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  • 251.
    Mikaelsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Department of Education and Business Studies, Högskolan i Gävle.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Challenges to local e-democracy: A conceptual analysis of a bottom-up study of e-democracy practices in a multicultural Swedish municipality2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes off from a case study of an e-dialogue - a form of e-democracy in a multicultural Swedish municipality. In spite of high policy pressure and commitment the application was a failure, We thus discuss four potential challenges to e-democracy based on the case study, with general implications, We have identified four challenges: the limits of technology; the lack of issues; the lack of real influence; and a weak sense of community. While these may explain failure, if addressed they may also open up possibilities for success,

  • 252.
    Mirsafdari, Effat
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Svensk asylpolitik En studie av väntetiderna och dess konsekvenser2003Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    During the 20 century millions of people have escaped from war, threat against their human rights, economic injustices and pursuit. The great numbers of fleeing people have lead to difficulties in asylum investigation in the countries, which receive the asylum seekers. Sweden is a country, which has ratified the Genéveconvention 1954, and receives the asylum seekers. The great numbers of asylum seekers have caused among other things long time of waiting for the asylum seekers, sometimes up to 2-3 years. This implies some consequences both for the asylum seeker and for the community. The purpose of the study is to explore how the asylum errands are treated and to elucidate possible problems with implementing the asylum politics in Sweden. This study addresses three questions. Through these questions I want to explain the reasons for the long waiting time for asylum seekers and consequences of these both for the community and the asylum seekers.

  • 253.
    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    The right of free movement: A story of securitisation and control in the UK or the story of Ion Popescu2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently in Britain there has been an on-going discussion on the right of European citizens to move to, work and reside freely in any European Union member-state. British politicians and media, stepping on the significant number of Eastern Europeans who moved to the United Kingdom, articulated a securitising discourse representing them as ‘benefit tourists’ and criminals who threaten the integrity of the welfare system and social cohesion. However, this is only part of the securitisation story. This paper argues that the securitisation of mobile European citizens and, consequently of the right of free movement itself, is used as governmentality in order to allow in the country only those who are needed and keep the rest out, and at the same time to raise support for a renegotiation of the relationship between Britain and the European Union. It will be demonstrated that the securitisation process takes place through policies and everyday practices on the one hand, and through the securitising discourse articulated by politicians and media on the other. Moreover, the possibility of securitisation having a long-lasting effect by creating a security rationale in which all future policies would be embedded is assessed.

  • 254.
    Mojsiejuk, Aleksander
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    The Normative Power of the EU in the Framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy: A Case Study on Ukraine2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the use of political conditionality, the EU has exercised what many have chosen to call an international normative power. The fast democratisation process of the central European countries that joined the EU in 2004 has often been attributed to the force of EU’s normative power. Here, the core of the political conditionality was found in a promised future membership – acting as a reward in exchange for democratic reforms. The new European Neighbourhood Policy however, initiated briefly after the 2004 enlargement, gave rise to new prerequisites to the Unions new neighbours and this time enlargement fatigue prevailed in the EU policy. This case study examines and assesses the ability of the EU to exercise its normative power on Ukraine through the new conditions set up by the European Neighbourhood Policy, were a membership perspective neither is promised nor ruled out. The result show that the effective conditions for the conditionality are favourable and that a good progress on the areas of democracy, rule of law and human rights has been achieved. Although difficult to prove, I argue that this progress most probably is partly due to EU’s normative power on Ukraine.

  • 255.
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Normative arguments for non-state actor participation in international policymaking processes: Functionalism, neocorporatism or democratic pluralism?2016Ingår i: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 920-943Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The participation of non-state actors in multilateral institutions is often portrayed as one way of decreasing the perceived legitimacy deficit in global governance. The literature on non-state actors has identified several ways in which these actors can enhance the legitimacy of intergovernmental organisations and global governance arrangements. Three partially competing normative arguments, or rationales, for the inclusion of non-state actors in international policymaking ᅵ functionalism, neocorporatism and democratic pluralism ᅵ have been identified. Whereas functionalism highlights the contribution of non-state actors to output legitimacy in terms of expertise, neocorporatism emphasises the inclusion of affected interests, and democratic pluralism claims that non-state actors increase input legitimacy through procedural values. These three normative arguments thus offer different understandings of the motives for the inclusion and representation of non-state actors in international negotiations and diplomacy. Through a single case study of United Nations climate diplomacy, we analyse the extent to which the three rationales for non-state actor inclusion are found in views held by state and non-state actors participating in the annual United Nations climate change conferences. Our results show that different actor groups place varying degrees of emphasis on the different rationales for non-state actor inclusion, even though the neocorporatist rationale remains most favoured overall. We discuss the implications of our findings for the democratic legitimacy of increasing participation of non-state actors in intergovernmental affairs and recent trends in the participation of non-state actors in the international climate change policymaking process.

  • 256.
    Nedlund, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen Åldrande och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nordh, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Constructing citizens: a matter of labeling, imaging and underlying rationales in the case of people with dementia2017Ingår i: Critical Policy Studies, ISSN 1946-0171, E-ISSN 1946-018XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly significant element in politics and policies is the process of constructing, categorizing and imaging – such as categorizing citizens as target groups. In governing documents, distinctions are drawn to distinguish deserving and undeserving categories of citizens. This paper explores the construction of citizenship for people with dementia and the connection to underlying categories of rationales, by analyzing how this group has been categorized and imaged in policy documents. The study is based on a qualitative textual analysis of national policy documents in Sweden, covering nearly 40 years. It shows that the way people with dementia have been imaged has differed over time, where people living with dementia have been situated in various target groups and discourses. However, to a large extent, the underlying understanding has nevertheless remained persistent where the position of people with dementia has remained weak. It offers a taxonomy of categories of rationales and shows the interplay of rationales and target groups for certain social constructions. The study offers insights into the policy process related to policy change, and on citizenship as something transformative and interrelated that risks upholding democratic values that delimit disempowered groups, in this case people with dementia, to influence their citizenship.

  • 257.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    Avslutande reflektioner över dagens föredrag2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 258.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    Competing narratives on the European Social Model: the birth of a rhetorical alliance2013Ingår i: European Integration in Swedish Economic Research: Discussion Paper / [ed] Lars Oxelheim, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 259.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    Competing narratives on the European Social Model: the birth of a rhetorical alliance2013Ingår i: Conference papers, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 260.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Competing narratives on the European Social Model: the birth of a rhetorical alliance?2014Ingår i: L’Europe en formation. Journal of Studies on European Integration and Federalism, ISSN 0014-2808, Vol. 2, nr 372, s. 67-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of a European Social Model is highly complex and controversial. Many attempts have been made to construct a winning coalition which could convince the member states of the EU to settle for a common social model implemented at the European level. There is now a new rhetorical figure being constructed in terms of a “social investment welfare state”. Authors like Bruno Palier (France) and Joakim Palme (Sweden) argue that welfare should be seen as investments in a healthy population, i.e. to increase competitiveness. This concept may in fact be an attempt to align social democrats with conservatives of a mercantilists leaning, i.e. those who believe in a strong role for the state to develop the resources of the nation. The rhetorical coalition is seen more clearly if it is contrasted to another possible coalition, a coalition of social democrats and liberals, around the idea of providing support for individuals rather than firms.

  • 261.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Convergence and contradiction in innovation policy: More than the regulatory state in the US, Europe and Germany2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 262.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Den högre utbildningen och företagens kompetensutveckling2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en globaliserad värld har studenternas kompetens stor betydelse för företagens konkurrenskraft. Det är viktigt för företagen att få duktiga medarbetare som kan utvecklas och hantera problem självständigt när arbetslivets villkor förändras. Men vad är det som driver universiteten att förse företagen med god kompetens? Vilken roll kan universiteten spela gentemot de svenska företagen? Vad är det som gör lärosäten innovativa, särskilt i förhållande till företagens behov?

    I den här studien undersöker Lars Niklasson två lärosäten som av många anses vara innovativa, nämligen Linköpings universitet och Högskolan i Jönköping. Undersökningen fokuserar särskilt på ekonom- och ingenjörsutbildningar, där de två lärosätena bland annat lanserat nya utbildningar, t.ex. industriell ekonomi i Linköping och internationaliserad ekonomutbildning i Jönköping. Det finns också begränsningar i det innovativa.

    Utifrån de två exemplen diskuteras betydelsen av eldsjälar, konkurrens och politisk styrning mm. Det tycks finnas två synsätt på relationen mellan företagen och utbildningarna, som hänger samman med hur man uppfattar utbildningssektorn. Enligt ett perspektiv är universiteten delar i en koncern med en naturlig centralstyrning. Enligt ett annat perspektiv bör man snarare se lärosätena som aktörer på en marknad med konkurrens. Politikens roll blir olika i de två fallen.

    Det tycks även finnas olika typer av motstånd mot förnyelse, vilket leder till ett behov av olika slags åtgärder för att stärka innovativiteten vid landets universitet och högskolor.

  • 263.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    Den motsägelsefulla unionen: EU:s skiftande politik för företagande och konkurrenskraft2013Ingår i: Ett konkurrenskraftigt EU till rätt pris: Europaperspektiv 2013 / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Lars Oxelheim & Thomas Persson, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2013, s. 265-293Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 264.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    European economic policymaking: Explaining contradictory policies to make European businesses more competitive2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 265.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    European economic policymaking: Explaining contradictory policies to make European businesses more competitive2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 266.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fjärde storstadsregionen och Ostlänken: Från rivalitet till samverkan i Östergötland2012Ingår i: Tillväxtens regionala logik: två uppsatser om hur vi skapar framgång och välfärd / [ed] Pontus Tallberg och Ola Jonsson, Stockholm: Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting , 2012Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 267.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    Forming a regional policy in Sweden: Where will the contradictory policies lead?2013Ingår i: Municipality: Economy and GovernanceArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 268.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Improving the sustainable development goals: Strategies and the governance challenge2019Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the Sustainable Development Goals evaluates the Global Goals (Agenda 2030) by looking at their design and how they relate to theories of economic development. Adopted unanimously by the member states of the United Nations (UN) in 2015, the goals are remarkable for the global commitment on a set of targets to reach by 2030, but also for the lack of a strategy of implementation. The choice of appropriate action is handed over to individual governments, some of which are limited by their lack of resources.

    This book explores how implementation of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) can be developed, especially in developing countries. The content, strengths and weaknesses of the SDGs are critically examined, alongside their relationship to ongoing academic research. The authors also investigate the actions of governments over the past three years by looking at the national strategies they have presented at annual meetings of the UN High-Level Political Forum.

    Improving the Sustainable Development Goals takes a critical but constructive approach, pointing out risks as well as possible remedies. The SDGs are seen as an opportunity for a global conversation on what works in solving some fundamental problems relating to poverty and environmental degradation. With the inclusion of a chapter by Tobias Ogweno, former member of the Kenya’s UN mission, this book will appeal to all those who are interested in policy analysis with a focus on development issues.

  • 269.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Is the European Union learning from evaluations?: Problems and solutions2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 270.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Market-building by the European Union: How contradictory is it?: Paper for the mini-conference "The rise and decline of neoliberalism", SASE annual conference, Madrid June 20112011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 271.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Strategies to join up resources across levels and sectors of government: A twelve country comparison2011Ingår i: Policy, Performance and Management in Governance and Intergovernmental Relations: Transatlantic Perspectives / [ed] Ongaro, Eduardo et al, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2011, 1, s. 143-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    By examining both analytical and empirical differences and similarities between the European Union and the United States, this comprehensive book provides a better understanding of (inter) governmental systems, settings and actors operating in the post New Public Management Era. The expert contributors consider processes of policy formulation and implementation from an intergovernmental point of view, examine issues of performance and accountability that rise in IGR settings and zoom in on the importance and implications of IGR for welfare. Taken together, these insights provide an important next step into the world of transatlantic research and comparison.

  • 272.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    The design of multilevel arrangements between conflict and cooperation: The case of the structural funds in Sweden2013Ingår i: Conference papers, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 273.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The emerging developmental state in Europe: Paper for the international seminar "Euroepan Regulatory Governance: Developments and Change", Copenhagen Business School, October 27-28 20112011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 274.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The European Union after Lisbon :: polity, politics, policy2012Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A few years have passed since the Lisbon Treaty came into force but the question still remains of what the Lisbon Treaty has actually brought about. Was it just 'relatively insignificant' as some scholars have claimed, or was it 'something' more? This book sets out to look at this question and it does so by applying a classical division: polity

  • 275.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The European Union as a developmental state2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 276.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The politics of the developmental state in Europe2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 277.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The regulatory state vs the developmental state: The case of the EU2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 278.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Kommunernas region: Kommunernas inflytande i regionen2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 279.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    EU:s regionalfond som finansiär av infrastruktur i Sverige: insatser och effekter2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 280.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tallberg, Pontus
    Region Skåne, Kristianstad.
    Forming a regional policy in Sweden: Where will the contradictory policies lead?2010Ingår i: Paper for the 32nd Conference of the European Group for Public Administration (EGPA), September 8-10, 2010, Toulouse, France,, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 281.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tallberg, Pontus
    Region Skåne, Kristianstad.
    Regional and cross-border cluster development: what can we learn from the Swedish region of Skåne?2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 282.
    Nilsson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Varför förändras institutioner?: – Kommunal barnomsorg på entreprenad2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar politisk förändring i svenska kommuner. Fokus är New Public Management-reformer och specifikt har andelen kommunal barnomsorg på entreprenad studerats. Studien är kvantitativ och består av datamaterial över Sveriges 290 kommuner som samlats av Statistiska Centralbyrån (SCB) under perioden 1998-2005. Teoretiskt utgår uppsatsen från en nyinstitutionell teori. Fyra hypoteser om politisk förändring i svenska kommuner har konstruerats och sedan operationaliserats genom sex variabler; politisk majoritet (blå/röd), kommunstorlek, skatteunderlag och andel barn- och äldreomsorg på entreprenad. Dessa har sedan analyserats genom en regressionsanalys och slutsatsen är att ideologi som variabel inte inverkar på en kommuns reformbenägenhet, utan visar främst att stigberoende, isomorphism och kommuners ekonomiska situation är avgörande för kommuner ska välja att lägga ut barnomsorg på entreprenad.

  • 283.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    NGO involvement in the UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm 1972. Interrelations Between Intergovernmental Discourse Framing and Activist Influence.2004Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm 1972 has been recognized as bringing political attention to environmental problems. Researchers have acknowledged the importance of NGO activities during the conference, initiating a trend of engagement of NGOs in official global meetings. But NGOs were not permitted to speak at the plenary or participate in working groups in the official Conference. The influence of NGOs could still be substantial but in another arenas delivering perceptions, knowledge and information to the general public and officials, directly or through the intense media coverage of the conference. NGOs engaged in these parallel activities and individuals in the official initiating process are central to this research.

    The purpose of this study is to analyze how Swedish NGOs and their related networks influenced environmental discourses during and following the UN conference on the human environment in Stockholm 1972. The purpose is also to analyze how they in turn were effected by the conference process and the context in which NGOs function.

    This study is concerned with how social movements became engaged in official global meetings and the effects of this process. It is a study of the interrelations between intergovernmental discourse framing and activist influence. To understand this we take in consideration what motivated the actions of relevant actors, how actors selected strategies to obtain there purposes and how diverse frames of understanding emerged.

  • 284.
    Nilsson, Tommy
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Regionernas internationella verksamhet: En utvärdering av Kalmar läns och Östergötlands läns internationella verksamhet2005Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvärderingen av den regionernas internationella verksamhet utgår från två regioner, Kalmar och Östergötland. Uppsatsen bygger på material från de regionala aktörerna, offentligt tryck och intervjuer, och är skriven utifrån en processutvärderingsteori av Evert Vedung.

    Regionernas internationella arbete är idag en naturligt och integrerad del av verksamheten, ett internationellt arbete vars absoluta tyngdpunkt i dag ligger på arbete inom EU. Det finns dock en vilja att lyfta perspektivet utanför EU och i undersökningen visar Östergötland upp samarbeten med Kina, Ryssland och Iran.

    Styrdokumenten ger en otydlig bild av hur verksamheten ska formas och utvärderingen visar att verksamheten inte har reglerats eller getts några ramar från centralt håll, utan de internationella frågorna har formats inom det ”öppna mandat” som de regionala aktörerna anser sig ha. Från länsstyrelsehåll efterfrågas ett ramverk i högre grad än från regionförbunden.

    Det internationella arbetet är en viktig del för aktörerna i deras roll som presumtiva arbetsgivare samt en hörnsten i det regionala utvecklingsarbetet, varför det finns skäl att tro att verksamheten kommer att utvecklas och utökas. För att inte regionernas utveckling ska hindras men ändå regleras, föreslås därför att regionförbunden tillsammans med övriga regionala aktörer skriver regionala regleringsbrev som godkänns centralt. Hänsyn tas då till den unika regionala situationen och arbetet formas helt på det regionala planet, under centralmaktens överinseende.

  • 285.
    Njoke Molua, Stephen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    The Role of European Non-Governmental Organisation (NGOs) in the Development and Democratisation of Cameroon: Challenges and Prospects2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) from Europe have been very active in the field of development in third world countries. This thesis therefore is based on the topic ‘The Role of European Non Governmental Organisations in the Development and Democratisation of Cameroon.Challenges and Prospects’. Increasing fundings from the EU and the national governments of these organisations have been made available to these NGOs to carry out development projects in the south but unfortunately as reports say, the level of global poverty has been rising especially in Africa that has 30 nations among the world’s poorest 32 nations (UNHDR 2005). Taking Cameroon as a case since 1990 is because of the researcher’s interest in that country’s poverty reduction programmes as well as decentralisation which are in line with the activities of the European NGOs. In critically looking at their roles, attention is focused on the following NGOs: The Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV Highlands), The Swiss Association for International Cooperation (HELVETAS) and Plan International- Cameroon which is a UK based organisation. The previous two have been working in Cameroon for over twenty five years in the field of development. Some of their projects carried out are looked into also and some of the challenges they face in the field. From this point, we could know if there are prospects for economic development or not.

    Possible theories like Osvaldo Sunkel’s ‘External Dependence and National Development Policy’ would be reviewed but the main theory however will be Democratisation theory that can suit the role of civil societies and NGOs. Analysis of related literature or document will be the methodology used because of the inability to undertake field research. It is hoped that this work will provide an additional framework on which development organisations can rely in the fight against poverty and underdevelopment in third world countries.

  • 286.
    Nygren, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Genus och FN: s fredsbevarande operationer: en studie av de fredsbevarande operationerna i Namibia och Kosovo2005Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine the United Nation’s work and structure to find possible factors that can explain why some peacekeeping operations have achieved to mainstream a gender perspective, when others have not. This study is based on two cases; the peacekeeping operation in Namibia and the peacekeeping operation in Kosovo.

    The theory I have chosen to apply is feminism, a theory that allows an alternative explanation to this phenomenon. The conclusion is that there are three decisive factors: The leadership and its will to recruit female personnel to decision-making positions, the number of female employees and whether the peacekeeping operation cooperates with local women-organisations or not. All this is of great importance whether the institutional hegemonic masculine culture within the United Nation and its peacekeeping operations, is challenged or not.

  • 287.
    op 't Hoog, Gabriëlle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    Refugees: victims or threats to society?: An analysis of the discourse on the securitization of refugees in the Netherlands2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to understand how the discourse on the securitization of migration in the Netherlands is constructed and which components establish and shape this linguistic context. More specifically, the role of Dutch politicians in the shaping of the discourse will be investigated by means of an analysis of their questions, answers, and debates as recorded in the parliament. The discourse is further scrutinized by way of seven different categories of perceiving refugees: (1) refugees as opponents to the home regime, (2) as threat to culture, (3) as threat to socio-economic welfare, (4) as hostages in the receiving country, (5) as a threat to security, (6) as a political tool, and (7) as a victim of conflict. More importantly, this research intends to reveal how these different elements are interconnected and, through this, influence the shape and development of the discourse. Moreover, the development of the discourse on the securitization of migration between 2014 and 2017 is analyzed to understand if, how, and to what extent it has changed. This analysis is viewed from a postcolonial angle through which the ‘otherization’ of the refugees and the ‘us versus them’ typology in the Dutch society will be linked to the development of the discourse on the securitization of migration. 

  • 288.
    Oreland, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Politices Kandidatprogrammet.
    Autonomireformen: Kollegialt styre och linjestyrning, kan reformen leda till akademisk segregation mellan institutioner?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011 the Swedish government implemented the autonomy reform, which was a legislative change regarding the administration of the institutions of higher education. The aim was to enhance the autonomy of the universities within the framework of the current ruling authority or agency. Collegiality and academic freedom in research and teaching has long been a central norm within the academy. The justification for the autonomy reform proclaimed that if Sweden should have world class institutions for higher education it demands greater autonomy for the universities to manage and frame their internal organisations. The practical implications of the deregulation was generally greater independence regarding administration, teaching positions and the content of education. The institution of collegiality is a natural part of the historic evolution of the universities and a potential increasing marginalisation of the scientific process is a highly relevant issue in political science and administration research.

    There are some comprehensible effects of the reform that can be identified today. They are clear but very differentiated between institutions. A group of older universities, with a longer tradition and legacy, have mostly kept their old organisations while another group has made vast changes in their organisational structures at the cost of collegiality. Hierarchical administration have increased and affirmative collegial mandates have been transferred to individual actors within the organisation. This divergence between universities is potentially problematic because the common denominators have significant connections to the institutions historical and present quality and prominence.

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate, from a policy perspective, whether the content and consequences of the autonomy reform are problematic in connection to the universities differing valuation of collegiality as a component in academic prosperity. The analysis indicates that the organisational differences could lead to a widened gap between the universities in terms of quality, prestige and knowledge production. This due to weakened policy instruments that safeguards traditional and proven academic organisational methodology. The consequences of the differing responses to the deregulation can thus lead to a segregation between institutions instead of their convergence, which does not comply with the explicit ambition of a world class and equality driven sector of higher education.

  • 289.
    Ornetzeder, Michael
    et al.
    Institute of Technology Assessment of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Schreuer, Anna
    Inter-University Research Centre for Technology, Work and Culture, Graz, Austria.
    Rohracher, Harald
    University of Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Auf der Suche nach nachhaltigen Anwendungsformen der Brennstoffzellentechnologie: Erfahrungen mit Constructive Technology Assessment2010Ingår i: Technology Governance: Der Beitrag der Technikfolgenabschätzung / [ed] Aichholzer, G., Bora, A., Bröchler, S., Decker, M., Latzer, M., Berlin: Edition Sigma, 2010, s. 271-278Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 290.
    Osipova, Svetlana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    The Normative Power of the EU in neighbourhood democratization within the framework of the ENP: A case study on Armenia2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the effective democratization process during the 2004 enlargement the European Union has exercised what many scholars have regarded as ‘normative power’. The biggest enlargement in the history of the EU has extended the borders of the Union towards new neighbourhood of democratically and economically unstable states. Less willing to accept new members and yet willing to export its norms and values in order to secure a stable neighbourhood, the EU launched its European Neighbourhood Policy with the ambition to create well governed ‘ring of friends’. Following the success of the use of positive conditionality during the enlargement, the ENP was created based on the same logic, however, unlike the enlargement policies, the ENP lacks the membership carrot. This thesis analyzes the ability of the EU to promote and diffuse its democratic norms and values through the ENP and to have a ‘normative impact’ beyond its borders. The results of the case study on Armenia show that though the ENP has a strong rhetoric and ambition in promoting normative values, and in spite of the fact it has succeeded in norm and rule transfer, it did not succeed in norm-adoption and implementation by the target states.

  • 291.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vallastaden växer fram: Policy och planering för en ny stadsdel2013 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vallastaden växer fram som en ny stadsdel i anslutning till campus Valla vid Linköpings universitet. Stadsdelens första delar skall stå färdigt sommaren 2016 och öppnas då som en Bomässa. I denna bok diskuterar vi hur policy och planering bidrar till att forma hur livet i Vallastaden kan komma att levas. Ett särskilt fokus kommer att läggas på hur energisystemen planeras i relation till ett hållbart vardagsliv. Medborgardialog framhävs som betydelsefull för Vallastadens framväxt och vi diskuterar därför även hur Linköpings kommun har involverat medborgarna i planeringen, samt vilka risker ett stort deltagande kan medföra. Även studenternas önskemål på Vallastadens utformning tas upp.

    Denna rapport har tillkommit i början av planeringen av Vallastaden. Kommunen, som planerar och driver utvecklingen av Vallastaden, har bjudit in oss på universitet för att bidra till denna process på flera sätt. Planering och lokala policyer – främst om hållbarhet – är avgörande förhur stadsdelen kan utvecklas.

    Syftet med den här rapporten är därför att ge en kort överblick av den pågående planeringen och Vallastadens framväxt, för att kunna diskutera och reflektera kring hur den formar hållbarare liv.

    Vi vill belysa och fånga upp ett par, för oss, centrala teman som vi sett i utvecklingen av Vallastaden och i vår forskning om policy ochplanering för hållbarhet. Vi hoppas även att vi kan ge idéer och perspektiv till andra stadsplaneringsprojekt, både större och mindre, på andra orter med och utan universitet. Det som vi hittills lärt oss om planeringen och framväxten av Vallastaden borde kunna inspirera inte bara oss.

  • 292.
    Palmgren, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    Lundberg, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    The Paris Declaration - A Paradigm Shift At All Levels?: Swedish Non-Governmental Organisations' Roles in Development Aid Policy2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    För att göra utvecklingsbistånd effektivare, undertecknade ett stort antal givare, däribland Sverige, den så kallade Parisdeklarationen 2005. Deklarationen ger samarbetsländerna ett större ansvar för sin egen utveckling och syftar till att göra biståndet från givarländerna mer mätbart. Man har kallat detta ett paradigmskifte inom området på grund av sina långtgående mål.

    Deklarationen har konsekvenser för alla aktörer inom området utvecklingsbistånd, och denna uppsats syftar till att beskriva och analysera de effekter som deklarationen har på de svenska icke‐statliga organisationer som har ett ramavtal med SIDA. Eftersom en allt större del av utvecklingsbiståndet kanaliseras genom enskilda organisationer och de innehar en viktig roll i området, är de intressanta att studera.

    Analysen görs utifrån ett samhällsorienterat governance perspektiv som fokuserar på hur olika aktörer i samhället utformar den offentliga politiken. Perspektivet utmaningar uppfattningen om att staten ensidigt dominerar och tar hänsyn till mångfalden av aktörer i det politiska beslutsfattandet, till exempel icke‐statliga organisationer.

    Resultaten av undersökningen är bland annat att karaktären av de relationer och interaktioner mellan svenska icke‐statliga organisationer och SIDA varierar, och kan beskrivas som traditionellt hierarkisk, eller samarbetsbaserad (co‐governing). Vidare uppfattas Parisdeklarationen av icke‐statliga organisationer som ett steg i rätt riktning, snarare än ett paradigmskifte på alla nivåer.

  • 293.
    Pandir, Emine
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Smooth and Non-Violent Democratization: The Case of Slovenia2005Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    After 1989, along with the collapse of Soviet Union, Central and Eastern European countries the democracy became synonymous with ‘return to Europe’. The post-communist regime was a reaction against its predecessor and that reaction had produced a demand for democratization. Therefore, the process of democratization, which gained momentum at the end of eighties and, the beginning of the nineties, has become an important phenomenon. The most extreme case of transition, certainly, is former Yugoslavia. Due to the war and the collapse of the Federation into several successor states, the legitimacy and viability are still being questioned. The Balkan region, known as the ‘Powder Keg of Europe’ has been commonly considered to be representing a chronic political instability and a lack of socio-economic modernization as well as much poorer prospects for democratization and for acceptance into the European Union (EU) in comparison to the other countries of East and Central Europe.

    Slovenia however may be seen as the exception that proved the Balkan rule. Besides, the successor states of Yugoslavia, Slovenia has recorded the smoothest, non-violent and the least problematic transition toward liberal democracy. Slovenia maintained the highest level of system stability in the powder keg of Europe. Slovenia is the only Yugoslav successor state, which has peacefully established a functioning democracy. It has established a stable democracy and moved easily to a market economy. It is also the only the EU member country from the former. More importantly, Slovenia has kept the highest level of system stability in Powder Keg of Europe’.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to review and discuss the political democratization process in Slovenia. This study also reviews the reasons, which make the Slovenian transition to democracy special among the post-communist democracies. More specifically, this study particularly focuses on certain political aspects to discover its way of democratization. Slovenia, one of the most successful countries within Central and Eastern Europe is also the only component republic of ex-Yugoslavia not to confront continuing problems of ethnic challenge, deep political conflict and economic debility.

    All theories attempt to impose order and find patterns in the messy and complex reality of human life. Therefore, the theories are useful in that they ask important questions about democratization in general and contribute to particular explanations. Concerning the democratization process in Slovenia, ‘Theories of Democratization’ is generally going to be reviewed. Democratization theories aim to explain how authoritarian regimes change into liberal democratic ones. More specifically, Transition Theories will be applied during the study. Transition studies have been chosen, because they offer a ‘political’ explanation of democratization and also differentiate democratic transition and democratic consolidation phases properly, and point out the necessary conditions for the success of each phase.

  • 294.
    Parker, Charles F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Assessing the European Unions global climate change leadership: from Copenhagen to the Paris Agreement2017Ingår i: Journal of European Integration, ISSN 0703-6337, E-ISSN 1477-2280, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 239-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution examines the role European Union (EU) leadership played in the outcome of the 2015 COP21 climate summit in Paris. The EUs attempts to realise its bid for climate change leadership are scrutinised by investigating to what extent the EU is actually recognised as a leader by potential followers and to what extent the EU has succeeded in achieving its negotiation objectives. To address these issues we utilize survey data collected at eight UN climate summits from 2008 to 2015 and evaluate the results of the climate negotiations particularly with respect to the Unions goal attainment in Copenhagen and Paris. Our findings, which reveal a fragmented leadership landscape in which the EU must adjust its leadership strategies in relation to other powerful actors, such as the United States and China, provide insights into leadership theory and the EUs prospects for exerting influence as an external actor on the world stage.

  • 295.
    Parker, Charles
    et al.
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Christer
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Climate change leaders and followers: Leadership recognition and selection in the UNFCCC negotiations2015Ingår i: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 434-454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research has posited that effective leadership is an essential ingredient in reaching international agreements and overcoming the collective action problems associated with responding to climate change. Despite its fundamental importance for leadership relationships, the demand side of the leadership equation has been comparatively neglected in the literature. In this study, we answer several related questions that are vital for understanding the leadership dynamics that impact the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations. Are there any leaders in the field of climate change and, if so, who are they? How do followers select climate leaders? What factors are important to them? Using unique survey data collected at four consecutive United Nations (UN) climate summits, Conference of Parties (COP) 14–17, this article investigates which actors are actually recognized as playing a leadership role in the UNFCCC negotiations and probes how followers select leadership candidates in this issue area. The survey findings reveal a fragmented leadership landscape, with no one clear-cut leader, and spotlight that if an actor seeks to be recognized as a leader, it is crucial to be perceived as being devoted to promoting the common good.

  • 296.
    Parker, Charles
    et al.
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden; Centre for Natural Disaster Science, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Christer
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Fragmented Climate Change Leadership: making sense of the ambiguous outcome of COP-152012Ingår i: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 268-286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article utilizes a leadership perspective to analyze the ambiguous outcome of the 2009 UN climate summit in Copenhagen. By considering follower perspectives, using unique survey data to empirically identify the leading actors in the climate negotiations, and examining the goals, strategies, and interplay of the different leadership forms of all the main leadership candidates, we are able to give a fuller picture of the importance of leadership in international negotiations and what role leadership played at the COP-15 conference. In addition to the insights generated concerning the dynamics that led to the Copenhagen Accord, the article contributes to the leadership scholarship by illustrating the importance of an analytical framework that incorporates the demand side of leadership, the supply side of leadership, the interplay of leadership visions and forms, and the fit between these elements. We conclude by discussing the implications that our findings hold for future UNFCCC climate negotiations.

  • 297.
    Pauw, W. P.
    et al.
    German Development Institute, Bonn, Germany.
    Klein, Richard J T
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mbeva, Kennedy
    African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi, Kenya / University of Melbourne, Melbourne, nAustralia.
    Dzebo, Adis
    German Development Institute, Bonn, Germany / Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden / Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Cassanmagnago, Davide
    Independent Researcher, Milan, Italy.
    Rudloff, Anna
    Kiel University, Kiel, Germany.
    Beyond headline mitigation numbers: we need more transparent and comparable NDCs to achieve the Paris Agreement on climate change2018Ingår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 147, nr 1, s. 23-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) were key to reaching the Paris Agreement and will be instrumental in implementing it. Research was quick to identify the ‘headline numbers’ of NDCs: if these climate action plans were fully implemented, global mean warming by 2100 would be reduced from approximately 3.6 to 2.7°C above pre-industrial levels (Höhne et al. Climate Pol 17:1–17, 2016; Rogelj et al. Nature 534:631–639, 2016). However, beyond these headline mitigation numbers, NDCs are more difficult to analyse and compare. UN climate negotiations have so far provided limited guidance on NDC formulation, which has resulted in varying scopes and contents of NDCs, often lacking details concerning ambitions. If NDCs are to become the long-term instrument for international cooperation, negotiation, and ratcheting up of ambitions to address climate change, then they need to become more transparent and comparable, both with respect to mitigation goals, and to issues such as adaptation, finance, and the way in which NDCs are aligned with national policies. Our analysis of INDCs and NDCs (Once a party ratifies the Paris Agreement, it is invited to turn its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) into an NDC. We refer to results from our INDC analysis rather than our NDC analysis in this commentary unless otherwise stated.) shows that they omit important mitigation sectors, do not adequately provide details on costs and financing of implementation, and are poorly designed to meet assessment and review needs.

  • 298.
    Persson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lokal och regional näringslivspolitik: konkurrens, samarbete, utveckling2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste tjugo åren har regional tillväxt- och näringslivspolitik vuxit fram som ett centralt politikområde i Sverige. Regionernas utveckling sker i stark samverkan med kommunerna. Det innebär att kommunerna måste hantera utmaningar som rör konkurrens och skilda förutsättningar för samarbete mellan kommuner men också mellan kommuner och regionala organ.

    Syftet med den studie, som redovisas i denna rapport, är att analysera relationen mellan den regionala tillväxt- och näringslivspolitiken och den kommunala näringslivspolitiken i Östergötlands län med tonvikt på regionaliseringens konsekvenser för den kommunala nivån. Teoretiskt innebär det att analysera hur relationen mellan regional och lokal nivå kan karaktäriseras i termer av styrning, arbetsfördelning och skapandet av en gemensam identitet. Studien är främst inriktad på hur centrala aktörer på regional och kommunal nivå hanterar och upplever relationen dem emellan och hur näringslivsfrågorna hanteras i praktiken. Offentliga förvaltningar och deras samverkan med andra aktörer står i centrum för analysen.

    Sammantaget visar resultatet av studien att lokal och regional näringslivspolitik är ett område med i många fall svaga institutionella strukturer och små resurser. Det visar sig att enskilda individer är viktiga i utvecklandet av näringslivspolitiska  strategier och upprätthållandet av nätverk. Politikområdets lösa karaktär skapar utrymme för de aktörer som lyckats bygga upp stabila nätverk. Ett intryck är att en fungerande samverkan underlättas om det finns tillit och förtroende mellan centrala aktörer. Överlappningar och dubbelarbete kan undvikas genom informella överenskommelser. Samarbeten mellan individer och organisationer är dock bräckliga, eftersom det ofta finns en osäkerhet om vad som kommer att hända om centrala personer försvinner. Karaktäristiskt för området är svårigheterna att mäta resultat, vilket leder till att kommunerna lätt springer åt det håll som uppfattas som ”senaste mode” inom området. Passivitet uppfattas som riskabelt; det är bättre att göra något än ingenting alls. Samsyn kring hur lokal och regional näringslivspolitik ska bedrivas är ibland viktig, men får inte övergå i ”enfald”. Regionförbundet, liksom universitetet, borde kunna spela en viktig roll som en arena för kritisk diskussion och reflektion.

  • 299.
    Persson, Bo
    Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University.
    The Development of a New Swedish Innovation Policy: A Historical Institutional Approach2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often claimed that what traditionally have been called technology policies inmany industrialised countries have undergone major changes during the lastdecades. Until the 1980s technology policies were primarily focused on financialsupport to different R&D producing organisations. The focus from the 1990s andforward has to a larger extent been on enhancing the environment for innovation andtechnology transfer. The rationale behind these innovation policies, as the “new”policies are often called, seems also to have been strongly influenced by a “newinnovation paradigm”. Even though innovation policies in different countries seem tohave developed in similar directions, and been inspired by similar ideas, the actualchoices of polices in different countries, varies a lot. As shown by a large number ofstudies in comparative public policy, similar policy ideas can be handled or“translated” in very different ways due to different national policy styles, institutions,cultures, etc. In this text, I elaborate on these issues in an analysis of thedevelopment of a “new” innovation policy in Sweden, in many ways inspired by thenew innovation paradigm, primarily during the last decade. I show how the newSwedish policy is strongly connected not only to the legacies of policy development,but also to the character of political strategies and the structure of the statebureaucracy.

  • 300.
    Persson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    What Shapes Research Policy at the Local Government Level?: The Establishment of a Research Fund in a Swedish municipality2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 77-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research policy in Sweden—and especially financial support for universities—has customarily been the business of the state, it has thus not figured clearly within the scope of local government. However, Swedish municipalities have increased their focus on research policy and have become more active as funders of research and development during the past two decades. As there are a number of circumstances which indicate that local government research funding activities can encounter challenges that differ from those of national funding organisations, it is important to critically examine the role of municipalities as funders of research and consider how local policy conditions, national institutional frameworks and policies shape this role. In this article I analyse the establishment of a research fund to allocate grants to research projects in the Swedish municipality of Norrköping. Through identifying crucial phases, tensions and problems in the process of establishing the fund, the article shows that the process was solidly anchored in the needs of local policy interests and coalitions, but also that it was shaped by the key actors’ interpretations of national legal frameworks and policies in relation to the municipality’s scope for action in this area. Furthermore, the study shows that while the state appears to have generally been keen to encourage municipalities to invest more in research, the municipalities may still be somewhat uncertain about their roles in this area.   

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