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  • 301.
    Schubert, Mattias
    et al.
    Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Leipzig.
    Bundesmann, C.
    Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Leipzig.
    v. Wenckstern, H.
    Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften Istitut für Experimentelle Physik II, Leipzig.
    Jakopic, G.
    Institut für Nanostrukturierte Materialien und Photonik JOHANNEUM Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH.
    Haase, A.
    Institut für Nanostrukturierte Materialien und Photonik JOANNEUM Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Carrier redistribution in organic/inorganic (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene/poly(styrenesulfonate)polymer)-Si) heterojunction determined from infrared ellipsometry2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 84, p. 1311-1313Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 302.
    Seppänen, Timo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    248 nm cathodoluminescence in Al1-xInxN (0001) thin films grown on lattice-matched Ti1-yZryN (111) seed layers by low temperature magnetron sputter epitaxy2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 89, no 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-crystal Al0.8 In0.2 N (0001) thin films were grown epitaxially onto lattice-matched Ti0.2 Zr0.8 N (111) seed layers on MgO(111) substrates at 300 °C by magnetron sputter epitaxy. Low-energy ion-assisted epitaxial growth conditions were achieved by applying a substrate potential of -15 V. Cross-sectional high-resolution electron microscopy verified the epitaxy and high-resolution x-ray diffraction ω -rocking scans of the Al0.8 In0.2 N 0002 peak (full width at half maximum ∼2400 arc sec) indicated a high structural quality of the films. Cathodoluminescence measurements performed in a scanning electron microscope at 5 K revealed Al0.8 In0.2 N luminescence at 248 nm, or equivalently 5.0 eV, showing that Al0.8 In0.2 N is a promising material for deep-ultraviolet optoelectronic devices. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  • 303.
    Sharma, A.
    et al.
    Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Mathijssen, S. G. J.
    Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands; Philips Research Labs, Netherlands.
    Cramer, T.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Kemerink, M.
    Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    de Leeuw, D. M.
    Philips Research Labs, Netherlands.
    Bobbert, P. A.
    Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Anomalous current transients in organic field-effect transistors2010In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 96, no 10, article id 103306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we study the origin of the gate bias-stress effect in organic p-type transistors. Based on water-mediated exchange between holes in the semiconductor and protons in the gate dielectric, we predict anomalous current transients for a non-constant gate bias, while ensuring accumulation. When applying a strongly negative gate bias followed by a less negative bias a back-transfer of protons to holes and an increase of the current is expected. We verify this counterintuitive behavior experimentally and can quantitatively model the transients with the same parameters as used to describe the threshold voltage shift. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3339879]

  • 304.
    Sharma, A.
    et al.
    Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Mathijssen, S. G. J.
    Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands; Philips Research Labs, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, M.
    Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    de Leeuw, D. M.
    Philips Research Labs, Netherlands.
    Bobbert, P. A.
    Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Proton migration mechanism for the instability of organic field-effect transistors2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 95, no 25, article id 253305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During prolonged application of a gate bias, organic field-effect transistors show an instability involving a gradual shift of the threshold voltage toward the applied gate bias voltage. We propose a model for this instability in p-type transistors with a silicon-dioxide gate dielectric, based on hole-assisted production of protons in the accumulation layer and their subsequent migration into the gate dielectric. This model explains the much debated role of water and several other hitherto unexplained aspects of the instability of these transistors. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3275807]

  • 305.
    Shieh, Jia-Min
    et al.
    National Nano Device Labs.
    Lai, Yi-Fan
    National Nano Device Labs.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    National Nano Device Labs.
    Kuo, Hao-Chung
    National Nano Device Labs.
    Fang, Chih-Yao
    National Nano Device Labs.
    Huang, Jung Y.
    National Nano Device Labs.
    Pan, Ci-Ling
    National Nano Device Labs.
    Enhanced photoresponse of a metal-oxide-semiconductor photodetector with silicon nanocrystals embedded in the oxide layer2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors report a two-terminal metal-oxide-semiconductor photodetector for which light is absorbed in a capping layer of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a mesoporous silica matrix on p-type silicon substrates. Operated at reverse bias, enhanced photoresponse from 300 to 700 nm was observed. The highest optoelectronic conversion efficiency is as high as 200%. The enhancements were explained by a transistorlike mechanism, in which the inversion layer acts as the emitter and trapped positive charges in the mesoporous dielectric layer assist carrier injection from the inversion layer to the contact, such that the primary photocurrent could be amplified.

  • 306.
    Shin, C-S
    et al.
    Material Research Lab University of Illinois.
    Gall, D
    Material Research Lab University of Illinois.
    Desgardins, P
    Material Reseach Lab University of Illinois.
    Vailionis, A
    Materials Research Lab University of Illinois.
    Kim, H
    Materials Reseach Lab University of Illinois.
    Petrov, I
    Materials Reseach Lab University of Illinois.
    Greene, J E
    Materials Research Lab University of Illinois.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Growth and physical properties of epitaxial metastable cubic TaN (001)1999In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 75, no 24, p. 3808-3810Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 307.
    Shubina, T. V.
    et al.
    RAS.
    Toropov, A. .A.
    RAS.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Glazov, M. M.
    RAS.
    Gippius, N. A.
    RAS.
    Disseix, P.
    CNRS UBP.
    Leymarie, J.
    CNRS UBP.
    Gil, B.
    University Montpellier 2.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Excitonic parameters of GaN studied by time-of-flight spectroscopy2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 99, no 10, p. 101108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We refine excitonic parameters of bulk GaN by means of time-of-flight spectroscopy of light pulses propagating through crystals. The influence of elastic photon scattering is excluded by using the multiple reflections of the pulses from crystal boundaries. The shapes of these reflexes in the time-energy plane depict the variation of the group velocity induced by excitonic resonances. Modeling of the shapes, as well as optical spectra, shows that a homogeneous width of the order of 10 mu eV characterizes the exciton-polariton resonances within the crystal. The oscillator strength of A and B exciton-polaritons is determined as 0.0022 and 0.0016, respectively.

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  • 308. Shubina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Toropov, A.A.
    Lublinskaya, O.G.
    Kopev, P.S.
    Ivanov, S.V.
    El-Shaer, A.
    Al-Suleiman, M.
    Bakin, A.
    Waag, A.
    Voinilovich, A.
    Lutsenko, E.V.
    Yablonskii, G.P.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Recombination dynamics and lasing in ZnO/ZnMgO single quantum well structures2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a time-resolved study of the recombination dynamics in molecular beam epitaxy grown ZnOZnMgO single quantum wells (SQWs) of 1.0-4.5 nm width. The SQWs exhibit different emission properties, depending on both the well width and defect density. Stimulated emission has been achieved at room temperature in a separate confinement double heterostructure having a 3 nm wide SQW as an active region. It has been found that a critical parameter for the lasing is the inhomogeneous broadening of both QW and barrier emission bands. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

  • 309.
    Shulumba, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Saarland, Germany.
    Hellman, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Raza, Zamaan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Modeling and Development Laboratory, NUST “MISIS”, Moscow, Russia / LACOMAS Laboratory, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Temperature-dependent elastic properties of Ti1−xAlxN alloys2015In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 107, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti1−xAlxN is a technologically important alloy that undergoes a process of high temperature age-hardening that is strongly influenced by its elastic properties. We have performed first principles calculations of the elastic constants and anisotropy using the newly developed symmetry imposed force constant temperature dependent effective potential method, that include lattice vibrations and therefore the effects of temperature, including thermal expansion and intrinsic anharmonicity. These are compared with in situ high temperature x-ray diffraction measurements of the lattice parameter. We show that anharmonic effects are crucial to the recovery of finite temperature elasticity. The effects of thermal expansion and intrinsic anharmonicity on the elastic constants are of the same order, and cannot be considered separately. Furthermore, the effect of thermal expansion on elastic constants is such that the volume change induced by zero point motion has a significant effect. For TiAlN, the elastic constants soften non-uniformly with temperature: C11 decreases substantially when the temperature increases for all compositions, resulting in an increased anisotropy. These findings suggest that an increased Al content and annealing at higher temperatures will result in a harder alloy.

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  • 310.
    Simon, Daniel
    et al.
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Griffo, Michael
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    DiPietro, R. A.
    IBM Research Division, San Jose, California.
    Swanson, S. A.
    IBM Research Division, San Jose, California.
    Carter, Sue
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Admittance spectroscopy of polymer-nanoparticle non-volatile memory devices2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 89, p. 133510-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonvolatile resistive memory consisting of gold nanoparticles embedded in the conducting polymer poly(4-n-hexylphenyldiphenylamine) examined using admittance spectroscopy. The frequency dependence of the devices indicates space-charge-limited transport in the high-conductivity "on" state, as well as evidence for similar transport in the lower-conductivity "off" state. Furthermore, the larger dc capacitance of the on state indicates that a greater amount of filling of the midgap nanoparticle trap levels increases the overall device conductivity, leading to the memory effect.

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    dtsimon_polymerram
  • 311.
    Simon, Daniel
    et al.
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Stanislowski, David
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Carter, Sue
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Fixed p-i-n junction polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells based on charged self-assembled monolayers2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, p. 103508-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors report on enhanced efficiency of polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) by means of forming a n-doping self-assembled monolayer (SAM) at the cathode-polymer interface. The addition of the SAM, a silane-based salt with structural similarity to the commonly used LEC n-dopant tetra-n-butylammonium, caused a twofold increase in quantum efficiency. Photovoltaic analysis indicates that the SAM increases both the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. Current versus voltage data are presented which indicate that the SAM does not simply introduce an interfacial dipole layer, but rather provides a fixed doping region, and thus a more stable p-i-n structure.

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    dtsimon_samlec
  • 312.
    Sinno, Hiam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bias stress effect in polyelectrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A main factor contributing to bias stress instability in organic transistors is charge trapping of mobile carriers near the gate insulator-semiconductor interface into localized electronic states. In this paper, we study the bias stress behavior in low-voltage (p-type) polyelectrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors (EGOFETs) at various temperatures. Stressing and recovery in these EGOFETs are found to occur six orders of magntiude faster than typical bias stress/recovery reported for dielectric-gated OFETs. The mechanism proposed for EGOFETs involves an electron transfer reaction between water and the charged semiconductor channel that promotes the creation of extra protons diffusing into the polyelectrolyte.

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  • 313.
    Skorodumova, N.V.
    et al.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, A.K.
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Herranen, M.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 538, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stromme, M.
    Strømme, M., Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Niklasson, G.A.
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, B.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden, Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Random conductivity of d- Bi2O3 films2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 24, p. 241910-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experimental investigation of the cubic d- Bi2 O3 phase grown on a (110) Au substrate at low temperature has disclosed a chaotic character of the conductivity at low voltage and temperature. Based on first-principles calculations, we show that the conductivity of this oxide strongly depends on the distribution of oxygen ions and that oxygen migration is able to cause a momentary switch of the conduction mechanism. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  • 314.
    Soderberg, H.
    et al.
    Söderberg, H., Division of Engineering Materials, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Odan, M.
    Odán, M., Division of Engineering Materials, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Larsson, T.
    Ombenning by 14, SE-737 90 Ängelsberg, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Molina-Aldareguia, J.M.
    CEIT, TECNUN, Paseo de Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastián, Spain.
    Epitaxial stabilization of cubic- SiNx in TiN/SiNx multilayers2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, no 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of cubic-phase Si Nx is demonstrated in TiNSi Nx multilayers deposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy examination shows a transition from epitaxially stabilized growth of crystalline Si Nx to amorphous growth as the layer thickness increases from 0.3 to 0.8 nm. The observations are supported by ab initio calculations on different polytypes, which show that the NaCl structure has the best lattice match to TiN. Calculations also reveal a large difference in elastic shear modulus between NaCl-Si Nx and TiN. The results for phase structure and shear modulus offer an explanation for the superhardening effect determined by nanoindentation experiments. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  • 315.
    Son Tien, Nguyen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gali, A.
    Hungarian Academy of Science.
    Szabo, A.
    Budapest University Technology and Economics.
    Bickermann, M.
    University Erlangen Nurnberg.
    Ohshima, T.
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
    Isoya, J.
    University of Tsukuba.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Defects at nitrogen site in electron-irradiated AlN2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 24, p. 242116-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In high resistance AlN irradiated with 2 MeV electrons, an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, labeled EI-1, with an electron spin S=1/2 and a clear hyperfine (hf) structure was observed. The hf structure was shown to be due the interaction between the electron spin and the nuclear spins of four (27)A nuclei with the hf splitting varying between similar to 6.0 and similar to 7.2 mT. Comparing the hf data obtained from EPR and ab initio supercell calculations we suggest the EI-1 defect to be the best candidate for the neutral nitrogen vacancy in AlN.

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  • 316.
    Sonde, S
    et al.
    CNR IMM.
    Giannazzo, F
    CNR IMM.
    Vecchio, C
    CNR IMM.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rimini, E
    CNR IMM.
    Raineri, V
    CNR IMM.
    Correction: Role of graphene/substrate interface on the local transport properties of the two-dimensional electron gas (vol 97, 132101, 2010)2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 6, p. 069902-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 317.
    Souza, De Almeida J.
    et al.
    Souza De Almeida, J., Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, 40210 340 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Theory Group, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Da, Silva A.J.
    Da Silva, A.J., Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, 40210 340 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
    Norman, Patrick
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics .
    Persson, C.
    Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Theory Group, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ahuja, R.
    Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Theory Group, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ferreira, Da Silva A.
    Ferreira Da Silva, A., Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, 40210 340 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
    Optical properties of donor-triad cluster in GaAs and GaN2002In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 81, no 17, p. 3158-3160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the transition energy of three-donor clusters on far infrared absorption in n-type semiconductor materials has been investigated by a multiconfigurational self-consistent-field model calculation and applied to GaAs and GaN systems. We show that it is crucial to consider the many-particle correlation effects within three-donor clusters. With electron correlation taken into account, the present results support the interpretation of a very recent unidentified peak energy observed in absorption measurement of GaN as due to electronic transitions in these clusters. We also corroborate the suggestion that the X line in GaAs arises from such transitions. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • 318.
    Spadafora, Evan J
    et al.
    CEA CNRS UJF.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zaireen Nisa Yahya, Wan
    CEA CNRS UJF.
    Lincker, Frederic
    CEA CNRS UJF.
    Demadrille, Renaud
    CEA CNRS UJF.
    Grevin, Benjamin
    CEA CNRS UJF.
    Local contact potential difference of molecular self-assemblies investigated by Kelvin probe force microscopy2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 99, no 23, p. 233102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled pi-conjugated oligomer nanowires have been investigated by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy and amplitude modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy under ultra high vacuum. The distance dependence of the contact potential difference (CPD) has been analyzed by combining high resolution imaging with distance-spectroscopy measurements. It is shown that the apparition of a damping contrast characterizes the onset of short range electrostatic (SRE) forces, which are responsible for the occurrence of local CPD (LCPD) modulations correlated with the molecular lattice. By working at the onset of the damping contrast, the tip-surface separation can be adjusted to minimize the contribution of SRE forces to the measured CPD. VC 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3662850]

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  • 319.
    Spijkman, M.
    et al.
    Philips Research Labs, Netherlands; University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Mathijssen, S. G. J.
    Philips Research Labs, Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Smits, E. C. P.
    TNO, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, M.
    [Spijkman, Netherlands.
    Blom, P. W. M.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; TNO, Netherlands.
    de Leeuw, D. M.
    Philips Research Labs, Netherlands; University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Monolayer dual gate transistors with a single charge transport layer2010In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 96, no 14, article id 143304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual gate transistor was fabricated using a self-assembled monolayer as the semiconductor. We show the possibility of processing a dielectric on top of the self-assembled monolayer without deteriorating the device performance. The two gates of the transistor accumulate charges in the monomolecular transport layer and artifacts caused by the semiconductor thickness are negated. We investigate the electrical transport in a dual gate self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistor and present a detailed analysis of the importance of the contact geometry in monolayer field-effect transistors.

  • 320. Sridhara, S.G.
    et al.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Luminescence from stacking faults in 4H SiC2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 79, no 24, p. 3944-3946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previously unreported photoluminescence spectrum observed in certain 4H SiC bipolar diodes after extended forward voltage operation is reported. We assign this emission to exciton recombination at local potential fluctuations caused by stacking faults, which are created during operation of the diodes. Possible recombination mechanisms responsible for the spectrum are discussed. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 321.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics .
    Reactivity of curved and planar carbon-nitride structures2000In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 77, no 24, p. 3941-3943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reactivity of different carbon-nitride structures has been studied using density functional theory calculations. The studies involve C59N and clusters of curved and planar CNx structures. Nitrogen is shown to lower the energy of pentagon defects in the graphite like structures, whereas heptagons are unlikely to be present. From this observation, it follows that nitrogen stimulates growth of fullerene like structures in CNx. The presence of nitrogen also increases the reactivity of the carbon atoms around the nitrogen. This leads to cross linking between basal planes which can explain the hardness and elasticity of CNx films. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S0003-6951(00)03751-7].

  • 322.
    Stehr, Jan Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Shula
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ishikawa, F.
    Ehime University, Japan.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Defect formation in GaAs/GaNxAs1-x core/shell nanowires2016In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 109, no 20, article id 203103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) spectroscopies are used to investigate the formation and role of defects in GaAs/GaNxAs1-x core/shell nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. Gallium vacancies, which act as non-radiative recombination (NRR) centers, are identified by ODMR. It is shown that the defects are formed in bulk regions, i.e., not on the surface, of the GaNAs shell and that their concentration increases with increasing nitrogen content. Temperature dependent photoluminescence experiments reveal, on the other hand, suppressed thermal quenching of the near-band-edge emission with increasing [N]. This leads to the conclusion that the dominant NRR processes in the studied NWs are governed by surface defects, whereas the role of gallium vacancies in the observed thermally activated NRR is minor. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 323.
    Stehr, Jan Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hofmann, Detlev
    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Schörmann, Jörg
    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Becker, Martin
    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Buyanova, Irina A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electron paramagnetic resonance signatures of Co2+ and Cu2+ in β-Ga2O32019In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 115, no 24, article id 242101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) is a wide-bandgap compound semiconductor with a bandgap of ∼4.9 eV that is currently considered promising for a wide range of applications ranging from transparent conducting electrodes to UV optoelectronic devices and power electronics. However, all of these applications require a reliable and precise control of electrical and optical properties of the material, which can be largely affected by impurities, such as transition metals commonly present during the growth. In this work, we employ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to obtain EPR signatures of the 3d-transition metals Co2+ and Cu2+ in β-Ga2O3 bulk crystals and powders that were unknown so far. Furthermore, we show that both Co2+ and Cu2+ preferentially reside on the octahedral gallium lattice site.

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  • 324.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Carlsson, F. H. C.
    IFM .
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Observation of recombination enhanced defect annealing in 4H-SiC2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 9, p. 91903-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report observation of recombination enhanced defect annealing in 4H-SiC detected by capacitance transient spectroscopy and low temperature photoluminescence (PL). Intrinsic defect centers, created by 160 keV electron irradiation, reduce in concentration after illumination at temperatures much lower than previously reported annealing temperatures of 400 and 800 °C. The effect is observed after both external intense above band gap laser excitation, and with recombination in a forward biased pin diode. PL measurements show that several lines, normally detected after electron irradiation, have almost or entirely disappeared by recombination enhanced annealing at room temperature. From capacitance transient measurements, the annealing enhancement is found to be largest for the HS2 hole trap, while the EH1 and EH3 electron traps also anneal out by recombination enhanced reaction but at a lower rate. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  • 325.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Sridhara, S.G.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Egilsson, T.
    Hallen, A.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pseudodonor nature of the D1 defect in 4H-SiC2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 46-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the recent findings about the pseudodonor character of the D1 defect to establish an energy-level scheme in the band gap for the defect, predicting the existence of a hole trap at about 0.35 eV above the valence band. Using minority carrier transient spectroscopy, we prove that the D1 defect indeed is correlated to such a hole trap. In addition, we show that the D1 defect is not correlated to the Z1/2 electron trap, in contrast to what was previously reported. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 326.
    Stuchlikova, L.
    et al.
    Slovak University of Technology.
    Buc, D.
    Slovak University of Technology.
    Harmatha, L.
    Slovak University of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Chang, W.H.
    University of Western Ontario.
    Bello, I.
    University of Hong Kong.
    Deep energy levels in RuO2/4H-SiC Schottky barrier structures2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, p. 153509-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 327.
    Sukrittanon, S.
    et al.
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, USA .
    Kuang, Y. J.
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, USA .
    Dobrovolsky, Alexandr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kang, Won-Mo
    Gwangju institute of Science and Technology (GIST), South Korea .
    Jang, Ja-Soon
    Yeungnam University, Daegu, South Korea .
    Kim, Bong-Joong
    DGwangju institute of Science and Technology (GIST), South Korea.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tu, C. W.
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, USA .
    Growth and characterization of dilute nitride GaNxP1−x nanowires and GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowires on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 7, p. 072107-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated self-catalyzed GaN xP1−x and GaN xP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowire growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The growth window for GaN xP1−x nanowires was observed to be comparable to that of GaP nanowires (∼585 °C to ∼615 °C). Transmission electron microscopy showed a mixture of cubic zincblende phase and hexagonal wurtzite phase along the [111] growth direction in GaN xP1−x nanowires. A temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) study performed on GaN xP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowires exhibited an S-shape dependence of the PL peaks. This suggests that at low temperature, the emission stems from N-related localized states below the conduction band edge in the shell, while at high temperature, the emission stems from band-to-band transition in the shell as well as recombination in the GaN xP1−x core.

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  • 328.
    Sun, Jianwu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Considerably long carrier lifetimes in high-quality 3C-SiC(111)2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 25, p. 252101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a challenge and consequence due to its metastable nature, cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) has only shown inferior material quality compared with the established hexagonal polytypes. We report on growth of 3C-SiC(111) having a state of the art semiconductor quality in the SiC polytype family. The x-ray diffraction and low temperature photoluminescence measurements show that the cubic structure can indeed reach a very high crystal quality. As an ultimate device property, this material demonstrates a measured carrier lifetime of 8.2 mu s which is comparable with the best carrier lifetime in 4 H-SiC layers. In a 760-mu m thick layer, we show that the interface recombination can be neglected since almost all excess carriers recombines before reaching the interface while the surface recombination significantly reduces the carrier lifetime. In fact, a comparison of experimental lifetimes with numerical simulations indicates that the real bulk lifetime in such high quality 3C-SiC is in the range of 10-15 mu s.

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  • 329.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren , Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A sensor circuit using reference-based conductance switching in organic electrochemical transistors2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 20, p. 203301-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using organic electrochemical transistors as sensors, the sample-receptor reaction often induces moderate changes only in the drain current dynamics as the gate voltage level is switched. Here, we report an electrochemical sensor circuit including electrochemical transistors based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonate that puts out a static sensor response signal. The circuit includes a sample and a reference transistor that are both driven in the resistive mode at 0.1 V. Measurements were performed on aqueous salt electrolytes ranging from 100 to 500 mM concentrations. The signal-ON sensor circuit provides a tenfold increase in the sensitivity as compared to single transistor sensors.

  • 330.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Almer, Jonathan
    Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA.
    Johansson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Significant elastic anisotropy in Ti1−xAlxN alloys2010In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 97, no 23, p. 231902-231904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strong compositional-dependent elastic properties have been observed theoretically and experimentally in Ti1−xAlxN alloys. The elastic constant, C11, changes by more than 50% depending on the Al-content. Increasing the Al-content weakens the average bond strength in the local octahedral arrangements resulting in a more compliant material. On the other hand, it enhances the directional (covalent) nature of the nearest neighbor bonds that results in greater elastic anisotropy and higher sound velocities. The strong dependence of the elastic properties on the Al-content offers new insight into the detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti1−xAlxN alloys.

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  • 331.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Parker, I.D.
    Dupont Displays, Santa Barbara, California.
    Hsu, C-H.
    Dupont Displays, E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fermi-level pinning at conjugated polymer interfaces2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, no 5, p. 53502-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to map out energy level alignment of conjugated polymers at various organic-organic and hybrid interfaces. Specifically, we have investigated the hole-injection interface between the substrate and light-emitting polymer. Two different alignment regimes have been observed: (i) Vacuum-level alignment, which corresponds to the lack of vacuum-level offsets (Schottky–Mott limit) and (ii) Fermi-level pinning, where the substrate Fermi level and the positive polaronic level of the polymer align. The observation is rationalized in terms of spontaneous charge transfer whenever the substrate Fermi level exceeds the positive polaron/bipolaron formation energy per particle. The charge transfer leads to the formation of an interfacial dipole, as large as 2.1 eV.

  • 332.
    Thierry-Jebali, N
    et al.
    University of Lyon, France .
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lazar, M
    University of Lyon, France .
    Planson, D
    University of Lyon, France .
    Bano, E
    Grenoble INP, France .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brosselard, P
    University of Lyon, France .
    Observation of the generation of stacking faults and active degradation measurements on off-axis and on-axis 4H-SiC PiN diodes2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, no 22, p. 222111-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PiN diodes have been fabricated on nominally on-axis Si-face 4H-SiC material and their electrical characteristics are compared to PiN diodes processed with exactly the same device process recipe on 8 degrees-off 4H-SiC material. Some diodes had an optical window on the top metal contact to observe the possible stacking faults generation and motion with photo emission microscopy. The diodes were electrically characterized in forward voltage to test their stability. Electrical characterizations demonstrate that there is no noticeable degradation for the diodes processed on on-axis 4H-SiC substrate and with optical characterization the formation of stacking faults was not observed.

  • 333.
    Thierry-Jebali, N.
    et al.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Vo-Ha, A.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Carole, D.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Lazar, M.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Ferro, G.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Planson, D.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brosselard, P.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Very low specific contact resistance measurements made on a highly p-type doped 4H-SiC layer selectively grown by vapor-liquid-solid transport2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 21, p. 212108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on the performances of ohmic contacts fabricated on highly p-type doped 4H-SiC epitaxial layer selectively grown by vapor-liquid-solid transport. Due to the very high doping level obtained, the contacts have an ohmic behavior even without any annealing process. Upon variation of annealing temperatures, it was shown that both 500 and 800 °C annealing temperature lead to a minimum value of the Specific Contact Resistance (SCR) down to 1.3×10−6 Ω⋅cm2. However, a large variation of the minimum SCR values has been observed (up to 4×10−4 Ω⋅cm2). Possible sources of this fluctuation have been also discussed in this paper.

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  • 334. Thinh, N. Q.
    et al.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Xin, H. P.
    Tu, C. W.
    Formation of nonradiative defects in molecular beam epitaxial GaNxAs1-x studied by optically detected magnetic resonance2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 79, no 19, p. 3089-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of two nonradiative defects (i.e., an AsGa-related complex and an unknown deep-level defect with g = 2.03) in GaNxAs1-x epilayers and GaAs/GaNxAs1-x multiple-quantum-well structures, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, is studied by the optically detected magnetic resonance technique. It is shown that contributions by these defects in competing carrier recombination strongly vary with the nitrogen composition. An increase in the growth temperature or postgrowth rapid thermal annealing significantly reduces the influence of the nonradiative defects studied, and is accompanied by a remarkable improvement in the optical properties of the structures.

  • 335. Thinh, N. Q.
    et al.
    Vorona, Igor
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Izadifard, Morteza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Hong, Y. G.
    Xin, H. P.
    Tu, C. W.
    Formation of Ga interstitials in (Al,In)yGa1-yNxP1-x alloys and their role in carrier recombination2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 85, p. 2827-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formation of complex defects involving a Ga interstitial (Gai) in (Al,In)yGa1-yNxP1-x alloys and their effects on optical quality are studied by photoluminescence (PL) and optically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Introduction of these defects is shown to be largely promoted by incorporation of N. In quaternary alloys, concentrations of the defects are found to critically depend on the group III atoms that replace Ga, i.e., it is largely enhanced by the presence of Al in alloys, but is only marginally affected by In incorporation. The effect is attributed to differences in surface adatom mobilities of the group III atoms involved and their bonding strength with N. The revealed Gai complexes are shown to act as efficient nonradiative recombination centers degrading the PL efficiency. The defects exhibit high thermal stability and can only be partially removed by postgrowth rapid thermal annealing.

  • 336. Toropov, A.A.
    et al.
    Sedova, I.V.
    Lyublinskaya, O.G.
    Sorokin, S.V.
    Sitnikova, A.A.
    Ivanov, S.V.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Donatini, F.
    Dang, Le Si
    Coexistence of type-I and type-II band lineups in Cd(Te,Se)/ZnSe quantum-dot structures2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 89, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors report on transmission electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, and time resolved photoluminescence studies of thin Cd(Te,Se) layers in a ZnSe matrix, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. All observations confirm strain-induced self-assembly of quantum dots (QD's), induced primarily by the 14% lattice mismatch between CdTe and ZnSe. The emission spectrum of the structure is the superposition of a relatively narrow luminescence line originating from CdSe-enriched type-I QD's and a broad band attributed to the emission of an ultrathin ZnTeSe/ZnSe layer with type-II band lineup, formed in between the QD's. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  • 337.
    Tran, T. L. A.
    et al.
    University of Twente.
    Wong, P. K. J.
    University of Twente.
    de Jong, M. P.
    University of Twente.
    van der Wiel, W. G.
    University of Twente.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hybridization-induced oscillatory magnetic polarization of C(60) orbitals at the C(60)/Fe(001) interface2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 22, p. 222505-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of the interface between C(60) molecules and a Fe(001) surface. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of C(60) monolayers on Fe(001) surfaces show that hybridization between the frontier orbitals of C(60) and continuum states of Fe leads to a significant magnetic polarization of C(60) pi*-derived orbitals. The magnitude and also the sign of this polarization were found to depend markedly on the excitation energy. These observations underline the importance of tailoring the interfacial spin polarization at the Fermi level of ferromagnet/organic semiconductor interfaces for applications in organic spintronics.

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  • 338.
    Tress, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Technical University of Dresden, Germany .
    Leo, Karl
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany .
    Riede, Moritz
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany .
    Dominating recombination mechanisms in organic solar cells based on ZnPc and C-602013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the dominating recombination mechanisms in bulk heterojunction solar cells, using a blend of ZnPc and C-60 as model system. Analyzing the open-circuit voltage (V-oc) as a function of illumination intensity, we find that trap-assisted recombination dominates for low light intensities, whereas at 1 sun, direct/bimolecular recombination becomes important. The recombination parameters are not significantly influenced by the blend mixing ratio and are also valid for injected charges. By changing the hole transport layer, recombination at the contact is separately identified as further mechanism reducing Voc at higher light intensities.

  • 339.
    Trinh, X. T.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, I. G.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, N.T.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Negative-U behavior of the Si donor in Al0.77Ga0.23N2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, no 4, p. 042101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of a shallow donor is observed at low temperatures in darkness in Si-doped Al0.77Ga0.23N epitaxial layers grown on 4H-SiC substrates. It is shown from the temperature dependence of the donor concentration on the neutral donor state measured by EPR that Si is a DX (or negative-U) center but behaves as a shallow donor due to a small separation of only ∼3 meV between the neutral state Ed and the lower-lying negative state EDX. The neutral state is found to follow the effective mass theory with Ed ∼ 52–59 meV.

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  • 340.
    Trinh, Xuan Thang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stable and metastable Si negative-U centers in AlGaN and AlN2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 16, p. 162106-1-162106-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of Si-doped AlxGa1−xN (0.79 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) reveal two Si negative-U (or DX) centers, which can be separately observed for x ≥ 0.84. We found that for the stable DX center, the energy |EDX| of the negatively charged state DX, which is also considered as the donor activation energy, abruptly increases with Al content for x ∼ 0.83–1.0 approaching ∼240 meV in AlN, whereas EDX remains to be close to the neutral charge state Ed for the metastable DX center (∼11 meV below Ed in AlN).

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  • 341.
    Troncale, V.
    et al.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Pelucchi, E.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Rudra, A.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Kapon, E.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Control of valence band states in pyramidal quantum dot-in-dot semiconductor heterostructures2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The character of the hole states in a pyramidal GaAsAlGaAs quantum dot-in-dot (DiD) heterostructure is shown to be controllable by tailoring the confinement potential shape. The change in ground valence band state from heavy hole like to light hole like is demonstrated by side-view polarization resolved photoluminescence measurements. The experimental findings are supported by three-dimensional numerical model calculations. The results are applicable for polarization control in quantum dot photonic devices. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

  • 342.
    Tumakha, S.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
    Ewing, D.J.
    Department of Material Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
    Porter, L.M.
    Department of Material Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Ma, X.
    MaxMile Technologies, LLC, Lexington, SC 29072.
    Sudharshan, T.S.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208.
    Brillson, L.J.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Materials Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
    Defect-driven inhomogeneities in Ni4H-SiC Schottky barriers2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 87, no 24, p. 242106-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoscale depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) of Ni diode arrays on 4H-SiC epitaxial wafers reveals a striking correspondence between deep level defects and electrical transport measurements on a diode-by-diode basis. Current-voltage measurements display both ideal and nonideal diode characteristics due to multiple barriers within individual contacts. Near-interface DRCLS demonstrates the presence of three discrete midgap defect levels with 2.2, 2.45, and 2.65 eV emission energies whose concentrations vary on a submicron scale among and within individual diodes, correlating with barrier inhomogeneity. These results also suggest that SiC native defect levels can account for the maximum range of n -type barrier heights. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  • 343.
    Tungasmita, Sukkaneste
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Enhanced quality of epitaxial AlN thin films on 6H-SiC by ultra-high-vacuum ion-assisted reactive dc magnetron sputter deposition2000In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 170-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial AlN thin films have been grown on 6H-SiC substrates by ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) ion-assisted reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The low-energy ion-assisted growth (E-i = 17-27 eV) results in an increasing surface mobility, promoting domain-boundary annihilation and epitaxial growth. Domain widths increased from 42 to 135 nm and strained-layer epitaxy was observed in this energy range. For E-i> 52 eV, an amorphous interfacial layer of AlN was formed on the SiC, which inhibited epitaxial growth. Using UHV condition and very pure nitrogen sputtering gas yielded reduced impurity levels in the films (O: 3.5 x 10(18) cm(-3)). Analysis techniques used in this study are in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and cross-section high-resolution electron microscopy. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S0003-6951(00)01802-7].

  • 344.
    Tuomisto, F.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, FI-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Paskova, T.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Kroger, R.
    Kröger, R., Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Figge, S.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Hommel, D.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Kersting, R.
    Tascon GmbH, D-48148 Münster, Germany.
    Defect distribution in a-plane GaN on Al2 O32007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors studied the structural and point defect distributions of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN film grown in the [11-20] a direction on (1-102) r -plane sapphire with metal-organic vapor phase deposited a-GaN template using transmission electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and positron annihilation spectroscopy. Grown-in extended and point defects show constant behavior as a function of thickness, contrary to the strong nonuniform defect distribution observed in GaN grown along the [0001] direction. The observed differences are explained by orientation-dependent and kinetics related defect incorporation. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

  • 345.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 12, p. 123514-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers are promising materials for the production of inexpensive and flexible photovoltaic cells. Organic materials display tunable optical absorption within a large spectral range. This enables the construction of organic tandem photovoltaic cells. The authors here demonstrate a reflective tandem cell where single cells are reflecting the nonabsorbed light upon another adjacent cell. By folding two planar but spectrally different cells toward each other, spectral broadening and light trapping are combined to give an enhancement of power conversion efficiency of a factor of 1.8±0.3.

  • 346.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rahachou, Aliaksandr
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zozoulenko, Igor V.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Surface plasmon increased absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 11, p. 113514 -Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors demonstrate the triggering of surface plasmons at the interface of a metal grating and a photovoltaic bulk heterojunction blend of alternating polyfluorenes and a fullerene derivative. An increased absorption originating from surface plasmon resonances is confirmed by experimental reflection studies and theoretical modeling. Plasmonic resonances are further confirmed to influence the extracted photocurrent from devices. More current is generated at the wavelength position of the plasmon resonance peak. High conductivity polymer electrodes are used to build inverted sandwich structures with top anode and bottom metal grating, facilitating for triggering and characterization of the surface plasmon effects.

  • 347.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Light trapping with total internal reflection and transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaic devices2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, no 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we demonstrate a method to build highly efficient light trapping structures for printed organic solar cells and modules, compatible with roll to roll manufacturing. Echelle grating structures in combination with semitransparent electrodes allow for efficient light trapping via means of total internal reflection. With this method, we demonstrate an increased cell photocurrent response up to 24%, compared to a standard cell configuration with a planar reflector. The demonstrated light trapping approach is expected to be even more useful for photovoltaic modules, where light hitting "dead areas" in between the sub-cells comprising the module will now be utilized.

  • 348.
    ul Hasan, Kamran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Screen printed ZnO UV photoconductive sensor on pencil drawn circuitry over paper2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 21, p. 211104-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many applications require a low-cost and large-scale mode of flexible electronics with reasonably high photoresponse that can be detected without high precision measurement systems. We demonstrate a very easy to fabricate ZnO UV sensor, made on common pencil drawn circuit over a paper. ZnO nanocrystals were extracted in a high throughput via a simple and green route. This sensor is well capable of detecting UV light and demonstrates features comparable to those of made with complex and expensive techniques.

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  • 349. Valcheva, E.
    et al.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Misfit defect formation in thick GaN layers grown on sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy2002In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 80, no 9, p. 1550-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 350.
    Valcheva, E
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Tungasmita, Sukkaneste
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Svedberg, EB
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Interface structure of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN grown with high-temperature reactively sputtered AlN buffer2000In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 76, no 14, p. 1860-1862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thick hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN layers have been grown on a-plane sapphire using high-temperature ion-assisted reactively sputtered AlN as a buffer layer. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were carried out to study the formation of the two interfaces sapphire/AlN and AlN/GaN, and their influence on the microstructure of both the buffer layer and the main GaN layer. It was demonstrated that the high-temperature reactively sputtered buffer layer provides a good alternative for hydride vapor phase epitaxy growth of GaN layers. In particular, the buffer promotes a specific interface ordering mechanism different from that observed on low-temperature buffers. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S0003-6951(00)00314-4].

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