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  • 301.
    Hur, Deniz
    et al.
    Anadolu Univ, Turkey; Bionkit Co Ltd, Turkey.
    Say, Mehmet Girayhan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Bionkit Co Ltd, Turkey.
    Diltemiz, Sibel E.
    Anadolu Univ, Turkey; Bionkit Co Ltd, Turkey.
    Duman, Fatma
    Anadolu Univ, Turkey.
    Ersoz, Arzu
    Anadolu Univ, Turkey; Bionkit Co Ltd, Turkey.
    Say, Ridvan
    Anadolu Univ, Turkey; Bionkit Co Ltd, Turkey.
    3D Micropatterned All-Flexible Microfluidic Platform for Microwave-Assisted Flow Organic Synthesis2018In: CHEMPLUSCHEM, ISSN 2192-6506, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 42-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large-area, all-flexible, microwaveable polydimethoxysilane microfluidic reactor was fabricated by using a 3D printing system. The sacrificial microchannels were printed on polydimethoxysilane substrates by a direct ink writing method using water-soluble Pluronic F-127 ink and then encapsulated between polydimethoxysilane layers. The structure of micron-sized channels was analyzed by optical and electron microscopy techniques. The fabricated flexible microfluidic reactors were utilized for the acetylation of different amines under microwave irradiation to obtain acetamides in shorter reaction times and good yields by flow organic synthesis.

  • 302.
    Hussain, I
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Soomro, Muhammad Yousuf
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bano, Nargis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interface trap characterization and electrical properties of Au-ZnO nanorod Schottky diodes by conductance and capacitance methods2012In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 112, no 6, p. 064506-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schottky diodes with Au/ZnO nanorod (NR)/n-SiC configurations have been fabricated and their interface traps and electrical properties have been investigated by current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), capacitance-frequency (C-f), and conductance-frequency (G(p)/omega-omega) measurements. Detailed and systematic analysis of the frequency-dependent capacitance and conductance measurements was performed to extract the information about the interface trap states. The discrepancy between the high barrier height values obtained from the I-V and the C-V measurements was also analyzed. The higher capacitance at low frequencies was attributed to excess capacitance as a result of interface states in equilibrium in the ZnO that can follow the alternating current signal. The energy of the interface states (E-ss) with respect to the valence band at the ZnO NR surface was also calculated. The densities of interface states obtained from the conductance and capacitance methods agreed well with each other and this confirm that the observed capacitance and conductance are caused by the same physical processes, i.e., recombination-generation in the interface states. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics.

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  • 303.
    Hussain, I.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yousuf Soomro, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bano, Nargis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Systematic study of interface trap and barrier inhomogeneities using I-V-T characteristics of Au/ZnO nanorods Schottky diode2013In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents in-depth analysis of I-V-T characteristics of Au/ZnO nanorods Schottky diodes. The temperature dependence I-V parameters such as the ideality factor and the barrier heights have been explained on the basis of inhomogeneity. Detailed and systematic analysis was performed to extract information about the interface trap states. The ideality factor decreases, while the barrier height increases with increase of temperature. These observations have been ascribed to barrier inhomogeneities at the Au/ZnO nanorods interface. The inhomogeneities can be described by the Gaussian distribution of barrier heights. The effect of tunneling, Fermi level pinning, and image force lowering has contribution in the barrier height lowering. The recombination-tunneling mechanism is used to explain the conduction process in Au/ZnO nanorods Schottky diodes. The ionization of interface states has been considered for explaining the inhomogeneities.

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    fulltext
  • 304.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures, their characterization and chemical sensing applications2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of nanomaterials is a revolutionizing step towards the fabrication of nanodevices and it enhances the enthusiasm of the researchers for the development of new devices with improved performance relative to that of bulk material based devices. Among the nanomaterials, the metal oxide nanostructures have drawn the attention of scientific community in the development of different biochemical and biomedical nanodevices in the recent time. Today, the nanotechnology based applications of several materials particularly biosensing, molecular imaging, biological separation, biomarkers and photodynamic therapy have given wide spectrum of the fabrication of novel and sensitive nanodevices. The attraction of nanomaterials based devices is hidden in the fact of their desirable and unique properties such as high surface to volume ratio, biocompatibility, fast electron transfer rate, and nontoxic in many cases. The biocompatibility is the most favourable property of several nanomaterials such as ZnO, TiO2 etc. which provide the solid platform for the synthesis of nanomedicine. In the sensor technology, the uses of nanomaterials have shown the drastic and bombastic realization of high sensitivity for a particular sensor and the possible detection of specific analytes from their small volumes. The metal oxide nanostructures show a fast electron communication, and high degree of adsorption of biosensitive material which further enhances the sensitivity of nanosensor device. The metal oxides nanostructures  exhibit tuneable size; morphology based chemical and physical properties which are easily to combine with biosensitive material in the fabrication of sensitive chemical and biosensors. The metal oxide nanostructures experienced attractive surface chemistry, high surface  to volume ratio, valuable thermal and electrical properties, therefore the development of nanosensors is accompanied by high sensitivity, low limit of detection and a fast response time.

    In this dissertation, several metal oxide nanostructures have been presented such as ZnO, CuO, NiO, Co3O4, Fe2O3, Mn3O4, NiCo2O4 and TiO2. By exploiting the favourable properties of these metal oxides for the sensing, thus have been used potentially in the fabrication of chemical nanosensors.

    List of papers
    1. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles
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    2013 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 3584-3597Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2013
    Keywords
    biocomposite seed layer; ZnO nanorods; hydrothermal growth method; starch; cellulose
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103818 (URN)10.3390/ma6083584 (DOI)000330293100034 ()
    Available from: 2014-01-28 Created: 2014-01-28 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 6, no 10, p. 4361-4374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2013
    Keywords
    ZnO nanoparticles; chitosan; ZnO nanorods; well-aligned; low-temperature growth
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104420 (URN)10.3390/ma6104361 (DOI)000330295600005 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-17 Created: 2014-02-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Well aligned ZnO nanorods growth on the gold coated glass substrate by aqueous chemical growth method using seed layer of Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Well aligned ZnO nanorods growth on the gold coated glass substrate by aqueous chemical growth method using seed layer of Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles
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    2013 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 368, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and sol-gel method respectively. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by X-ray diffraction [XRD] and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The obtained results have shown the nanocrystalline phase of obtained Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles were used as seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods on the gold coated glass substrate by aqueous chemical growth method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM], as well as XRD and energy dispersive X-ray techniques were used for the structural characterisation of synthesised ZnO nanorods. This study has explored highly dense, uniform, well-aligned growth pattern along 0001 direction and good crystal quality of the prepared ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for the chemical analysis of fabricated ZnO nanorods. In addition, the structural characterisation and the chemical composition study and the optical investigation were carried out for the fabricated ZnO nanorods and the photoluminescence [PL] spectrum have shown strong ultraviolet (UV) peak at 381 nm for Fe3O4 nanoparticles seeded ZnO nanorods and the PL spectrum for ZnO nanorods grown with the seed layer of Co3O4 nanoparticles has shown a UV peak at 382 nm. The green emission and orange/red peaks were also observed for ZnO nanorods grown with both the seed layers. This study has indicated the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods using the one inorganic nanomaterial on other inorganic nanomaterial due to their similar chemistry.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Characterisation, Crystal structure, Hydrothermal crystal growth, Seed crystals, Nanomaterials, Oxides, Semiconducting II-VI materials
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90667 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2013.01.009 (DOI)000315574700007 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|King Saud University|RGP-VPP-023|

    Available from: 2013-04-03 Created: 2013-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    4. Development of a disposable potentiometric antibody immobilized ZnO nanotubes based sensor for the detection of C-reactive protein
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a disposable potentiometric antibody immobilized ZnO nanotubes based sensor for the detection of C-reactive protein
    2012 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 166, p. 809-814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the fabrication of ZnO nanotubes was carried out through chemical etching of ZnO nanorods on the gold coated glass substrates. The monoclonal anti-C-reactive protein clone CRP-8 (mouse IgG1 isotype) with glutaraldehyde was immobilized on these ZnO nanotubes using simple physical adsorption method. The novelty of the present ZnO nanotubes based research is the generation of electromotive force (EMF) in the environment of rapid formation of complex between immobilized antibodies with CRP on the surface of ZnO nanotubes. The electrochemical response of the proposed C-reactive protein (CRP) of human plasma biosensor was measured using potentiometric technique. The antibody immobilized ZnO nanotubes based sensor electrode detected the concentration range of CRP from 1.0 x 10(-5) mg/L to 1.0 x 100 mg/L with an acceptable sensitivity of 13.17 +/- 0.42 mV/decade. This unusual behavior of the proposed ZnO nanotubes based sensor in no particular electrolytic atmosphere is opening a new way for the detection of proteins at the nanolevel. The response of CRP sensor was highly linear and stable for above detected concentrations. The time response of antibody immobilized ZnO nanotubes based sensor was observed less than 10 s with good selectivity, reproducibility, repeatability and stability. The life time of sensor was not more than three days after use, so it can be used as disposable sensor.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keywords
    ZnO nanotubes; Monoclonal anti-C-reactive protein clone; CRP-8; Potentiometric technique; C-reactive protein; Glutaraldehyde; Electrochemical response
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79821 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2012.03.083 (DOI)000305356900111 ()
    Available from: 2012-08-14 Created: 2012-08-14 Last updated: 2018-07-20
    5. The synthesis of CuO nanoleaves, structural characterization, and their glucose sensing application
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The synthesis of CuO nanoleaves, structural characterization, and their glucose sensing application
    2013 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the synthesis of well aligned and highly dense polyethylene glycol template assisted cupric oxide (CuO) nanoleaves on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. The structural study based investigations of CuO nanoleaves were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized CuO nanoleaves electrode detected the wide range of glucose concentrations with good linearity and exhibited high sensitivity of 61.9+/-2.0 mV/decade. The linear detection range was observed from 1.0 x 10(-5) to 2.0 x 10(-2) M with detection limit of 5.0 x 10(-6) M and a fast response time of less than 5 s was also observed. The glucose sensor electrode possesses good anti-interference ability, stability, repeatability, and reproducibility.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2013
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91547 (URN)10.1063/1.4795135 (DOI)000316501200089 ()
    Available from: 2013-04-26 Created: 2013-04-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    6. Low temperature synthesis of seed mediated CuO bundle of nanowires, their structural characterisation and cholesterol detection
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low temperature synthesis of seed mediated CuO bundle of nanowires, their structural characterisation and cholesterol detection
    2013 (English)In: Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, ISSN 0928-4931, E-ISSN 1873-0191, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 3889-3898Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have successfully synthesised CuO bundle of nanowires using simple, cheap and low temperature hydrothermal growth method. The growth parameters such as precursor concentration and time for duration of growth were optimised. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has demonstrated that the CuO bundles of nanowires are highly dense, uniform and perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures consist of bundle of nanowires and their growth pattern is along the [010] direction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique described that CuO bundle of nanowires possess the monoclinic crystal phase. The surface and chemical composition analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and the obtained results suggested the pure crystal state of CuO nanostructures. In addition, the CuO nanowires were used for the cholesterol sensing application by immobilising the cholesterol oxidase through electrostatic attraction. The infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study has also revealed that CuO nanostructures are consisting of only Cu-O bonding and has also shown the possible interaction of cholesterol oxidase with the sharp edge surface of CuO bundle of nanowires. The proposed cholesterol sensor has demonstrated the wide range of detection of cholesterol with good sensitivity of 33.88 +/- 0.96 mV/decade. Moreover, the CuO bundle of nanowires based sensor electrode has revealed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability, selectivity and a fast response time of less than 10 s. The cholesterol sensor based on the immobilised cholesterol oxidase has good potential applicability for the determination of cholesterol from the human serum and other biological samples.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    CuO bundle of nanowires, Hydrothermal method, Seed layer, IRAS, Potentiometric technique, Cholesterol sensor
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100485 (URN)10.1016/j.msec.2013.05.029 (DOI)000325445700042 ()
    Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-11-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    7. Synthesis of Novel CuO Nanosheets and Their Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensing Applications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis of Novel CuO Nanosheets and Their Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensing Applications
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    2013 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 7926-7938Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: In this study, we have developed a sensitive and selective glucose sensor using novel CuO nanosheets which were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by a low temperature growth method. X-ray differaction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for the structural characterization of CuO nanostructures. CuO nanosheets are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystalline array structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was applied for the study of chemical composition of CuO nanosheets and the obtained information demonstrated pure phase CuO nanosheets. The novel CuO nanosheets were employed for the development of a sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The measured sensitivity and a correlation coefficient are in order 5.20 × 102 µA/mMcm2 and 0.998, respectively. The proposed sensor is associated with several advantages such as low cost, simplicity, high stability, reproducibility and selectivity for the quick detection of glucose.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2013
    Keywords
    CuO nanosheets; hydrothermal growth method; non-enzymatic glucose sensor; selectivity; reproducibility
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96478 (URN)10.3390/s130607926 (DOI)000320767600059 ()
    Available from: 2013-08-23 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    8. Potentiometric glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized iron ferrite magnetic particle/chitosan composite modified gold coated glass electrode
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potentiometric glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized iron ferrite magnetic particle/chitosan composite modified gold coated glass electrode
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    2012 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 173, p. 698-703Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A potentiometric glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized on iron ferrite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles/chitosan composite modified gold coated glass substrate was fabricated. The electrode has advantages of both the inorganic Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles and the organic substance chitosan. The freshly prepared iron ferrite magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (xRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique was used for the analysis of dispersed iron ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in the mixture of glucose oxidase and chitosan. The electrostatic interaction of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with chitosan and the glucose oxidase molecules was investigated by the infra-red reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) study. The glucose oxidase enzyme was immobilized on the surface of iron ferrite/chitosan composite without the use of Nafion or cross linker molecules. The fabricated glucose sensor has shown acceptable potentiometric response for the wide range of glucose concentrations from 1.0 x 10(-6) to 3.0 x 10(-2) M. The sensor electrode showed a sensitivity of 27.3 +/- 0.8 mV/decade and also fast response time of 7.0s. Moreover, the present glucose sensor has demonstrated good reproducibility, repeatability, selectivity and the storage stability. All the obtained results indicated that the glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized iron ferrite/chitosan composite modified gold coated glass electrode can be used for the monitoring of glucose concentrations in human serum, drugs and may be applicable to detect glucose in the presence of other analytes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keywords
    Iron ferrite, Magnetic nanoparticles, Potentiometric, Immobilization, Glucose oxidase, IR study
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86659 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2012.07.074 (DOI)000311248100098 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Scientific Research at King Saud University|RGP-VPP-023|

    Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06
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  • 305.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jamal, N
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A potentiometric immunosensor based on silver nanoparticles decorated ZnO nanotubes, for the selective detection of d-dimer2013In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 182, p. 104-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a new, simple, fast and highly sensitive potentiometric immunosensor for the selective detection of d-dimer is developed using silver nanoparticles decorated ZnO nanotubes. The d-dimer is a biomarker and found at high levels in the human body when it suffers from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) disorders. ZnO nanotubes were obtained by the chemical etching of nanorods using a hydrothermal method. The silver nanoparticles were deposited on the ZnO nanotubes using an electrodepositing technique. The structure and the composition characterization was measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques respectively. The ZnO nanorods are perpendicular to the substrate with uniform distribution. The etching of the nanorods into nanotubes is almost complete and the nanotubes are fully covered with silver nanoparticles. The mouse anti human d-dimer antibody was immobilized on the silver nanoparticles decorated ZnO nanotubes for the selective detection of d-dimer. The potentiometric immunosensor has shown a highly sensitive and linear response for the wide range of 1.00 x 10(-5)-1.00 x 10(0) mu g/ml d-dimer concentrations prepared in the phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.4. The presented d-dimer biosensor exhibited a detection limit of 1.00 x 10(-6) mu g/ml. The antibody immobilized immunosensor presents a fast response time of less than 5 s with acceptable selectivity, reproducibility and storage stability. The observed performance of the developed immunosensor demonstrates the high usability for the selective detection of the d-dimer from clinical and real samples.

  • 306.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, K
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low temperature synthesis of seed mediated CuO bundle of nanowires, their structural characterisation and cholesterol detection2013In: Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, ISSN 0928-4931, E-ISSN 1873-0191, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 3889-3898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have successfully synthesised CuO bundle of nanowires using simple, cheap and low temperature hydrothermal growth method. The growth parameters such as precursor concentration and time for duration of growth were optimised. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has demonstrated that the CuO bundles of nanowires are highly dense, uniform and perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures consist of bundle of nanowires and their growth pattern is along the [010] direction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique described that CuO bundle of nanowires possess the monoclinic crystal phase. The surface and chemical composition analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and the obtained results suggested the pure crystal state of CuO nanostructures. In addition, the CuO nanowires were used for the cholesterol sensing application by immobilising the cholesterol oxidase through electrostatic attraction. The infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study has also revealed that CuO nanostructures are consisting of only Cu-O bonding and has also shown the possible interaction of cholesterol oxidase with the sharp edge surface of CuO bundle of nanowires. The proposed cholesterol sensor has demonstrated the wide range of detection of cholesterol with good sensitivity of 33.88 +/- 0.96 mV/decade. Moreover, the CuO bundle of nanowires based sensor electrode has revealed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability, selectivity and a fast response time of less than 10 s. The cholesterol sensor based on the immobilised cholesterol oxidase has good potential applicability for the determination of cholesterol from the human serum and other biological samples.

  • 307.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, K
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    AlSalhi, M S.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia .
    Atif, M
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia .
    Ansari, Anees A:
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia .
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Well aligned ZnO nanorods growth on the gold coated glass substrate by aqueous chemical growth method using seed layer of Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles2013In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 368, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and sol-gel method respectively. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by X-ray diffraction [XRD] and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The obtained results have shown the nanocrystalline phase of obtained Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles were used as seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods on the gold coated glass substrate by aqueous chemical growth method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM], as well as XRD and energy dispersive X-ray techniques were used for the structural characterisation of synthesised ZnO nanorods. This study has explored highly dense, uniform, well-aligned growth pattern along 0001 direction and good crystal quality of the prepared ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for the chemical analysis of fabricated ZnO nanorods. In addition, the structural characterisation and the chemical composition study and the optical investigation were carried out for the fabricated ZnO nanorods and the photoluminescence [PL] spectrum have shown strong ultraviolet (UV) peak at 381 nm for Fe3O4 nanoparticles seeded ZnO nanorods and the PL spectrum for ZnO nanorods grown with the seed layer of Co3O4 nanoparticles has shown a UV peak at 382 nm. The green emission and orange/red peaks were also observed for ZnO nanorods grown with both the seed layers. This study has indicated the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods using the one inorganic nanomaterial on other inorganic nanomaterial due to their similar chemistry.

  • 308.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, K
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The synthesis of CuO nanoleaves, structural characterization, and their glucose sensing application2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the synthesis of well aligned and highly dense polyethylene glycol template assisted cupric oxide (CuO) nanoleaves on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. The structural study based investigations of CuO nanoleaves were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized CuO nanoleaves electrode detected the wide range of glucose concentrations with good linearity and exhibited high sensitivity of 61.9+/-2.0 mV/decade. The linear detection range was observed from 1.0 x 10(-5) to 2.0 x 10(-2) M with detection limit of 5.0 x 10(-6) M and a fast response time of less than 5 s was also observed. The glucose sensor electrode possesses good anti-interference ability, stability, repeatability, and reproducibility.

  • 309.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Selective Iodide Ion Sensor Electrode Based on Functionalized ZnO Nanotubes2013In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 1984-1997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research work, ZnO nanotubes were fabricated on a gold coated glass substrate through chemical etching by the aqueous chemical growth method. For the first time a nanostructure-based iodide ion selective electrode was developed. The ZnO nanotubes were functionalized with miconazole ion exchanger and the electromotive force (EMF) was measured by the potentiometric method. The iodide ion sensor exhibited a linear response over a wide range of concentrations (1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−1 M) and excellent sensitivity of –62 ± 1 mV/decade. The detection limit of the proposed sensor was found to be 5 × 10−7 M. The effects of pH, temperature, additive, plasticizer and stabilizer on the potential response of iodide ion selective electrode were also studied. The proposed iodide ion sensor demonstrated a fast response time of less than 5 s and high selectivity against common organic and the inorganic anions. All the obtained results revealed that the iodide ion sensor based on functionalized ZnO nanotubes may be used for the detection of iodide ion in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical products and other real samples.

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  • 310.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mitrou, Nikolaos
    University of Athens, Greece .
    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece .
    Nikolelis, Dimitrios P.
    University of Athens, Greece .
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Psaroudakis, Nikolas
    University of Athens, Greece .
    The Development of Highly Sensitive and Selective Immunosensor Based on Antibody Immobilized ZnO Nanorods for the Detection of D-Dimer2014In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 292-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanorods were grown on gold coated glass substrate by low temperature aqueous chemical growth method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the characterization of ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods are highly dense, uniform, well aligned and perpendicular-oriented to the substrate. ZnO nanorods exhibited good crystal quality. The well aligned ZnO nanorods were potentially used for the development of selective and sensitive immunosensor for the detection of D-dimer by immobilizing antibody on stabilized lipid films. The ZnO nanorods based immunosensor responded to a wide range of D-dimer concentrations with fast response time of ca. 20s.

  • 311.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Nafady, Aynam
    Sohag University, Egypt; King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Sirajuddin,
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Ishaq Abro, Muhammad
    Mehran University of Engn and Technology, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Glycine-assisted synthesis of NiO hollow cage-like nanostructures for sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensing2015In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, no 24, p. 18773-18781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor was developed based on NiO hollow cage-like nanostructures (NiO HCs). The novel nanostructures were synthesized using hydrothermal growth route with glycine employed as an effecient growth director. The synthesized NiO HCs were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques for morphological, compositional and structural determination respectively. The prepared NiO HCs were directly integrated to be structured electrodes exhibiting enhanced electrocatalytic performance toward the oxidation of glucose with high sensitivity (2476.4 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2)), low detection limit (LOD) (0.1 mu M), wide detection range (0.1-5.0 mM) (r(2) = 0.9997) and excellent reproducibility. The developed nonenzymatic glucose sensor further demonstrated excellent anti-interference property in the presence of common interferents such as uric acid (UA), dopamine (DP) and ascorbic acid (AS). The role of glycine molecules as an efficient growth directing agent with a plausible growth mechanism has also been highlighted. In addition, the NiO HCs modified electrode was also used to analyze glucose concentration in human serum samples. The excellent sensing performance can be attributed to the unique morphology, which allowed increased electron transfer passages with lower charge transfer resistance, and enhanced molecular approach during electrochemical sensing offered from nanoscale "hollow cage" units of NiO structures.

  • 312.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Begum Mallah, Arfana
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Anjum Shahzad, Sohail
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Bin
    Southwest University, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Cong
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    The Synthesis of Functional Cobalt Oxide Nanostructures, and their Sensitive Glucose Sensing Application2017In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a novel approach is adapted for the synthesis of new nanostructures of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) by low temperature aqueous chemical growth method in the presence of water soluble amino acids such as L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, Lserine and L-threonine. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The nanostructures exhibit well defined morphology and are of high purity. To explore the potential application of the prepared nanostructures of cobalt oxide, the non-enzymatic glucose sensor is developed by modifying the glassy carbon electrode. Serine assisted cobalt oxide nanostructures showed excellent sensitivity of 4169.00 mu A/mMcm(2), wide linear range of 0.01 mM to 20 mM and detection limit was estimated as 0.001 mM (S/N= 3). The analytical parameters for the serine assisted cobalt oxide nanostructures based glucose sensor were evaluated and it was found that the sensor is highly selective, reproducible, repeatable, reversible, and stable. Finally, the practical application of the serine assisted cobalt oxide nanostructures based glucose sensor was examined by measuring the glucose concentrations from real human blood samples.

  • 313.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparative Study of Energy Harvesting from ZnO Nanorods Using Different Flexible Substrates2014In: Energy Harvesting and Systems, ISSN 2329-8774, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The step toward the fabrication of nanodevices with low cost and improved performance is of high demand; therefore, in the present study, different flexible substrates like common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil have been utilized to harvest electrical energy. ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown by using lowtemperature aqueous chemical growth method. The obtained ZnO NRs were highly dense, well aligned, uniformly distributed over the substrates and exhibited good crystal quality. The structural study was carried out by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The piezoelectric properties of ZnO NRs were investigated by the help of an atomic force microscope using contact mode. The measurements of generated piezoelectricity were around 16.2 mV, 23.2 mV, 38.5 mV and 43.3 mV for common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil, respectively. This investigation is an important step in order to study the effect of different substrates influencing the magnitude of the output voltage under identical growth and measurement conditions. We expect that this study will help identify the most suitable flexible substrate for harvesting energy. It also offers a promising alternative powering source for the next generation nanodevices using non-conventional substrates like aluminum foil. Moreover, the use of aluminum foil as flexible and low cost substrate may pave the way to develop devices in different fields including energy harvesting.

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    Comparative Study of Energy Harvesting from ZnO Nanorods Using Different Flexible Substrates
  • 314.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ali Abbasi, Mazhar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The improved piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods with oxygen plasma treatment on the single layer graphene coated polymer substrate2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 2, p. 455-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The step towards the fabrication of nanodevices with improved performance is of high demand; therefore, in this study, oxygen plasma treated ZnO nanorods based piezoelectric nanogenerator is developed on the single layer graphene coated PET flexible polymer substrate. ZnO nanorods on the single layer graphene are grown by hydrothermal growth method and the structural study is carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods with and without plasma treatment were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The oxygen plasma treated sample of ZnO nanorods showed significant increase in the piezoelectric potential which could be due to the decrease in the defects levels in the ZnO and also increase in the mechanical properties of ZnO nanorods. Furthermore X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms that the filling of vacancies by oxygen in the matrix of ZnO using oxygen plasma treatment has gave an enhanced piezoelectric potential compared to the sample of ZnO nanorods not treated with oxygen plasma. In addition to XPS experiment, cathodoluminescence (CL) technique was used for the determination of defect level in the ZnO nanorods after the treatment of oxygen plasma and the obtained information supported the XPS data of oxygen plasma treatment sample by showing the decreased level of defect levels in the prepared sample. From the XPS and CL studies, it is observed that the defect level has significant influence on the piezoelectric potential of the ZnO nanostructures.

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  • 315.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of Three Dimensional Nickel Cobalt Oxide Nanoneedles on Nickel Foam, Their Characterization and Glucose Sensing Application2014In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 5415-5425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, NiCo2O4 nanostructures are fabricated in three dimensions (3D) on nickel foam by the hydrothermal method. The nanomaterial was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanostructures exhibit nanoneedle-like morphology grown in 3D with good crystalline quality. The nanomaterial is composed of nickel, cobalt and oxygen atoms. By using the favorable porosity of the nanomaterial and the substrate itself, a sensitive glucose sensor is proposed by immobilizing glucose oxidase. The presented glucose sensor has shown linear response over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 0.005 mM to 15 mM with a sensitivity of 91.34 mV/decade and a fast response time of less than 10 s. The NiCo2O4 nanostructures-based glucose sensor has shown excellent reproducibility, repeatability and stability. The sensor showed negligible response to the normal concentrations of common interferents with glucose sensing, including uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. All these favorable advantages of the fabricated glucose sensor suggest that it may have high potential for the determination of glucose in biological samples, food and other related areas.

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  • 316.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of anions on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures grown by hydrothermal method and their pH sensing application2014In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1572-6657, Vol. 717-718, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fast, reliable, accurate, precise and sensitive pH sensor device is highly demanding for the monitoring of pH in biological, clinical and food industry samples. In this research work, the effect of anions on the morphology of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures is investigated using low temperature chemical approach for the growth. Different anions have shown visible effect on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for the material characterization. This study has shown highly dense, uniform and good crystal quality of fabricated Co3O4 nanostructures. The nanostructures obtained from the cobalt chloride were used for the development of potentiometric pH sensor electrode. The pH sensor electrode showed excellent linearity and close to Nernstian response for the pH range of 3-13 with a sensitivity of -58.45 mV/pH. Moreover, the proposed sensor showed a fast response time of 53 s, and acceptable reducibility and repeatability. The highly sensitive and a fast time response of the proposed sensor device indicate its potential application for the monitoring of pH from real samples including biological fluids.

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    Effect of anions on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures grown by hydrothermal method and their pH sensing application
  • 317.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbassi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of CuO/ZnO Composite Nanostructures, Their Optical Characterization and Valence Band Offset Determination by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy2014In: Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics, ISSN 1555-130X, E-ISSN 1555-1318, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 348-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of the optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and its composite nanostructures is an appealing issue in order to have highly efficient optoelectronic devices in the future. Zinc oxide, copper oxide (CuO) and their composite nanostructures were grown by the hydrothermal growth technique. The structural properties of the grown ZnO, CuO and their composite NSs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. UV-visible spectroscopy, Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence techniques were used for the study of optical properties of the as synthesized nanomaterials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to measure the valence band offset of the CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures. Cathodoluminescence study of pure ZnO nanorods showed more insight for lateral luminescence compared to the top surface of the nanorods which opened a novel investigation in the area of optical properties of ZnO nanomaterial. While the room temperature cathodoluminescence spectra of CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures have demonstrated excellent luminescence in the UV region compared to the cathodoluminescence spectra observed at 4 K. The measured values for valence band offset and conduction band offset are found to be 2.83 eV and 0.73 eV, respectively for the prepared CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures. It was observed that CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures have type-II band alignment. The conclusion from both the cathodoluminescence and the photoluminescence studies showed that the luminescence in the visible region is only originated from the ZnO nanomaterial and that the CuO absorbs this visible emission as it covers the ZnO. This provides evidence suggesting that the use of CuO/ZnO in the fabrication of LEDs in the visible range is not appropriate.

  • 318.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Use of ZnO nanorods grown AFM tip in the architecture of piezoelectric nanogenerator2014In: Micro & Nano Letters, ISSN 1750-0443, E-ISSN 1750-0443, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 539-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The piezoelectric potential output has been studied using a ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown atomic force microscope (AFM) tip in lieu of the normally used AFM tip. The ZnO NRs were synthesised on the AFM tip and on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate using the aqueous chemical growth method. The as-grown ZnO NRs were highly dense, well aligned and uniform both on the tip and on the substrate. The structural study was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The piezoelectric properties of as-grown ZnO NRs were investigated using an AFM in contact mode. In comparison to the AFM tip without ZnO NRs, extra positive voltage peaks were observed when the AFM tip with ZnO NRs was used. The pair of ZnO NRs on the AFM tip and on the FTO glass substrate together worked as two oppositely gliding walls (composed of ZnO NRs) and showed an enhancement in the amount of the harvested energy as much as eight times. This approach demonstrates that the use of the AFM tip with ZnO NRs is not only a good alternative to improve the design of nanogenerators to obtain an enhanced amount of harvested energy but is also simple, reliable and cost-effective.

  • 319.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of Post Growth Annealing on the Structural and Electrical Properties of ZnO/CuO Composite Nanostructures2014In: Acta Physica Polonica. A, ISSN 0587-4246, E-ISSN 1898-794X, Vol. 126, no 3, p. 849-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, ZnO/CuO composite nanostructures have been grown on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate by aqueous chemical growth method. To observe the effect of post growth annealing (500 degrees C, 1 min) on the structural properties of ZnO nanorods scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques have been utilized. SEM images of post growth annealed (post growth annealed) sample reveal that the average diameter of ZnO NRs has considerably increased in comparison with as grown sample. Moreover after post growth annealing the ZnO NRs showed more clearly hexagonal wurtzite structure. Beside this the NRs are also uniform and well aligned with a high aspect ratio of similar to 10. In XRD pattern the strongly intense (002) peak of the post growth annealing sample suggest that the crystal quality of the NRs have also been improved significantly. Since the structural improvement have a significant impact on charge transport properties as well, therefore the effect of post growth annealed has also been investigated by the electrical characterization of ZnO/CuO based heterojunction. The current-voltage measurements of the post growth annealed sample showed improvement in the current in comparison with as grown sample. The impedance study has also confirmed that the post growth annealed has influence on the electrical properties. The presented post growth annealed heterojunction of ZnO/CuO may have space in applications like sensors and oxide based diodes in the devices fabrication.

  • 320.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The effect of oxygen-plasma treatment on the mechanical andpiezoelectrical properties of ZnO nanorods2014In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 608, p. 235-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on piezoelectric response and on the mechanical stability of ZnO nanorods synthesized on FTO by using ACG method. XRD and SEM techniques have shown highly dense and uniformly distributed nanorods. The piezoelectric properties and mechanical stability of as-grown and oxygen plasma treated samples were investigated by using nanoindentation technique. The comparison of load–displacement curves showed that the oxygen plasma treated samples are much stiffer and show higher generated piezo-voltage. This study demonstrates that the oxygenplasma treatment is a good option to fabricate reliable and efficient nanodevices for enhanced generation of piezoelectricity.

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  • 321. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of Wired and Wireless Data Transmissions2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this dissertation is divided into two parts where the first part presents high-speed data transmission on flexible cables and the second part presents a wireless remote monitoring and controlling system with wireless data transmission.

    The demand on high-speed data communications has pushed both the wired and wireless technologies to operate at higher and higher frequencies. Classic Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws cannot be directly applied, when entering the microwave spectrum for frequency above 1 GHz. Instead, the transmission line theory should be used. Most of the wired communication products use bit-serial cables to connect devices. To transfer massive data at high speed, parallel data transfer techniques can be utilized and the speed can be increased by the number of parallel lines or cables, if the transfer rate per line or cable can be maintained. However, the lines or cables must be well-shielded so the crosstalk between them can be minimized.

    Differential lines can also be used to increase the data speed further compared to the single-ended lines, along with saving the power consumption and reducing the electromagnetic interference. However, characterization for differential lines is not as straight forward as for single-ended cases using standard S-parameters. Instead, mixed-mode S-parameters are needed to describe the differential-, common- and mixed-mode characteristics of the differential signal. Mixed-mode S-parameters were first introduced in 1995 and are now widely used. However, improvements of the theory can still be found to increase the accuracy of simulations and measurements, which is proposed and presented in this dissertation.

    The interest of wireless solution to do remote control and monitoring for cultural building has been increasing. Available solutions on the market are mostly wired and very expensive. The available wireless solutions often offer limited network size with point-to-point radio link. Furthermore, the wired solution requires operation on the building, which is not the preferred way since it will damage the historical values of cultural heritage buildings. Wireless solutions on the other hand can offer flexibility when deploying the network, i.e., operation on the building can be avoided or kept to the minimum.

    A platform for wireless remote monitoring and control has been established for various deployments at different cultural buildings. The platform has a modular design to ease future improvement and expansion of the system. The platform is based on the ZigBee standard, which is an open standard, specified with wireless sensor network as focus. Three different modules have been developed. The performance has been studied and optimized. The network has been deployed at five different locations in Sweden for data collection and verification of the system stability.

    The remote monitoring and control functions of the developed platform have received a nomination for the Swedish Embedded Award 2010 and been demonstrated at the Scandinavia Embedded Conference 2010 in Stockholm.Communication

    List of papers
    1. Study of high-speed data transfer utilizing flexible and parallel transmission lines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of high-speed data transfer utilizing flexible and parallel transmission lines
    2005 (English)In: Procedings of International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Nordic,, Pelkosen Painotuote in Kiiminki, Finland , 2005, p. 230-234Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many systems use serial data transfer techniques like serial AT attachment (SATA), Firewire and universal serial bus (USB). However, with parallel techniques the data transfer can be raised to a much higher speed. Having wires in parallel, one must also deal with phenomena such as crosstalk. To overcome crosstalk between parallel lines one must follow some design rules to avoid interference, like optimizing spaces between transmission lines. In this work simulations on high-speed single-ended and parallel channels utilizing microstrips and striplines have been done to show parameters that limit the channel bandwidth and thus the data rate. Design and simulations have been done using the Computer Aided Design (CAD) tool, Advanced Design System (ADS) provided by Agilent Technologies Inc. It is shown that both conductor surface roughness and dielectric loss will introduce extra AC noise to the signal. When having parallel conductors the AC noise increases with decreased rise/fall time, introduced by skin effect, conductor surface roughness and dielectric loss.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Pelkosen Painotuote in Kiiminki, Finland, 2005
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32317 (URN)18209 (Local ID)18209 (Archive number)18209 (OAI)
    Conference
    Procedings of International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Nordic, September, Törnsberg, Norway
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-12-19
    2. High-speed parallel data transmission utilizing a flex-rigid concept
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-speed parallel data transmission utilizing a flex-rigid concept
    2005 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission lines utilizing microstrips on a flex-foil with low dielectric loss (tanδ = 0.002) have been simulated to compare with the transmission lines laminated with a rigid part, a so-called flex-rigid structure. At high speeds, even solders, pads and connectors affect the signal integrity because of their parasitic effects. The flex-rigid structure does not require these extra parts, resulting in good signal integrity and thus high data transfer rates. Another advantage with a flexible cable is that dense parallel microstrips can easily be designed. Although many wired data communications utilize serial techniques like Serial AT Attachment (SATA), Universal Serial Bus (USB) and Firewire, the serial data link has its limitations when very high data speeds are required. With a parallel data transmission technique, the data transfer rate can be raised to a very high speed. However, a parallel data transmission technique has some disadvantages such as crosstalk and skew between the signals which must be considered.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32318 (URN)18210 (Local ID)18210 (Archive number)18210 (OAI)
    Conference
    Gigahertz 2005, 8-9 September, Uppsala, Sweden
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-12-19
    3. High-Speed Board-to-Board Interconnects utilizing Flexible Foils and Elastomeric Connectors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Speed Board-to-Board Interconnects utilizing Flexible Foils and Elastomeric Connectors
    2006 (English)In: HDP'06. Conference on High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, IEEE , 2006, p. 157-160Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a board-to-board interconnect technique utilizing elastomeric connectors and parallel microstrip lines on a flexible foil cable with low dielectric loss (tandelta = 0.002). It is shown that a pad structure combined with an elastomeric connector can be co-designed such that a good signal integrity and thus a high data transmission rate is achieved. It is also shown that 2 Gbps data transmission rate can be achieved with a 490-mm-long microstrip on the flexible cable, where crosstalk is taken into account. Utilizing the elastomeric connector together with the flat and flexible cable, dense parallel microstrips can easily be designed and processed since standard printed circuit board processing techniques can be utilized

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2006
    Keywords
    High-Speed Interconnects, Flexible cable, Elastomeric Connector
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36189 (URN)10.1109/HDP.2006.1707585 (DOI)30446 (Local ID)1-4244-0488-6 (ISBN)30446 (Archive number)30446 (OAI)
    Conference
    The 8th IEEE CPMT International Conference on High Density Microsystem Design, Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, June 27 – 28, Shanhai, China
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-03-20
    4. Single-ended to Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion for Networks with Coupled Differential Signaling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-ended to Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion for Networks with Coupled Differential Signaling
    2007 (English)In: 36th European Microwave Conference, Munich: EUMC , 2007, p. 238-241Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown in this paper that the commonly used method for converting from standard single-ended to mixed- mode S-parameters for networks with differential signaling only works for odd- and even-mode impedance equal to 50Omega. A correct conversion matrix equation must include the odd- and even-mode impedances which are not equal to the unique characteristic impedance owing to signal coupling in the network.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Munich: EUMC, 2007
    Keywords
    Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion, Coupled Differential Signaling
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-40870 (URN)10.1109/EUMC.2007.4405170 (DOI)54438 (Local ID)978-2-87487-001-9 (ISBN)54438 (Archive number)54438 (OAI)
    Conference
    36th European Microwave Conference, 10-15 September, Manchester, UK
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-12-19
    5. Truly Differential RF and Microwave Front-End Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Truly Differential RF and Microwave Front-End Design
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: IEEE 11th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2010, p. 1-5Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New design methodology for truly differential RF and microwave front-ends has been presented in this paper. Baluns are avoided using this design methodology, while achieving differential signaling for high noise immunity. A case study on an ultra-wide band RF front-end in the frequency band 6-9 GHz has been performed using the new design methodology, indicating that both wide bandwidth and high performance can be achieved using this design methodology. A direct comparison between single-ended and differential designs of the RF filter has also been presented in order to verify the correctness of the design methodology.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE, 2010
    Keywords
    Design methodology, Differential, Microwave, RF front-end
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61292 (URN)10.1109/WAMICON.2010.5461888 (DOI)978-1-4244-6688-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE 11th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), 12-13 April 2010, Melbourne, Australia
    Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
    6. Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage
    2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Existing systems to collect temperature and relative humidity data at cultural heritage buildings require technical knowledge by people who are working with it, which is very seldom that they do have. The systems available today also require manual downloading of the collected data from the sensor to a computer for central storage and for further analysis. In this paper a wireless remote sensor network based on the ZigBee technology together with a simplified data collection system is presented. The system does not require any knowledge by the building administrator after the network is deployed. The wireless sensor device will automatically join available network when the user wants to expand the network. The collected data will be automatically and periodically synchronized to a remote main server via an Internet connection. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purpose. The power consumption of the sensor module is also minimized and the battery lifetime is estimated up to 10 years.

    Keywords
    ZigBee, Remote monitoring, Low cost, Low power, Long battery lifetime
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61216 (URN)
    Projects
    CultureBee
    Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2010-11-16
    7. Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
    2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 2306-8515, E-ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 13-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A wireless solution of remote climate control for cultural buildings is presented in this paper. The system allows users to use web service to control climate in different cultural buildings, like churches. The wireless sensor networks deployed in churches receive the control commands and manage the indoor climate. The whole system is modularly designed, which makes possible an easy service extension, system reconfiguration and modification. This paper includes the system overview and the software design of each part within the system.

    Keywords
    ZigBee, Wireless sensor network, Remote control, Modular system design
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61293 (URN)
    Projects
    CultureBee
    Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    8. ZigBee Radio with External Low-Noise Amplifier
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ZigBee Radio with External Low-Noise Amplifier
    2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the performance study of a ZigBee module with an external low-noiseamplifier, measured in both outdoor and indoor environments. Our previous study has already shownthat the indoor campus environment such as walls and floors would reduce the radio link rangedrastically and the packet error rate increased. In this study, an external low-noise amplifier has beenadded to a ZigBee module to increase the receiver sensitivity. It is shown that with an external lownoiseamplifier the outdoor radio range can reach up to 403 m with a negligible packet error ratecompared to 144 m without the low-noise amplifier for point-to-point connection. Thus, by increasingthe receiver sensitivity the radio range can be increased without increasing of the radio power outputso that the power consumption can still be kept low to obtain long battery lifetime.

    Keywords
    ZigBee, Low-noise Amplifier, Increase Radio Link Range, Low Power, Long Battery Lifetime
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61214 (URN)
    Projects
    CultureBee
    Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2010-12-07
    9. ZigBee Radio with External Power Amplifier and Low-Noise Amplifier
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ZigBee Radio with External Power Amplifier and Low-Noise Amplifier
    2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 110-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the performance study of a ZigBee module with both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier, measured in outdoor and indoor environments, respectively. Our previous study has already shown that the indoor campus environment such as walls and floors would reduce the radio link range drastically and the packet error rate increased. In this study, both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier have been added to a ZigBee module to increase both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity. It is shown that with an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier the outdoor radio range can reach up to 1600 m with a negligible packet error rate compared to 144 m without any external amplifier for point-to-point radio connection. Thus, by increasing both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity the radio range can be increased significantly. The power consumption issue with the added amplifiers is studied as well, indicating that the module can still be battery driven with a battery lifetime of about 9 years at a normal sampling rate to the sensor.

    Keywords
    ZigBee, Power amplifier, Low-noise amplifier, Radio range
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61215 (URN)
    Projects
    CultureBee
    Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2010-11-16
    10. Reliability and Latency Enhancements in a ZigBee Remote Sensing System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability and Latency Enhancements in a ZigBee Remote Sensing System
    2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods to improve the reliability and optimize the system latency of our own-developed ZigBee remote sensing system are introduced in this paper. The concept of this system utilizes the ZigBee network to transmit sensor information and process them at both local and remote databases. The enhancement has been done in different parts in this system. In the ZigBee network part, the network topology is configured and controlled. The latency for message transmitting is also optimized. In the data processing part, the network status check function and data buffer function are introduced to improve the system reliability. Additionally, the system latency is measured to compare with the Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector algorithm used in the ZigBee standard.

    Keywords
    System reliability, system latency, ZigBee network topology configuration, data buffering
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61294 (URN)10.1109/SENSORCOMM.2010.38 (DOI)978-1-4244-7538-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    The Fourth International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (SENSORCOMM 2010), July 18 - 25, Venice/Mestre, Italy
    Projects
    CultureBee
    Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2014-09-25Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    Study of Wired and Wireless Data Transmissions
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    Cover
  • 322.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mixed-Mode S-Parameters and Conversion Techniques2010In: Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems / [ed] Vitaliy Zhurbenko, INTECH , 2010, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is based on recent research work conducted by the authors dealing with the design and development of active and passive microwave components, integrated circuits and systems. It is divided into seven parts. In the first part comprising the first two chapters, alternative concepts and equations for multiport network analysis and characterization are provided. A thru-only de-embedding technique for accurate on-wafer characterization is introduced. The second part of the book corresponds to the analysis and design of ultra-wideband low- noise amplifiers (LNA).

  • 323.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-Zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage2010In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing systems to collect temperature and relative humidity data at cultural heritage buildings require technical knowledge by people who are working with it, which is very seldom that they do have. The systems available today also require manual downloading of the collected data from the sensor to a computer for central storage and for further analysis. In this paper a wireless remote sensor network based on the ZigBee technology together with a simplified data collection system is presented. The system does not require any knowledge by the building administrator after the network is deployed. The wireless sensor device will automatically join available network when the user wants to expand the network. The collected data will be automatically and periodically synchronized to a remote main server via an Internet connection. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purpose. The power consumption of the sensor module is also minimized and the battery lifetime is estimated up to 10 years.

  • 324.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-Zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ZigBee Radio with External Low-Noise Amplifier2010In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the performance study of a ZigBee module with an external low-noiseamplifier, measured in both outdoor and indoor environments. Our previous study has already shownthat the indoor campus environment such as walls and floors would reduce the radio link rangedrastically and the packet error rate increased. In this study, an external low-noise amplifier has beenadded to a ZigBee module to increase the receiver sensitivity. It is shown that with an external lownoiseamplifier the outdoor radio range can reach up to 403 m with a negligible packet error ratecompared to 144 m without the low-noise amplifier for point-to-point connection. Thus, by increasingthe receiver sensitivity the radio range can be increased without increasing of the radio power outputso that the power consumption can still be kept low to obtain long battery lifetime.

  • 325.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-Zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ZigBee Radio with External Power Amplifier and Low-Noise Amplifier2010In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 110-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the performance study of a ZigBee module with both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier, measured in outdoor and indoor environments, respectively. Our previous study has already shown that the indoor campus environment such as walls and floors would reduce the radio link range drastically and the packet error rate increased. In this study, both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier have been added to a ZigBee module to increase both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity. It is shown that with an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier the outdoor radio range can reach up to 1600 m with a negligible packet error rate compared to 144 m without any external amplifier for point-to-point radio connection. Thus, by increasing both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity the radio range can be increased significantly. The power consumption issue with the added amplifiers is studied as well, indicating that the module can still be battery driven with a battery lifetime of about 9 years at a normal sampling rate to the sensor.

  • 326.
    Hwang, Sunbin
    et al.
    KIST, South Korea.
    Jang, Sukjae
    KIST, South Korea.
    Kang, Minji
    KIST, South Korea.
    Bae, Sukang
    KIST, South Korea.
    Lee, Seoung-Ki
    KIST, South Korea.
    Hong, Jae-Min
    KIST, South Korea.
    Lee, Sang Hyun
    Chonnam Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Wang, Gunuk
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Tae-Wook
    KIST, South Korea.
    Two-in-One Device with Versatile Compatible Electrical Switching or Data Storage Functions Controlled by the Ferroelectricity of P(VDF-TrFE) via Photocrosslinking2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 28, p. 25358-25368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics demand new platforms that can make integrated circuits and undergo mass production while maintaining diverse functions with high performance. The field-effect transistor has great potential to be a multifunctional device capable of sensing, data processing, data storage, and display. Currently, transistor-based devices cannot be considered intrinsic multifunctional devices because all installed functions are mutually coupled. Such incompatibilities are a crucial barrier to developing an all-in-one multifunctional device capable of driving each function individually. In this study, we focus on the decoupling of electric switching and data storage functions in an organic ferroelectric memory transistor. To overcome the incompatibility of each function, the high permittivity needed for electrical switching and the ferroelectricity needed for data storage become compatible by restricting the motion of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) via photocrosslinking with bis-perfluorobenzoazide. The two-in-one device consisting of a photocrosslinked ferroelectric layer exhibits reversible and individual dual-functional operation as a typical transistor with nonvolatile memory. Moreover, a p-MOS depletion load inverter composed of the two transistors with different threshold voltages is also demonstrated by simply changing only one of the threshold voltages by polarization switching. We believe that the two-in-one device will be considered a potential component of integrated organic logic circuits, including memory, in the future.

  • 327.
    Håkansson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Han, Shaobo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)Trimethoxysilane (GOPS) on the Electrical Properties of PEDOT:PSS Films2017In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 814-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been reported as a successful functional material in a broad variety of applications. One of the most important advantages of PEDOT:PSS is its water-solubility, which enables simple and environmental friendly manufacturing processes. Unfortunately, this also implies that pristine PEDOT:PSS films are unsuitable for applications in aqueous environments. To reach stability in polar solvents, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GOPS) is typically used to cross-link PEDOT:PSS. Although this strategy is widely used, its mechanism and effect on PEDOT:PSS performance have not been articulated yet. Here, we present a broad study that provides a better understanding of the effect of GOPS on the electrical and electronic properties of PEDOT:PSS. We show that the GOPS reacts with the sulfonic acid group of the excess PSS, causing a change in the PEDOT:PSS film morphology, while the oxidation level of PEDOT remains unaffected. This is at the origin of the observed conductivity changes. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 328.
    Håkansson, Pär
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ultra-Wideband Six-port Transmitter and Receiver Pair 3.1-4.8 GHz2008In: Proceedings of 2008 Asia Pacific Microwave Conference: Vol. 1-5, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2008, p. 1858-1861Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an ultra-wideband transmitter and receiver pair covering the frequency band of 3.1-4.8 GHz, based on the six-port technique. This six-port circuit utilizes three ultra-wideband 3-dB 90 degrees branch couplers and one 3-dB 0 degrees Wilkinson power divider. It is manufactured utilizing microstrips on a printed circuit board. The measurement shows that the transmitter and receiver are able to demodulate and modulate QPSK signals in the frequency range 3.1 to 4.8 GHz.

  • 329.
    Höggren, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindmark, Love
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Methods for locating signal jammers with a UAV2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication today is a modern way to transport data from one location to another. One of the drawbacks of this feature is that a signal jammer can disrupt communications between the receiver and transmitter since the radio waves travel in the open air. This drawback can be exploited in both military and civilian applications.

    This thesis will aim on how to locate this kind of transmitting signal jammer over an open field using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that searches the designated area with the assumption of line of sight between the UAV and the transmitting jammer. Two different methods will be investigated with different techniques, antennas and flight patterns.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Methods for locating signal jammers with a UAV
  • 330.
    Iandolo, Donata
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ravichandran, Akhilandeshwari
    School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wen, Feng
    School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Chan, Jerry K Y
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Teoh, Swee-Hin
    School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Development and Characterization of Organic Electronic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering2016In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 1505-1512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bones have been shown to exhibit piezoelectric properties, generating electrical potential upon mechanical deformation and responding to electrical stimulation with the generation of mechanical stress. Thus, the effects of electrical stimulation on bone tissue engineering have been extensively studied. However, in bone regeneration applications, only few studies have focused on the use of electroactive 3D biodegradable scaffolds at the interphase with stem cells. Here a method is described to combine the bone regeneration capabilities of 3D-printed macroporous medical grade polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with the electrical and electrochemical capabilities of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). PCL scaffolds have been highly effective in vivo as bone regeneration grafts, and PEDOT is a leading material in the field of organic bioelectronics, due to its stability, conformability, and biocompatibility. A protocol is reported for scaffolds functionalization with PEDOT, using vapor-phase polymerization, resulting in a conformal conducting layer. Scaffolds' porosity and mechanical stability, important for in vivo bone regeneration applications, are retained. Human fetal mesenchymal stem cells proliferation is assessed on the functionalized scaffolds, showing the cytocompatibility of the polymeric coating. Altogether, these results show the feasibility of the proposed approach to obtain electroactive scaffolds for electrical stimulation of stem cells for regenerative medicine.

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  • 331.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    AlSalhi, M. S.
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia .
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Synthesis of NiO/TiO2 Heterostructures and Their Valence Band Offset Determination2014In: Journal of Nanomaterials, ISSN 1687-4110, E-ISSN 1687-4129, no 928658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a heterojunction based on p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 nanostructures has been prepared on the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction techniques were used for the morphological and crystalline arrays characterization. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to determine the valence-band offset (VBO) of the NiO/TiO2 heterojunction prepared on FTO glass substrate. The core levels of Ni 2p and Ti 2p were utilized to align the valence-band offset of p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 heterojunction. The valence band offset was found to be similar to 0.41 eV and the conduction band was calculated about similar to 0.91 eV. The ratio of conduction band offset and the valence-band offset was found to be 2.21.

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  • 332.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ali, Syed M. Usman
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selective Thallium (I) Ion Sensor Based on Functionalised ZnO Nanorods2012In: Journal of Nanotechnology, ISSN 1687-9503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Well controlled in length and highly aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the gold-coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. ZnO nanorods were functionalised with selective thallium (I) ion ionophore dibenzyldiaza-18-crown- 6 (DBzDA18C6). The thallium ion sensor showed wide linear potentiometric response to thallium (I) ion concentrations (1 × 10 - 7 M to 5 × 10 - 2 M) with high sensitivity of 36.87 ± 1.49 mV/decade. Moreover, thallium (I) ion demonstrated fast response time of less than 5 s, high selectivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and negligible response to common interferents. The proposed thallium (I) ion-sensor electrode was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration, and it has shown good stoichiometric response for the determination of thallium (I) ion. © 2012 Z. H. Ibupoto et al.

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  • 333.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    AlSalhi, M. S.
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of Urea on the Morphology of Co3O4 Nanostructures and Their Application for Potentiometric Glucose Biosensor2014In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 1773-1781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an effect of different concentrations of urea on the morphology of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures was investigated. The Co3O4 nanostructures are fabricated on gold coated glass substrate by the hydrothermal method. The morphological and structural characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The Co3O4 nanostructures exhibit morphology of flowers-like and have comprised on nanowires due to the increasing amount of urea. The nanostructures were highly dense on the substrate and possess a good crystalline quality. The Co3O4 nanostructures were successfully used for the development of a sensitive glucose biosensor. The presented glucose biosensor detected a wide range of glucose concentrations from 1 x 10(-6) M to 1 x 10(-2) M with sensitivity of a -56.85 mV/decade and indicated a fast response time of less than 10 s. This performance could be attributed to the heterogeneous catalysis effect at glucose oxidase enzyme, nanoflowers, and nanowires interfaces, which have enhanced the electron transfer process on the electrode surface. Moreover, the reproducibility, repeatability, stability and selectivity were also investigated. All the obtained results indicate the potential use of the developed glucose sensor for monitoring of glucose concentrations at drugs, human serum and food industry related samples.

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  • 334.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fabrication of Sensitive Potentiometric Cholesterol Biosensor Based on Co3O4 Interconnected Nanowires2014In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 1928-1934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly sensitive, selective, reliable and inexpensive cholesterol biosensors are highly demanded for the routine monitoring of cholesterol molecules in order to prevent heart failure incidents. In this study, Co3O4 nanostructures are synthesized using polyvinyl pyrrolidone surfactant as growth template by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method. The morphology of nanostructures was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The nanostructures exhibit interconnected nanowires like morphology with interconnected network of nanowires. The nanostructures of Co3O4 are polycrystalline. The cholesterol oxidase was physically adsorbed on the interconnected nanowires of Co3O4 for the chemical sensing of cholesterol molecules. The sensor device detected a wide range of cholesterol from 1×10−7 M to 1×10−3 M concentrations with sensitivity of −94.031 mV/decade. A detection limit of 0.035×10−7 M cholesterol concentration was observed and a fast response time of 10 s was also noticed. The fabricated device is highly stable, selective, sensitive, reproducible and repeatable. All the collected information about presented cholesterol biosensor indicates its potential application for the monitoring of cholesterol concentrations from human blood serum and real-life samples.

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  • 335.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jamal, N.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of a disposable potentiometric antibody immobilized ZnO nanotubes based sensor for the detection of C-reactive protein2012In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 166, p. 809-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the fabrication of ZnO nanotubes was carried out through chemical etching of ZnO nanorods on the gold coated glass substrates. The monoclonal anti-C-reactive protein clone CRP-8 (mouse IgG1 isotype) with glutaraldehyde was immobilized on these ZnO nanotubes using simple physical adsorption method. The novelty of the present ZnO nanotubes based research is the generation of electromotive force (EMF) in the environment of rapid formation of complex between immobilized antibodies with CRP on the surface of ZnO nanotubes. The electrochemical response of the proposed C-reactive protein (CRP) of human plasma biosensor was measured using potentiometric technique. The antibody immobilized ZnO nanotubes based sensor electrode detected the concentration range of CRP from 1.0 x 10(-5) mg/L to 1.0 x 100 mg/L with an acceptable sensitivity of 13.17 +/- 0.42 mV/decade. This unusual behavior of the proposed ZnO nanotubes based sensor in no particular electrolytic atmosphere is opening a new way for the detection of proteins at the nanolevel. The response of CRP sensor was highly linear and stable for above detected concentrations. The time response of antibody immobilized ZnO nanotubes based sensor was observed less than 10 s with good selectivity, reproducibility, repeatability and stability. The life time of sensor was not more than three days after use, so it can be used as disposable sensor.

  • 336.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of Novel CuO Nanosheets and Their Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensing Applications2013In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 7926-7938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: In this study, we have developed a sensitive and selective glucose sensor using novel CuO nanosheets which were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by a low temperature growth method. X-ray differaction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for the structural characterization of CuO nanostructures. CuO nanosheets are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystalline array structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was applied for the study of chemical composition of CuO nanosheets and the obtained information demonstrated pure phase CuO nanosheets. The novel CuO nanosheets were employed for the development of a sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The measured sensitivity and a correlation coefficient are in order 5.20 × 102 µA/mMcm2 and 0.998, respectively. The proposed sensor is associated with several advantages such as low cost, simplicity, high stability, reproducibility and selectivity for the quick detection of glucose.

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  • 337.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    AlSalhi, Mohammad
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia .
    Atif, Muhammad
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia .
    Ansari, Anees
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia .
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia .
    Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles2013In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 3584-3597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

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  • 338.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Potentiometric Biosensor for the Detection of Notch 3 Using Functionalized ZnO Nanorods2014In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 6704-6710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notch signalling plays a vital and radical role for the activity of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, for the first time a particular biosensor is developed for the detection of notch 3. ZnO nanorods were fabricated on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal method and afterwards were decorated with the gold nanoparticles by electrodepositing technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has shown the perpendicular to the substrate growth pattern of ZnO nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed the c-axis oriented growth direction with wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO nanorods. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques have shown the presence of Zn, O and Au atoms in the prepared functional material. Furthermore, the anti-notch 3 was physically adsorbed on the gold nanoparticles functionalized ZnO nanorods. The developed potentiometric immunosensor has shown response to the wide range of notch 3 molecules. The detected range included 1.00 x 10(-5)-1.50 x 10(0) mu g/mL with a sensitivity of 23.15 +/- 0.31 mV/decade. The analytical parameters including reproducibility, stability, and selectivity were also investigated and the observed results indicate the acceptable performance of the notch 3 biosensor. Moreover, the proposed notch 3 biosensor exhibited a fast response time of 10 s.

  • 339.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of a pH Sensor Using Nanoporous Nanostructures of NiO2014In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 6699-6703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is the conventional material used in pH electrodes to monitor pH in various applications. However, the glass-based pH electrode has some limitations for particular applications. The glass sensor is limited in the use of in vivo biomedical, clinical or food applications because of the brittleness of glass, its large size, the difficulty in measuring small volumes and the absence of deformation (inflexibility). Nanostructure-based pH sensors are very sensitive, reliable, fast and applicable towards in vivo measurements. In this study, nanoporous NiO nanostructures are synthesized on a gold-coated glass substrate by a hydrothermal route using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as a stabilizer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the morphological and crystalline studies. The grown NiO nanostructures are uniform and dense, and they possess good crystallinity. A pH sensor based on these NiO nanostructures was developed by testing the different pH values from 2-12 of phosphate buffered saline solution. The proposed pH sensor showed robust sensitivity of -43.74 +/- 0.80 mV/pH and a quick response time of less than 10 s. Moreover, the repeatability, reproducibility and stability of the presented pH sensor were also studied.

  • 340.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hydrothermal Growth of CuO Nanoleaf Structures, and Their Mercuric Ion Detection Application2014In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 6711-6717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury is the hazardous heavy metal ion for the environment and the humanbeing therefore its determination is very important and herein we describe the development of mercury ion sensor on the CuO nanoleaf like nanostructures using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as template for the growth by hydrothermal growth method. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study has shown high density and good crystal quality of the fabricated CuO nanostructures respectively. The presented mercury ion sensor has detected the wide range of 1.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-1) M mercury ion concentrations with an acceptable Nernstian behaviour and a sensitivity of 30.1 +/- 0.6 mV/decade. The proposed mercury ion sensor exhibited low detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-8) M and also a fast response time of less than 5 s. In addition, the presented mercury ion sensor has shown an excellent repeatability, reproducibility, stability and selectivity. Moreover, the mercury ion selective electrode based on CuO nanoleaves was tested as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration.

  • 341.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selective Lead Ion Sensor Based on the CuO Nanoshuttles2013In: Sensor Letters, ISSN 1546-198X, E-ISSN 1546-1971, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 2049-2054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research work, CuO nanoshuttles like nanostructures are synthesized by hydrothermal method using polyvinyl alcohol surfactant and the structural characterisation was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The structural studies showed the high yield of the CuO nanostructures on the substrate and also exhibit good crystal quality. Moreover, CuO nanoshuttles like nanostructures were utilized for the development of lead ion sensor electrode and the sensor electrode has shown the linear potentiometric response for the lead ions over the wide range of 5 x 10(-6) M-1 x 10(-1) M with a Nernstian slope of 31 mV/decade. The advantageous features of the proposed sensor electrode include high selectivity, repeatability, low limit of detection (1 x 10(-7) M) and a fast response time of less than 10 s, good stability, and the reproducibility. The CuO nanoshuttles based lead ion sensor electrode was used as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of lead ions against the etthylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). All the obtained results indicate that the presented lead ion sensor may have a good potential for its utilization in the real sample analysis.

  • 342.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Raza, Hamid
    Univ Medial and Hlth Sci, Pakistan.
    Ali, Gulzar
    Univ Sindh, Pakistan.
    Khand, Aftab Ahmed
    Tsinghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jilani, Nabila Shah
    Univ Sindh, Pakistan.
    Mallah, Arfana Begum
    Univ Sindh, Pakistan.
    Yu, Cong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis of Heart/Dumbbell-Like CuO Functional Nanostructures for the Development of Uric Acid Biosensor2018In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 1378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is always demanded to prepare a nanostructured material with prominent functional properties for the development of a new generation of devices. This study is focused on the synthesis of heart/dumbbell-like CuO nanostructures using a low-temperature aqueous chemical growth method with vitamin B-12 as a soft template and growth directing agent. CuO nanostructures are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. CuO nanostructures are heart/dumbbell like in shape, exhibit high crystalline quality as demonstrated by XRD, and have no impurity as confirmed by XPS. Apparently, CuO material seems to be porous in structure, which can easily carry large amount of enzyme molecules, thus enhanced performance is shown for the determination of uric acid. The working linear range of the biosensor is 0.001 mM to 10 mM with a detection limit of 0.0005 mM and a sensitivity of 61.88 mV/decade. The presented uric acid biosensor is highly stable, repeatable, and reproducible. The analytical practicality of the proposed uric acid biosensor is also monitored. The fabrication methodology is inexpensive, simple, and scalable, which ensures the capitalization of the developed uric acid biosensor for commercialization. Also, CuO material can be used for various applications such as solar cells, lithium ion batteries, and supercapacitors.

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  • 343.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Usman Ali, Syed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical L-Lactic Acid Sensor Based on Immobilized ZnO Nanorods with Lactate Oxidase2012In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 2456-2466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, fabrication of gold coated glass substrate, growth of ZnO nanorods and potentiometric response of lactic acid are explained. The biosensor was developed by immobilizing the lactate oxidase on the ZnO nanorods in combination with glutaraldehyde as a cross linker for lactate oxidase enzyme. The potentiometric technique was applied for the measuring the output (EMF) response of L-lactic acid biosensor. We noticed that the present biosensor has wide linear detection range of concentration from 1 x 10(-4)-1 x 10(0) mM with acceptable sensitivity about 41.33 +/- 1.58 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed fast response time less than 10 s, a good selectivity towards L-lactic acid in presence of common interfering substances such as ascorbic acid, urea, glucose, galactose, magnesium ions and calcium ions. The present biosensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase sustained its stability for more than three weeks.

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  • 344.
    Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.