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  • 301.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Empirical evidence of the non-use of cost-benefit analysis in Swedish local/regional public transport2003In: The Thredbo 8 Conference,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Kohandel minskar välfärden2007In: Östgöta Correspondenten, ISSN 1104-0394, Vol. 2007-01-09Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 303.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lokal kollektivtrafik på samhällsekonomisk grundval2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Except in Stockholm, local public transport shows a declining trend in spite of an annual total subsidy from the County councils of 10 billion SEK. This is fair enough. Running local bus services in small and medium sized towns in accordance with welfare economic criteria implies among other things a pricing policy which requires subsidization just above 50%, which happens to be the same as the present degree of tax-financing. However, this is just a coincidence, and not a mark of optimality, because it is found that the structure of fares is clearly suboptimal. As regards investment policy it is furthermore confirmed by a questionnaire survey that neither the principals (the County councils) nor their agents (bus companies) use cost-benefit analysis (CBA) for the design of local public transport systems, so the purpose of the thesis is to demonstrate the potential improvements of public transport in small and medium sized towns run on the basis of welfare economics.

    The operationalization of the welfare economic foundations requires some theoretical reorientation in the particular case of local public transport. A fundamental division of the supply is made between the “merit goods” part of total supply and the “normal goods” part, where benefit is measured by the individual willingness-to-pay.

    In a case study of the bus transport system of Linköping a number of generally applicable minor improvements are found by the welfare economic approach, which aggregated to the national level would imply a total net benefit which more spectacular projects in the public transport sector rarely can present.

  • 304.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Om den bristande användningen av samhällsekonomiska kalkyler vid investeringar i lokal/regional kollektivtrafik2004In: Transportforum,2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 305.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Se på alternativ till Ostlänken?2007In: Östgöta Correspondenten, ISSN 1104-0394, Vol. 2007-02-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 306.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Staggered School Hours to Spread Peak Demand - Benefits and Costs2007In: Thredbo 10 Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 307.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Staggered school hours to spread peak demand for public transport. Benefits and costs2009In: International Journal of Transport Economics, ISSN 0303-5247, E-ISSN 1724-2185, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 141-160Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Utjämnade trafiktoppar med utspridd skolstart2008In: Transportforum,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 309.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Uträtade busslinjer i Linköping, en samhällsekonomiskt lönsam investering2005In: Transportforum,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 310.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Vad kostar egentligen tillväxt?2007In: Östgöta Correspondenten, ISSN 1104-0394, Vol. 2007-02-05Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

        

  • 311.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Vad kostar ostlänken?2006In: Östgöta Correspondenten, ISSN 1104-0394, Vol. 2006-12-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 312. Lundborg, P
    et al.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Lindgren, B
    Getting ready for the marriage market? The association between divorce risks and investments in attractive body mass among married Europeans2007In: Journal of Biosocial Science, ISSN 0021-9320, E-ISSN 1469-7599, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 531-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores to what extent married middle-aged individuals in Europe are governed by the risk of experiencing divorce, when shaping their physical appearance. The main result is that divorce risks, proxied by national divorce rates, are negatively connected to body mass index (BMI) among married individuals but unrelated to BMI among singles. Hence, it seems that married people in societies where divorce risks are high are more inclined to invest in their outer appearance. One interpretation is that high divorce rates make married people prepare for a potential divorce and future return to the marriage market. © 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  • 313.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Bjorn
    University of Gothenburg.
    Editorial Material: GETTING READY FOR THE MARRIAGE MARKET? FURTHER COMMENT in JOURNAL OF BIOSOCIAL SCIENCE, vol 44, issue 2, pp 251-2542012In: Journal of Biosocial Science, ISSN 0021-9320, E-ISSN 1469-7599, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 251-254Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 314.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Bjorn
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; National Bureau of Economic Research, USA.
    GETTING READY FOR THE MARRIAGE MARKET? A RESPONSE2012In: Journal of Biosocial Science, ISSN 0021-9320, E-ISSN 1469-7599, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 235-242Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight and obesity constitute a major and increasing health and welfare problem throughout the world. Assessing the multifaceted mechanisms - biological, environmental and behavioural - behind this development is a crucial task in medical, social and economic sciences. We are, therefore, grateful to have been given the opportunity to, once again, discuss whether the risk of divorce may be one of the factors influencing the incentives of becoming overweight or obese and, hence, ultimately the physical appearance among the married. In this Debate, colleagues Schneider and Grimps present the results of a multilevel analysis, in which they could not identify any statistically significant association between body mass index (BMI) and divorce risk among married people. Thus, they question the findings, previously published in this Journal (Lundborg et al., 2007). The Schneider and Grimps arguments are not convincing, however. So, we still claim that the statistical material at hand does, indeed, imply that divorce risk at the national level may well influence the weight of the married.

  • 315.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Sweden .
    Height and Earnings: The Role of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills2014In: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 141-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use large-scale register data on 450,000 Swedish males who underwent mandatory military enlistment at age 18, and a subsample of 150,000 siblings, to examine why tall people earn more. We show the importance of both cognitive and noncognitive skills, as well as family background and muscular strength for the height-earnings relationship. In addition, we show that a substantial height premium remains after these factors have been accounted for, which originates from very short people having low earnings. This is mostly explained by the sorting of short people into low-paid occupations, which may indicate discrimination by stature.

  • 316.
    Lundström, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Morén, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Empowering indigenous women in Guatemala– A qualitative study of the indigenous women’s ability to empowerthemselves in the department of Sololá, Guatemala2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Empowerment is a fundamental human right. The indigenous women in Guatemala, however, sufferfrom both gender and racial discrimination, which through history have un-empowered them. Usinga qualitative methodology, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 indigenous Guatemalanwomen to examine the conditions these women face in the process of empowering themselves. Inorder to aid the collection and analysis of the data, we developed a theoretical model of empowermentconsisting of the following empowering components: economic capacity, human capital, socialcapital, gender equality, political influence, self-esteem, and awareness. The empirical results showthat all components of the model, indeed, influence the empowerment of our respondents in the study.The challenges that these women face are related to gender inequalities, discrimination, corruption,economic scarcity, and dependency on others. To facilitate their empowerment, the women currentlyuse formal networks to start businesses and achieve greater awareness about their life situation andtheir rights as women. We conclude that reduction in gender discrimination, access to healthcare,possibilities to education, and economic independency are necessary in combination with supportfrom the government and NGOs in order to empower the indigenous women in Guatemala.

  • 317.
    Ly, Van
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Prohorenko, Didrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Bostadsmarknadens roll i den penningpolitiska transmissionsmekanismen i Sverige2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates the role of housing in the monetary transmission mechanism in Sweden with background of the current monetary environment which is characterized by negative interest rates. By using a structural VAR (SVAR) the study examines the effect of a monetary policy innovation to the real economy when the housing market is included in the model. The SVAR system consists of six endogenous variables, which are included based on the theoretical set up of a New-Keynesian small open economy model. In order to identify the system restrictions are imposed on the short run as well as on the long run covariance matrix of the residuals. The results of the study imply that the housing market plays a significant role in the monetary transmission mechanism in Sweden today. Impulse response analysis show that a monetary policy shock of a one percent increase in the repo rate generates a significant decrease in house prices, corresponding to approximately six percent. Moreover, the monetary policy shock contributes to the variance of the house prices by fifteen percent according to the variance decomposition analysis. This confirms that monetary policy has a significant impact on the housing market. Furthermore, a second variance decomposition shows that a shock in house prices has a significant effect on the variation in variables representing the real economy. Thus, a potential housing channel can be identified in the monetary transmission mechanism. The results of the study are stronger compared to previous studies within the field.

  • 318.
    Lyttkens, Carl
    et al.
    Lunduniversity.
    Gerdtham, Ulf
    Lund University.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis.
    Do We Know What We Are Doing? An Exploratory Study on Swedish Health Economists and the EQ-5DManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The UK tariff for quality of life associated with the health states in the EQ-5D is probably not consistent with the preferences of Swedish health economists. This is worrying in view of the widespread use of the tariff values and the fact that health economists likely are better able than ordinary citizens to report their preferences for health states in a valid and reliable manner. We suggest this result is taken into account when the EQ-5D instrument is used, and that researchers should be cautious in using the UK (or any other) value sets. Our results also indicate that the variation across citizens in preferences for health may be a more complex issue than previously observed and deserves further study. An intriguing question for the future is to what extent health economists use methods and instruments that they themselves do not believe in.

  • 319.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Short- and Long-Term Influences of Education, Health Indicators, and Crime on Labor Market Outcomes: Five Essays in Empirical Labor Economics2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to improve the understanding of how several individual characteristics, namely education (years of schooling), health indicators (height, weight, smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise), criminal behavior, and crime victimization, influence labor market outcomes in the short and long run. The first part of the thesis consists of three studies in which I adopt a within-twin-pair difference approach to analyze how education, health indicators, and earnings are associated with each other over the life cycle. The second part of the thesis includes two studies in which I use field experiments in order to test the employability of exoffenders and crime victims.

    The first essay, Learning for life?, describes an analysis of the education premium in earnings and health-related behaviors throughout adulthood among twins. The results show that the education premium in earnings, net of genetic inheritance, is rather small over the life cycle but increases with the level of education. The results also show that the education premium in health-related behaviors is mainly concentrated on smoking habits. The influences of education on earnings and health-related behaviors seem to work independently of each other, and there are no signs that health-related behaviors influence the education premium in earnings or vice versa.

    The second essay, Blowing up money?, details an analysis of the association between smoking and earnings in two different historical social contexts in Sweden: the 1970s and the 2000s. I also consider possible differences in this association in the short and long run as well as between the sexes. The results show that the earnings penalty for smoking is much stronger in the 2000s as compared to the 1970s (for both sexes) and that it is larger in the long run as compared to the short run (for men).

    The third essay, Two by two, inch by inch, describes an analysis of the height premium among Swedish twins. The results show that the height premium is relatively constant over the life cycle and that it is larger below median height for men and above median height for young women. The estimates are similar for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, indicating that environmentally and genetically induced height differences are similarly associated with earnings over the life cycle.

    The fourth essay, The employability of ex-offenders, published in IZA Journal of Labor Policy (2017), 6:6, details an analysis of whether male and female exoffenders are discriminated against when applying for jobs in the Swedish labor market. The results show that employers do discriminate against exoffenders but that the degree of discrimination varies across occupations. Discrimination against ex-offenders is pronounced in female-dominated and high-skilled occupations. The magnitude of discrimination against exoffenders does not vary by applicants’ sex.

    The fifth essay, Victimized twice?, describes an analysis of whether male and female crime victims are discriminated against when applying for jobs in the Swedish labor market. This study is the first to consider potential hiring discrimination against crime victims. The results show that employers do discriminate against crime victims. The discrimination varies with the sex of the crime victim and occupational characteristics and is concentrated among high-skilled jobs for female crime victims and among femaledominated jobs for male crime victims.

    List of papers
    1. The employability of ex-offenders: a field experiment in the Swedish labor market
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The employability of ex-offenders: a field experiment in the Swedish labor market
    2017 (English)In: IZA Journal of Labor Policy, ISSN 2193-9004, E-ISSN 2193-9004, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the findings of a field experiment on hiring discrimination against ex-offenders in the Swedish labor market. Matched pairs of written job applications for fictitious male and female applicants with and without a past conviction of assault were sent to employers for nine different occupations. Results show that discrimination against ex-offenders exists, but the extent of it varies across occupations. The past conviction of assault was associated with 7–18 percentage point lower probability of receiving a positive employer response. Discrimination against ex-offenders was pronounced in female-dominated and high-skilled occupations. The magnitude of discrimination against ex-offenders did not vary by applicants’ sex.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2017
    Keywords
    Ex-offenders, Field experiments, Labor market discrimination
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140652 (URN)10.1186/s40173-017-0084-2 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2017-09-06
  • 320.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University.
    Learning For Life? The Effects of Schooling on Earnings and Health- Related Behavior Over the Life Cycle2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze how education is associated with earnings and health-related behaviors (HRBs) over the adult life cycle using a sample of 18,000 twins. The underlying motive is to improve the understanding of to what extent schooling may contribute to increased human welfare over time and age through the intermediaries of earnings and HRBs. We find that one additional year of schooling is associated with around 5-6 percent higher earnings at ages 35-75 and generally improved HRBs for both men and women. Much of the estimated relationships between schooling, earnings and HRBs can be traced back to genetic inheritance. Controlling for such inheritance, the remaining education -earnings premium is non-linear and increasing with educational level, and the education premium in HRBs is mainly concentrated to smoking habits.

  • 321.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Jönköping Acad Improvement Hlth and Welf, Sweden; Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Sweden.
    Two by two, inch by inch: Height as an indicator of environmental conditions during childhood and its influence on earnings over the life cycle among twins2018In: Economics and Human Biology, ISSN 1570-677X, E-ISSN 1873-6130, Vol. 28, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult height is a function of genetic predispositions and environmental influences during childhood. Hence, any variation in height among monozygotic twins, who share genetic predispositions, is bound to reflect differences in their environmental exposure. Therefore, a height premium in earnings among monozygotic twins also reflects such exposure. In this study, we analyze the height premium over the life cycle among Swedish twins, 10,000 of whom are monozygotic. The premium is relatively constant over the life cycle, amounting to 5-6% higher earnings per decimeter for men and less for women, suggesting that environmental conditions in childhood and youth affect earnings over most of the adult life course. The premium is larger below median height for men and above median height for young women. The estimates are similar for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, indicating that environmentally and genetically induced height differences are similarly associated with earnings. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 322.
    Lång, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Storkull, Fia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Kvantifiering av behovsgrad med FairInnings, Absolute QALY Shortfall ochProportional QALY Shortfall– En hälsoekonomisk studie om Akut koronart syndrom och Bukaortaaneurysm2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It may be argued that the purpose of the health care sector is toachieve as much health as possible with the available resources. Cost-effectivenessanalysis with Quality-Adjusted Life Years, QALYs, as a measurement is used forevaluating the value of treatments in health care. But the purpose of health care canbe more than maximizing health (efficiency). If so, distribution of health may also beconsidered when allocating scarce resources. This can be achieved by incorporatingseverity of disease into decision making alongside effectiveness. In this thesis weinvestigate need for different diseases. Three methods for quantifying need wereconsidered; Fair Innings, Absolute QALY Shortfall and Proportional QALY Shortfall.Today there are only a few studies available that has investigated these methodsempirically. This study will use data from available economic evaluations to quantifythe need.Aim: The aim of this study is to quantify and compare the required level of need fortwo different diseases, and investigate how the choice of method affects the estimatedneed. Furthermore, the aim is to highlight and discuss the ethical and practicalimplications for priority decisions made in health care based on effectiveness andneed.Methods: In order to quantify need with the three methods, the total expectedQALYs were calculated for two different disease groups and the normal population.The total amount of QALYs was calculated based on decision-analytical modelsestimating disease progression, mortality data from SCB and quality adjustmentweights from a larger cross- sectional study. The difference between QALYs in thedisease groups and the normal population is the quantified need.Conclusion: Individuals born in Sweden today can expect about 70 years of fullhealth during their lifetime. The degree of need depends on chosen method. Theprioritizing order is the same for all methods, except for Proportional QALY Shortfallthat gives higher priority to the elderly. Implementing these methods in decisionmakinghas to take the ethical platform into consideration and the current studyaddresses issues associated with this.

  • 323.
    Malmkvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Edström, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Informationsvärde i den svenska insynshandeln: En studie på aggregerad insynshandel 2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if it possible to forecast the Swedish stock market using insider trading data. Individual insiders have been shown to have more information concerning a company than other investors. Additionally, insiders have been shown to be able to outperform the market in earnings from trading in company stock. Aggregate insider trading has, in previous studies, been shown to have a positive relationship with future returns on stock markets.

    To map the relationship between Swedish insider trading and the Swedish stock market we use the insider trading records from Finansinspektionen containing over 209 000 transactions over the course of 22 years. These records are examined together with a historic stock price index from the same time period. The relationship between the two is examined using OLS-regressions. We examine what factors drive the predictive power of insider trading and what economic value insider trading has as a forecasting instrument.

    Our results show that there is a statistically significant positive relationship between insider trading and future returns on the Swedish stock market, the significance increases with time. We also find indications that insider purchases have a stronger relationship with future index movements than insider sales have. This is consistent with earlier studies that find that insid-ers sell stock for many other reasons than profit. We conclude that the predictive power of insider trading derive from an information advantage, although our results indicates that some of the predictive power can be explained by a contrarian-strategy and a transparency effect.

    Finally we construct forecast-models based on historical insider trading and back-test these on the 22 year period. Results from these tests indicate that aggregate insider trading is effective in predicting future rises in the stock market and can function as a basis for successful invest-ment strategies.

  • 324.
    Mamun, Md Al
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sohag, Kazi
    National University of Malaysia.
    Hannan Mia, Md. Abdul
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ozturk, Ilhan
    Cag University, Turkey .
    Regional differences in the dynamic linkage between CO2 emissions, sectoral output and economic growth2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 38, p. 1-11Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental degradation measured by CO2 emissions is a significant challenge to sustainable economic development. Owing to significant differences in the empirical relationship between the economic growth and CO2 emissions and policies adopted by different countries to overcome the challenge are not decisive. This study aims to generalize our knowledge about the relationship between CO2 emissions per capita and economic growth across the world for 1980-2009 periods. Besides, it explores whether the transformation of different economies (e.g. agrarian to industrial and industrial to sophisticated service economy) over the past few decades yielded any significant positive impact towards sustainable economic development by reducing the level of CO2 emission. Empirical results suggest that (i) except for high-income-countries, Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is a general phenomenon across the world, and (ii) the transformation of different economies towards a service economy has produced more pollution in high income countries and less pollution in low and middle income countries.

  • 325.
    Martinsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Medhin, Haileselassie
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Environm and Climate Res Ctr, Ethiopia.
    Persson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    MINIMUM LEVELS AND FRAMING IN PUBLIC GOOD PROVISION2019In: Economic Inquiry, ISSN 0095-2583, E-ISSN 1465-7295, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 1568-1581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a laboratory experiment in the field, we examine how the framing of a social dilemma, give to or take from a public good, interacts with a policy intervention that enforces a minimum contribution level to the public good. We find significantly higher cooperation in the give frame than in the take frame in our standard public goods experiment. When a minimum contribution level is introduced, contributions are crowded out in the give frame but crowded in in the take frame. Our results show the importance of choosing the frame when making policy recommendations. (JEL C91, H41)

  • 326.
    Martinsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Physician behavior and conditional altruism: the effects of payment system and uncertain health benefit2019In: Theory and Decision, ISSN 0040-5833, E-ISSN 1573-7187, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 365-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper experimentally investigates the altruistic behavior of physicians and whether this behavior is affected by payment system and uncertainty in health outcome. Subjects in the experiment take on the role of physicians and decide on the provision of medical care for different types of patients, who are identical in all respects other than the degree to which a given level of medical treatment affects their health. We investigate physician altruism from the perspective of ethical principles, by categorizing physicians according to how well their treatment decisions align with different principles for priority setting. The experiment shows that many physicians are altruistic toward their patients but also that the degree of altruism varies across patients with different medical needs. We find a strong effect of payment system that is overall unaffected by the introduction of risk and ambiguity in patients health outcomes. There is, however, substantial heterogeneity across individuals, in particular under the capitation payment system where physicians responses to the introduction of uncertainty in patient health are modulated by their own generic risk and ambiguity preferences.

  • 327.
    Martinsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public Goods and Minimum Provision Levels: Does the Institutional Formation Affect Cooperation?2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 1473-1499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate experimentally the role of institutional formation on the implementation of a binding minimum contribution level to a public good. Groups either face the minimum level exogenously imposed by a central authority, or are allowed to decide for themselves by means of a group vote whether a minimum level should be implemented. We find that a binding minimum contribution level has a positive and substantially significant effect on cooperation. Interestingly, we do not find an additional positive effect of democracy in the context of our experiment; the minimum-level intervention is as effective when exogenously implemented as when endogenously chosen.

  • 328.
    Mattisson, Isabel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Peterson, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Institutioner och hållbar tillväxt – En ekonometrisk studie över hur institutioner och makroekonomiska faktorer påverkar förhållandet mellan miljöpåverkan och utrikeshandel2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Miljöpåverkan och relationen till ekonomisk utveckling har varit omdiskuterat, framförallt efter Grossman och Kreugers (1995) studier som visar på att miljön påverkas mer av ekonomisk tillväxt hos länder i ett tidigt utvecklingsstadie. I och med det nya globala miljöavtalet som skrevs på i Paris under 2015 ställs nu ännu högre krav för att minska koldioxidutsläppen än tidigare och länder i ett tidigt utvecklingsstadie står enligt Grossman och Kreugers (1995) inför dilemmat att välja mellan ekonomisk utveckling och hållbarhet. Institutionell teori har spelat en betydande roll i ekonomisk tillväxt enligt tidigare forskning, men lite uppmärksamhet har tillägnats teorins betydelse för att hållbar ekonomisk tillväxt. Genom att analysera hur välfungerande institutioner och makroekonomiska faktorer påverkar möjligheterna till hållbar tillväxt kan vi skapa riktlinjer för att uppnå de globala miljömålen utan att begränsa ekonomisk tillväxt.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att analysera hur institutionella dimensioner och makroekonomiska faktorer påverkar möjligheten att uppnå hållbar tillväxt.

    Genomförande: Studien undersöker institutioners roll i mängden lokala och globala utsläpp i förhållande till tillväxt genom en panel av 96 länder med hjälp av en Fixed effect modell. Tidigare forskning och teorier undersöks för att öka förståelsen för vad som påverkar hållbar tillväxt samt kunna dra slutsatser ur resultatet. Det empiriska resultatet analyseras med institutionell och makroekonomisk teori samt tidigare forskning.

    Slutsats: Vi finner att institutionernas roll är olika beroende på de makroekonomiska förutsättningarna i ett land, där ett lands utvecklingsnivå och utsläppsmängd har stor betydelse. Resultaten visar på att välfungerande institutioner bidrar till hållbar tillväxt för länder med höga utsläppsnivåer samt länder med låg nivå av utrikeshandel. Vi kan även visa på att länder med välfungerande institutioner kan växa hållbart vilket visar på att välfungerande spelar en stor roll för en miljövänlig tillväxt.

  • 329.
    Mattsson, Angelina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Samhällsekonomiska effekter av vinterväghållning för gående.: En kostnads- nyttoanalys av vinterväghållning och gångtrafikanters singelolyckor i Stockholms stad.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Gångtrafikanters singelolyckor är Stockholms i särklass vanligaste trafikolycka och bland orsakerna till olyckorna beror en majoritet på dålig snöröjning eller halkbekämpning. Kommunen antar därför att samhällskostnaderna är höga och för att kunna prioritera vinterväghållningen behöver anmälningar om halkolyckor studeras samt jämföras med olycksstatistiken. Syftet med arbetet är att beskriva ett tillvägagångssätt för att genomföra en samhällsekonomisk analys av vinterväghållning för gångtrafikanter. En kostnads-nyttoanalys illustrerar en metod för att utvärdera och analysera vinterväghållning ur ett samhällsperspektiv. Kostnads-nyttoanalysen appliceras på vinterväghållning i Stockholms stad och vidare diskuteras metodens utmaningar och möjligheter för ändamålet. Metoden är även applicerbar på andra kommuner i Sverige och organisationer som står inför likande problem och bidrar således med ett viktigt verktyg för beslutsfattare. Resultatet av kostnads-nyttoanalysen visar att gångtrafikanters situation i Stockholm sannolikt skulle gynnas av en förbättring. En generell satsning på vinterväghållning innebär en ökad nytta för gångtrafikanterna under antagandet att antal olyckor minskas. Nollalternativet visar att den samhällsekonomiska kostnaden för olyckor är betydligt högre än vinterväghållnings-kostnaderna i nuläget. Kostnads-nyttoanalysen är ett exempel på hur Stockholms stad kan lägga ett helhetsperspektiv på planering av drift och underhåll av gångytor. För att möjliggöra uppföljning och utvärdering av hur resurser används behövs mer specifikt bättre verktyg för rapportering av drift och underhåll.

  • 330.
    Mattsson, Angelina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Milicevic, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hushållens konsumtionsbeteende- En ekonometrisk studie om makrovariablers påverkan på hushållenskonsumtion i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The household’s consumption represents two thirds of GDP- growth and can therefor be seenas the engine of the Swedish economy. Changes in the consumption are important to analyzesince consumption is such a big part of the GDP. The purpose of our thesis is to examine theSwedish consumption behavior and analyze whether changes in the interest rate and othermacroeconomic variables affect the households consumption. The macroeconomic variablesthat will be used in our thesis are: the household’s disposable income, interest rate, stockmarketindex and property price index. In order to describe what affects consumption we willbe using some of the most well-known consumption theories such as: Keynes consumptiontheory, Life-cycle hypothesis and Permanent income hypothesis.

    We have done an econometric study where we have examined if there is a long-termrelationship between our chosen variables but also the relationship between the householdsconsumption and the chosen macroeconomic variables. The result of the econometric studyproves that our estimates are in accordance with the theories. However we do believe that thehousehold’s prerequisites have an impact for which theory they identify with. Our estimatesshow that changes in the macroeconomic variables have an important meaning for thehousehold’s consumption and also that changes in the interest rate can affect household’sconsumption.

  • 331. McCarthy, Randy J.
    et al.
    Skowronski, John J.
    Verschuere, Bruno
    Meijer, Ewout H.
    Jim, Ariane
    Hoogesteyn, Katherine
    Orthey, Robin
    Acar, Oguz A.
    Aczel, Balazs
    Bakos, Bence E.
    Barbosa, Fernando
    Baskin, Ernest
    Bègue, Laurent
    Ben-Shakhar, Gershon
    Birt, Angie R.
    Blatz, Lisa
    Charman, Steve D.
    Claesen, Aline
    Clay, Samuel L.
    Coary, Sean P.
    Crusius, Jan
    Evans, Jacqueline R.
    Feldman, Noa
    Ferreira-Santos, Fernando
    Gamer, Matthias
    Gerlsma, Coby
    Gomes, Sara
    González-Iraizoz, Marta
    Holzmeister, Felix
    Huber, Juergen
    Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.
    Isoni, Andrea
    Jessup, Ryan K.
    Kirchler, Michael
    klein Selle, Nathalie
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kovacs, Marton
    Laine, Tei
    Lentz, Frank
    Loschelder, David D.
    Ludvig, Elliot A.
    Lynn, Monty L.
    Martin, Scott D.
    McLatchie, Neil M.
    Mechtel, Mario
    Nahari, Galit
    Özdoğru, Asil Ali
    Pasion, Rita
    Pennington, Charlotte R.
    Roets, Arne
    Rozmann, Nir
    Scopelliti, Irene
    Spiegelman, Eli
    Suchotzki, Kristina
    Sutan, Angela
    Szecsi, Peter
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tisserand, Jean-Christian
    Tran, Ulrich S.
    Van Hiel, Alain
    Vanpaemel, Wolf
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon.
    Verliefde, Thomas
    Vezirian, Kévin
    Voracek, Martin
    Warmelink, Lara
    Wick, Katherine
    Wiggins, Bradford J.
    Wylie, Keith
    Yıldız, Ezgi
    Registered Replication Report on Srull and Wyer (1979)2018In: Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, ISSN 2515-2459, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 321-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Srull and Wyer (1979) demonstrated that exposing participants to more hostility-related stimuli caused them subsequently to interpret ambiguous behaviors as more hostile. In their Experiment 1, participants descrambled sets of words to form sentences. In one condition, 80% of the descrambled sentences described hostile behaviors, and in another condition, 20% described hostile behaviors. Following the descrambling task, all participants read a vignette about a man named Donald who behaved in an ambiguously hostile manner and then rated him on a set of personality traits. Next, participants rated the hostility of various ambiguously hostile behaviors (all ratings on scales from 0 to 10). Participants who descrambled mostly hostile sentences rated Donald and the ambiguous behaviors as approximately 3 scale points more hostile than did those who descrambled mostly neutral sentences. This Registered Replication Report describes the results of 26 independent replications (N = 7,373 in the total sample; k = 22 labs and N = 5,610 in the primary analyses) of Srull and Wyer?s Experiment 1, each of which followed a preregistered and vetted protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis showed that the protagonist was seen as 0.08 scale points more hostile when participants were primed with 80% hostile sentences than when they were primed with 20% hostile sentences (95% confidence interval, CI = [0.004, 0.16]). The ambiguously hostile behaviors were seen as 0.08 points less hostile when participants were primed with 80% hostile sentences than when they were primed with 20% hostile sentences (95% CI = [?0.18, 0.01]). Although the confidence interval for one outcome excluded zero and the observed effect was in the predicted direction, these results suggest that the currently used methods do not produce an assimilative priming effect that is practically and routinely detectable.

  • 332.
    Merkel, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Socioeconomic Impacts of Transitioning to Collaborative Port Operations - A case study of the Port of Gothenburg2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to derive a method for estimation of costs and benefits of implementing Port Collaborative Decision Making (Port CDM), and to apply this method to the Port of Gothenburg. By using the Port of Gothenburg as a case study, conclusions can be drawn regarding the economic viability of Port CDM in one of Scandinavia‟s largest ports. This study considers two major sources of benefits that are hypothesized to result from transitioning to collaborative port operations: improved possibilities for speed optimization prior to arrival in port due to increased predictability in estimated berthing times, and shortened service times due to increased possibility for planning and resource optimization by port service providers.The estimation of impacts is based on one month‟s traffic data in the Port of Gothenburg. Predictability of estimations is analyzed to determine the benefit potential of Port CDM. The estimated cost savings for cargo vessels can be divided into 5 categories: bunker, emission, time, manning and capital cost savings. The costs of implementing and maintaining Port CDM are estimated with values from relevant previous research.The results of this study indicate that the implementation of Port CDM in the Port of Gothenburg is a profitable investment, for the shipping industry and for society as a whole. The estimated annual net benefit is 27.3 million euros. A sensitivity analysis using alternative unit valuations for emissions, as well as low and high estimations of the effectiveness of Port CDM, indicates that the economic viability of the project is robust under all assumptions considered.

  • 333.
    Meunier, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Posadzy, Kinga
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Aspenberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Risk preferences and attitudes to surgery in decision making2017In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 88, no 5, p. 466-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose — There is increasing evidence that several commonly performed surgical procedures provide little advantage over nonoperative treatment, suggesting that doctors may sometimes be inappropriately optimistic about surgical ben- efit when suggesting treatment for individual patients. We investi- gated whether attitudes to risk influenced the choice of operative treatment and nonoperative treatment.

    Methods — 946 Swedish orthopedic surgeons were invited to participate in an online survey. A radiograph of a 4-fragment proximal humeral fracture was presented together with 5 differ- ent patient characteristics, and the surgeons could choose between 3 different operative treatments and 1 nonoperative treatment. This was followed by an economic risk-preference test, and then by an instrument designed to measure 6 attitudes to surgery that are thought to be hazardous. We then investigated if choice of non-operative treatment was associated with risk aversion, and thereafter with the other variables, by regression analysis.

    Results — 388 surgeons responded. Nonoperative treatment for all cases was suggested by 64 of them. There was no significant association between risk aversion and tendency to avoid surgery. However, there was a statistically significant association between suggesting to operate at least 1 of the cases and a “macho” atti- tude to surgery or resignation regarding the chances of influenc- ing the outcome of surgery. Choosing nonoperative treatment for all cases was associated with long experience as a surgeon.

    Interpretation — The discrepancy between available evidence for surgery and clinical practice does not appear to be related to risk preference, but relates to hazardous attitudes. It appears that choosing nonoperative treatment requires experience and a feel- ing that one can make a difference (i.e. a low score for resigna- tion). There is a need for better awareness of available evidence for surgical indications. 

  • 334.
    Modig, Clara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fredriksson, Linus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Utrikeshandel och arbetskraftens sammansättning: En ekonometrisk analys av Sveriges tillverkningsindustrier år 1995 – 20052015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyse how Sweden’s foreign trade has affected thecomposition of the country’s workforce. International trade is growing constantly; thereforethere is a need to understand the importance and consequences of this. According to tradetheory, international trade will lead to specialisation of the production of goods and servicestowards areas where comparative advantages are prominent. In Sweden’s case, this meansspecialisation in capital-intensive production, which should increase the demand for skilledlabour.An econometric study of the Swedish manufacturing industry for the years 1995 – 2005 is thebasis for the study. Data is structured as panel data where the share of imported inputs is usedas a proxy for the impact of foreign trade on the composition of the workforce. Thecomposition consists of skilled and non-skilled labour.Results of this study demonstrate that foreign trade has affected the composition of theworkforce in the manufacturing industry, as the demand for skilled labour has increasedduring the time period.

  • 335.
    Mooney, Gavin
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kalkan, Almina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Need for a New Paradigm in Scandinavian Health Economics2012In: Nordic Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1892-9710, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 119-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that the discipline of health economics has lost its way due to its persistent focus on individualistic and consequential values. The paper suggests how this might be remedied in both theory and practice. It proposes a new paradigm for health economics, which focuses on communitarian values. This new paradigm is discussed in the context of the Scandinavian welfare model.

  • 336.
    Nayef Hermosilla, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Styrräntans effekter på hushållens aggregerade konsumtionsutgifter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through the transmission mechanism, key interest rates will have a tangible impact on the economy, encompassed by the aggregate consumption expenditure of households. The purpose of the study is to investigate more closely the mechanisms by which the policy rate will affect households aggregate consumption and the consequences that the policy rate will have on household consumption expenditure. In order to carry out the study, an inductive method is used where the results from previous research in the area concerned have since been compared with the theoretical framework.  

    The policy rates will, via the various channels of the transmission mechanism, affect the household´s propensity for consumption. An example is the policy rate outcome on market interest rates (via the interest rate channel), which will make an impact on households disposable income through the cashflow channel. Another example is how interest rates through the interest rate channel have an impact on households net worth, a factor that plays a significant role in how households choose to plan their consumption expenditures.

    Changes in the policy rate will also influence the inflation expectations of households, the exchange rate and the credit channel. Other indirect effects of policy rate changes include the emergence of income- and substitution effects in consumption, its influence on how the existing human capital is priced and the emergence of redistribution effects among lenders and borrowers.

    The characteristics of households, such as life situation, age segment, debt ratio and median income, will also play a central role in how households choose to dispose of their consumption expenditure.

    The survey finds that the overall effect of real interest rate changes on household consumption is ambiguous. Regardless of whether the intertemporal substitution effect seems to dominate in practice, the general mood in the economy as well as the personal circumstances of households will play a decisive role in the actual outcomes.

  • 337.
    Nguyen, Duc Khuong
    et al.
    IPAG Business School, Paris, France.
    Sevi, Benoit
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France .
    Sjö, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The role of trade openness ands investment i examining the energy-growth-pollution nexus: Empirical evidence for China and India.2017In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 49, no 40, p. 4083-4098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the existing literature dealing with the relationship between carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth either suffers from ignoring relevant variables such as trade openness or investment, or suffers from using econometric methods that are unable to distinguish between short and long-term causality and are not robust to the degree of integration of time series used for the analysis. This paper suggests using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach along with additional explanatory variables such as measures of trade and investment to shed a new light on the link between emissions, energy consumption and income in the two largest and energy-intensive developing economies: China and India. Our results, over the 1971-2009 period, provide evidence that investment plays a major role in shaping the relationship between carbon emissions, energy consumption and income in China while this is not the case in India. Furthermore, trade openness is found to play a key function in the short-term in China but does not contribute to the emissions-energy-growth scenario in India.

  • 338.
    nilsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Nilsson, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    "Är fonder specialiserade på hållbar förvaltning annorlunda än andra fonder?": "En analys om extremt hållbara fonders egenskaper"2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Fondsparare börjar bli mer och mer intresserade av att spara hållbart, som följd till detta har efterfrågan på hållbara fonder ökat kraftigt de senaste åren. Vi har i denna studie fördjupat oss i de mest hållbara fonderna och dess egenskaper för att undersöka om de skiljer sig nämnvärt från traditionella fonder.

    Genomförande: Studien jämför egenskaper hos tio extrema hållbarhetsfonder med indexfonder för att belysa likheter och skillnader. Studien utgår från ett tidigare konstruerat poängsystem för att identifiera de mest hållbara fonderna. Dessa fonder jämförs sedan i ett senare skede med indexfonder. Egenskaperna vi undersöker är den riskjusterade avkastningen, både baserat på den riskfria räntan (Sharpe) och marknadsindex (Alpha). Risk (Beta), värdering (P/e), hur aktiva fonderna är (Tracking error) samt hur den aktiva förvaltningen påverkar avkastningen (informationskvot). Vi redogör också för den geografiska spridningen och branschfördelningen hos de hållbara fonderna.

    Resultat: Resultatet i vår högst begränsade studie tyder på att det föreligger vissa skillnader som kan vara av intresse för mer omfattande studier. Bland annat pekar fondernas värdering (P/e-tal) på att de hållbara fonderna är högre värderade än indexfonderna och kan därför ses som en tillväxtinvestering. Risken som vi mätt med hjälp av Beta tyder däremot på motsatsen. Samtliga betavärden ligger under 1.0 och får därför anses vara mer åt det defensiva hållet. Den riskjusterade avkastningen jämfört med index (Alpha) tyder på att majoriteten avhållbarhetsfonderna presterat över indexfonderna.

  • 339.
    Nilsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderberg, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Regionala skillnader i arbetslöshet: En empirisk studie över Sveriges län 2002-20122014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetslöshet är ett makroekonomiskt problem som genererar samhällsekonomiska kostnader och påverkar många människor i olika utsträckning. I Sverige finns betydande skillnader i regional arbetslöshet mellan länen vilket ger skäl till att undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkar den regionala arbetslöshetsnivån. Syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera följande variablers effekt på den regionala arbetslöshetsnivån i Sveriges län:

    • Procentuell förändring i antal sysselsatta
    • Andelen individer i arbetskraften av populationen
    • Andelen utrikesfödda av populationen
    • Utbildningsnivå
    • Ålderssammansättning
    • Befolkningsmängd per km2
    • Lönenivå

    För att uppfylla syftet har en regressionsmodell skapats som sedan skattats via paneldata där ovanstående variablers effekter analyserats. Slutsatsen av studien blev (givet vår modell) att en ökning av variablerna procentuell förändring i antal sysselsatta, andelen individer i arbetskraften av populationen, befolkningsmängd per km2 samt lönenivå minskar arbetslöshetsnivån ceteris paribus. Motsatt effekt visas upp av variablerna andelen utrikesfödda av populationen och utbildningsnivå medan variabeln ålderssammansättning är svår att uttala sig om. Det finns även omständigheter som pekar på att regressionsmodellen och vissa av variablerna behöver utvecklas för att med större säkerhet kunna uttala sig om variablernas effekter på den regionala arbetslöshetsnivån i Sveriges län. 

  • 340.
    Nolskog, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Ensamstående föräldrars möjligheter på arbetsmarknaden: en intervjustudie med fyra rekryterare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if recruiters and employers in Sweden discriminate against single parents. The results are based on semi-structured interviews with four recruiters in Sweden who are asked to display their views regarding single parents’ chances in the labour market. Furthermore, this study use fundamental economic theories of discrimination as a point of departure: that is, taste-based and statistical discrimination. The Swedish labour market is monitored by the Swedish Discrimination Act. The definition of discrimination in this act is more stringent than in most other countries. Despite this, this study shows that there are tendencies of discrimination against single parents. The interviews show that the perspectives of the recruiters support both taste-based and statistical discrimination against single parents, which may affect single parents’ labour market possibilities. Yet, how much the discrimination depends on the specific recruiter, the demands of the employer and the detailed needs of the working place, is difficult to say. In addition, this study shows that applicant’s sex and education and whether the occupation is male- or female dominated may influence single parents’ possibilities in the labour market.

  • 341.
    Nordin, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klockby, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bestämningsfaktorer till regionala bostadspriser: En analys av de svenska länen för perioden 1993-20122014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The housing market is one of the greatest assets markets in a given country. Therefore, changes in housing prices have a big impact on the single household, the financial system and the economic system as a whole. Due to the housing markets vital role in the society, many scientific studies have been done with the purpose of enlighten and discover the dynamics of the Swedish housing market. The focuses in these earlier studies have more than often taken a metropolitan perspective or compared the Swedish housing market with other countries.

    However, this study divides the Swedish housing market into regional county level with the purpose of analyzing determinants of housing prices due to county specific variables. By analyzing the housing prices due to county specific factors a contributing goal with this study is to deepen the understanding about the dynamics in the Swedish housing market.

    In this study we have used multiple regressions in order to work with panel data. The Fixed Effect Model fitted our purpose well which is why that kind of model was used in order to estimate the housing prices for every single Swedish county.

    The conclusions drawn in this study are that disposable income, people density and employment rate are all statistically significant on one percent level in order to explain the housing price at state level. We have also discovered that, during the observed period, the relative differences in housing prices between the different states have increased. Finally, the differences found between the real housing prices and the estimated housing prices, can be explained by the assumption that the housing market is driven by emotions and speculations. 

  • 342.
    Norell, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Liderfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Ökar frihandelsavtalen Sveriges export?: En gravitationsstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The WTO strives to advance trade liberalization and the vast majority of the future global growth is expected to occur outside of Europe. The EU's strategy to face this development is to pass free trade agreements. The purpose of these agreements is to increase trade and stimulate growth, which according to trade theory, impacts a small and trade dependent country like Sweden. Previous research on free trade agreements shows positive effects on trade flows but it is rather uncertain how individual countries and Swedish export have been affected. The purpose of this study is therefore to empirically analyze whether free trade agreements have a significant effect on the Swedish export of goods during 1998-2017. To determine the effect panel data and three econometric models are used. The gravity model constitutes the theoretical basis of the inquiries. Our final judgement based on the three model characteristics and their result is that we cannot conclude whether free trade agreements has a significant effect on the Swedish export of goods during 1998-2017.

  • 343.
    Norrgren, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analyzing Economic Development: What Can We Learn from Remittances Recipient Countries?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, and remittances, financial development, and globalization after controlling for different levels of international financial distress. We study four of the major remittances recipient countries individually over the period of 1976 to 2012 using an autoregressive distributed lag method (ARDL). The results show that in Mexico, Bangladesh, and India remittances work as a stabilizing factor on their economies. Significant results of a positive long run correlation between remittances and GDP levels are also found in the results of Bangladesh and Mexico. High levels of financial distress have a negative impact on GDP in Mexico. We conclude that the level of financial integration between economies affect how financial distress in one economy spills over to another. This paper also finds that in the short run when globalization increases, uncompetitive businesses are outrivaled in Mexico and in Bangladesh, due to big neighbors like the United States or China and India. For Bangladesh, the financial development is destabilizing in the short run, and in the long run it correlates negatively with GDP. For India, this study finds that higher levels of both financial development and globalization promote long term economic growth. For China, few conclusions are drawn.

  • 344.
    Norrgren, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Swahnberg, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Investigating Prosocial Behavior: A Case Study of Littering in Laos2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using vignette experiments, this thesis examines individuals’ decision-making in various social dilemmas. A case study of littering behavior amongst university students in Lao People's Democratic Republic is used to investigate whether individual preferences are stable across littering dilemmas and other social dilemmas. This study further investigates if a visual prompt can encourage prosocial behavior in littering situations. The results show that behavior in social dilemmas is dependent on individual preferences. Additionally, the study finds little evidence that visual prompts could be used in order to efficiently decrease littering in Laos. However, a negative relationship is found between littering behavior and knowledge regarding the consequences of littering. These findings indicate that policy makers could use knowledge increasing campaigns in order to increase prosocial decision making regarding littering. Yet, further studies are needed in order to validate the results. Lastly, we also find differences in what influence littering behavior, depending on the item being littered.

  • 345.
    Nygårds, Olle
    et al.
    Enheten för forskning om ekonomisk och organiserad brottslighet, Brå.
    Norin, Jonas
    Enheten för forskning om ekonomisk och organiserad brottslighet, Brå.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Forslind, Helen
    Riksdagens utredningstjänst.
    Korsell, Lars
    Brottsförebyggande rådet.
    Karteller och korruption: Otillåten påverkan mot offentlig upphandling2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera studier har Brottsförebyggande rådet (Brå) undersökt otillåten påverkan riktad framför allt mot myndighetspersoner.1 Genom trakasserier, hot, våld, skadegörelse och korruption kan poliser, tullare, åklagare och andra yrkesgrupper förmås att titta åt andra hållet, agera i viss riktning eller läcka information. Otillåten påverkan kan också gälla vittnen och brottsoffer. Det gäller då att få vittnen att plötsligt ”glömma” allt de sett eller lämna felaktiga uppgifter till myndigheterna.

    Den här rapporten handlar om otillåten påverkan på ett annat område än myndighetsutövning och rättsprocess. I stället tar den sikte på den offentliga sektorns inköp av varor och tjänster, det som kallas för offentlig upphandling. Det är denna upphandling som är föremål för otillåten påverkan.

  • 346.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Do the study of economics really shage "economic men and women"2008In: Paper presented at the Nordic Conference on Behavioral and Experimental Economics, November 14-15,2008, University of Copenhagen, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 347.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Widowhood-related mortality in Scania, Sweden during the 19th century2002In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 451-478Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, mortality risks are empirically examined in connection with spousal bereavement in four parishes in Scania, southern Sweden, during the 19th century using duration analysis. The data are longitudinal and the inhabitants have been followed literally from the cradle to the grave. To simultaneously catch transitory (shock) and persistent (long-term) effects of widowhood on mortality of the surviving spouse, the Cox semiparametric proportional hazards model has been applied with time spent in widowhood as a time-dependent multiple factor. Widowers in general were found to face higher relative mortality risks than widows and the effect of bereavement decreased through time. The estimated relative risks for males were dependent on socioeconomic status and widowers classified as landless faced high relative risks. Quantitatively, the magnitude of our estimates was large in comparison with similar studies made on contemporary data. © 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 348.
    Nystedt, Paul
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundborg, P
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rooth, DO
    n/a.
    The Height Premium in Earnings: The Role of Physical Capacity and Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills2009Report (Other academic)
  • 349.
    Nystedt, Paul
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    van der Berg, GJ
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundborg, P
    n/a.
    Rooth, DO
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Critical Periods During Childhood and Adolescence: A Study of Adult Height Among Immigrant Siblings2009Report (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Nyström, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Romberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The Influence of Time and Risk Preferences on Financial Behaviour and Financial Well-being: Results from a National Survey2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown time and risk preferences to be important factors when explaining a variety of behavioural patterns, such as smoking, obesity and savings behaviour, while we focus on the effect on financial behaviour and financial well-being. Financial behaviour is measured using a twelve-item scale with individuals’ self-stated reports of for example savings behaviour and credit card usage. To measure financial well-being, we construct a measure consisting of individual’s self-perceived current and future financial condition. Time preferences are revealed by matching questions and we use different ways of measuring risk, both self-stated risk attitudes and risky choices revealed by gambles. Our results show that increased short term patience, leads to better financial behaviour. Also, individuals with higher financial risk attitudes, exhibit better financial behaviour. Contradictory, regarding actual decisions, the impact is different and being loss averse, has a positive impact on financial behaviour. Financial well-being is on the other hand influenced positively by both more short and long term patience. It also increases with general and financial risk attitudes. Risky choices do not have an impact on financial well-being. We show that risk preferences are affected by time preferences. Having a high short term discount rate leads to higher financial risk attitudes and increases the likelihood of being loss averse, while it decreases the likelihood of being risk averse. Our results are important for understanding heterogeneity in financial decision making and the financial well-being it fathers. This quantitative study is based on a large, representative sample of the Swedish population (N=2063). 

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