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  • 301. Wreje, U
    et al.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Åberg, H
    Byström, B
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    von Schoultz, B
    Collagen metabolism markers as a reflection of bone and soft tissue turnover during the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive use2000In: Contraception, ISSN 0010-7824, E-ISSN 1879-0518, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 265-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different groups of women, 23 healthy young adults and 13 women with chronic posterior pelvic pain, were studied before and during use of oral contraceptives (OC). Collagen metabolism markers-here, the amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and the amino-terminal of procollagen type III-as well as hormones and other endocrine factors indicating the balance between androgen expression/anabolism and catabolism of the subjects (testosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin, and insulin-like growth factor I were measured. Type I procollagen, the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and the amino-terminal of procollagen type III were all significantly decreased during OC use. These findings implicate OC use-induced changes in collagen type I and III turnover. A shift in the anabolic/catabolic balance was also recorded indicating a less anabolic situation during OC use.

  • 302.
    Yang, H
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Surg, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Larsson, J
    Permert, J
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Surg, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Wiren, M
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Surg, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bidirectional supply of glutamine maintains enterocyte ATP content in the in vitro Ussing chamber model2000In: International Journal of Colorectal Disease, ISSN 0179-1958, E-ISSN 1432-1262, Vol. 15, no 5-6, p. 291-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutamine is the principal energy source for enterocytes, but it is not known whether parenteral or enteral supplementation is most beneficial to gut integrity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glutamine in uni- or bidirectional supply on the viability of intestinal mucosa of starved rats during incubation in Ussing chambers. Segments of jejunum from rats starved for 48 h were randomly mounted in Ussing chambers with three nutrient solutions: Krebs buffer without glutamine, 6 mM glutamine added to the mucosal side, 6 mM glutamine added to the mucosal side and 0.6 mM glutamine to the serosal side. ATP content of the mucosa, electrophysiology, and Cr-51-ethyl-enediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) permeability were studied during 180 min of incubation. The addition of glutamine to both sides of the stripped mucosa improved ATP levels compared to the Krebs solution (P<0.05), and the addition of glutamine resulted in an increase in short circuit current (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in Cr-51-EDTA permeability or epithelial electrical resistance. Glutamine supplementation to both the luminal and serosal side in the Ussing chamber was more effective than luminal glutamine only in maintaining ATP levels of intestinal mucosa. Bidirectional supplementation of glutamine might improve intestinal energy metabolism and viability in in vitro studies.

  • 303. Yang, Ping-Chang
    et al.
    Jury, Jennifer
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Sherman, Philip M
    McKay, Derek M
    Perdue, Mary H
    Chronic psychological stress in rats induces intestinal sensitization to luminal antigens2006In: American Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0002-9440, E-ISSN 1525-2191, Vol. 168, no 1, p. 104-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence that stress plays a role in the pathophysiology of chronic intestinal disorders, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies in rats have revealed that stress decreases gut barrier function and allows excessive uptake of luminal material. Here, we investigated whether chronic psychological stress acts to induce sensitization of intestinal tissues to oral antigens. Rats were subjected to 1 hour per day of water avoidance stress or sham stress daily for 10 days, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was delivered by gavage on day 5. Studies to determine sensitization were conducted on day 20. All stressed rats developed HRP-specific IgE antibodies, antigen-induced intestinal secretion, and increased numbers of inflammatory cells in gut mucosa. luminal URP was absorbed more readily by enterocytes of stressed animals. In addition, stressed rats had increased expression of interleukin-4 and decreased expression of Interferon-γ in gut mucosa, a cytokine profile that is typical of allergic conditions. Treatment of stressed rats with an antagonist to corticotropin-releasing hormone (previously shown to inhibit stress-enhanced gut permeability) eliminated the manifestations of intestinal hypersensitivity. Our results indicate that the presence of oral antigen during chronic psychological stress alters the immune response (to sensitization rather than oral tolerance) and causes subsequent antigen-induced gut pathophysiology. Copyright © American Society for Investigative Pathology.

  • 304. Zar, M
    et al.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Pre- and postpartum fear of childbirth in nulliparous and parous women.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 0284-5717, Vol. 30, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 305. Zar, M
    et al.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Relations between anxiety disorders and fear of childbirth during late pregnancy2002In: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, ISSN 1063-3995, E-ISSN 1099-0879, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a group of late pregnant women we investigated the prevalence of extreme fear of childbirth and anxiety disorders, both assessed by means of diagnostic interviews. We also explored the relation between anxiety disorders and extreme fear of childbirth on the one hand and fear of childbirth, as measured by means of the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ), on the other hand. A subgroup of women (2.4%) fulfilled the criteria for a phobia-like fear of childbirth. Anxiety disorders were related to fear of childbirth, as measured by the W-DEQ. The group of women with extreme fear of childbirth (with or without anxiety disorders) had obviously the highest W-DEQ scores. But also in the group of women with anxiety disorders only the W-DEQ scores were high. Clinical assessment of anxiety disorders among pregnant women should be considered, above all in women who report fear of the anticipated delivery. Copyright ⌐ 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 306. Zareie, M
    et al.
    Johnson-Henry, K
    Jury, J
    Yang, P-C
    Ngan, B-Y
    McKay, DM
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Perdue, MH
    Sherman, PM
    Probiotics prevent bacterial translocation and improve intestinal barrier function in rats following chronic psychological stress2006In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 55, no 11, p. 1553-1560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Chronic psychological stress, including water avoidance stress (WAS), induces intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction and impairs mucosal defences against luminal bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of a defined probiotic regimen to prevent WAS induced intestinal pathophysiology. Methods: Male rats were subjected to either WAS or sham stress for one hour per day for 10 consecutive days. Additional animals received seven days of Lactobacillus helveticus and L. rhamnosus in the drinking water prior to stress and remained on these probiotics for the duration of the study. Rats were then sacrificed, intestinal segments assessed in Ussing chambers, and mesenteric lymph nodes cultured to determine bacterial translocation. Results: All animals remained healthy for the duration of the study. Chronic WAS induced excess ion secretion (elevated baseline short circuit current) and barrier dysfunction (increased conductance) in both the ileum and colon, associated with increased bacterial adhesion and penetration into surface epithelial cells. Approximately 70% of rats subjected to WAS had bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes while there was no bacterial translocation in controls. Probiotic pretreatment alone had no effect on intestinal barrier function. However, WAS induced increased ileal short circuit current was reduced with probiotics whereas there was no impact on altered conductance. Pretreatment of animals with probiotics also completely abrogated WAS induced bacterial adhesion and prevented translocation of bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes. Conclusion: These findings indicate that probiotics can prevent chronic stress induced intestinal abnormalities and, thereby, exert beneficial effects in the intestinal tract.

  • 307. Zareie, Mehri
    et al.
    Riff, Jason
    Donato, Kevin
    McKay, Derek M
    Perdue, Mary H
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Karmali, Mohamed
    Cohen, Mitchell B
    Hawkins, Jennifer
    Sherman, Philip M
    Novel effects of the prototype translocating Escherichia coli, strain C25 on intestinal epithelial structure and barrier function2005In: Cellular Microbiology, ISSN 1462-5814, E-ISSN 1462-5822, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 1782-1797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intestinal bacteria play an etiologic role in triggering and perpetuating chronic inflammatory bowel disorders. However, the precise mechanisms whereby the gut microflora influences intestinal cell function remain undefined. Therefore, the effects of the non-pathogenic prototype translocating Escherichia coli, strain C25 on the barrier properties of human T84 and Madine-Darby canine kidney type 1 epithelial cells were examined. T-84 cells were also infected with commensal E. coil, strains F18 and HB101, and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, serotype O157:H7. Strains F18 and HB101 had no effect on transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of T84 monolayers. By contrast, epithelial cells infected with strain C25 displayed a time-dependent decrease in TER, preceded by an altered distribution of the cytoskeletal protein alpha-actinin, comparable to infection with E. coli O157:H7. E. coli C25 infection also led to activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), interleukin-8 secretion and alterations in localization of claudin-1, but not zona occludens-1 or claudin-4, in T84 cells. There were adherent C25 bacteria on the intact apical surface of infected T84 cells, while mitochondria appeared swollen and vacuolated. These novel findings demonstrate the ability of a translocating commensal bacterium to adhere to and modulate intestinal epithelial barrier function and to induce morphological changes in a manner distinct from the known enteric pathogen, E. coli O157:H7. © 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 308.
    Zdolsek, Johann
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Enebog, J.
    Wallon, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Kald, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    A prospective evaluation of the PerFix® Plug technique for groin hernia repair2000In: Hernia, ISSN 1265-4906, E-ISSN 1248-9204, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 311-315Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate complication rates, sick-leave, recurrence rate, and chronic post-operative pain after mesh-plug hernia repair. All 385 consecutive inguinal hernias (373 patients) operated at our department with the PerFix® Plug from September 1996 to December 1997 were included in the study. Follow-up included a questionnaire 3 and 12 months after the repair. Replies to the both of these questionnaires were obtained from 363 of 373 patients (98%). All patients who either reported a lump or sensory disturbance in the operated groin were offered a clinical examination. A third questionnaire focusing on chronic post-operative pain was completed by 77 of 90 patients reporting groin pain. The recurrence rate was 2% (9/385). After 25 months (17-36 months) 38 patients (10%) still experienced inguinal pain to some degree. In 7 male patients there was either pain or discomfort during sexual activities. In a patient with poorly controlled ascites the plug was removed. Day-case surgery was performed in 86% of patients with epidural or local anaesthesia, and 64% in general- or spinal anaesthesia. Employed/self-employed patients were off work for a median of 7 days (0-65). The median time to full recovery for all patients was 20 days. Conclusion: Mesh-plug hernia repair has a reasonably low complication rate together with quick recovery in a non-specialised surgical setting. Chronic inguinal pain is, however, still present to some degree in 10% of patients after two years.

  • 309.
    Öst, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruishalme, Iida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brännmark, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Franck, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Krook, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Kjølhede, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics UHL.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Attenuated mTOR signaling and enhanced autophagy in adipocytes from obese patients with type 2 diabetes2010In: Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass. Print), ISSN 1076-1551, E-ISSN 1528-3658, Vol. 16, no 07-Aug, p. 235-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediates insulin control ofprotein synthesis, autophagy, mitochondrial function, and, through feedback signaling tophosphorylation of IRS1 at serine residues, mTOR directly controls insulin signaling. Weshow that in adipocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) insulin activation of mTORis attenuated and that the resultant phenotype is compatible with, and can be mimicked by,loss of mTOR activation. In T2D adipocytes mitochondrial function is impaired andautophagy strongly upregulated, with concomitant increased autophagic destruction ofmitochondria and lipofuscin particles, and a dependence on autophagy for ATP production.Conversely, mitochondrial dysfunction attenuates insulin activation of mTOR, enhancesautophagy and attenuates feedback to IRS1. Our findings put mTOR in the driver´s seat of aninsulin resistance that in adipocytes can be fuelled by mitochondrial dysfunction,inflammation, ER-stress, or hypoxia.

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