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  • 301.
    Larsson, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Experiencing Molecular Processes: The Role of Representations for Students' Conceptual Understanding2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of molecular processes is crucial for fundamental understanding of the world and diverse technological applications. However, they cannot be clearly related to any directly experienced phenomena and may be very different from our intuitive expectations. Thus, representations are essential conceptual tools for making molecular processes understandable, but to be truly useful educational tools it is essential to ensure that students grasp the connections between what they represent and the represented phenomena. This challenge and associated personal and social aspects of learning were key themes of my doctoral research.

    This thesis evaluates whether (and if so how) representations can support students’ conceptual understanding of molecular processes and thus successfully substitute the missing experience of these processes. The subject matter used to explore these issues included two crucial molecular processes in biochemical systems: self-assembly and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. The discussion is based on results presented in four appended papers. Both qualitative and quantitative research strategies have been applied, using instruments such as pre- and post-tests, group discussions and interviews. The samples consisted of Swedish and South African university students, who in the group discussions interacted with peers and external representations, including an image, a tangible model and an animation.

    The findings indicate that students’ ability to discern relevant model features is critical for their ability to transfer prior conceptual knowledge from related situations. They also show that students’ use of metaphors and conceptual understanding depend on how an external representation conveys relevant aspects of the learning content (its design). Thus, students must manage two complex interpretation processes (interpreting the external representations and metaphors used), which may create challenges for their learning. Furthermore, the self-assembly process was shown to incorporate counter-intuitive aspects, and both group discussion and the tangible model proved to be important facilitators for changing students’ conceptual understanding of the process. Providing students with experiences of phenomena associated with molecular concepts that incorporate counter-intuitive aspects through representations is a key factor for their understanding of the concepts. In addition, providing students with a conflict-based task, problem or representation is not enough, they also have to be willing (emotionally motivated) to solve the conflict.

    The challenge for educators lies in choosing representations that convey aspects of the learning content they are intended to teach and assist students in their meaning-making of the representations by remaining informed of students’ background knowledge and interpretations. Results presented in this thesis show that it could be advantageous to interpret learning in a broader sense.

    List of papers
    1. Student Learning about Biomolecular Self-Assembly Using Two Different External Representations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Student Learning about Biomolecular Self-Assembly Using Two Different External Representations
    2013 (English)In: CBE - Life Sciences Education, ISSN 1931-7913, E-ISSN 1931-7913, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembly is the fundamental but counterintuitive principle that explains how ordered biomolecular complexes form spontaneously in the cell. This study investigated the impact of using two external representations of virus self-assembly, an interactive tangible three-dimensional model and a static two-dimensional image, on student learning about the process of self-assembly in a group exercise. A conceptual analysis of self-assembly into a set of facets was performed to support study design and analysis. Written responses were collected in a pretest/posttest experimental design with 32 Swedish university students. A quantitative analysis of close-ended items indicated that the students improved their scores between pretest and posttest, with no significant difference between the conditions (tangible model/image). A qualitative analysis of an open-ended item indicated students were unfamiliar with self-assembly prior to the study. Students in the tangible model condition used the facets of self-assembly in their open-ended posttest responses more frequently than students in the image condition. In particular, it appears that the dynamic properties of the tangible model may support student understanding of self-assembly in terms of the random and reversible nature of molecular interactions. A tentative difference was observed in response complexity, with more multifaceted responses in the tangible model condition.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bethesda, USA: American Society for Cell Biology, 2013
    Keywords
    Undergraduate, Learning, Self-assembly, External representation, Tangible model, Hands-on, Group exercise, Dynamic process, Interactivity
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97273 (URN)10.1187/cbe.13-01-0011 (DOI)000325792800021 ()
    Projects
    VisMolLS
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR 2008:5077
    Available from: 2013-09-05 Created: 2013-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Using a teaching-learning sequence (TLS), based on a physical model, to develop students' understanding of self-assembly
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using a teaching-learning sequence (TLS), based on a physical model, to develop students' understanding of self-assembly
    2011 (English)In: Authenticity in Biology Education: Benefits and Challenges / [ed] Yarden, A & Carvalho, G. S., Braga, Portugal: CIEC, Universidade do Minho , 2011, p. 67-77Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembly is a biological process in which free subunits combine to form molecular complexes. Despite being considered one of the ‘big ideas’ in molecular life sciences, only limited education research has been performed on this topic. The objectives of this study were to investigate students’ learning of self-assembly in an authentic learning environment: a teaching-learning sequence (TLS). Twenty third-year biochemistry students in South Africa participated in the study. The TLS included a tutorial exercise with a physical model of a poliovirus capsid. A mixed-methods approach was employed to collect qualitative and quantitative data from interviews and written pre- and post-tests. A significant improvement in test scores was found, and it was observed that the TLS could support students’ understanding of self-assembly. Some conceptual and visualization difficulties were also identified. Using the model in a TLS was associated with positive attitudes and engagement among the participants.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Braga, Portugal: CIEC, Universidade do Minho, 2011
    Keywords
    external representation, interactive learning, post-secondary education, learning difficulties, molecular interactions
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75234 (URN)978-972-8952-19-8 (ISBN)
    Conference
    VIIIth Conference of European Researchers in Didactics of Biology (ERIDOB), 13-17 July, 2010, Braga, Portugal
    Projects
    VisMolLS
    Available from: 2012-02-22 Created: 2012-02-22 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Challenging students' intuitive expectations - an analysis of students reasoning around a tangible model of virus assembly
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenging students' intuitive expectations - an analysis of students reasoning around a tangible model of virus assembly
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can a well-ordered biological complex be formed by the random motion of its components, i.e. self-assemble? This is a concept that is counter to human intuitive expectations derived from prior knowledge and experience. In previous studies we have shown that a tangible model of virus selfassembly, used as a thinking-tool in a group-exercise, helps students to grasp the process of selfassembly, particularly the facet random molecular collision. The present study investigates how and why the model facilitates students’ acceptance of new concepts and learning. The data analysed consist of audio-recordings of six group exercises and five individual semi-structured interviews, in which 35 university students from Sweden and South Africa participated. Qualitative analysis indicates that the students’ prior knowledge, prior conceptual understanding and intuitive ideas, influenced their meaning-making of the molecular process of self-assembly. Moreover, the counterintuitive aspects of the process created a conceptual conflict within the learners, and both the tangible model and group exercises facilitated a conceptual change in their understanding of the process. Lastly, the data indicate that students’ emotional state is significant for their successful accommodation of the counter-intuitive aspects of self-assembly. The analysis is based on a combination of constructivist perspectives of learning, conceptual change theory, and learning with external representations.

    Keywords
    Conceptual conflict, counter-intuitive, tangible model, hands-on model, conceptual change, self-assembly
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91367 (URN)
    Note

    Del av avhandling

    Available from: 2013-04-23 Created: 2013-04-23 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
    4. When metaphors come to life: at the interface of external representations, molecular processes and student learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When metaphors come to life: at the interface of external representations, molecular processes and student learning
    2012 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 563-580Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When studying the molecular aspect of the life sciences, learners must be introduced to somewhat inaccessible phenomena that occur at the sub-micro scale. Despite the difficulties, students need to be familiar with and understand the highly dynamic nature of molecular processes. Thus, external representations1 (ERs) can be considered unavoidable and essential tools for student learning. Besides meeting the challenge of interpreting external representations, learners also encounter a large array of abstract concepts2, which are challenging to understand (Orgill & Bodner, 2004). Both teachers and learners use metaphorical language as a way to relate these abstract phenomena to more familiar ones from everyday life. Scientific papers, as well as textbooks and popular science articles, are packed with metaphors, analogies and intentional expressions. Like ERs, the use of metaphors and analogies is inevitable and necessary when communicating knowledge concerning molecular phenomena. Therefore, a large body of published research related to metaphors concerns science teachers’ and textbook writers’ interpretation and use of metaphors (Harrison & Treagust, 2006). In this paper we present a theoretical framework for examining metaphorical language use in relation to abstract phenomena and external representations. The framework was verified by using it to analyse students’ meaning-making in relation to an animation representing the sub-microscopic and abstract process of ATP-synthesis in Oxidative Phosphorylation. We seek to discover the animator’s intentions while designing the animation and to identify the metaphors that students use while interacting with the animation. Two of these metaphors serve as examples of a metaphor analysis, in which the characteristics of metaphors are outlined. To our knowledge,  no strategies to identify and understand the characteristics, benefits, and potential pitfalls of particular metaphors have, to date, been presented in science education research. Our aspiration is to contribute valuable insights into metaphorical language use at the interface between external representations, molecular processes, and student learning.

    Keywords
    Affordance, Design of external representations, Higher education, Metaphors, Molecular phenomena
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76140 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-03-28 Created: 2012-03-28 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
  • 302.
    Larsson, Caroline
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    The influence of counter-intuitiveness on student learning of molecular processes2013In: 11th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Education, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 303.
    Larsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Trevor
    School of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using a teaching-learning sequence (TLS), based on a physical model, to develop students' understanding of self-assembly2011In: Authenticity in Biology Education: Benefits and Challenges / [ed] Yarden, A & Carvalho, G. S., Braga, Portugal: CIEC, Universidade do Minho , 2011, p. 67-77Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembly is a biological process in which free subunits combine to form molecular complexes. Despite being considered one of the ‘big ideas’ in molecular life sciences, only limited education research has been performed on this topic. The objectives of this study were to investigate students’ learning of self-assembly in an authentic learning environment: a teaching-learning sequence (TLS). Twenty third-year biochemistry students in South Africa participated in the study. The TLS included a tutorial exercise with a physical model of a poliovirus capsid. A mixed-methods approach was employed to collect qualitative and quantitative data from interviews and written pre- and post-tests. A significant improvement in test scores was found, and it was observed that the TLS could support students’ understanding of self-assembly. Some conceptual and visualization difficulties were also identified. Using the model in a TLS was associated with positive attitudes and engagement among the participants.

  • 304.
    Larsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olson, Arthur
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using a Dynamic Physical Model to help Students Visualize the Process of Self-assembly2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 305.
    Larsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Challenging students' intuitive expectations - an analysis of students reasoning around a tangible model of virus assemblyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can a well-ordered biological complex be formed by the random motion of its components, i.e. self-assemble? This is a concept that is counter to human intuitive expectations derived from prior knowledge and experience. In previous studies we have shown that a tangible model of virus selfassembly, used as a thinking-tool in a group-exercise, helps students to grasp the process of selfassembly, particularly the facet random molecular collision. The present study investigates how and why the model facilitates students’ acceptance of new concepts and learning. The data analysed consist of audio-recordings of six group exercises and five individual semi-structured interviews, in which 35 university students from Sweden and South Africa participated. Qualitative analysis indicates that the students’ prior knowledge, prior conceptual understanding and intuitive ideas, influenced their meaning-making of the molecular process of self-assembly. Moreover, the counterintuitive aspects of the process created a conceptual conflict within the learners, and both the tangible model and group exercises facilitated a conceptual change in their understanding of the process. Lastly, the data indicate that students’ emotional state is significant for their successful accommodation of the counter-intuitive aspects of self-assembly. The analysis is based on a combination of constructivist perspectives of learning, conceptual change theory, and learning with external representations.

  • 306.
    Larsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Fritidshemmet som matematisk lärandemiljö: - möjligheter och hinder2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min studie har varit att undersöka om fritidshemmet kan utgöra en matematisk lärandemiljö. Jag har studerat vilka aktiviteter som kan eller skulle kunna bidra till att barn utvecklar grundläggande matematiska kunskaper. Dessutom har jag försökt identifiera hinder för fritidshemmet som matematisk lärandemiljö. För att undersöka detta har jag använt mig av deltagande observation som metod samt intervjuer. Datamaterialet har samlats in på två fritidshem i två olika kommuner. Jag har inte haft för avsikt att jämföra dessa fritidshem utan de har båda bidragit till att ge en fördjupad bild av fritidshemmet som matematisk lärandemiljö. Jag har intervjuat en pedagog på varje fritidshem. Studiens resultat visar att fritidshemmet erbjuder ett stort antal matematiska lärtillfällen både i informella och formella aktiviteter. Resultatet visar även på hinder för att matematisk utveckling ska ske på fritidshemmet, bland dessa märks stora barngrupper, bristande planeringstid och bristfälliga lokaler.

  • 307.
    Lenz Taguchi, Hillevi
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Bodén, LinneaLinköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.Ohrlander, KajsaInstitutionen för de humanistiska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik, Stockholms universitet.
    En rosa pedagogik: jämställdhetspedagogiska utmaningar2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En rosa pedagogik vill visa vad ett jämställdhetsarbete i den svenska förskolan handlar om och hur det växt fram i mötet mellan teori och praktik. På vilket sätt skulle förskolan kunna bli en avgörande jämställdhetspolitisk arena i det svenska samhället?

    Boken är skriven inom ramen för forskningsprojektet Förskolan som jämställdhetspolitisk arena med stöd från Vetenskapsrådet. I tretton kapitel presenterar forskare, förskollärare och studerande på master- och forskarutbildningar sina studier och tankar om vad som nu görs i termer av jämställdhet i svenska förskolor (och i viss mån skolor) och hur man vidare kan utmana detta arbete i förskole- och skolpraktiker.En rosa pedagogik syftar på den utmaning som dagens genuspedagogiska och normkritiska arbete i förskolor och skolor i dag står inför. Färgen rosa är tätt kopplad till femininiteter och sexualiteter och är kodad med såväl lust och överskridande som underordning. Ett omkodande av färgen rosa i det pedagogiska arbetet innebär en utmaning av alla typer av maktrelationer, även av pedagogiska praktiker som stelnar och blir ny norm. En rosa pedagogik innebär ett arbete som på allvar vill utmana föreställningen om två stabila och oföränderliga kön och i stället se kön/genus som en pågående föränderlig multiplicitet.

  • 308.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Broth, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gazin, Ann-Danièle
    Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    Haddington, Pentti
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    McIlvenny, Paul
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Melander, Helen
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rauniomaa, Mirka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Unpacking corrections in mobile instruction: Error-occasioned learning opportunities in driving, cycling and aviation training2017In: Linguistics and Education, ISSN 0898-5898, E-ISSN 1873-1864, Vol. 38, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the organisation of correction in mobile instructional settings. Five sets of videodata (>250 h) documenting how learners were instructed to fly aeroplanes, drive cars and ride bicycles inreal life traffic were examined to reveal some common features of correction exchanges. Through detailed multimodal analysis of participants’ actions, it is shown how instructors systematically elaborate their corrective instructions to include relevant information about the trouble and remedial action – a practice we refer to as the unpacking of correction. It is proposed that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction and mobility, as well as to ongoing work in ethnomethodologyand conversation analysis on teaching and learning as members’ phenomena.

  • 309.
    Li, Xun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jacobson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Boulle, Alexandre
    Centre Europeen Ceram, France .
    Chaussende, Didier
    Grenoble INP, France .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Double-Position-Boundaries Free 3C-SiC Epitaxial Layers Grown on On-Axis 4H-SiC2014In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 3, no 4, p. P75-P81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High quality double-position-boundaries free 3C-SiC epilayers have been successfully grown on on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC by chemical vapor deposition at optimized conditions as observed with optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effect of the growth parameters, including temperature, C/Si ratio, ramp-up condition, Si/H-2 ratio, N-2 addition and pressure, on the quality of the grown layers is investigated. Different techniques, including microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, are used to characterize the epilayers. High resolution X-ray diffraction shows 2 theta-omega curve with full width at half maximum of only 16 arcsec for the (111) reflection detected from a 35 mu m thick 3C-SiC layer, showing the good structural quality of the layer. Reciprocal space maps confirm the absence of double-position-boundaries in a large depth of the layers. Low temperature photoluminescence measurement shows clear near-bandgap emission with sharp and single peaks, which further verifies the high quality of the epilayers.

  • 310.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Prov, vitsord och bedömning som aspekter av kemilärares bedömningspraktik2011In: Ämnesdidaktik - dåtid, nutid och framtid. Bidrag från femte rikskonferensen i ämnesdidaktik vid Linköpings universitet 26-27 maj 2010 / [ed] Bengt-Göran Martinsson, Suzanne Parmenius Swärd, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, p. 41-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under temat ”Ämnesdidaktik – dåtid, nutid och framtid” samlades i Linköping den 26 – 27 maj 2010 ett 90-tal forskare, forskarstuderande och lärare för att delta i den femte nationella rikskonferensen i ämnesdidaktik. Arrangör var det nationella nätverket för ämnesdidaktik och Linköpings universitet. De nationella konferenserna har gått från att vara årliga till att hållas vartannat år. Från 2007, med början i Oslo, varvas nämligen de nationella konferenserna med nordiska konferenser.

    Kännetecknande för dessa konferenser, både de nationella och de nordiska, är att de utgör en mötesplats över didaktiska ämnesgränser utan att man för den skull tvingas söka sig till det allmändidaktiska fältet för att finna gemenskap. De olika ämnesdidaktiska inriktningarna skapar en vetenskaplig bred..

  • 311.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Provkonstruktion och bedömning som aspekter av kemilärares bedömningspraktik2010In: Innehållet i fokus - kemiinnehållet i finlandssvenska klassrum / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2010, 8, p. 175-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera jämförande internationella studier hamnar de finska eleverna i toppen. Hur bedrivs kemiundervisningen i finlandssvenska klassrum? Rapporten består av sex kapitel där författarna bl.a. tar upp följande frågor:

    • Vad kännetecknar undervisningspraktiken i en finlandssvensk klass?
    • Vilka texter används i klassrummet?
    • Vad betraktas som viktig respektive mindre viktig kunskap?

    I ett av kapitlen analyseras vilka frågor läraren ställer till eleverna och vilken feedback som ges. I studien ingick fyra lärare, och i det avslutande kapitlet analyseras deras provkonstruktion och bedömningsarbete.

    Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av bedömningsfrågor, kunskapsfrågor, lärande och undervisning. Forskningsprojektet är finansierat av Vetenskapsrådet

  • 312.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Vad krävs för godkänt i kemi?2011In: Kemiundervisning, text och textbruk i finlandssvenska och svenska skolor: en komparativ tvärvetenskaplig studie / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag , 2011, p. 114-158Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka kemikunskaper prioriteras i svenska och finlandssvenska klassrum? Vad finns det för kulturella skillnader i sättet att undervisa?Den här studien har bland annat tillkommit till följd av att finska elevers resultat är bland de främsta i flera jämförande internationella studier. Rapporten består av sju kapitel som alla på olika sätt analyserar videobandade klassrumsobservationer, intervjuer och texter från tre svenska och fyra finlandssvenska klassrum. De olika analyserna som presenteras i denna rapport ger mångsidiga beskrivningar av hur ett specifikt naturvetenskapligt innehåll tar form i undervisningen. Sammantaget ger texterna ett underlag för en fördjupad diskussion om vad som utgör skillnader och likheter i undervisningen i de två länderna.Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av frågor om undervisning, textbruk, kunskap, lärande och bedömning, med speciellt fokus på kemi. Forskningsprojektet har finansierats av Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 313.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Vilket kemikunnade efterfrågas och görs tillgängligt för eleverna? - Frågor, svar och feedback i kemiklassrummet2010In: Innehållet i fokus - kemiundervisning i finlandssvenska klassrum / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2010, p. 145-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera jämförande internationella studier hamnar de finska eleverna i toppen. Hur bedrivs kemiundervisningen i finlandssvenska klassrum? Rapporten består av sex kapitel där författarna bl.a. tar upp följande frågor: Vad kännetecknar undervisningspraktiken i en finlandssvensk klass? Vilka texter används i klassrummet? Vad betraktas som viktig respektive mindre viktig kunskap? I ett av kapitlen analyseras vilka frågor läraren ställer till eleverna och vilken feedback som ges. I studien ingick fyra lärare, och i det avslutande kapitlet analyseras deras provkonstruktion och bedömningsarbete.Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av bedömningsfrågor, kunskapsfrågor, lärande och undervisning. Forskningsprojektet är finansierat av Vetenskapsrådet

  • 314.
    Lindell, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Steisjö, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    I skuggan av ett ljus: En systematisk litteraturstudie med fokus på barns uppfattningar om ljus och skuggor2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to previous research, young children ́s perceptions of light and shadows are often based on everyday experiences. This study is a systematic literature review aiming to investigate and analyse previous empirical research of children ́s perceptions of light and shadows and the role representations have on teaching in the subject. The report was conducted in response to what characterizes children's understanding of light and shadows and how children's knowledge and understanding of physical concepts and phenomena are affected by the use of varied forms of representations in teaching.

    In this systematic literature review different databases were used to search for previous research, such as ERIC and Swepub. To narrow down the results from the database searches the following limiters were used: peer reviewed articles and published year 2007 – 2018. Results from previous research, within the scope of the purpose for this report, have systematically been analysed and critically reviewed. A total of 12 peer-reviewed, international articles have been analysed which indicates that children at an early age have perceptions of light and shadows. However, the results indicate also that children have a primitive approach in explaining light and shadows. Results from the articles revealed that the teacher has an important role regarding children's learning. Also, the majority of articles described the importance of representations in the development of children's understanding of natural sciences. The conclusion is therefore that the teacher can provide children with meaning and context by utilizing the children ́s conceptions of light and shadows and by using varying forms of representations. Lastly, as an implication for further research it is suggested to empirically examine the teaching contents of light and shadows in year F-3, in order to obtain new perspectives and opportunities for development in the field of light and shadows.

  • 315.
    Lindgren, Anne-Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sparrman, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson Barajas, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    From Instruction to Reflection: Film in Education in Sweden2012In: Research in media education / [ed] Chi-Kim Cheung, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, p. 151-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, people know what is happening around them through radio, television, newspapers and the like. With the advance of the telecommunication technology, people are now also familiar with the use of personal computers, the Internet and so on. The mass media is now regarded as essential for keeping people up to date with the world around them. In view of this, the innovation of a new curriculum, media education or the study of the mass media, has been recommended. This book examines the prevailing perspectives regarding media education in different countries around the world and what kinds of research is being conducted in the field of media education.

  • 316.
    Lindgren, Anne-Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sparrman, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson Barajas, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Young people co-construct meanings of welfare and responsibility in film-talk2008In: Abstracts. Communication Policies and Culture in Europe: European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA), 2nd European Communication Conference, Barcelona, 2008, p. 230-231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This present paper takes its staring point in School-Cinema programmes in Sweden. Such programmes aim at using popular culture as an educational tool, as a part of learning processes and as learning sites (Ashcraft, 2003; Buckingham, 1998; 2000a; 2000b; Buckingham & Sefton-Green, 1994; Duncan-Andrade 2004). The films within School-Cinema programmes are commercial films and seldom singled out as specific films for children or youth. Moreover, the films are selected by public institutions such as the Swedish Film Institute and schools (Sparrman & Eriksson 2005). As this indicates, School-Cinema programmes transgress traditional borders of commercial- and educational films (Lindgren, Sparrman & Erikson, 2005).

    A standard procedure in School-Cinema programmes is that pupils watch films at a theatre and then meet in class-room discussions about the films, even though other forms of follow up activities can be initiated. The paper presents data collected in a media ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the autumn 2003 around two films concerning political and societal issues: The Evil (2003) treats penalism at a boarding school in the 1950s and Lilya 4-ever (2002) treats sex trafficking in women and children (Sparrman & Eriksson, 2005). The school-framing of Lilya 4-ever was to discuss trafficking in women and children (cf. Sparrman 2007; Eriksson, forthcoming), and The Evil was supposed to prompt talk about bullying. The films are fictional but both have strong connections to real life events; The Evil is based on an autobiographical book, and Lilya 4-ever is based on a real trafficking case that got a lot of attention in Sweden through a Swedish investigative news program 2000. Both films have been launched internationally, The Evil after its Oscar nomination and Lilya 4-ever by, among other things, being presented in the Russian Duma and The White House as a means to discuss trafficking in women and children.

    The aim in the present paper is to highlight different meanings young people create about welfare and responsibility when discussing popular films in joint discursive activities. The analytical framework is critical discourse analysis (cf. Fairclough, 1992; 2003) in an educational context. Moreover, the focus is on the participating pupils' meaning constructions and not on teachers' role in knowledge production (cf. Sparrman 2007). By analysing the talk-in-interaction it is possible to understand how young people co-construct meanings concerning important contemporary issues such as welfare and agency. Three topics will be addressed in the paper, all emanating from pupils’ film-talk: Discourses on sameness and difference, Discourses on solutions and Discourses of responsibility. The paper will end with a discussion film-talk about visual popular culture, learning and young peoples political engagement in relation to film-talk.

  • 317.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap, Örebro universitet.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Klapp, Alli
    Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Mickwitz, Larissa
    Institutionen för språkdidaktik, Stockholms universitet.
    Betygens geografi: forskning om betyg och summativa bedömningar i Sverige och internationellt. Delrapport från skolforsk-projektet2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic research review about grades and summative assessments are based on a reading of over 6000 abstracts, 500 articles and about 40 theses. The articles we have read are peer reviewed and published in scientific journals. Our searches and selections have been systematic.

    The report is structured around four different chapters linking to the project's four overarching issues. In Chapter 1 we study how grades/marks from a student perspective affects self-image, motivation and learning. In Chapter 2, we have compiled research on grading/marking from a teacher's perspective, how and what teachers think of this and how grading affect teaching. Chapter 3 deals with grades and summative assessment as control instruments at different levels of the education system. In Chapter 4 we describe grading from various comparative perspectives. We also do our own comparison of how the different grading and assessment systems look like in Europe.

    In the first Chapter, we see that the results of the studies reviewed are partially coherent. Adults and high-performing students seem positively influenced in their learning and accomplishments from feedback that contains much information that comes directly adjacent to the task and if the information is positive. At the same time, it appears that adult students are not adversely affected if the feedback comes in the form of grades. This is explained by the fact that adult students at the university level and upper secondary education have extensive experience of summative assessments and have developed strategies to cope with this system. However, it seems to be different for younger students and when representative samples are examined. One conclusion that can be drawn from the results of the included studies is that grading generally influence older and younger students and low- and high-performing students in different ways. Underperforming and younger students seem to be more adversely affected by the scores compared with older and high-performing students. Age and experience of assessment appear to play a major role in how students' learning, motivation for learning and performance is influenced by the scores.

    The second Chapter is about how and what teachers view of grading and how grading affect teaching. We have studied international and Swedish research to describe differences between them. The issue of validity is central, but in a different way in international and Swedish research, respectively. In the Swedish research, the relationship between the teacher's grading and policy documents constitutes a dominant perspective. Outside Sweden, it is mainly the question of what the teacher look at when assessing that dominate, e.g. student's skills or personal qualities.

    In the third and fourth Chapter, we have used a more exploratory approach since grading isn’t that closely linked to governing and control in other countries as in Sweden. Instead external tests are more common. We found however three central themes from a control perspective, that is relevant to the issue of grading: 1) fairness and equality in assessments, 2) grading as merit, as a knowledge and selection measurement, 3) grading as part of a high stakes assessment and evaluation systems. The third theme was made into a setting for the other two. The research that touched the first theme emphasized in particular that grading must be put into a larger perspective of a fair assessment and evaluation system, with instruments to monitor fairness in relation to different student groups, etc. Regarding the second theme we found that the ratings' role in many educational settings, have been reduced in recent decades. But at the same time we see clear tendencies that grades are better as a selection tool for higher education compared to university aptitude tests and other similar tests. This shows that grades can fill important functions in the education system in a better way than other instruments, but are not as useful for other purposes.

    The fourth Chapter focuses on grades from different comparative perspectives. When we look at assessment and international comparisons we see that grades doesn’t have a particularly prominent place in the international comparative research. Essentially, there are three areas the researchers focused on in these comparisons: systems of accountability; cultural explanations for why the assessment and grading system looks different in different countries; variations between teachers' assessments of various subjects or by different groups of students.

    Some key findings of our survey is that there has long been an international trend towards establishing systems for measuring results and to increased accountability in education systems. These results are often measured as student performance on tests or grades. Both critical scholars as well as the OECD has, however, recently noted that the hopes that comparisons of schools' results will lead to performance improvements have been exaggerated. The systems for assessment and accountability systems in different countries explain almost nothing of the variation in the PISA results. Rather, it is what teachers do in the classroom that are important and teachers find it difficult to draw conclusions about what they should do on those results that are made available through accountability systems. The systems seldom produce the right level of information for didactical implications.

    In Chapter 4, we also do our own comparison of grading systems in Europe. The first thing we can say is that the data situation is very complicated. There is no standardized data on this, why all comparisons need to build on a complex classification procedure, where there sometimes are problems of interpretation. This is a problem for all references to how it looks in other countries so common in the public debate on grades in Sweden.

    Based on what we found in our overview, we have some recommendations. There are clear results, which at least should lead to caution about further lowering of the age when pupils meet their first grades. It is also important that the Swedish current grading system is better evaluated in relation to different teachers, subjects and groups of pupils. Grades do not work the same for everyone. It is also important to consider how we evaluate students' performance and whether it is possible to combine more models with each other, so that we can get better data of for example "value added" character, and to be able to follow the development of knowledge over time. Our study also shows on several different levels of difficulties in the translation of research findings and information on education between different countries and contexts.

    We suggest that teachers' autonomy in assessment systems, no matter what they look like, is perhaps the most important factor for them to work in purpose of support learning and development, at all levels. Therefore, it is also of great importance, not only for the government to pay attention to voice of teachers, but to provide teachers with the possibility to obtain further training on grading and assessment. Equally important, this aspect of teaching should be an even more marked feature of teacher education.

  • 318.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap, Örebro universitet.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tveit, Sverre
    Institutt for pedagogikk, Universitetet i Agder, Norge.
    Betygssystem i internationell belysning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolverket har gett en projektgrupp ledd av Christian Lundahl i uppdrag att ta fram en jämförelse mellan olika länders betygssystem med särskilt fokus på kunskapskrav och deras funktion att stödja elevernas lärande. Rapporten har tagits fram inom tidsramen oktober 2015 till juli 2016, och behandlar temat betyg och kunskapskrav ur ett internationellt och komparativt perspektiv. Den första delen består av ett inledande kapitel med fokus på metod och urval (kapitel 1) och en genomgång av teoretiska perspektiv och centrala begrepp (kapitel 2). Därefter följer empiriska analyser av de fem nordiska länderna, sex övriga europeiska länder och fem länder från övriga världen (kapitel 3-18). Rapporten avslutas med en sammanfattande diskussion där de empiriska materialen diskuteras utifrån teori och vår analys av forskning på området (kapitel 19).

    I bilaga 2 redovisar vi en översikt om betygssystem i Europa utifrån den information som finns i Europeiska kommissionens databas Eurydice. Denna översikt har vi tidigare tagit fram på engelska (Lundahl, Hultén, Klapp och Mickwitz, 2015) men här har den översatts till svenska och innehåller en fördjupad förklaring av de många utmaningar som finns vid jämförelser av olika länders betygssystem baserad på den information som finns i Eurydice.

    Projektgruppen har förutom Christian Lundahl (projektledare) också bestått av Magnus Hultén och Sverre Tveit. Christian Lundahl är professor vid Örebro universitet. Magnus Hultén är biträdande professor vid Linköpings universitet. Han är vetenskaplig ledare för ett pågående projekt om betyg och betygssystem med finansiering från Vetenskapsrådet. Sverre Tveit är universitetslektor i pedagogik vid universitet i Agder och i slutskedet av ett komparativt avhandlingsarbete under handledning av Christian Lundahl, i vilket Sveriges och Norges betygspolitik och provsystem jämförs. Doktoranden Judit Novak vid Uppsala universitet har också varit projektet behjälplig med visst översättningsarbete.

    Ett stort tack riktas också till Tina Isaacs vid The Institute of Education i England, Ann-Catherine Henriksson vid Åbo akademi i Finland, Bettina Vogt vid Vergleichende und Internationale Erziehungswissenschaft, Humboldtuniversitet i Berlin, Tyskland, som har varit behjälpliga med att validera information vi har tagit fram för dessa respektive länder. I Skolverkets uppdrag till oss finns sex frågor som myndigheten önskat få kartlagda:

    1. Vad är betyg och betygens funktion i andra jämförbara länder (ex. de nordiska länderna samt ett urval av övriga PISA-länder)?
    2. Existerar kunskapskrav motsvarande de svenska i dessa jämförbara länder?
    3. Hur sätts betyg i andra länder?
    4. Från vilken ålder/årskurs får elever betyg i dessa länder?
    5. Vilken typ av betyg får eleverna?
    6. Vad säger internationell och nationell forskning om betygens betydelse för elevers kunskapsutveckling (inkl. typ av betyg, startålder etc.)?

    Samtliga frågor utom den sista frågan redovisas i denna rapport, medan den sjätte frågan har redovisats i ett annat underlag till Skolverket. För att svara på fråga ett har vi sett det som nödvändigt att utveckla en begreppsapparat som bättre skiljer mellan betygs- och bedömningsinstrumentens olika syften och funktioner. Detta är komplicerade frågeställningar om är djupt invävda i både policy- och praktikfältets vokabulär. Vi presenterar därför inledningsvis en begreppsapparat och definierar hur vi använder dessa begrepp i rapportens efterföljande kapitel. I teorikapitlet begrundas klassificeringen av begrepp för att beskriva betyg, bedömningsinstrument (så som prov) och kunskapskravs syften. Vi vill redan här uppmärksamma att vi försöker bryta upp den utbredda distinktionen mellan formativ och summativ bedömning för att bättre kunna skildra syften och funktioner i olika bedömningspolicyer. Genom att klassificera betygens syften som certifiering, styrning och stöd, blir det tydligare hur länder skiljer sig åt eller inspirerar varandras policy och praktik (’policy borrowing’) än om vi använder distinktionen formativ och summativ, som dominerar både i forskningslitteraturen och i policybeskrivningar.

    Vår förhoppning är att rapporten kan vara ett underlag i Skolverkets pågående arbete med att utreda det svenska betygssystemet och i synnerhet läroplanens kunskapskrav.

    För projektgruppen,

    Christian Lundahl, professor i pedagogik, Örebro universitet

  • 319.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tveit, Sverre
    Agder University, Kristiansant, Norway.
    The power of teacher-assigned grades in outcome-based educationIn: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In arguing for alternatives to test-based accountability, researchers have suggested that teacher-assigned student grades could be used for high-stakes purposes. In this study, Sweden serves as an example of a school system in which teacher-assigned grades have a major role in performance management and accountability. We study how politicians view and legitimise the strengths of grading in an outcome-based accountability system. Based on two-part analysis, we show how grades, through complex processes of legitimation, have acquired and retained a central position in governing the overall quality of the educational system in Sweden. We argue that in the Swedish system, grades used in an administrative rather than a pedagogical way function as a quick language that effectively reduces the complexity of communication between various actors with regard to what students learn and accomplish in education. As such, grades are legitimate in terms of their communicative rationality. However, their use in communicating student learning has not been sufficient to meet the needs of government. We conclude that in order to turn grading into an instrument that can moderate some of the downsides of testing regimes, a broader view of what constitute outcomes in education needs to follow.

  • 320.
    Lundström, Mats
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sweden.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Åström, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Konsumtionsuppsatser som ny bedömningspraktik för lärarutbildare [Systematic reviews as new assessment practice for teacher educators]2019In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, ISSN 1401-6788, Vol. 24, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the consequences of the latest Swedish teacher education reform from 2011 is that a student teacher is required to write two student theses during her studies. These student theses should together represent 30 ECTS. One common way to implement this requirement is that the student writes two theses, where the first one is a systematic review of earlier research and the second one a more traditional empirical thesis. This article investigates if this new type of student thesis – that is, systematic reviews written by students as the first part of the requirements for teacher qualification, also involves a new kind of assessment practice for the examiners at the teacher education programmes. In the student thesis the student is supposed to demonstrate skills concerning several formal learning aims of the teacher education to obtain their qualifications. These include to follow the development of knowledge within a field and solve problems. The student thesis is not only important for the individual student to obtain qualifications, but has also been used to evaluate the teacher education programmes. Despite its significance for students and schools of education, very little research has been conducted on practices in the assessment of systematic reviews. Earlier research related to assessment of student theses demonstrates the difficulties with agreement in assessment practice. The results from earlier studies regarding the importance of the examiners’ background present a divided picture. While some research point to the examiners’ own subject or experience as important when judging theses, other studies do not.

  • 321.
    Lundström, Mats
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Åström, Maria
    Karlstads universitet.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Assessing student theses:: Differences and similarities between examiners from different academic disciplines2016In: Practitioner Research in Higher Education, ISSN 1755-1382, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 217-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The writing of student theses is an important activity at universities and is expected to demonstrate the students’ academic skills. In the teacher-education programme, examiners from different academic disciplines are involved in supervising and examining student theses. Moreover, different subject disciplines have different traditions concerning what is seen as knowledge and the way research is performed, which could result in different assessment practices and judgements. Earlier studies demonstrate a fragmented picture concerning the importance of the examiners’ academic discipline in judging theses. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether examiners from different academic subject disciplines emphasise similar or different criteria when assessing student theses. A total of 66 examiners from six universities with teacher education programmes in Sweden have answered an online Q-survey where they compared different criteria and rank-ordered them. The results demonstrate minor differences between individuals from different academic disciplines: Only two out of the 45 criteria had significant differences between academic discipline groups. Thus, the results indicate that teacher education is a boundary-crossing, multi-disciplinary field which primarily uses generic criteria.

  • 322.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Alone with the test - students´perspectives on an enacted policy of national testing in Swedish schools2015In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 34-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 323.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Explosion positions given to parents and claims of agency in student’s stories about grades2016In: Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 140-140Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on data collected in a wider study of national testing and grading policies for school year six that were introduced in Sweden 2012. The research project focuses specifically on elementar y students’ experiences of receiving grades and taking the national tests. In this paper we direct the interest towards the positions given to parents in the student’s stories about talking about grades with their parents. The purpose of the paper is to ex plore how ‘territories of agency’ take shape in student’s stories in relation to discursive narratives of performative pressure within global and national education systems. The now stronger focus on grades in Sweden is considered a part of the delivery chain -stressing learning outcomes as the main issue for everyone involved in education – reaching from global actors such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to the individual students (Ball, et al. 2012). The performativ e pressure on schools, teachers, and students aiming to improve results and schools’ ranking positions affects the local actor’s actions and identities. As subjects to policy their agency is limited but in their stories student’s make claims of having some degree of freedom to act. These ‘claims of territories of agency’ are understood as expressed through narrative performances of individual and collective identities in student’s stories about experiences of talking about grades with parents. This narrativ e approach lets us focus on the links between how students position themselves relation to their parents and vis - a - vis discourses of performativity (Ball, 1997) in their stories and through their storytelling (Bamberg, 1997). Students from eleven differen t schools in five different municipalities were interviewed with the purpose of obtaining a great variety of student experiences. In total we have conducted 80 interviews with 195 students and some of them have been interviewed twice. Students were intervi ewed in groups (n= 2 - 5). The analysis in this paper is based on what students told us about their experiences of talking to parents about grades. In a thematic analysis we found three different themes regarding how the students described their parent’s att itudes towards grades and the student’s efforts related to grades. The first theme is about parents that do not talk about grades with their children. The second is about parents that put pressure on their children to get good grades often without engagin g -or knowing how to engage -in how this is done. The third theme is about parents that focus on their children’s wellbeing by putting the grades in different perspectives – e.g. by downplay the importance of grades or emphasize the importance of having one’s own agenda. In this paper we further investigate how the positions are given to parents in the “story - world” (Bamberg, 1997) and how the students position themselves as students when telling the stories. Preliminary results suggest that students ‘cla im territories of agency’ for themselves by positioning their parents in different ways in the story - worlds.

  • 324.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Grades in the eyes of our parents: A narrative approach to educational resilience in pupils’ stories of getting their first grades2017In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, ISSN ISSN 2002-0317, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates educational resilience from the pupil’s perspective through an analysis of how Swedish pupils in grade six position themselves in relation to their parents’ expecta- tions and the school’s grading practice. The term ‘resilience’ refers to pupils’ own views of their potential to learn and succeed in school in a social context, where parents are important as normative actors. Data consists of group interviews with pupils at three schools. By using a narrative analysis, a perspective is adopted that considers the multiple meanings involved when pupils position themselves in their stories about grades and parents. The analysis illustrates how a situated understanding of pupils’ senses of resilience makes family expecta- tions, and the importance of pleasing yourself and others and of adapting to grading systems, important aspects to pupils’ own views of their potential to learn and succeed at school. Home and school stand out as different arenas based on the norm of success, but with different ideas about how to deal with schoolwork and grades. A conclusion is that changes in the Swedish grading system might result in a gap regarding knowledge about grades at home and school and double pressure on pupils to achieve good grades.

  • 325.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Motståndskraft i berättelser om betyg och föräldrar2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1:1, p. 51-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 326.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Performative pressure and identity formation in Swedish students’ stories about national tests2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 327.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Preparations for national tests in grade six – narratives from those that are assessed2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss how students are prepared and prepare themselves before conducting national tests. Recently the routines of national testing were extended in Sweden by introducing national tests in Science and Social science in grade six. The intentions with the test is to contribute to that the assessment will be equal and fair, to concretize the curricula and to improve students’ results. The tests are conducted during the spring term and they are supposed to mirror the summative learning results of the students’ achievements for the passed school years. An implicit idea in this policy is that students and schools should not prepare for the tests. The policy of extended national testing is regarded as an expression of the state’s increased demands on accountability and of a need for unambiguous information on a national school market. The research builds on a vision of educational reform as something that both frames the terms of the school’s stakeholders and is shaped by the local translations and enactments of the reforms. Data consists of interviews with sixth-grade students from ten schools who are characterized by different background factors, such as socioeconomic conditions and geographic location. The students were interviewed groups of students (n. 2-5) a few days after the national test. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. We have conducted an analysis of micro-narratives of students’ stories about their experiences of preparing for national tests. Preliminary results indicate that schools and students in varying degrees prepare for individual tests. Students variously spend a lot of energy to prepare, or just follow the preparations done in school, or do not prepare at all. Some schools prepare students a lot and others leave the task of preparation to the students to solve alone. A conclusion suggested in the paper is that the tests from a students’ perspective can be said to contribute to differences in students’ possibilities to prepare and perform good results in school.

  • 328.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Department of Educational Studies, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Pupils’ enactments of a policy for equivalence: Stories about different conditions when preparing for national tests2018In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article revolves around the educational policy introduced in Swedish schools that has extended national testing to younger pupils. The policy is intended to support equal assessment and grading. With the exception of short-term preparations for the tests focused on here, the testing routines are regulated by the state. The paper aims to examine how the policy of national testing in grade six is enacted in different school contexts from a pupil’s point of view, and how this affects equivalence in school. A narrative analysis was conducted of pupils’ (n = 150) stories about preparing for national tests in 11 schools. Three forms of enactments were distinguished according to how responsibility for test preparations was allocated in each school. In some schools, teachers invited the pupils systematically to the translation process. In other schools, pupils were given most of the responsibility for preparation and were left alone as actors vis-a-vis the policy. Finally, in schools that applied ad hoc preparations, the pupils’ position as actors became less secure and more multifaceted. This variety regarding the pupils’ test preparations in school stress that the different enactments of this policy of national testing have implications for the interpretation of equivalence in school.

  • 329.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap Historia, Karlstads universitet.
    “Ni blir inte betygsatta… det är lärarna som blir det”: En liten berättelse om press och eget ansvar som en del av den stora framgångsberättelsen2018In: Berättelser: Vänbok till Héctor Pérez PrietoAnnica / [ed] Annica Löfdahl Hultman, Marie Tanner och Christina Olin-Scheller, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet , 2018, p. 105-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet kommer vi att återberätta en berättelse som de tre eleverna Björn, Erik och Cissi1 berättade för oss våren efter att de hade fått sina första betyg. Denna vår år 2014 var också den första på många år som svenska elever i årskurs 6 fick betyg över huvud taget. Berättelsen handlar om just dessa elevers erfarenheter av att få betyg, men den kan också förstås som ett bidrag till en större berättelse om betydelsen av att forma framgångsrika och konkurrenskraftiga elever. Den berättelsen berättas idag av många olika aktörer både i och utanför skolan. Såväl elever, lärare och rektorer på enskilda skolor som nationella och globala aktörer är idag upptagna av att mäta och visa upp framgångsrika resultat (Lingard, 2011; Lingard, Martino & Rezai-Rashti, 2013). Vår ambition med kapitlet är att försöka illustrera hur man genom att lyssna väldigt noga på enskilda människors berättelser och sedan kontextualisera dem – det vill säga sätta dem i ett sammanhang som framstår som relevant för såväl oss som forskare som för dem som berättar – kan bidra med nya nyanser till stora eller dominerande berättelser om vad skola och utbildning är till för. Därmed ansluter vi oss till en forskningstradition som ”är ute efter människornas berättelser om vad de gör när de lever sina sociala omständigheter, och de erfarenheter som detta innebär för deras liv och för det samhälle de lever i” (Pérez Prieto, 2007, s. 289; se även Plummer, 2001; Freeman, 2010).

  • 330.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad Universitet, Sweden.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad Universitet, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Karlstad Universitet, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Göteborgs Universitet, Sweden.
    Att ständigt bli bedömd2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1:1, p. 175-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 331.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Betydelsen av att visa upp goda resultat på de nationella proven i NO2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1:1, p. 125-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Elvstrand, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jansson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hur reformer styr verksamhet på fritidshem2016In: Venue, ISSN 2001-788X, p. 1-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste åren har fritidshemmen präglats av en ”reformträngsel”. Hur påverkar det den dagliga verksamheten? Genom att ta del av lärares och rektorers egna berättelser om fritidshem har vi undersökt hur reformerna förändrar fritidshemmens verksamhet idag och hur det påverkar det systematiska kvalitetsarbetet.

  • 333.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholms universitet.
    Att hitta svaret i eller bortom texten: en analys av elevers svar på PISA-frågan om ozon2011In: Kemiundervisning, text och textbruk i finlandssvenska och svenska skolor: en komparativ tvärvetenskaplig studie / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag , 2011, p. 302-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka kemikunskaper prioriteras i svenska och finlandssvenska klassrum? Vad finns det för kulturella skillnader i sättet att undervisa?Den här studien har bland annat tillkommit till följd av att finska elevers resultat är bland de främsta i flera jämförande internationella studier. Rapporten består av sju kapitel som alla på olika sätt analyserar videobandade klassrumsobservationer, intervjuer och texter från tre svenska och fyra finlandssvenska klassrum. De olika analyserna som presenteras i denna rapport ger mångsidiga beskrivningar av hur ett specifikt naturvetenskapligt innehåll tar form i undervisningen. Sammantaget ger texterna ett underlag för en fördjupad diskussion om vad som utgör skillnader och likheter i undervisningen i de två länderna.Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av frågor om undervisning, textbruk, kunskap, lärande och bedömning, med speciellt fokus på kemi. Forskningsprojektet har finansierats av Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 334.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet.
    Bedömningshandlingar i två klassrum: Likartat kemiinnehåll men skilda inramningar2011In: Kemiundervisning, text och textbruk i finlandssvenska och svenska skolor: en komparativ tvärvetenskaplig studie / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2011, p. 238-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här delstudien analyseras två lärares introduktion samt uppföljning till ett moment i grundskolans kemi som berör det periodiska systemet och kemiska bindningar med särskilt fokus på lärarnas frågor, elevernas svar och den feedback lärare ger. Vi kommer i det följande att fokusera den aspekt av två lärares bedömningsarbete som är relaterad till klassrumskommunikationen – bedömningshandlingar på mikronivå under två lektioner. Det vi särskilt studerar är frågornas och svarens form och innehåll, samt lärarnas feedback till eleverna. Tidigare studier av lärares frågor till eleverna har huvudsakligen fokuserat formaspekter och visat att den typ av frågor som dominerar är sådana som enbart kräver ett kort och givet svar: ”Both in questioning and written work, teachers’ assessment focuses on low-level aims, mainly recall” (Black & Wiliam 1998a, s. 13, kursiv i originaltext). Vidare visar studierna att lärarnas respons – bedömning – av elevernas svar är kortfattad, antingen accepteras svaret eller så avvisas det. Även om forskning inriktat på klassrumskommunkation (jfr t.ex. Sahlström, 2008) har ett annat fokus, förstärker dessa studier citatet av Black och Wiliam. Ett återkommande resultat inom klassrumsforskning pekar på formen för kommunikationen, IR-E mönstret (Initiering, Respons, Evaluering), medan man sällan haft fokus på innehållsliga aspekter av kommunikationen (Carlgren, 2009). I det här kapitlet undersöker vi vilka slags frågor kemilärare i svenska och finlandssvenska ställer till sina elever, vilket innehåll som fokuseras i frågorna, vilka slags svar eleverna förväntas ge och vilken feedback lärarna ger på elevernas svar. På ett övergripande plan är vårt syfte att analysera vad som framstår som viktigt att kunna i ett specifikt moment av grundskolans kemi men också att belysa aspekter av formativ bedömning relaterad till lärares klassrumsarbete. Vi har tidigare presenterat en analys av 55 frågor (två lektioner) i ett av de finlandssvenska klassrummen, en vanlig lektion och en laborationslektion (Lindberg & Löfgren, 2010). I det kapitlet utvecklade vi den analysmetod vi nu använder som utgångspunkt samt en kompletterande jämförelse av de två lärarnas frågor, svar och feedback. Det vi avser att bidra med är kunskap om är vad som blir tillgängligt för eleverna att lära och vilket  kemikunnande som stöds i de olika klassrummen.

    Vi inleder med att introducera begreppen formativ bedömning och feedback och efter detta kommer ett avsnitt som behandlar naturvetenskapliga ämnespraktiker. Sedan följer det som är kapitlets huvudinnehåll – ett preciserat syfte, en presentation av hur vi gått tillväga metodiskt i analysarbetet och därefter följer resultat och diskussion.

  • 335.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att få sina första betyg: en rapport om elevers berättelser om sina erfarenheter av att få betyg i årskurs 62016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten belyser frågor om hur betygen i årskurs 6 tagits emot av elever och vilka effekter de har gett för dem som skolelever. Det övergripande syftet är att på ett nyanserat sätt beskriva elevers synsätt på, och erfarenheter av att få betyg i årskurs 6. Ett särskilt intresse riktas mot elevernas berättelser om hur deras tillvaro i skola och hem har förändrats i årskurs 6 och hur lärare, kam­rater och föräldrar förhåller sig till betygen. Elevberättelser från 11 olika skolor år 2014–2015 utgör projektets underlag för dataproduktionen. Kvalitativa gruppintervjuer genomfördes med elever i årskurs 6 strax efter att de genomfört nationella prov i SO eller NO samt i samband med att de fick sina betyg.

    Resultaten i den här rapporten visar att det talas mycket om betyg i skola och hem vilket sätter tryck på eleverna att visa vad de kan och att detta präglar elevernas syn på sig själva som skolelever i årskurs 6. I vissa berättelser framträ­der betygen som mindre viktiga både på kort och på lång sikt – det vill säga som ’low stake’. I andra berättelser framträder betygen i årskurs 6 som ’high stakes’ och som ytterst betydelsefulla för hur eleverna beskriver sin framtid. Resultaten visar även att variationen är stor i hur eleverna framträder som skolelever i sina berättelser om sina erfarenheter av att ha fått betyg. Här finns berättelser där elever framstår som relativt ensamma och hjälplösa med ett stort eget ansvar för att själva komma på hur de ska blir bättre och visa upp det, men det finns även berättelser där elever ger uttryck för att de får mycket stöd av sin omgivning och visar tillit inför att bli betygsatta. Det framgår tydligt i dessa data att det har betydelse hur och i vilken omfattning det talas om betyg i elevernas närmsta omgivning i det sociala samspelet mellan lärare, kamrater och föräldrar, för hur olika förhållningssätt till betyg tar form i elevernas berättelser. Rapporten vill möjliggöra ett vidare samtal om den rådande betygs- och bedömningspraktikens konsekvenser för både individer och samhälle.

  • 336.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    National tests in science in grade six - student stories about their concern for the test questions2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to investigate students’ concern for the national test in science as an effect of changes in the education system toward a stronger state interest in knowledge measurement in a decentralized and competitive school system. Our research questions are: What are students’ experiences of national tests in science? How do the students conceptualize the test questions? This paper focuses on elementary students’ experiences of assessment against the backdrop of the now extensive practice of national testing in the sixth grade of Swedish schools. The students were interviewed in a group of students (n. 2-5) a few days after the national test. They were asked to refer to their feelings about performing the test (e.g. Can you tell us what it was like to take a national test?) and about their strategies to answer the questions (e.g. Can you tell us about your experiences about the test questions?). All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. We listened to the interviews and read the transcripts and conducted an analysis of narratives of students’ stories about their experiences of the national test. The students tell about a great concern for the national tests in science and how important the national tests are for their grades. They tell stories about limited possibilities to prepare before the test. They also talk about questions that do not challenge their knowledge, as well as questions that are difficult to conceptualize. From a student perspective, some questions are impossible to answer because they are “dealing with the wrong stuff” since the science content in the test questions do not always reflect the content of the science teaching in school. It is evident in our data that the now extended practice of assessment is in a process of taking shape. The national tests do not just create opportunities for students to improve their grades, but they also limit students’ opportunities to participate in a science practice.

  • 337.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Swedish students’ experiences of national testing in science: A narrative approach2017In: Curriculum inquiry, ISSN 0362-6784, E-ISSN 1467-873X, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 390-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the policy of national testing was expanded in 2013 by introducing national tests in science in the sixth grade. The aim of this study is to contribute knowledge about the enactment of this policy of national testing by investigating students' experiences of taking the tests. Students were interviewed about their experiences oftaking national tests, and a narrative analysis was conducted. More specifically, the students' stories were analysed in terms of identity performances taking shape in relation to a testing discourse. The analysis shows avariety of aspects that the students themselves stress as important when taking the tests; such as the lack of time provided, difficulties regarding the actual tests, processes in the classroom context, and the importance of the test results for their grades. Several of the identity performances in the students' stories refer to a testing discourse stressing that teachers focus on testing procedures rather than caring for the students when the policy of nationaltesting is enacted. The results also emphasize the difficulties in understanding the test questions as well as discrepancies in science content between what is taught in school and what is being tested.

  • 338.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Göteborgs University, Sweden.
    Betygens betydelse: nu och i framtiden2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1:1, p. 35-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 339.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Pupils perceptions of grades: a narrative analysis of stories about getting graded for the first time2019In: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 259-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for this article is changes in the Swedish assessment system which stated that pupils are to receive grade reports in school year 6 (12-13 years old) during the academic year 2012-2013. Since the 1970s, compulsory school pupils have received their first grade reports in grade 7 and/or 8. The issue here is to present pupils narratives about the possible future significance of grade reports in school year 6. Pupils were interviewed about their experiences of getting their first grade reports, and a narrative analysis was conducted. More specifically, we investigated pupils conceptions of themselves as pupils and of their future possibilities, as described in their stories of getting their first grade report. The findings show that pupils perceive grades in year 6 differently, showing both adaption and resistance to the new grading discourse. Our conclusion concerns pupils learning and well-being when national assessment policies are changed.

  • 340.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Student stories about their malleability in relation to grades and national tests in school year six2015In: EARLI 2015 Book of Abstracts, European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction , 2015, p. 579-579Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to investigate students’ experiences of the national test as an effect of changes in the education system toward a stronger state interest in knowledge measurement in a decentralized and competitive school system. Our research questions are: What are students’ experiences of national tests in relation to their grades? How do the students talk about their own malleability? The students were interviewed in a group of students (n. 2-5). They were asked to refer to their grades in relation to the national tests (e.g. Are the national tests important for your grades?) and about their possibilities to change their grades. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. We listened to the interviews and read the transcripts and conducted an analysis of narratives of students’ stories about their experiences of the national test. The students tell about a great variation when talking about the role of national tests for their grades, some students say that the national tests are very important for their grades whereas other say that the national tests only can raise the grades never lower them and some state that the national tests are of no importance for their grades. They also tell stories about their ability to change their grades later on in school. However, from a student perspective the national tests and the grades in school year six do not just create opportunities for students, they also limit students’ opportunities.

    Theoretically and methodology framework

    In Sweden the practice of national testing now is extended through the introduction of national tests in Science (Chemistry, Physics and Biology) and Social Science (History, Geography, Religion and Social Studies) in grade six. This is one in a series of reforms aiming to tighten the impact of learning goals formulated by the state. The reform is regarded as an expression both of the state’s increasing interest in managing and controlling schools and of a need for unambiguous information about schools’ effectiveness from actors on a national school market (Lundahl, 2005). Both the state and parents choosing schools for their children ask for simple measures of schools’ quality (Lindblad, 2000). Further, one fundamental aspect of the system is that by providing information about learning outcomes, students themselves can develop their own learning. Yet we know little about the ways students, the subjects of governance, experience and share their experiences of national tests.

    A central idea in the paper is that reforms are interpreted and enacted rather than implemented, and therefore it is useful to listen to the actors’ experiences (Ball et al., 2012). Theoretically, this research builds on a vision of educational reform as something that, on one hand, frames and shapes the terms of the school’s stakeholders and their ability to shape their identities. On the other hand, the actors’ stories or translations of those reforms reflect how reform is enacted in practice and how its results can be understood (Ball, 2006; Ball et al., 2012). Research on assessment from a student perspective is unusual, especially when it involves young learners (Forsberg & Lindberg, 2010). Most evaluation research focuses on student achievement and on school results rather than on students’ experiences, the core of this project. However, some European studies are relevant to this paper’s discussion. Kasanen and Räty (2002) showed that self-assessment of students in first grade affects their perceptions of themselves at school and that they compete with one another, comparing their own results with those of classmates. In a study of students in grades three and six, Kärkkäinen et al. (2008) found that students develop a perception about their own abilities and their malleability quite early. The students’ results and experiences of success or failure, in conjunction with comparing their results with those of others, contribute to early and stable perceptions of themselves over time and to pessimism in terms of possible change. In addition, two studies have shown that students hold varying perceptions about assessment’s function but a common perception that assessment is done for others rather than for themselves (Törnvall, 2002; Ross et al., 2002).

    Method and data

    Data in this paper is collected within the framework of a project financed by the Swedish Science Council in which we interview sixth-grade students from ten schools who are characterized by different background factors, such as socioeconomic conditions and geographic location.The students were interviewed in a group of students (n. 2-5). They were asked to refer to their grades in relation to the national tests (e.g. Are the national tests important for your grades?) and about their possibilities to change their grades. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. We listened to the interviews and read the transcripts and conducted an analysis of narratives of students’ stories about their experiences of the national test.

    Findings

    Our analysis of students’ stories indicates a narrative of an increased performative pressure when national science tests in grade six were introduced. In the students´ stories about how they cope with the pressure, identity formations of insecurity (agony) and competence (pride) are constructed. The students emphasize the importance of the situation both for the teachers and for their own future (cf. Ross et al., 2002; Kärkkäinen et al., 2008). The students tell about a great variation when talking about the role of national tests for their grades, some students say that the national tests are very important for their grades whereas other say that the national tests only can raise the grades never lower them. Some students also tell stories about their malleability i.e. their ability to change their grades later on in school. However, from a student perspective the national tests and the grades in school year six do not just create opportunities for students, they also limit students’ opportunities.

    References

    Ball, S. J. (2006). Performativities and fabrications in the education economy: Towards the performative society. In H. Lauder, P. Brown, J-A. Dillabough & A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Education, globalization & social change (pp. 692–701). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M. & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactment in secondary schools. London: Routledge.

    Forsberg, E. & Lindberg, V. (2010). Svensk forskning om bedömning — en kartläggning. Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

    Kasanen, K. & Räty, H. (2002). ”You have to be honest in your assessment”: Teaching and learning self-assessment. Social psychology of education 5, s. 313–328.

    Kärkkäinen, R., Räty, H. & Kasanen, K. (2008). Children’s notions of the malleability of their academic competencies. Social psychology of education 11, s. 445–458.

    Lindblad, S. (2000). Verklighetens omätbara aspekter. Pedagogiska magasinet, 4.

    Lundahl, L. (2005). A matter of self-governance and control. The reconstruction of Swedish education policy: 1980–2003. European Education, 1(37), 10–25.

    Ross, J. A., Rolheiser, C. & Hogaboam-Gray, A. (2002). Influences on students’ cognition about evaluation. Assessment in Education, Principles, Policy & Practice, 9(1), 81–95.

    Törnvall, M. (2001). Uppfattningar och upplevelser av bedömning i grundskolan. Malmö: Högskolan, Lärarutbildningen. (licentiatavhandling).

  • 341.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Karlstad universitet, Karlstad.
    Students stories about their feelings of getting grades in school year 6 – a matter of high stake?2016In: Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 140-141Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates students ́experiences of getting grades and explores the identities as students that take shape in their stories. Recently, grades from school - year 6 instead of year 8 were introduced in Swedish schools. However, granting their importance in students´ life, little is known abo ut the personal meaning of grades to students, especially the feelings and understandings that students hold about grades both in a present tense as well as in a future tense. One main function of grades is to select students into higher levels in the educ ational system but they are also expected to motivate students to learn more and provide information about learning outcomes. Previous studies have shown that grades in early years contribute to stable perceptions of student selves over time and to pessimi sm in terms of possible change (Kasanen & Räty, 2002; Kärkkäinen, 2008). Often, issues of “high stake” deal with questions of tests and grades as objective gatekeepers for students ́ future possibilities to education. However, in this paper, we consider “hi gh stake” as a subjective matter linked to students ́ feelings and future dreams. The overall aim of the paper is to problematize “high stake” as a matter of objectivity by stressing students ́ subjective feelings in their stories about grades and grading. O ur research questions are: How do the students talk about the possibilities to influence their grades now and in future? What feelings take shape in the students’ stories about their experiences of grades? Students from eleven different schools in five di fferent municipalities were interviewed with the purpose of obtaining a great variety of student experiences. In total we have conducted 80 interviews with 195 students. The students were interviewed in a group of students (n=2 - 5) and asked to refer to the ir experiences and feelings of grades. We listened to the interviews and read the transcripts and conducted a narrative analysis of the students’ stories. Some students express feelings of pressure and say that the grades are deemed important for their po ssibilities to get a job in the future. This we regard as an expression of grades as “high stake”. Other students express more relaxed feelings and talk about a limited value of grades in school - year 6 for their future plans. To them the grades do not stan d out as “high stake”. Several studies indicate that younger students seem to see grades as labels that are hard to change. From this perspective all grades are “high stake” in a kind of objective sense. However, this study indicates that the grades are no t “high stake” to all students when considering their feelings and future dreams. Many of the students in this study talk about future in terms of possibilities to change their grades or find grades and grading not an important issue yet. To them the grade s might be “high stake” later on – or not.

  • 342.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Schoultz, JanLinköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.Hultman, GlennLinköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Nordic studies in science education: Special issue: The 10th nordic research symposium om science education in Linköping June, 2011.2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hultman, Glenn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Exploratory talk in science education: Inquiry-based learning and communicative approach in primary school2013In: Journal of Baltic Science Education, ISSN 1648-3898, E-ISSN 2538-7138, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 482-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research on science education has increasingly focused on the role of exploratory talk for learning science in school. This study was conducted in third grade in the Swedish compulsory school and shows how difficult exploratory talk in science is to achieve. The recordings of each lesson focused mainly on the teacher but included the pupils as the teacher interacted with them. The empirical material was analysed from two different perspectives: ways of communicating the science content and communicative approach. The analysis of the classroom practice showed that scientific descriptions were dominating ways of communication. Only in a few cases explanations of scientific phenomena were in focus. Those situations caused turning points into more interactive/dialogic communications or exploratory talk. One main conclusion is that exploratory talk and scientific explanations are not easily achieved when working in primary school. These skills are not automatically attained by the use of inquiry-based material - it needs to be trained!

  • 344.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hultman, Glenn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Kommunicera naturvetenskap i skolan – exempel från årskurs 3.2011In: Ämnesdidaktik -- dåtid, nutid och framtid.: Bidrag från femte rikskonferensen i ämnesdidaktik vid Linköpings universitet 26-27 maj 2010. / [ed] Martinsson, Bengt-Göran & Parmenius Swärd, Suzanne, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, p. 51-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet handlar det om kommunikation och interaktion mellan lärare och elever.Löfgren m.fl. prövar ett analysverktyg för att studera dialog- eller interaktionstyperi klassrummet. Har samtalet om ämnet någon betydelse ochvilka olika typer av elev- lärar-interaktion kan finnas? Samtalet är enligtförfattarna kontextbundet till respektive ämnes diskurs. Inom naturvetenskaputgörs diskursen främst av beskrivningar, generaliseringar och förklaringar,med andra ord hur läraren får eleverna att tillägna sig och användanaturvetenskapliga begrepp. De visar på mönster i interaktionenmellan lärare och elev och genom framför allt sociokulturella teorier omlärande analyserar de vilken typ av interaktion som bäst främjar begreppsutveckling.

  • 345.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Avdelningen för didaktik och forskning om pedagogiskt arbete (DIPA). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hultman, Glenn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The content and form in science education2009In: ESERA, Istanbul, 2009, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 346.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Johnsson, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Domino Østergaard, Lars
    Institut for Medicin og Sundhedsteknologi, Aalborg Universitet, Danmark.
    Engagerande samtal i det naturvetenskapliga klassrummet [Inquiry based dialouge in science classroom]2014In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 130-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on classroom communication within an inquiry-based science education (IBSE) program, called NTA (Naturvetenskap och Teknik för Alla). The overall aim of the study is to highlight the ways in which productive and engaging conversations are conducted in the classroom. We have analysed the work within the unit ”The Chemistry of food” and the theme testing of fat in food in grade five and six in a Swedish and a Danish science classroom. We have used video cameras and mp3-players to follow the classroom interaction. Our findings indicate that the classroom communication was focused on everyday science content and that the introduction and the summary of the theme were very important for the pupils’ possibilities to productive disciplinary engagement.

  • 347.
    Mahmoud Nejad, Sama
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Ahlberg, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Lugna aktiviteter eller bollspel?: En observationsstudie av barns aktivitetsval på fritidshemmet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn spenderar en stor del av sin tid i olika institutioner som skola och fritidshem. I den delen av vardagen som definieras som fritid gör barn olika val av aktiviteter. Begreppet motorik är i detta sammanhang en aspekt av aktiviteter som är intressant att undersöka. Människors rörelseförmåga och rörelsemönster är den generella definitionen på motorik som delas in i finmotorik och grovmotorik. Tidigare forskning visar att pojkar generellt har en mer utvecklad motorik än flickor och att dessa skillnader blir större ju äldre de blir. Syftet med vår uppsats är att undersöka barns val och deltagande i finmotoriska och grovmotoriska aktiviteter på fritidshemmet. Vi har även tittat på hur faktorer som miljö, verksamhet och pedagogers samspel med barnen och deras aktiviteter relaterar till varandra. Studiens resultat grundar sig i observationer på två olika fritidshem i Sverige. Resultatet har granskats med hjälp av våra teoretiska utgångspunkter, genus och sociokulturellt perspektiv. Det som har framkommit i denna studie är att i valet av aktiviteter som är grovmotoriska eller finmotoriska väljer pojkar generellt grovmotoriska aktiviteter och flickor finmotoriska. Sammanfattningsvis i denna studie framgick det att miljö, pedagogers handlingar, barns intressen, förväntningar, föreställningar, normer och olika grader av strukturer i verksamheten utgör faktorer som kan ha betydelse för barns aktivitetsval på fritidshemmet.

  • 348.
    Maria, Simonsson
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Elvstrand, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Kristina, Hellberg
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samverkan mellan hem och fritidshemska gynna skolresultaten2015In: Venue, ISSN 2001-788X, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I de nyligen publicerade Skolverkets allmänna råd om fritidshem betonas ett ökat samarbete mellan fritidshem och hemmet. Det innebär ökad delaktighet men också styrning och kontroll av såväl barn som kontakten med föräldrar/vårdnadshavare. På så sätt ska fritidshemmet komplettera skolans verksamhet och ge bättre skolresultat.

  • 349.
    Markström, Ann-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Soft governance" i förskolans utvecklingssamtal.2011In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, no 2, p. 57-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    According to the Curriculum for the Swedish preschool, parent-teacher conferences are important practices in the intermediate sphere and in the relations between home and preschool. This article draws on a study in which the overall aim is to explore how parent-teacher conferences are constructed and used in the Swedish preschool. Using transcripts of audiotaped episodes from parent-teacher conferences, the analysis reveals that the interactions are charactarised by formality in accordance with institutional talk in other institutional settings, but also to a large extent of informality. Additionally, the analyses show that the parent-teacher conferences are characterized by a “soft governance” both in terms of their contents (what) and its form (how). The teachers use various communicative techniques that govern the conversation: closeness and intimacy, the use of anecdotes, references to the common interest of the child, element of humor and laughter, and seemingly neutral questions. In this article it is also discussed how soft governance are used in the construction and assessment of a desirable preschool child and parent.

     

     

    Keywords: assessment, parent-teacher conference, preschool, soft governance

  • 350.
    Markström, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alasuutari, Maarit
    Jyväskylä universitet, Finland.
    The making of the ordinary child in preschool.2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 517-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines parent-teacher conferences in Finnish and Swedish preschools. Previous research has shown that the conferences are mostly about the evaluation of the child. Based on qualitative data, the article studies how this evaluation is done. It asks how the institutional order regarding children is constructed in parent-teacher conferences and what the ordinary child is like that this order presumes. The theoretical framework is adopted from social constructionist research on childhood and institutions. The analysis applies a discourse analytic framework. The results suggest that being and becoming social is the key expectation for a child in Finnish and Swedish preschools; formal education and learning are not often mentioned. In addition, the results show that generational and gendered assumptions are important elements in the institutional order of preschool.

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