the third year of Swedish high school, mean age 18.0 years, participated in the study. The response rate was 59.7% and 51 students (0.9%) reported having sold sex. Exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify groups of adolescents according to underlying motives for selling sex. Further analyses were carried out for characteristics of selling sex and risk factors. Three groups of adolescents were categorized according to their motives for selling sex: Adolescents reporting; 1) Emotional reasons, being at a greater risk of sexual abuse, using sex as a means of self-injury and having a non-heterosexual orientation. 2) Material but no Emotional reasons, who more often receive money as compensation and selling sex to a person over 25 years of age, and 3) Pleasure or no underlying motive for selling sex reported, who were mostly heterosexual males selling sex to a person under 25 years of age, the buyer was not known from the Internet, the reward was seldom money and this group was less exposed to penetrative sexual abuse or using sex as a means of self-injury. In conclusion, adolescents selling sex are a heterogeneous group in regard to underlying motives.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Selling sex; Adolescent; Child sexual exploitation; Motives; Prostitution
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykiatri
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149697 (URN)10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.04.030 (DOI)000436375800026 ()29775872 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Ministry of Health and Social Affairs/the Childrens Welfare Foundation Sweden; County of Stockholm, Sweden

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-07-24 Skapad: 2018-07-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-01
    3. Self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury (SASI) in a national study of Swedish adolescents and association to sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviors, abuse and mental health
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury (SASI) in a national study of Swedish adolescents and association to sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviors, abuse and mental health
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 11, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sex as self-injury has become a concept in Swedish society; however it is a largely unexplored area of research, not yet conceptualized and far from accepted in the research field. The use of sex as a way of affect regulation is known in the literature and has, in interviews with young women who sell sex, been compared to direct self-injury, such as cutting or burning the skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury and the association to sociodemographic factors, sexual orientation, voluntary sexual experiences, sexual risk-taking behaviors, sexual, physical and mental abuse, trauma symptoms, healthcare for psychiatric disorders and non-suicidal self-injury.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    BioMed Central, 2017
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Neurovetenskaper Reumatologi och inflammation Psykiatri
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134927 (URN)10.1186/s13034-017-0146-7 (DOI)000395328600001 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-02 Skapad: 2017-03-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-12-21Bibliografiskt granskad
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  • 264.
    Friberg, Marc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Examining the Effects of Stress on Tourniquet Application in a Layperson and Professional Civilian Population2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, approximately 3000 people die as the result of physical trauma in Sweden (Gedeborg, Chen, Thiblin, & Byberg, 2012). Many of these deaths occurs outside of the hospital and are preventable, including some caused by hemorrhage. One hemorrhage control device is the tourniquet which can be used in a civilian pre-hospital setting. The effects of stress on a laypersons tourniquet application ability is unknown and to date only one study have examined the effects of stress on tourniquet application in a military population (Schreckengaust, Littlejohn, & Zarow, 2014). The purpose of this study was to investigate how the performance of two first aid interventions, tourniquet application and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is affected by stress in immediate (layperson) and first (professional) responders. A total of 55 participants followed a brief educational program about hemorrhage control. Their ability to apply a tourniquet and perform CPR was tested in a calm classroom scenario and a stressful scenario, which consisted of paintball fire and an obstacle course. Stress was assessed through subjective reports of stress, physiological heart rate and heart rate variability measurements, and subjective workload and with a secondary task. The results showed differences of elicited stress reaction between the conditions and groups. Tourniquet and CPR performance was moderately affected by stress. Participants across all groups experienced more stress reactions during the stressful scenario, and laypersons did experience more stress reactions than professional first responders. In conclusion, the method did make participants experience more stress reactions in terms of psychological, physiological and performance adaptations in the stressful scenario. However, the results need to be replicated and a list of suggested improvements are given, such as: examining the fidelity of the scenarios, validating the tourniquet application assessment method, and examining the relationship between tourniquet application performance and self-assessed performance.

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    fulltext
  • 265.
    Friberg, Marc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Executive function, working memory and speech-in-noise recognition – Comparing a non-semantic black and white version of the Trail Making Test to the original Trail Making Test2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the relationship between cognition and speech-in-noise recognition, in normally-hearing Swedish students, is examined. The Trail Making Test, hypothesized to measure a wide range of cognitive functions, including executive function and working memory, has been criticized for being a culturally biased measure, hence the need for a culturally unbiased version. A between-group experiment was conducted in which a non-semantically dependent version of the Trail Making Test was compared to the original Trail Making Test in order to test for psychometric equivalence. A total of 21 young normally-hearing Swedish students were given three tests: TMT or TMT (non-semantically dependent version), a Swedish Reading Span Task and a Swedish speech-in-noise recognition task. The B parts of the two Trail Making Test versions differed significantly and both were moderately to highly correlated to speech-in-noise and reading span performance. The results indicates that the original Trail Making Test is a more plausible index for executive function and strengthens the relationship between executive function, working memory and speech-in-noise recognition. 

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  • 266.
    Frölander, Hans Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Moller, Claes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). University of Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Utkal University, India.
    Marshall, Jan D.
    Jackson Lab, ME 04609 USA; Alstrom Syndrome Int, ME USA.
    Piacentini, Heather
    Alstrom Syndrome Int, ME USA.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Theory-of-mind in individuals with Alstrom syndrome is related to executive functions, and verbal ability2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, nr 1426, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study focuses on cognitive prerequisites for the development of theory-of-mind (ToM), the ability to impute mental states to self and others in young adults with Alstrom syndrome (AS). AS is a rare and quite recently described recessively inherited ciliopathic disorder which causes progressive sensorineural hearing loss and juvenile blindness, as well as many other organ dysfunctions. Two cognitive abilities were considered; Phonological working memory (WM) and executive functions (EF), both of importance in speech development. Methods: Ten individuals (18-37 years) diagnosed with AS, and 20 individuals with no known impairment matched for age, gender, and educational level participated. Sensory functions were measured. Information about motor functions and communicative skills was obtained from responses to a questionnaire. ToM was assessed using Happes strange stories, verbal ability by a vocabulary test, phonological WM by means of an auditory presented non-word serial recall task and EF by tests of updating and inhibition. Results: The AS group performed at a significantly lower level than the control group in both the ToM task and the EF tasks. A significant correlation was observed between recall of non-words and EF in the AS group. Updating, but not inhibition, correlated significantly with verbal ability, whereas both updating and inhibition were significantly related to the ability to initiate and sustain communication. Poorer performance in the ToM and EF tasks were related to language perseverance and motor mannerisms. Conclusion: The AS group displayed a delayed ToM as well as reduced phonological WM, EF, and verbal ability. A significant association between ToM and EF, suggests a compensatory role of EF. This association may reflect the importance of EF to perceive and process input from the social environment when the social interaction is challenged by dual sensory loss. We argue that limitations in EF capacity in individuals with AS, to some extent, may be related to early blindness and progressive hearing loss, but maybe also to gene specific abnormalities.

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  • 267.
    Furingsten, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Wistrand, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    I never thought I'd be that strong: The effect on the professional helper when working with assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse in South Africa.2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore how professional helpers, who work at a clinic in South Africa, experience and are affected by their work in the assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse. Twelve professional helpers were interviewed using a qualitative, semi-structured interview. The analysis of the interviews resulted in five overall categories. These are; The work with children; Pressures at work; Motivation for doing the job; Influences on a personal level and Coping strategies. Our study reveals that all of the professionals are influenced by their work but most of them not to the extent that they cannot enjoy life. The people who, apart from working with abused children, also work within management seem more affected by their work. Thus one of the conclusions is that the professionals are influenced by the entire work situation and not only by the clients that they meet. Another conclusion is that the work with sexually abused children has an effect on the professionals'private lives and that boundaries between work and private life are hard to keep.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 268.
    Fälth, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Tjus, Tomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Computer-assisted Interventions Targeting Reading Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities - A Longitudinal Study2013Ingår i: Dyslexia, ISSN 1076-9242, E-ISSN 1099-0909, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 37-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventionson the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinalintervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before theintervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1 year after the firstmeasurement. One hundred thirty children in Grade 2 participated in the study. Threegroups of children with reading difficulties received computerized training programmes: oneaimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second focused on wordand sentence levels and the third was a combination of these two training programmes. A fourthgroup received ordinary special instruction. In addition, there was one comparison group withage-matched typical readers. All groups improved their reading skills. The group that receivedcombined training showed greater improvement than the one with ordinary special instructionand the group of typical readers at two follow-ups. The longitudinal results indicate additionalpositive results for the group that received the combined training, themajority of students fromthat group being no longer judged to be needing special education 1 year after the intervention.

  • 269.
    Fälth, Linda
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Science Linnaeus University.
    Svensson, Idor
    Faculty of Life and health Science Linnaeus University.
    Carlsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Self-image and reading development: the effect of self-image on reading development among pupils in grade 22014Ingår i: The Online Journal of Counseling and Education, ISSN 2146-8192, Vol. 3, s. 17-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between self-image and different reading abilities among pupils with reading difficulties in grade 2. The purpose was also to examine whether there were any differences between typical readers and pupils with reading difficulties with regard to self-image. The empirical material consists of 130 pupils who were tested at five different test sessions with different reading-related tests. Their self-image was tested twice at an interval of nearly a school year

    The results showed that there were differences between pupils with reading difficulties and typical readers with regard to the self-image level, where pupils with reading disabilities had a significantly lower self-image than typical readers. Among pupils with reading disabilities those with a low self-image showed significantly less improvement in word decoding and reading comprehension than students with a typical self-image.

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  • 270.
    Garcia, Danilo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden.
    Nima, Ali Al
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Granjard, Alexandre
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cloninger, Kevin M.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Anthropedia Fdn, MO USA.
    Sikstrom, Sverker
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Validation of Two Short Personality Inventories Using Self-Descriptions in Natural Language and Quantitative Semantics Test Theory2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, artikel-id 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background If individual differences are relevant and prominent features of personality, then they are expected to be encoded in natural language, thus manifesting themselves in single words. Recently, the quantification of text data using advanced natural language processing techniques offers innovative opportunities to map peoples own words and narratives to their responses to self-reports. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of self-descriptions in natural language and what we tentatively call Quantitative Semantic Test Theory (QuSTT) to validate two short inventories that measure character traits. Method In Study 1, participants (N-1 = 997) responded to the Short Character Inventory, which measures self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. In Study 2, participants (N-2 = 2373) responded to Short Dark Triad, which measures Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. In both studies, respondents were asked to generate 10 self-descriptive words. We used the Latent Semantic Algorithm to quantify the meaning of each trait using the participants self-descriptive words. We then used these semantic representations to predict the self-reported scores. In a second set of analyses, we used word-frequency analyses to map the self-descriptive words to each of the participants trait scores (i.e., one-dimensional analysis) and character profiles (i.e., three-dimensional analysis). Results The semantic representation of each character trait was related to each corresponding self-reported score. However, participants self-transcendence and Machiavellianism scores demonstrated similar relationships to all three semantic representations of the character traits in their respective personality model. The one-dimensional analyses showed that, for example, "loving" was indicative of both high cooperativeness and self-transcendence, while "compassionate," "kind," and "caring" was unique for individuals high in cooperativeness. The words "kind" and "caring" indicated low levels of Machiavellianism and psychopathy, whereas "shy" or "introvert" indicated low narcissism. We also found specific keywords that unify or that make the individuals in some profiles unique. Conclusion Despite being short, both inventories capture individuals identity as expected. Nevertheless, our method also points out some shortcomings and overlaps between traits measured with these inventories. We suggest that self-descriptive words can be quantified to validate measures of psychological constructs (e.g., prevalence in self-descriptions or QuSTT) and that this method may complement traditional methods for testing the validity of psychological measures.

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  • 271.
    Gavel, Mim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Visst påverkar könstillhörigheten särskilt i första mötet: Psykologers upplevelser av den egna könstillhörigheten i mötet med klienten2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att beskriva hur psykologer upplever sin könstillhörighet i klientmötet. Sammantaget har tio psykologer (fem kvinnor och fem män) intervjuats med avseende på hur de upplever sin könstillhörighet och vilka erfarenheter de har av dess betydelse i olika situationer i klientarbetet. De kvalitativa intervjuerna har analyserats med hjälp av tolkande fenomenologisk analys (IPA). I resultatet framkommer att psykologernas könstillhörighet upplevs ha betydelse i klientmötet och då särskilt i kontaktens inledande skede. Könstillhörigheten visar sig också ha betydelse i arbetet utanför terapirummet, i förhållande till kollegor och till de organisationer där psykologerna är verksamma. Det framkommer även att psykologerna upplever att könstillhörigheten har olika betydelse i olika kontexter. Det innebär att könstillhörighetens betydelse kan påverkas av exempelvis ålder och kulturell bakgrund.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 272.
    Georgsson, Matilda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Föräldrabehandling efter sexuella övergrepp mot barn: En kvalitativ studie om föräldrars upplevelser av den behandling de fått2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien syftar till att förstå hur föräldrar/familjehemsföräldrar, till barn som utsatts för sexuella övergrepp, upplever den behandling som de själva fått. Nio föräldrar/familjehemsföräldrar har intervjuats för att besvara studiens frågeställning. Informanterna var föräldrar/familjehemsföräldrar som avslutat sin behandling på BUP Elefanten under år 2005 eller 2006. De hade medverkat vid minst fem samtal och var själva inte förövare.

    Intervjuerna analyserades utifrån en tolkande fenomenologisk analys (IPA). Bearbetningen resulterade i sju teman: tillgänglighet, helhetssyn, känslor, föräldrarollen, personlig hjälp, behandlaren och avslut. En viktig slutsats är att informanterna upplever att behadlaren är en mycket viktig komponent i behandlingen och att denne bland annat får dem att känna sig mindre ensamma. En annan viktig slutsats är informanternas upplevelse av att de i behandlingen får möjlighet att konfronteras med och samtala om de starka känslor som det sexuella övergreppet kan väcka. Under behandlingen ges de dessutom en bättre förståelse för barnets känslor. Ytterligare en viktigt slutsats är att informanterna är osäkra på hur de ska agera som föräldrar och att det är väldigt betydelsefullt för dem att få råd omkring detta och att de även ges bekrätfelse i att de gör rätt som föräldrar.

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  • 273.
    Gerdle, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Akerblom, Sophia
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Brodda Jansen, Gunilla
    Danderyd Hosp, Sweden.
    Enthoven, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ernberg, Malin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; SCON, Sweden.
    Dong, Huan-Ji
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Ang, Bjorn O.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Boersma, Katja
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    The importance of emotional distress, cognitive behavioural factors and pain for life impact at baseline and for outcomes after rehabilitation - a SQRP study of more than 20,000 chronic pain patients2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 693-711Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Although literature concerning chronic pain patients indicates that cognitive behavioural variables, specifically acceptance and fear of movement/(re)injury, are related to life impact, the relative roles of these factors in relation to pain characteristics (e.g. intensity and spreading) and emotional distress are unclear. Moreover, how these variables affect rehabilitation outcomes in different subgroups is insufficiently understood. This study has two aims: (1) to investigate how pain, cognitive behavioural, and emotional distress variables intercorrelate and whether these variables can regress aspects of life impact and (2) to analyse whether these variables can be used to identify clinically meaningful subgroups at baseline and which subgroups benefit most from multimodal rehabilitation programs (MMRP) immediately after and at 12-month follow-up. Methods: Pain aspects, background variables, psychological distress, cognitive behavioural variables, and two life impact variables were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP) for chronic pain patients. These data were analysed mainly using advanced multivariate methods. Results: The study includes 22,406 chronic pain patients. Many variables, including acceptance variables, showed important contributions to the variation in clinical presentations and in life impacts. Based on the statistically important variables considering the clinical presentation, three clusters/subgroups of patients were identified at baseline; from the worst clinical situation to the relatively good situation. These clusters showed significant differences in outcomes after participating in MMRP; the subgroup with the worst situation at baseline showed the most significant improvements. Conclusions: Pain intensity/severity, emotional distress, acceptance, and life impacts were important for the clinical presentation and were used to identify three clusters with marked differences at baseline (i.e. before MMRP). Life impacts showed complex relationships with acceptance, pain intensity/severity, and emotional distress. The most significant improvements after MMRP were seen in the subgroup with the lowest level of functioning before treatment, indicating that patients with complex problems should be offered MMRP.

  • 274.
    Gerhardsson, Maurits
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    En friare fritid?: Effekterna av ett in­ternetbaserat stresshanteringsprogram på återhämtning under ledig tid2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen användes en randomiserad kontrollerad design för att undersöka om återhämtningserfarenheter förändras efter tio veckors deltagande i ett internetadministrerat stresshanteringsprogram, baserat på KBT. Resultat av tidigare forskning har visat att stressinterventioner har potential att förändra återhämtningserfarenheter som de mäts i REQ (the Recovery Experiences Questionnaire). Föreliggande studie är däremot den första med fullständigt experimentell design samt den första som undersöker effekterna på återhämtningserfarenheter av dels internetadministrerad, dels KBT-baserad behandling. Därutöver är föreliggande studie den första som undersöker effekterna på återhämtningserfarenheter för deltagare som är sjukskrivna eller befinner sig i risk för sjukskrivning på grund av långvarig stress.

    Mellangruppjämförelser genomfördes med ANCOVA baserat på självskattningar från en grupp som randomiserats till ett internetbaserat stresshanteringsprogram (n = 29) och en grupp som randomiserats till väntelista (n = 29). Gruppernas värde på REQ och index för återhämtningserfarenheterna Psykologisk distans, Avslappning, Kontroll och Bemästringserfarenheter jämfördes efter tio veckor av behandling respektive väntelista. Med kontroll för aktuellt värde under vecka 1 visade jämförelserna signifikant högre värden för behandlingsgruppen. Beräkningar av Cohens d visade mellangruppskillnader med måttliga till stora effektstorlekar. Resultaten breddar kunskapsläget avseende vilka interventioner som kan öka återhämtningserfarenheter och indikerar att det för att åstadkomma effektiv vidareutveckling av stressinterventioner med fördel kan forskas vidare om återhämningserfarenheternas betydelse för tillfrisknande från stressrelaterad ohälsa. 

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  • 275.
    Gervind, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Skagius Ruiz, Erica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    COMMIT: ett internetbaserat stödsystem för KBT vid mild till måttlig ångest och depression - kvantitativ och kvalitativ utvärdering2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att utvärdera hur det internetbaserade stödsystemet COMMIT fungerade som komplement till KBT face-to-face för personer med mild till måttlig ångest och depression. Internetportalen COMMIT med funktioner anpassade för att stödja behandling under och mellan samtal baserades på kunskap och teknik från internetbehandlingsforskning.

    Totalt 15 klienter och 8 behandlare deltog i studien och behandlingarna pågick i åtta till nio veckor. Under samtalen användes surfplatta (iPad 2, Apple) för åtkomst till COMMIT och mellan samtalen använde klienter och behandlare dator med internetuppkoppling. Studien hade en mixed methods-design. Kvantitativ data för symtomlindring, upplevd livskvalitet och arbetsallians insamlades med självskattningsformulär före och efter behandling. Semistrukturerade intervjuer utfördes för kvalitativ datainsamling efter behandlingens avslut.

    Jämförelse mellan för- och eftermätningar t(14)=4.30-7.25, p<0.001 visade på stora effekter (d=1.68-2.44) med statistisk signifikans för samtliga mått på ångest och depression samt upplevd livskvalitet. Majoriteten av klienterna visade också på klinisk signifikant förbättring på dessa mått. Både klienter och behandlare skattade högt vid mätning av arbetsallians.

    Det kvalitativa resultatet återspeglade COMMIT som ett system verksamt för tillägnande av information, utökad kommunikation, god följsamhet, generalisering av behandling och främjande av behandlarkompetens. En betydande faktor var klientens datorvana och med undantag för klienter med begränsad datorvana tyder resultatet på internetbaserat stöd som mycket lovande resurs i KBT.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    COMMIT 2012
  • 276. Gibson, Stephen
    et al.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Forrester, Mike
    Gordon-Finlayson, Alastair
    University of Northampton, UK.
    Shaw, Rachel
    Aston University, Birmingham, UK.
    Development of a web-based resource to aid the teaching of qualitative research methods at undergraduate level2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 277.
    Gidhagen, Ylva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i östra Östergötland, Beroendekliniken NSÖ.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Philips, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Attachment style among outpatients with substance use disorders in psychological treatment2018Ingår i: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, ISSN 1476-0835, E-ISSN 2044-8341, Vol. 91, nr 4, s. 490-508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To explore the associations between self-rated attachment style, psychological distress and substance use among substance use disorder (SUD) outpatients in psychological treatment.

    Design and Methods

    In this practice-based study, 108 outpatients were asked to fill in the Experiences in Close Relationships – Short form, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) at treatment start and end. Patients were given psychological treatments with a directive, reflective or supportive orientation.

    Results

    An insecure attachment style was more common among the SUD outpatients, compared to non-clinical groups. Patients with a fearful attachment style scored higher on psychological distress than patients with a secure attachment style. The associations between the attachment dimensions and psychological distress were stronger than those between attachment and SUD. Significantly more patients had a secure attachment style at treatment end.

    Conclusions

    This study shows significant relations between patients’ attachment style and their initial psychological distress. The causal relationship between attachment style and psychological distress is, however, not clear and can likely go in both directions. The psychological treatment of patients with SUD contributed significantly to changes from insecure to secure attachment style.

    Practitioner Points

    We found among patients with SUD a strong relation between patients’ attachment style and their psychological distress. Knowledge of the patient’s attachment style may help the therapist to tailor the treatment to the patient’s needs. A change from insecure to secure attachment style can be an important goal for a SUD treatment, as it may prevent the patient from using defence strategies involving substance use for regulating emotions and interpersonal relationships.

  • 278.
    Gidhagen, Ylva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i östra Östergötland, Beroendekliniken NSÖ.
    Philips, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Outcome of psychological treatment of patients with substance use disorders in routine care2017Ingår i: Journal of Substance Use, ISSN 1465-9891, E-ISSN 1475-9942, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 343-352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: More knowledge is needed about outcome of treatments in routine care for patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). These patients often suffer from psychological distress in addition to SUDs. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of community-based psychological treatment on SUD patients’ psychosocial problems, as well as on their substance use. Design: All patients who were referred or self-referred for psychological treatment to a social worker or a psychotherapist at three outpatient treatment centers for SUD patients were asked to participate in the study. Methods: Ratings at treatment start and end were obtained on Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM, n = 100), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C, n = 49), and Drug Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (DUDIT-C, n = 27). Results: CORE-OM mean scores were significantly improved. In total 14% of the patients were recovered, 10% improved, and 5% deteriorated. Both AUDIT-C and DUDIT-C mean scores were significantly improved for patients with alcohol use and patients using illicit drugs, respectively. Conclusions: Routine psychological treatment had positive effects on psychological distress as well as on reduction of substance use. A substantial number of patients remained however unchanged, particularly regarding psychological distress. More studies with larger patient groups are needed to develop treatment for SUD patients in routine care.

  • 279.
    Gini, Gianluca
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Individual Moral Disengagement and Bystander Behavior in Bullying: The Role of Moral Distress and Collective Moral Disengagement2020Ingår i: Psychology of Violence, ISSN 2152-0828, E-ISSN 2152-081X, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 38-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Bullying research has recently focused on how moral cognitions and emotions shape the bullying context, though research has less assessed whether and how morality influences the bystander behaviors of youth. The present study assessed whether the level of moral distress students feel when they do not intervene to help bullied peers mediates the relationship between individual moral disengagement and bystander intervention, and whether these associations are moderated by students perception of collective moral disengagement in their classrooms. Method: A sample of 757 adolescents (59.7% girls: M-age = 14.31, SD = 1.24) from 11 Italian secondary schools completed the study measures. Results: Moderated path analysis confirmed that individual moral disengagement-via moral distress-had a negative indirect effect on defending and a positive indirect effect on passive bystanding, both of which became stronger as levels of perceived collective moral disengagement increased. Conclusions: The findings highlight moral distress as an important moral construct that should be considered in research on bystander behavior in bullying. Moreover, the study confirmed the role of the perceived moral context, which should be addressed when designing intervention programs.

  • 280.
    Goksøyr, Arnold
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen.
    Nilsen, Roy M
    Haukeland Universitetssykehus, Bergen.
    Eikum, Frode S
    Sogndal kommune, Norge.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Prevalence of post partum depression in parents. An analysis of possible risk and protective  factors. Preliminary results2012Ingår i: Infant Mental Health Journal [Abstract Supplement, p 216] / [ed] K. Puura, M. Tomlinson. N.W. Boris & M. Sorsa, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This project investigated the retrospective prevalence of depression in both fathers and mothers of children born in the period 1994–1998. Self-administrative questionnaires were sent to the parents of 1736 children in a rural part of Western Norway. We collected information on their symptoms of depression, when the particular child was born, the parents’ education level, their type of employment, marital status, and degree of social support from their own family and from their friends. To assess depression, Kendler’s scale of life time depression was used. This is a 6-item scale classifying clinical depression to mild depression according to the ICD-10. In addition we asked about onset of the symptoms and the duration of depression and if the symptoms had been recurrent

    The response rate of the questionnaires was 39.2%. A total of 1139 replies were received for 680 children (53% girls). Of the parents (55% mothers, 45% fathers), we found that 5.5% of the mothers and 0.4% of the fathers reported a score above cut-off indicating that they suffered from a postpartum depression after the child was born. In addition, a sub-clinical depression with at least 3 significant symptoms was reported by 3.5% of the mothers and 0.8% of the fathers. Age, education and employment of the parents, size of the family and social support as possible risk factors will be discussed.

    In this study, the prevalence of a clinical depression about 15 years ago was lower than that observed in more recent studies in Norway. This could be due to different methods in measuring depression, but may also indicate that postnatal depression is indeed an increasing health problem.   

  • 281.
    Golzari, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Shiraz University, Eram Square, Shiraz, Iran.
    Hemati Alamdarloo, Ghorban
    Shiraz University, Eram Square, Shiraz, Iran.
    Moradi, Shahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    The Effect of a Social Stories Intervention on the Social Skills of Male Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder2015Ingår i: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a social stories intervention on the social skills of male students with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). The sample included 30 male students with ASD who were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). The social skills of both groups were assessed pre- and post-test using Stone and colleagues’ Social Skills Scale (which included subscales for understanding/perspective-taking, initiating interactions, responding to interactions, and maintaining interactions). The experimental group participated in 16 sessions of social stories training, while the control group did not. Overall, the results showed that the social stories intervention improved the social skills of the children with ASD in the experimental group compared with the control group. The effects of the social stories intervention were mostly evident in the subscales for understanding/perspective-taking, initiating interactions, and maintaining interactions with others. The social stories intervention had no effect on the subscale assessing ability to respond to others. The study findings emphasize the effectiveness of the social stories intervention in improving the social skills of children with ASD, which may be used by teachers, parents, or professionals who work with such children.

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    fulltext
  • 282. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Gradin Franzén, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Disciplining Freedom: Treatment Dilemmas and Subjectivity at a Detention Home for Young Men2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna etnografiska studie undersöker behandlingspraktiker och interaktion mellan personal och ungdomar på ett särskilt ungdomshem för unga män. Materialet består framförallt av videoinspelad interaktion och intervjuer. I studien utforskas ideologiska dilemman samt hur dessa producerar komplexa subjektspositioner att uppta, förhandla om eller neka. Studie I undersöker ett huvuddilemma: tvång vs. frihet, vilket involverar de dubbla institutionella målen att tvinga ungdomarna till önskvärt beteende och att producera individer som beter sig ”korrekt” av egen fri vilja. Fokus ligger på personalens tal om teckenekonomi och studien synliggör retoriska resurser som används för att undvika positionen ”disciplinär personal”. Studie II utforskar disciplinerande humor och synliggör hur humor används både för att skapa och omskapa den sociala ordningen. Studien visar hur personal och ungdomar skickligt använder humor i förhandlingar om lokala hierarkier relaterade till auktoritet, generation och ålder. Humor var också ett sätt att navigera ideologiska dilemman. Studie III undersöker beteendemodifieringspraktiker, med fokus på hur självutvärdering kan förstås som responsibilisering med fokus på själv-reglering. Studien dokumenterar deltagarnas strategiska användning av specifika subjektspositionsrelationer, ”liten pojke”-vårdare snarare än ungdomsbrottsling-disciplinär personal. Sammantaget visar avhandlingen att subjektspositioner i grunden är samkonstruerade och att positioner rörande ålder är ytterst relevanta i denna kontext. Paradoxala aspekter av subjektspositioner bidrar med diskursiva resurser vilka kan användas för att hantera ideologiska dilemman och för att hantera frågor rörande autenticitet.

    Delarbeten
    1. From punishmentto rewards?: Treatment dilemmas at a youth detention home
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>From punishmentto rewards?: Treatment dilemmas at a youth detention home
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Punishment & Society, ISSN 1462-4745, E-ISSN 1741-3095, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 542-559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present article analyses staff members’ discourses on the treatment method token economy, as it is implemented at a detention home for young men. The study draws on interviews with eight staff members and on participant observations at the detention home. Using discursive psychology, the analysis centers on the staff members’ own constructions of token economy as well as paradoxes and dilemmas that appear in their talk. Two paradoxes were found: (1) paradox of transparency and interpretation; token economy is objective and transparent, but requires interpretative work over time; and (2) paradox of rewards and punishments; tokens are rewards, but they can be ‘zeroed’ or withdrawn in order to limit undesirable behavior. Further, the analysis showed that both paradoxes invoke a principal ideological dilemma of control – freedom, which staff members attempt to resolve by positioning the young men as responsible for their own actions and themselves as subordinate parties in the outcome of ‘objective’ token economy practices.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Sage Publications, 2014
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106934 (URN)10.1177/1462474514548788 (DOI)000346025000003 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-05-27 Skapad: 2014-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05
    2. Teasing, laughing and disciplinary humor: Staff-youth interaction in detention home treatment
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Teasing, laughing and disciplinary humor: Staff-youth interaction in detention home treatment
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 167-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how disciplinary humor is deployed to shape and reshape social order in inter-generational encounters. Data are drawn from an ethnographic study of staff–resident encounters at a treatment home for boys (including about 30 hours of video recordings), focusing on sequential patterns in the local design of jokes and teasing, analyzing language and multimodal interaction in detail. It was found that staff and boys recurrently laughed together and teased each other by invoking local hierarchical positions such as child–adult. The intrinsic ambiguity of humor and teasing allowed staff members to engage in temporary breaches of social order, while simultaneously enforcing local rules of conduct. Similarly, the boys would joke with the staff, exaggerating or transgressing institutional and generational divides. But ultimately, the joking could also be seen to remind the participants of the very hierarchies that separate staff from residents and men from boys, or adults from children. 

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Sage Publications, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Detention homes, disciplinary humor, discipline, laughter, social order, teasing, youth
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90251 (URN)10.1177/1461445612471469 (DOI)000329071000003 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-03-22 Skapad: 2013-03-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06
    3. Responsibilization and Discipline: Subject Positioning at a Youth Detention Home
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Responsibilization and Discipline: Subject Positioning at a Youth Detention Home
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of contemporary ethnography, ISSN 0891-2416, E-ISSN 1552-5414, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 251-279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Responsibilization has been seen as a major technique for society’s governing of troublesome youth, yet few previous studies have investigated responsibilization in practice. This article explores a behavior modification program at a youth detention home, specifically how involved self-assessment practices can be conceptualized as a responsibilization strategy (aimed at producing free and self-governing subjects). The study documents and explicates this complex discursive setting, where responsibilization practices are combined with rigorous control. Drawing on video-ethnographic methods, the analyses explore how responsibilization is attempted and resisted in interaction. Institutional rules and manuals were used by residents both to enact resistance and to position themselves as responsibilized, in which self-assessment practices make out a kind of technology of the self (Foucault). Further, the study concludes that both staff and residents at times strategically positioned residents as children, something that ultimately could be conceptualized as both parties jointly enacting resistance in response to the dilemmatic discursive setting.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Sage Publications, 2015
    Nyckelord
    Responsibilization, discipline, technologies of the self, subject positions, resistance, self-assessment, video ethnography, self-governing, forced treatment, rehabilitation, youth delinquents
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106935 (URN)10.1177/0891241613520455 (DOI)000353996200001 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-05-27 Skapad: 2014-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Disciplining Freedom: Treatment Dilemmas and Subjectivity at a Detention Home for Young Men
    Ladda ner (pdf)
    omslag
  • 283.
    Gradin Franzén, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Rakblad, Blod och Dödslängtan: Identitetsskapande och den diskursiva konstruktionen av självskadebeteende på ett Internetcommunity2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva och analysera medlemmars diskursiva konstruktioner av självskadebeteende och de konsekvenser dessa konstruktioner får för medlemmarnas identitetsskapande på ett Internetcommunity. Studien har en kvalitativ forskningsansats med grund i diskurspsykologi. Två diskurser har identifierats och döpts till ”naturlighetsdiskurs” och ”onaturlighetsdiskurs”. Inom dessa konstrueras självskadebeteende på skilda vis och medlemmarna av communityt rör sig mellan båda diskurserna. Resultatet visar att medlemmarna växlar mellan att konstruera självskadebeteendet som en naturlig teknik för ångesthantering och som något äckligt och onormalt, vilket resulterar i ett antal konflikter och stora konsekvenser för medlemmarnas identitetsskapande. Detta då diskurserna medför att medlemmarna växlar mellan att se på sig själva som unika, starka och normala, och som svaga, ensamma och onormala. Resultatet visar även på en stor komplexitet vad gäller förhållandet mellan självskadebeteende och självmord.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 284.
    Gradin Franzén, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Responsibilization and Discipline: Subject Positioning at a Youth Detention Home2015Ingår i: Journal of contemporary ethnography, ISSN 0891-2416, E-ISSN 1552-5414, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 251-279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsibilization has been seen as a major technique for society’s governing of troublesome youth, yet few previous studies have investigated responsibilization in practice. This article explores a behavior modification program at a youth detention home, specifically how involved self-assessment practices can be conceptualized as a responsibilization strategy (aimed at producing free and self-governing subjects). The study documents and explicates this complex discursive setting, where responsibilization practices are combined with rigorous control. Drawing on video-ethnographic methods, the analyses explore how responsibilization is attempted and resisted in interaction. Institutional rules and manuals were used by residents both to enact resistance and to position themselves as responsibilized, in which self-assessment practices make out a kind of technology of the self (Foucault). Further, the study concludes that both staff and residents at times strategically positioned residents as children, something that ultimately could be conceptualized as both parties jointly enacting resistance in response to the dilemmatic discursive setting.

  • 285.
    Gradin Franzén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Teasing, laughing and disciplinary humor: Staff-youth interaction in detention home treatment2013Ingår i: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 167-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how disciplinary humor is deployed to shape and reshape social order in inter-generational encounters. Data are drawn from an ethnographic study of staff–resident encounters at a treatment home for boys (including about 30 hours of video recordings), focusing on sequential patterns in the local design of jokes and teasing, analyzing language and multimodal interaction in detail. It was found that staff and boys recurrently laughed together and teased each other by invoking local hierarchical positions such as child–adult. The intrinsic ambiguity of humor and teasing allowed staff members to engage in temporary breaches of social order, while simultaneously enforcing local rules of conduct. Similarly, the boys would joke with the staff, exaggerating or transgressing institutional and generational divides. But ultimately, the joking could also be seen to remind the participants of the very hierarchies that separate staff from residents and men from boys, or adults from children. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 286.
    Gradin Franzén, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    From punishmentto rewards?: Treatment dilemmas at a youth detention home2014Ingår i: Punishment & Society, ISSN 1462-4745, E-ISSN 1741-3095, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 542-559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article analyses staff members’ discourses on the treatment method token economy, as it is implemented at a detention home for young men. The study draws on interviews with eight staff members and on participant observations at the detention home. Using discursive psychology, the analysis centers on the staff members’ own constructions of token economy as well as paradoxes and dilemmas that appear in their talk. Two paradoxes were found: (1) paradox of transparency and interpretation; token economy is objective and transparent, but requires interpretative work over time; and (2) paradox of rewards and punishments; tokens are rewards, but they can be ‘zeroed’ or withdrawn in order to limit undesirable behavior. Further, the analysis showed that both paradoxes invoke a principal ideological dilemma of control – freedom, which staff members attempt to resolve by positioning the young men as responsible for their own actions and themselves as subordinate parties in the outcome of ‘objective’ token economy practices.

  • 287.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Cheering as an indicator of social identity and self-regulation in Swedish ice hockey supporter groups2012Ingår i: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, ISSN 1012-6902, E-ISSN 1461-7218, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 133-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore whether cheering could be a sign of the social identity of a supporter group, and further to investigate if cheers could serve a self-policing purpose. The matches included in this study were classified as high risk matches. The observational data made it possible to construct a taxonomy of cheering based on the implicit meaning of the cheers. The observations proved that cheerleaders were able to break off aggressive and violent tendencies by introducing supportive cheers and thus enhancing a peaceful social identity among the supporters. In contrast to the Emergent Norm Theory (Turner and Killian, 1972, 1993), that states that group processes emerge without prior coordination and planning, this study demonstrates that collective actions can be influenced and controlled by the cheerleaders. The results indicate that self-policing seems to be more efficient, in order to secure order, than policing by force. The originality of this research is not primarily the taxonomy of cheers, although being an innovation, but the evidence for planned synchronicity and coordination as tools for breaking destructive collective actions.

  • 288.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för pedagogik i utbildning och skola (PiUS). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hau, Stephan (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Hylander, Ingrid (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Institutionen för Neurobiologi, Vårdvetenskap och Samhälle (NVS), H1, Sektionen för allmänmedicin, Karolinska institutet.
    Näslund, Johan (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rosander, Michael (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Demonstrationer och sporthändelser: En bok om poliser, demonstranter, idrottssupportrar, kravaller och folkfest2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    När många människor samlas på ett ställe finns en risk att det uppstår konflikter som urartar i våld, även om syftet med samlingen är fredligt. I boken beskrivs vad som kan hända i samband med demonstrationer, gatufester och idrottsevenemang. Bokens första syfte är att ge en överblick över aktuell forskning om masshändelser och kravaller. Ett annat syfte är att ge konkreta exempel på masshändelser som urartat och sådana som avlöpt fredligt, samt att förklara varför kravaller uppstår. Det tredje syftet är att ge konkreta beskrivningar av hur polis, myndigheter och arrangörer kan agera för att undvika kravaller. Ökad kunskap om den dynamik som kan utvecklas i samband med masshändelser kan bidra till att öka medvetenheten om den egna gruppens betydelse för händelseutvecklingen och bemötande av andra grupper. Detta är kunskap med relevans också för en mängd vardagliga situationer som kan uppstå på t.ex. arbetsplatser eller i skolklasser.

    Boken riktar sig till poliser, polisaspiranter, idrottsföreningar och arrangörer av demonstrationer, men också till lokala myndigheter och politiker. Boken kan med fördel användas i undervisning och forskning inom det beteendevetenskapliga området.

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    fulltext
  • 289.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för pedagogik i utbildning och skola (PiUS). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Demonstrationer och sporthändelser: En bok om poliser, demonstranter, idrottssupportrar, kravaller och folkfest2010Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    När många människor samlas på ett ställe finns en risk att det uppstår konflikter som urartar i våld, även om syftet med samlingen är fredligt. I boken beskrivs vad som kan hända i samband med demonstrationer, gatufester och idrottsevenemang. Bokens första syfte är att ge en överblick över aktuell forskning om masshändelser och kravaller. Ett annat syfte är att ge konkreta exempel på masshändelser som urartat och sådana som avlöpt fredligt, samt att förklara varför kravaller uppstår. Det tredje syftet är att ge konkreta beskrivningar av hur polis, myndigheter och arrangörer kan agera för att undvika kravaller. Ökad kunskap om den dynamik som kan utvecklas i samband med masshändelser kan bidra till att öka medvetenheten om den egna gruppens betydelse för händelseutvecklingen och bemötande av andra grupper. Detta är kunskap med relevans också för en mängd vardagliga situationer som kan uppstå på t.ex. arbetsplatser eller i skolklasser.

    Boken riktar sig till poliser, polisaspiranter, idrottsföreningar och arrangörer av demonstrationer, men också till lokala myndigheter och politiker. Boken kan med fördel användas i undervisning och forskning inom det beteendevetenskapliga området.

    Ladda ner (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 290.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Soziale Identität und Massenereignisse2008Ingår i: Zeitschrift für Freie Assoziation, ISSN 1434-7849, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 7-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [de]

    Fast täglich finden in der westlichen Welt Massenereignisse statt – politische Demonstrationen, nicht gesellschaftlich akzeptierte Jugendaktivitäten, große Sportereignisse. Während die meisten dieser Veranstaltungen in der Regel geordnet und friedlich ablaufen, münden einige in Zusammenstöße und Ausschreitungen. Seit 2001 hat eine schwedische Forschungsgruppe eine große Anzahl Beobachtungsstudien von Massenereignissen durchgeführt, um die Interaktionsdynamiken zwischen und innerhalb der beteiligten Gruppen zu untersuchen. Es ist eine weit verbreitete Auffassung, dass in einer Gruppensituation Individuen ihre Identität sowie mentale Blockaden verlieren und sich wie eine tierische Horde benehmen. Eine Vielzahl von Forschungsergebnissen hat jedoch gezeigt, dass die einzelnen Personen nicht ihre individuelle Identität verlieren, sondern dass durch das Verhalten anderer Gruppen der Raum für eine soziale Identität geschaffen werden kann. Im Zusammenspiel mit anderen Gruppen, etwa mit Polizeikräften, kann die soziale Identität eine friedliche und disziplinierte, aber auch eine aggressive und gewalttätige sein. Die Erklärungen für Ausschreitungen müssen nicht etwa in den einzelnen Gruppen gesucht werden, sondern in dem Zusammenspiel zwischen den sich gegenüberstehenden Gruppen. Die meisten Forschungen über Ausschreitungen haben sich auf die Aktivisten konzentriert, oder, bis zu einem gewissen Grad, auf die Interaktionen zwischen Polizei und Aktivisten. Nur sehr wenig wurde in Bezug auf die Dynamiken innerhalb der beteiligten Gruppen geforscht, das heißt innerhalb der Gruppe der Polizeikräfte oder innerhalb der Gruppe der Aktivisten. Darüber hinaus wurden Massenereignisse bisher nicht systematisch unter Hinzuziehung individualpsychologischer Theorien untersucht wie etwa Theorien über das Selbst.

  • 291.
    Granström, Kjell
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Grupparbete – en försummad möjlighet2012Ingår i: Lärare som ledare: – i och utanför klassrummet / [ed] Gunnar Berg, Frank Sundh, Christer Wede, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, s. 153-162Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokens 17 kapitel beskriver olika perspektiv på lärare som ledare och hur ledarskapet utövas i klassrumsmiljön i samverkan med eleverna, i skolans vardag. Hur skolarbetet kan och bör ledas beror på den enskilda lärarens bedömning av lärandemiljön i det egna klassrummet, men också på faktorer som har att göra med skolan som arbetsplats, organisation och institution i samhället. Ytterst vilar ledarskapet på hur lärare förstår, förhåller sig till och hanterar skolans olikartade uppdrag.

    Områden som behandlas i boken är:

    • ledarstilar och psykologiska teorier
    • aspekter på ledarskap i klassrummet
    • elevinflytande och eget arbete
    • ledarskap i grupparbete
    • undervisning och lärande i helklass
    • specialpedagogiska insatser
    • lärares gemensamma ledarskap
    • undervisning och bedömning
    • lärare och rektorer i samverkan
  • 292.
    Granström, Kjell
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Stiwne, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    A bipolar model on groupthink : An expansion of Janis' concept groupthink.1994Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 293.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Marklund, Jenny
    Swedish Armed Forces, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Organizational effectiveness at the Kosovo Force Headquarters: a case study2014Ingår i: Assessing command and control effectiveness: dealing with a changing world / [ed] Peter Berggren, Staffan Nählinder and Erland Svensson, CRC Press, 2014, Vol. S. 161-176, s. 161-176Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 294.
    Gremmen, Mariola C.
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Van den Berg, Yvonne H. M.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Steglich, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Veenstra, Rene
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    The importance of near-seated peers for elementary students academic engagement and achievement2018Ingår i: Journal of applied developmental psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, E-ISSN 1873-7900, Vol. 57, s. 42-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although students are part of a group of classmates, they spend the majority of time during lessons with students who are seated next or close to them. Therefore, near-seated peers in elementary school classrooms might play a crucial role in students academic development. It was hypothesized that near-seated peers influence students academic engagement and achievement, especially when they are also friends. Participants were 559 fourth sixth grade students (21 classrooms; 51.9% boys; Mage = 10.65 years, range = 8-12). Longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena) showed that students academic engagement and achievement got better when friends scored better, and vice versa, regardless of their physical position in the classroom. In contrast, near-seated peers who were not befriended got more diverse scores over time. These results imply that teachers should consider students friendships and academic engagement and achievement in designing seating arrangements. Moreover, it is recommended to actively monitor ongoing peer influence processes.

  • 295.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ekerfelt Allvin, Cornelia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bradely, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Teachers' views on risk factors for problematic school absenteeism in Swedish primary school students2015Ingår i: Educational Psychology in Practice, ISSN 0266-7363, E-ISSN 1469-5839, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 412-423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present online survey, 158 teachers in regular and special education teaching in grades six to nine were asked to rate the importance of probable reasons for problematic school absenteeism. On average, the teachers estimated that among their students, 19 students had presented with problematic school absenteeism over the last five years. Teachers viewed school absenteeism as a multifactorial problem. Family factors were considered to contribute most and low mood or depression were rated as one of the five most contributing factors. Teachers in special education viewed school factors as more influential than teachers in mainstream education did (t156 = −3.94, p < 0.05). The current findings stress the importance of collaboration between the school, parents and the student to be able to address all factors that may lead to problematic school absenteeism.

  • 296.
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Walter, Susanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Magtarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Viktorsson, Lisa
    Carlsson, Ann-Kristin
    Jones, Michael P.
    Macquarie University, Australia.
    Olsen Faresjö, Ashild
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    More negative self-esteem and inferior coping strategies among patients diagnosed with IBS compared with patients without IBS - a case-control study in primary care2015Ingår i: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 16, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, relapsing gastrointestinal disorder,that affects approximately 10% of the general population and the majority are diagnosed  in primary care. IBS has been reported to be associated with altered psychological and cognitive functioning such as mood disturbances, somatization, catastrophizing or altered visceral interoception by negative emotions and stress. The aim was to  investigate the psychosocial constructs of self-esteem and sense of coherence among IBS patients compared to non-IBS patients in primary care.     

    Methods

    A case–control study in primary care setting among IBS patients meeting the ROME III         criteria (n = 140) compared to controls i.e. non-IBS patients (n = 213) without any         present or previous gastrointestinal complaints. The data were collected through self-reportedquestionnaires of psychosocial factors.     

    Results

    IBS-patients reported significantly more negative self-esteem (p < 0.001), lower scores         for positive self-esteem (p < 0.001), and lower sense of coherence (p < 0.001) than the controls. The IBS-cases were also less likely to report ‘good’ health status (p < 0.001) and less likely to report a positive belief in the future (p < 0.001). After controlling for relevant confounding factors in multiple regressions, the elevation  in negative self-esteem among IBS patients remained statistically significant (p =0.02), as did the lower scores for sense of coherence among IBS cases (p = 0.04).     

    Conclusions

    The more frequently reported negative self-esteem and inferior coping strategies among         IBS patients found in this study suggest the possibility that psychological therapies         might be helpful for these patients. However these data do not indicate the causal         direction of the observed associations. More research is therefore warranted to determine whether these psychosocial constructs are more frequent in IBS patients.

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    fulltext
  • 297.
    Guimarães Naso, Renata
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Forum för genusvetenskap och jämställdhet.
    Therapeutic Alliance between Psychologists and Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Feminist Ethics of Care Interpretation2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the construction of the therapist-client alliance in the therapeutic setting with perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Moreover, it explores the ways a Feminist Ethics of Care perspective could enhance the partnership between the actors. To fulfil such aims, the author conducted six in-depth semi-structured interviews with psychologists working at one of the most renowned institutions for perpetrators of IPV in Norway and Sweden. The analysis of the psychologists' discourses demonstrates that several factors are influential in the alliance construction. The most important aspects are: the clients' perspective towards the psychologists; the therapists' views towards the clients; the psychologists' engagement with moral sentiments; the power struggle between the actors; and the use of techniques for the professionals to enhance their connection with the clients. Besides that, the discourses also show that moral superiority seems to guide the psychologists when relating with the perpetrators. Their views are embedded in an individualistic ethics based on the principles of Kohlberg's Ethics of Justice. The thesis suggests that a collective ethics such as Gilligan's Feminist Ethics of Care would enhance the partnership between the actors. This theoretical framework allows the psychologists to change their superior moral views of the clients to a moral responsibility towards them. When such movement in perspective happens, the therapists begin to see the perpetrators as human beings with many different facets. Consequently, they truly deny a judgmental impression towards their identity.

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    MA Thesis Renata Guimaraes Naso
  • 298.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Researching Virtual Environments and Virtual Characters2008Ingår i: A Smorgasbord of Cognitive Science / [ed] Peter Gärdenfors and Annika Wallin, Bokförlaget Nya Doxa, 2008, s. 13-31Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 299.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Kunsghuset, Lundagård, Lund .
    Haake, Magnus
    Deptartment of Design Sciences, LTH, Lund University, Lund .
    Tärning, Betty
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Kunsghuset, Lundagård, Lund .
    Visual Gender and Its Motivational and Cognitive Effects: a User Study2007Ingår i: LUCS: Lund University Cognitive Studies, ISSN 1101-8453, Vol. 137, s. 1-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive and motivational effects of more neutral or androgynous-looking virtual characters versus more pronouncedly feminine-looking or masculine-looking virtual characters are explored. In a user study, 158 students aged 17-19 encountered four virtual characters that were visually manipulated to represent gender stereotypicality versus androgyny. One aim was to explore students' attitudes towards the different characters as seen in how they ranked them as preferred presenters and how they articulated their arguments for doing so. Another aim was to look for patterns as to which character(s) influenced female and male students most positively with respect to their attitudes towards a university level computer engineering programme. The combination of these two aims allowed us to compare more conscious and articulated with less conscious and unarticulated, user responses. Results from the study are presented and discussed. We conclude by pointing towards future research and applications.

  • 300.
    Gustafson, Carl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Arbetsmotivation ur ett inre perspektiv: Dimensioner i arbetet som predicerar inre motivation2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats/Examensarbete
    Abstract [sv]

    Inre motivation är per definition en drivkraft i beteendet drivet av intresse och tillfredställelse för arbetet i sig, utan närvaron av yttre belöningar. Då monetära belöningar är väldigt utbrett och kostar företag stora summor är det av intresse att även studera hur motivation påverkas av hur arbetet i sig ser ut.

    Syftet med denna studie är att med ett kvantitativt förhållningssätt beskriva och analysera vilka dimensioner i arbetet och dess miljö som predicerar inre motivation.

    De prediktorer som utifrån tidigare teori valts ut är tron på sin egen kompetens, tillhörighet, autonomi, feedback, personlig utveckling och arbetets meningsfullhet. För att besvara syftet har en enkät delats ut till 211 anställda inom organisationen Skandia Advise.

    Statistiska analyser av resultatet visar att inre motivation till 25 % prediceras av de sex dimensionerna tillsammans. Enbart tron på sin egen kompetens och personlig utveckling är säkerställda som enskilda prediktorer för inre motivation inom Skandia Advise vilket bör tas under beaktning i ett nytt belöningssystem.

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