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  • 301.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. På AB, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Jonsson, Ann-Margreth
    TeliaSonera Sverige AB.
    Business Oriented Maintenance Management & ITIL (ITSM): a comparative analysis2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    System maintenance is conducted in organizations that use IT systems and it often consumes considerable resources. To manage this business, it is convenient to use a management model (Nordstrom, 2005). In this report, we have compared the model Business Oriented Maintenance Management, Affärsmassig Förvaltningsstyrning (Nordstrom and Welander, 2002) and the framework Information Technology Infrastructure Library (Berkhout et al, 2001; Bartlett et al, 2001). The background for this is that Affärsmässig Förvaltningsstyrning (AMPS) has been used to organize system maintenance in many organizations for some time now (the latest version of the model is called pm3, Pa Maintenance Management Model, and thus we will refer to it as AMFS/pm3 in this paper). At the same time many organizations have decided to implement the framework Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) to manage IT activities.

    The need for this comparison arose when TeliaSonera modernized their system maintenance management model to a new version called tsm3. tsm3 is based on Affärsmassig Förvaltningsstyrning (Nordstrom and Welander, 2002) and the research results that have been presented in the doctoral dissertation/thesis Manageable System Maintenance, Styrbar Systemförvaltning - att organisera förvaltningsverksamhet med hjälp av effektiva förvaltningsobjekt (Nordström, 2005). In TeliaSonera, ITIL was also introduced to manage IT activities, which resulted in a comparison between tsm3 and ITIL for the purpose of identifying similarities and differences. The result of the study was presented at the Dataföreningen conference Förvaltning 2005 (Dataföreningen, 2005) and met with great interest. This paper is based on that comparison, but is further developed to cover the reference model AMFS/pm3. The reason for this is that we discovered that the question at issue was interesting for several organizations in TeliaSoneras situation. We have chosen to write this report so that those interested in the comparison can get access to our results.

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the frameworks AMFS/pm3 and ITIL are related to each other. The question we want to answer is Can AMFS/pm3 and ITIL be regarded as complementary or competitors in the aim to manage system maintenance?

    The analysis parameters that are used are maintenance activities, maintenance objects, roles and decision-making groups (including control mechanisms).

  • 302.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Innovationslabbet för eHälsa.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Örebro Universitet samt Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Innovationslabbet för eHälsa.
    Kliniska Beslutsstöd: En konceptualisering med IT-goverance implikationer2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller en konceptualisering av begreppet kliniska beslutsstöd. Fem centrala frågor diskuteras och besvaras; vilket är ursprunget för kliniska beslutsstöd?, vad är kliniska beslutsstöd?, var existerar kliniska beslutsstöd?, vilken funktion/syfte har kliniska beslutsstöd?, vad är kontexten för kliniska beslutsstöd?, hur pratar vi om kliniska beslutsstöd?. Resultatet används som avstam för vidare forskning kring IT-governance för kliniska beslutsstöd. 

  • 303.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset och Örebro Universitet.
    Koch, Sabine
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Permert, Johan
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klinisk IT-governance: Principer och språkbruk för klinisk verksamhet och informationssystem i samklang2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vården befinner sig i en dynamisk transformeringsfas där ökad patientinvolvering, värdebaserad vård och personaliserad vård snabbt växer i betydelse. Detta kräver en förbättrad informationsbehandling i klinisk verksamhet, kvalitetsarbete, management samt för innovation och klinisk forskning. Rapporten visar att samma information idag hanteras i flera separata strukturer, vilket i framtiden skall kunna undvikas om vi, genom god organisering, kan skapa ändamålsenliga informationssystem för klinisk verksamhet.

    Vi delar problembilden med utredningen ”Nästa fas i e-hälsoarbetet”, men medan den utredningen fokuserar på statens roll som samordnare och normerare, fokusera vi på vårdgivarnas roll och vad dessa kan göra för att förbättra strukturer och processer mellan klinisk verksamhet och IT-verksamhet.

    Rapporten genomsyras av perspektivet informatik (informationssystem). Detta område har fått ökad uppmärksamhet i och med behovet av ökad semantisk interoperabilitet, då patienter vårdas i kedjor och nätverk av många vårdgivare, och det förväntas att informationen följer patienten. Den här rapporten handlar dock inte om semantisk interoperabilitet eller teknik/arkitektur, utan om hur vårdgivarna kan och bör organisera fram adekvata informationssystem. Samtidigt som man säkrar stabilitet i de cirka 12 500 informationssystem som används i Sverige i vården idag. Vi etiketterar detta klinisk IT-governance, för att betona det kritiska i behovet av samverkan mellan klinisk verksamhet och IT-verksamhet, för att dessa mål ska uppnås. I rapporten påvisas en komplexitet som kan förefalla avskräckande, men som vi menar är en realitet som måste hanteras. Det finns tyvärr inga Silver Bullets för att lösa behovet av informationsförsörjning. Det handlar om enträgenhet, systematiskt och hårt arbete.

    Rapporten bygger på tre studier där vi har undersökt; IT-governance hos vårdgivare i hela landet (L-ITG), hur det informatiska gapet kan överbryggas vid utveckling av kliniska beslutsstöd (BIG), samt behov av strukturer och arbetssätt för digital innovation i Innovationslabbet för eHälsa (Innovationslabbet) vid Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset. Vi som har skrivit rapporten har alla mångårig erfarenhet som forskare, praktiker och lärare inom medicin och/eller informatik.

    L-ITG visar att IT-governancefrågan har beaktats runt om i landet den senaste 10årsperioden. Befintliga informationssystem har kartlagts och 90 procent av landstingen har valt att införa en IT-governancemodell för att organisera samverkan mellan klinisk verksamhet och IT-verksamhet. Detta bör betraktas som en form av transformation, där den traditionella modellen med decentraliserat beslutsfattande kring informationssystem, är på väg att utvecklas till en modell för samverkan mellan klinisk verksamhet och IT-verksamhet. Med hjälp av modellen kan avvägningar göras mellan vårdgrenar, för att använda begränsade resurser på bästa sätt. Medan vissa landsting precis har börjat resan, är andra inne på 7-8 årscykeln, där införandet har övergått till regelrätt kvalitetsarbete. Vi ser dock att införandet av samverkansmodellen har brustit på en central punkt: Den delen av arbetet med informationssystem som ligger nära den kliniska verksamheten (användarstöd, utbildning, förbättringsarbete genom mallar/formulär, deltagande i upphandling osv.) har i många fall organiserats i IT-verksamheten istället för, som sig bör, i den kliniska verksamheten. Forskning och erfarenheter visar samstämmigt att en sådan organisering leder till lägre användaracceptans och lägre nytta av de investeringar som är gjorda i befintliga informationssystem. Användarmedverkan har en central betydelse för kvalitet och acceptans både vid utveckling och vid förvaltning av informationssystem. Detta i kombination med att det skett en intresseglidning från kliniker och forskare mot andra typer av informationssystem, t.ex. kvalitetsregister, gör att en samlad kraftansträngning krävs får att återerövra klinikernas engagemang för vårdgivarnas informationssystem. Dessa andra informationssystem innehåller ofta data som genomgått en valideringsprocess, ger en möjlighet att påverka systemen i kortare cykler samt förenar professionsgrenar över vårdgivargränser. Klinikerna och forskarnas engagemang krävs också för att utveckla och förvalta vårdgivarnas kliniska informationssystem. Vi föreslår därför ett antal konkreta åtgärder som bör genomföras för att öka det kliniska engagemanget, och därmed nyttan, av vårdgivarnas informationssystem. Dessa kan sammanfattas i följande fyra punkter;

    1. Positionera klinisk informatik som ett kompetensområde och utbilda hälsoinformatiker (kan både ha klinisk och/eller informatikbakgrund).
    2. Inrätta en CMIO-roll som får det yttersta ansvaret för klinisk informatik och som blir en ”speaking partner” till CIO avseende informatikfrågor.
    3. Återför den verksamhetsnära förvaltningen till de kliniska verksamheterna. Klinikerna ska inte ”sugas ifrån” den kliniska verksamheten, för att arbeta med IT.
    4. Använd ett språkbruk som är mer anpassat till klinisk verksamhet än traditionella IT-governancetermer.

    Studien av Innovationslabbet, visar att det finns ett behov av att skapa innovationsarenor där kliniska professioner, forskare, innovationsaktörer och IT-professioner kan mötas och utveckla idéer. Innovationslabbet för eHälsa, präglades av ett ”själv-tryck”, där en stor mängd idéer strömmade in från olika delar av SLL. Innovationslabbets idé var från början att finnas som en virtuell resurs, mot bakgrund av att innovation uppstår i den kliniska verksamheten. Vår studie visar dock att en sådan fysisk arena har en funktion och måste ges legitimitet och organisatorisk struktur om det ska vara görligt att stimulera och ta tillvara medarbetarnas innovationsidéer. Behovet av systemutvecklingskompetens hos landstingen är en fråga som får anses belagd via studien av Innovationslabbet, men också via LITG där de flesta pekade på behovet av egen utvecklingsförmåga. Inte nödvändigtvis för att utveckla informationssystem från grunden, utan för att göra t.ex. prototyper som grund för kravställning vid upphandling. Sammanfattningsvis föreslår vi införandet av en dynamisk förmåga hos vårdgivarna bestående av tre agila (lättrörliga) IT-governancemekanismer:

    1. Analytiska system för att uppfatta, filtrera, och kalibrera idéer, behov och möjligheter.
    2. Organisatoriska strukturer och processer för att eskalera idéer, behov och möjligheter till utveckling i Trippel Helix konstellationer (klinisk verksamhet, akademi och industri).
    3. Mekanismer för kontinuerlig sammansmältning av det nya med det befintliga genom kunskapshantering, överföringsarenor samt utbildning och systematiskt lärande.

    I denna miljö kan den kliniska informatiken som kompetensområde initialt ges möjlighet att formas, växa och ta ett större ansvar för semantisk interoperabilitet på olika nivåer samt utveckla kliniska informationsmodeller och kliniska beslutsstöd. Våra tre studier pekar alla mot att kliniska beslutsstöd är det som klinikerna efterfrågar. Av de cirka 30 innovationsprojekt vi studerat, utgjorde de allra flesta någon typ av beslutsstöd som integrerar kunskap från olika källor för att förmedla kunskap, och på sikt även ge individuella rekommendationer.

    I föreliggande rapport har vi sammanfattningsvis tre bidrag;

    1. Principer för att hantera stabilitet (mode 1-förmåga) och dynamik (mode 2-förmåga)
      • a. En övergripande bimodal modell för att hantera stabilitet respektive förändring i två skilda strukturer.
      • b. Principer och åtgärder för stärkt mode 1 förmåga
      • c. Förslag till indelning och innehåll i mode 2 förmåga
    2. Förslag till begrepp för området klinisk IT-governance som kan vara professionsöverskridande (kliniska professioner, forskare och IT-professioner)
    3. Positionering av klinisk informatik som kompetensområde.

    Vi pekar dessutom på att IT-governance är ett etablerat kunskapsområde, och det bör vara naturligt att detta kunskapsområde, påverkar fortsatt utveckling av ITgovernance i praktiken, på samma sätt som forskning inom medicin påverkar klinisk verksamhet.

    Med dessa principer, åtgärder och förslag till gemensamt språkbruk är det vår förhoppning att gemensamma informationssystem kan användas för klinisk verksamhet, klinisk forskning, för innovation samt i managementsyfte.

    Rapporten vänder sig till beslutsfattare hos vårdgivare, som har ansvar över kliniska informationssystem, såväl ur kliniskt som IT-mässigt perspektiv.

  • 304.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Örebro Universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lundkvist, Fredrik
    Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Solna, Sverige.
    Permert, Johan
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Klinisk Digital Innovation: Principer och språkbruk för klinisk digitaliseringsförmåga2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitalisering och innovation är två metoder som ofta nämns i samband med utveckling av vården. Utmaningen är grannlaga inte minst eftersom det handlar om att styra mot ett rörligt mål som definieras av ett samhälle i förändring, men vården har också ett ständigt tillflöde av kunskap genom forskning och kvalitetsarbete. Även den explosionsartade användningen av teknik i samhället sätter förväntansnivåer hos såväl medborgare, patienter som vårdpersonal och forskare. I den här rapporten undersöker vi hur informatisk innovation (benämnd digitalisering) kan användas som instrument i vårdens förändringsarbete. Rapporten bygger på en studie av Innovationslabbet för eHälsa, som via en initial finansiering från Vinnova, etablerades på Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset 2013–2016. Arbetet i innovationslabbet har varit explorativt, i linje med beviljad ansökan, och genom följeforskning har vi studerat innovationsverksamheten genom 25 innovationsberättelser som författas av innovationslabbets medarbetare. Frågeställningarna har handlat förmågor i en digital plattform såväl som organisatorisk innovationsförmåga i form av strukturer, metoder och relationella mekanismer. Arbetet har genomsyrats av praktikforskning och varit indelat i tre faser: I. prövning och generering av frågeställningar II. Utforskande i teori och praktik III. Analys och rapportering. Vi betraktar denna rapport som en delrapportering av en pågående kunskapsutveckling om innovation inom vård och omsorg. Resultatet från studien visar att digital plattformsförmåga och organisatorisk innovationsförmåga måste integreras för att uppnå klinisk digitaliseringsförmåga. Om detta skall vara möjligt måste det förhärskande produktperspektivet överges till förmån från ett mer verksamhetsorienterat perspektiv, där vårdgivare har möjlighet att utveckla verksamheten baserat på behov hos patienter och vårdpersonal snarare än att fokusera på implementation av nya tekniska produkter. Våra studier och erfarenheter visar att, visst behövs nya digitala plattformar för att möta framtidens utmaningar, men det är minst lika viktigt att skapa en organisatorisk innovationsförmåga som kan hantera förändring i klinisk verksamhet när nya digitala verktyg ska utvecklas och implementeras. Utforskandet av en digital plattformsförmåga som kan stödja detta dynamiska arbetssätt visar att en plattform bör ha förmåga till processorkestrering, semantikkonvertering, MT/IT-integration samt förmågan att suga ut data från olika källsystem i syfte att skapa kliniska beslutsstöd. När det gäller strukturer för innovation argumenterar vi för innovationsarenor där legitimitet är ett centralt begrepp. Om innovation ska användas som metod i vårdens förändringsarbete, måste innovation göras legitimt. Vårt förslag att göra övergången från innovationsarenor till förvaltningsstyrning är att tillämpa genererade principer för innovationsförvaltning. Gemensamt för både innovationsarenor och innovationsförvaltning är en professionsstyrning där aktiva kliniker och systemutvecklare interagerar, i syfte att nyskapa. Vi vill även lyfta fram Triple Helix som samarbetsform, men betona vikten av ett gemensamt mål för att undvika konflikter i mål och värden.

    4 (32) När det gäller innovationsmetoder vill vi särskilt lyfta fram alternativa metoder som innovationsupphandling, proof of concepts, nätverkande, matchning och crowdsourcing. Digitala innovationer är flerdimensionella och ett kunskapsbidrag från studien är metoden för innovationsrymd, som på ett enkelt, men ändå kraftfullt sätt kan ”spänna upp” det flerdimensionella i digitala innovationer med fokus på värde. Vi lyfter också fram de relationella mekanismer vi sett är nödvändiga för att skapa innovation. Det är lätt att tekniken hamnar i fokus i digitaliseringssammanhang, men vi vill betona att det faktiskt är människor som agerar på innovationsarenor. Med en ömsesidig respekt för profession och uppdrag, inte minst genom att fokusera ett gemensamt mål, visar vår studie att det är möjligt att bedriva innovation i gränslandet vårdteknik, befintligt-nytt och kund-leverantör.

  • 305.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Welander, Tommy
    På i Stockholm AB.
    .com from a maintenance management perspective2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Websites pose a special challenge from a system maintenance management perspective. What should be managed? How does the site relate to content? Who will be responsible for what? In the report, these questions are addressed based on the management management model pm3

  • 306.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Welander, Tommy
    På AB, Stockholm.
    .se ur ett systemförvaltningsperspektiv2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Webbplatser utgör en speciell utmaning ur ett systemförvaltningsperspektiv. Vad skall förvaltas? Hur förhåller sig webbplatsen till innhållet? Vem skall ansvara för vad? I rapporten adresseras dessa frågor med utgångspunkt i förvaltningsstyrningsmodellen pm3. 

  • 307.
    Norén, Bång Ola
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    STCA: an aircraft conflict alert system2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this Master’s Thesis is to produce a specification for the aircraft conflict alert system STCA, and implement a prototype as a module in the air traffic surveillance system NOVA9000.

    The specification is constructed based on functional requirements from EUROCONTROL and describes a system using a nominal trajectory method, where the future paths of aircraft are estimated. The trajectory is created using a probabilistic approach, where future positions are described with probability fields.

    The prototype is implemented using the specification with some simplifications. The prototype is evaluated using recorded traffic from a heavy air traffic region surrounding an airport with parallel runways. 15 alerts were induced in 1,5 hour of morning traffic; this is far too much to be acceptable. Improvements are proposed and explanations to the high rate of alerts are made.

  • 308.
    Norén, Henrik
    Institutionen för systemteknik.
    Industrial Ethernet and new possibilities - Simplifying function tests of industrial devices2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    What do you do if you are implementing a new fieldbus protocol in your embed- ded industrial system and want to test it? This was the question that a group of engineers at ABB Corporate Research was asking themselves. Normally, the easiest way would probably be to buy a matching device supporting the same protocol and hook it up to the system. You might also need some equipment to listen in on the traffic between the two, so you’d need to buy that too.

    But what if you are working with a limited budget? Or what if this protocol is fairly new, and matching devices are hard to find? Or what if you want to test cases that can’t normally be achieved with normal usage?

    Normally, with traditional fieldbus standards, this could be complicated. You would probably need an additional sample of your new system, with some cus- tom made test code, and use this to test the original system. This is not a bad method, but this report will give an example of the new possibilities that comes with the new Ethernet base fieldbus standards emerging on the market today. It will highlight the possibility to create a test tool for your industrial system to use on a standard PC.

    ”Why?” you might ask. The report suggests that this solution is cheap, fast and flexible. First of all, no special hardware was needed, which had a posi- tive impact on cost. The only thing used was a PC and some standard office equipment.

    Second, once the test tool was created, new test cases was really fast and easy to make. The test tool was designed to function as a general framework for creating dynamic test sequences based on Ethernet.

    Third, the tool is flexible enough to test a lot of different cases, even cases not allowed by the standard. It made it possible to test cases that would have required the use of several samples of test system simultaneously to work. Also, because Ethernet is such a well known standard, there are a lot of existing software tools at your disposal. For example, free software for capturing and analyzing the test results was used during the tests. Furthermore, since the test tool was designed to be easily extendable to handle more protocols, it is even more flexible and useable for future similar problems.

  • 309.
    Nyberg, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik.
    Evaluation of two Methods for Identifiability Testing2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the identifiability issue; which, if any, parameters can be deduced from the input and output behavior of a model? The two types of identifiability concepts, a priori and practical, will be addressed and explained. Two methods for identifiability testing are evaluated and the result shows that the two methods work well if they are combined. The first method is for a priori identifiability analysis and it can determine the a priori identifiability of a system in polynomial time. The result from the method is probabilistic with a high probability of correct answer. The other method takes the simulation approach to determine whether the model is practically identifiable. Non-identifiable parameters manifest themselves as a functional relationship between the parameters and the method uses transformations of the parameter estimates to conclude if the parameters are linked. The two methods are verified on models with known identifiability properties and then tested on some examples from systems biology. Although the output from one of the methods is cumbersome to interpret, the results show that the number of parameters that can be determined in practice (practical identifiability) are far fewer than the ones that can be determined in theory (a priori identifiability). The reason for this is the lack of quality, noise and lack of excitation, of the measurements.

  • 310.
    Nylander, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Sensorfusion för ACC-System2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att fusionera (sammanföra) data från olika sensorer kan ett resultat uppnås som ger mer än de enskilda sensorerna var för sig. Här utreds vilka sensorer och sensorfusionsmetoder som kan vara aktuella att använda för Scanias adaptiva farthållare (ACC). Den adaptiva farthållaren anpassar det egna fordonets hastighet inte bara till en förinställd hastighet utan även till framförvarande fordons hastighet. Scanias ACC-system använder idag en radar för måldetektering.

    Det finns ett antal algoritmer och arkitekturer som passar för sensorfusionssystem beroende på nivån hos sensordatan och användningsområdet. Minstakvadratmetoder kan användas då data ska matchas mot en fysisk modell, ofta med lågnivådata. När tillgänglig data är på den nivån att den används direkt för att fatta beslut kan sannolikhetsmetoder användas. Intelligent fusion består av kognitiva modeller som avser härma den mänskliga beslutsprocessen. Till detta passar data på hög nivå.

    Två lösningar, för två olika sensoruppsättningar, har tagits fram. Båda lösningarna är uppbyggda av bayesiska nätverk. Det första nätverket fusionerar data från den befintliga radarenheten med data från en kamera som detekterar vägmarkeringar. Resultaten visar att filbyten kan upptäckas tidigare i och med fusionen. Det andra nätverket använder sig av två radarenheter, den ursprungliga samt en likadan enhet till, vilket resulterar i ett bredare synfält. Nätverket avgör vilka mål hos respektive radar som kan anses vara samma matchade mål. Informationen kan användas för att öka redundansen i systemet samt för att upptäcka mål tidigare än förut.

  • 311.
    Odd, Joel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Theologou, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Utilize OCR text to extract receipt data and classify receipts with common Machine Learning algorithms2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if it was feasible to use machine learning tools on OCR extracted text data to classify receipts and extract specific data points. Two OCR tools were evaluated, the first was Azure Computer Vision API and the second was Google Drive REST Api, where Google Drive REST Api was the main OCR tool used in the project because of its impressive performance. The classification task mainly tried to predict which of five given categories the receipts belongs to, and also a more challenging task of predicting specific subcategories inside those five larger categories. The data points we where trying to extract was the date of purchase on the receipt and the total price of the transaction. The classification was mainly done with the help of scikit-learn, while the extraction of data points was achieved by a simple custom made N-gram model.

    The results were promising with about 94 % cross validation score for classifying receipts based on category with the help of a LinearSVC classifier. Our custom model was successful in 72 % of cases for the price data point while the results for extracting the date was less successful with an accuracy of 50 %, which we still consider very promising given the simplistic nature of the custom model.

  • 312.
    Ozolina, Lelde
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Jonsson, Zandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Datorisering i en offentlig verksamhet: Förstudie av införande av datoriserat system i Norrköpings Kommun2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Norrköpings kommun har en viktig roll i samhället, mot medborgare och företagare. Det betyder att kommunens e-förvaltning har stor betydelse för den framtida utvecklingen. Medborgarnas krav på service och e-tjänster har ökat markant, därför har allt fler offentliga verksamheter intresserat sig för en konkurrenskraftig e-förvaltning. De befintliga e-tjänster och de elektroniska ärendehanteringssystemen inom Norrköpings kommun är varierande och saknar anslutning till varandra. Med en ökad medvetenhet och en vilja att förändras finns det bra förutsättningar för en samverkan mellan dessa IT-system. Med hjälp av datorisering kan system samverka bättre och Norrköpings kommun bli mer attraktiv, flexibel och effektiv för så väl medborgare som medarbetare. Vid ett införande av en datorisering bör en föranalys och verksamhetsanalys genomföras, något som ligger till grund för vår studie. Den har bestått i att kartlägga planprocessen med innefattande aktiviteter för att identifiera behov samt begränsningar i arbetsprocessen. Resultatet har visat att de studier vi utfört kan komma att främja den kunskap och medvetenhet inom datorisering och hur denna påverkar de arbetssätt som finns inom Norrköpings kommun. Utifrån resultatet kunde vi även fastställa att det fanns förbättringsområden inom planprocessen inför datoriseringen på Fysisk Planering. Det kommer att ske omfattande verksamhetsförändringar vid införandet av datorisering. Något som medarbetarna bör vara med på, genom att vara delaktiga. Vi vill understryka att det är av stor vikt att verksamheten ser till att involvera medarbetarna, både i och under införandet av Ärendenavet. Vi anser att det finns ett praktiskt värde i vår studie i och med att den underrättar offentliga verksamheter om de faktorer som bör uppmärksammas och åtgärdas vid en datorisering. Vi vill belysa att det inte bara är att införa ett nytt system. En viktig del är, att i ett tidigt skede reflektera över vad det kommer att medföra för medarbetare och deras arbetssätt. Det är viktigt att ta reda på styrkor och svagheter för att undvika fallgropar i det nya systemet och göra datoriseringen så optimalt som möjligt.

  • 313.
    Perfect, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Bakom 24-timmarskommunens ansikte: Om utvecklingen av en medborgarassistent i Enköpings kommun2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan slutet på 1990-talet brukar begreppet 24-timmarsmyndigheten användas för att beteckna visionen och arbetet kring att modernisera den svenska förvaltningen. Mycket handlar om att införa elektroniska tjänster i syfte att möta medborgarnas krav och förväntningar på samhällsservice. I mötet mellan visioner och operativt arbete formas lösningar som syftar till att underlätta både samspelet med medborgarna och förvaltningens interna arbete. I den här studien ligger fokus på en e-tjänst som på den offentliga sektorns webbplatser ofta kallas för medborgarassistent. Det är en form av informationssystem som börjar synas på kommuners och myndigheters webbplatser för att i 24-timmarsvisionens anda hjälpa medborgare att hitta information och få svar på sina frågor.

    Genom en instrumentell fallstudie kring utveckling och mplementering av en medborgarassistent på Enköpings kommuns webbplats belyser studien hur den svenska förvaltningens gemensamma visioner om 24-timmarsmyndigheten slår igenom i kommunens strategiska och operativa informationsarbete. I studien ställs frågor om vilka behov som ligger till grund för kommunens satsning och hur man resonerar kring tekniska möjligheter samt de visioner och förväntningar man har på medborgarassistenten.

    I resultatet framstår medborgarassistenten som en del av en begynnande kanalstrategi där Internet är tänkt att bli den ominerande kanalen för kommunens informationsarbete. Medborgarassistenten ska kunna bemöta många av medborgarnas enkla och vanligt förekommande frågor och därmed ge kommunens medarbetare mer tid till kvalificerade frågor och handläggning. Även om kommunens visioner och strategier i stora drag överensstämmer med 24-timmarsmyndigheten finns ett glapp till det operativa arbetet med medborgarassistenten. Det visar sig i assistentens förmågor och organisationens anpassning till nya inslag i informationsarbetet. Studien visar på möjligheter att minska glappet och dess konsekvenser genom att grunda utvecklingsprocessen i tydliga behovsunderlag och målbilder som underlättar identifiering och prioritering av kritiska punkter hos medborgarassistenten.

  • 314.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    e-Government challenges: Exploring inter-organisational aspects of e-service development2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the Fourteenth European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2006, Göteborg, Sweden, 2006 / [ed] Jan Ljungberg, Magnus Andersson, Göteborg: University of Gothenburg , 2006, s. 1419-1430Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are applying inter-organizational concepts from the industrial/business network approach on empirical findings from an e-government case, in order to describe and better understand challenges in one-stop government e-service development. We analyze our case by using concepts that characterize an inter-organizational relationship in terms of its level of continuity, complexity, symmetry, informality, and its dimensions (links, bonds, and ties). The purpose of the paper is to explore how these theoretical concepts can help us focus on certain aspects of e-service development challenges. The empirical findings are collected within an on-going action research project for e-service development in the public sector in Sweden. The aim of the project is to develop one-stop government e-services for driver’s license matters as well as a web-based portal where these e-services and information about the driver’s license process will be easily accessible. Our conclusions are that the theoretical concepts helped us reach further understanding of the empirical case. In the spirit of the network approach, we focused on the present situation and been able to give a rather detailed and fine-grained picture of the problems and challenges in this context.

  • 315.
    Pettersson, Ulrika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem.
    Implementing and studying the effects of a roll stability system in heavy vehicles using a moving simulator2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the making and the implementation of a roll stability system for a simulator truck. The purpose of the system is to prevent rollover. The making of the system consists of three parts; calculating the roll angle, calculating a rollover index and constructing the control system. The roll angle was calculated using a one degree of freedom model of the truck with the measured lateral acceleration as input signal. Using the roll angle and the roll rate, a rollover index was calculated. The controller made the truck brake to avoid the impending rollover when the rollover index was at a critical point. The benefits of the system were measured by conducting a study in which test persons drove the simulator truck both with the stability system switched on and switched off. The scenario in the study was carefully constructed so that it would test the system thoroughly. The results were not unambiguous, in some situations the roll stability system prevented roll over, but in others it had the opposite effect.

  • 316.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    ICT-Enabled Citizen Co-production in Excluded Areas – Using Volunteers in Emergency Response2019Inngår i: Electronic Participation: 11th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019 Proceedings / [ed] Panos Panagiotopoulos, Noella Edelmann, Olivier Glassey, Gianluca Misuraca, Peter Parycek, Thomas Lampoltshammer and Barbara Re, Cham: Springer, 2019, s. 87-101Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of many contemporary public-sector challenges is the increasing socio-economic gaps and excluded areas in many cities worldwide. This study explores ICT-enabled citizen co-production using volunteers as first responders in excluded areas near Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. The study indicates that these volunteers can make a major difference if arriving first at an emergency site, e.g. saving lives by administering CPR and extinguishing fires before they spread. Major challenges relate to individual versus collective engagement, gender aspects and language barriers. Current ICT support, in the form of text messages or a basic app, is deemed sufficient but, for the initiative to expand and enable long-term effective engagement, calibrated solutions matching competence, role and language with incident and area are needed. In a public-sector innovation context, the study highlights the need for future research on digitalized co-production with an explicit focus on the ICT artifact and its co-creation artifact as catalysts for change. In relation to this, this study confirms previous research arguing for the merging of policy science and information systems research in an era of rapid digitalized public-sector transformation, but adds that they need to be complemented by perspectives from sociology, e.g. on gender and ethnicity, in initiatives involving citizens in excluded areas.

  • 317.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, Linköping.
    Sparf, Magnus
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, Linköping.
    Niclasson, Tomas
    Försvarsmakten, Stockholm.
    Practical Experiences of Model-based Development: Case studies from the Swedish Armed Forces2012Inngår i: Systems Engineering, ISSN 1098-1241, E-ISSN 1520-6858, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 407-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores practical experiences of model-based development and implementation, focusing on “lessons identified.” The study draws on experience from several case studies in the Swedish Defence domain using semistructured interviews as the major source of information. The study identifies several conditions as being crucial for successful implementation of model-based development work, including an increased focus on the planning and premodeling phase, a need for interorganizational or across-project collaboration, scalability, change management, and documentation and reuse of experiences. It was also found that most of the challenges identified in the model-based development and implementation processes are common organizational and system development related problems such as change management, the issue of user participation, and how to carry out requirements engineering based on the models. Therefore, future research in the area should aim for a more integrative perspective, for instance, bridging the gap between information collection, models, user needs, and organizational and system requirements

  • 318.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ramsell, Elina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Emerging forms of inter-organizational and cross-sector collaborations in e-government initiatives: Implications for participative development of information systems2016Inngår i: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 605-636Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to explore recent public sector trends, inter-organizational and cross-sector

    collaborations, and analyzes these in terms of implications for participative development of information

    systems (IS). These trends are understood as being part of emerging forms of e-government. Initial

    suggestions for how to develop IS in the new contexts are provided.

    Design/methodology/approach – Three cases involving the trends described above, taking place in

    the Swedish emergency response system, are studied and used as basis for identified participative IS

    development challenges and suggested adaptation needs. Data collection involves semi-structured

    interviews, focus groups and future workshops.

    Findings – The identified challenges concern balancing ideological versus practical needs, lack of

    resources, lack of know-how and design techniques and tool challenges. Some practical implications for

    participative IS development include more extensive focus on stakeholder and legal analysis, need for

    interdisciplinary design teams, merging of task and needs analysis for yet-undefined user tasks and

    using on-line alternatives for interacting with users.

    Research implications/limitations – The study is exploratory where the three cases are in

    different, but at the same time interrelated, collaboration contexts. The identified implications and

    challenges provide proposals that in future research can be applied, formalized and integrated when

    developing practically feasible participative IS development approaches.

    Originality/value – It is argued that the results point toward a current emerging form of

    e-government initiatives directed toward certain demarcated groups of citizens actually carrying out

    certain tasks for their co-citizens and society rather than the broad masses, having far-reaching

    practical implications and complicating the issue of IS development.

  • 319.
    Pop, Traian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analysis and Optimisation of Distributed Embedded Systems with Heterogeneous Scheduling Policies2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing amount and diversity of functions to be implemented by the current and future embedded applications (like, for example, in automotive electronics) have shown that, in many cases, time-triggered and event-triggered functions have to coexist on the computing nodes and to interact over the communication infrastructure. When time-triggered and event-triggered activities have to share the same processing node, a natural way for the execution support can be provided through a hierarchical scheduler. Similarly, when such heterogeneous applications are mapped over a distributed architecture, the communication infrastructure should allow for message exchange in both time-triggered and event-triggered manner in order to ensure a straightforward interconnection of heterogeneous components.

    This thesis studies aspects related to the analysis and design optimisation for safety-critical hard real-time applications running on hierarchically scheduled distributed embedded systems. It first provides the basis for the timing analysis of the activities in such a system, by carefully taking into consideration all the interferences that appear at run-time between the processes executed according to different scheduling policies. Moreover, due to the distributed nature of the architecture, message delays are also taken into consideration during the timing analysis. Once the schedulability analysis has been provided, the entire system can be optimised by adjusting its configuration parameters. In our work, the entire optimisation process is directed by the results from the timing analysis, with the goal that in the end the timing constraints of the application are satisfied. The analysis and design methodology proposed in the first part of the thesis is applied next on the particular category of distributed systems that use FlexRay as a communication protocol. We start by providing a schedulability analysis for messages transmitted over a FlexRay bus, and then by proposing a bus access optimisation algorithm that aims at improving the timing properties of the entire system.

    For all the problems that we investigated, we have carried out extensive experiments in order to measure the efficiency of the proposed solutions. The results have confirmed both the importance of the addressed aspects during system-level design, and the applicability of our techniques for analysing and optimising the studied systems.

  • 320.
    Presutti, Valentina
    et al.
    ISTC-CNR.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Daga, Enrico
    ISTC-CNR.
    Gangemi, Aldo
    ISTC-CNR.
    Pattern-Based Ontology Design2012Inngår i: Ontology Engineering in a Networked World / [ed] Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, Enrico Motta and Aldo Gangemi, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, s. 35-64Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we present ontology design patterns (ODPs), which are reusable modeling solutions that encode modeling best practices. ODPs are the main tool for performing pattern-based design of ontologies, which is an approach to ontology development that emphasizes reuse and promotes the development of a common “language” for sharing knowledge about ontology design best practices. We put specific focus on content ODPs (CPs) and show how they can be used within a particular methodology. CPs are domain-dependent patterns, the requirements of which are expressed by means of competency questions, contextual statements, and reasoning requirements. The eXtreme Design (XD) methodology is an iterative and incremental process, which is characterized by a test-driven and collaborative development approach. In this chapter, we exemplify the XD methodology for the specific case of CP reuse. The XD methodology is also supported by a set of software components named XD Tools, compatible with the NeOn Toolkit, which assist users in the process of pattern-based design.

  • 321.
    Purra, Joel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Swedes Online: You Are More Tracked Than You Think2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    When you are browsing websites, third-party resources record your online habits; such tracking can be considered an invasion of privacy. It was previously unknown how many third-party resources, trackers and tracker companies are present in the different classes of websites chosen: globally popular websites, random samples of .se/.dk/.com/.net domains and curated lists of websites of public interest in Sweden. The in-browser HTTP/HTTPS traffic was recorded while downloading over 150,000 websites, allowing comparison of HTTPS adaption and third-party tracking within and across the different classes of websites.

    The data shows that known third-party resources including known trackers are present on over 90% of most classes, that third-party hosted content such as video, scripts and fonts make up a large portion of the known trackers seen on a typical website and that tracking is just as prevalent on secure as insecure sites.

    Observations include that Google is the most widespread tracker organization by far, that content is being served by known trackers may suggest that trackers are moving to providing services to the end user to avoid being blocked by privacy tools and ad blockers, and that the small difference in tracking between using HTTP and HTTPS connections may suggest that users are given a false sense of privacy when using HTTPS.

  • 322.
    Rahimi, Bahlol
    et al.
    Urmia Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Nadri, Hamed
    Urmia Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Afshar, Hadi Lotfnezhad
    Urmia Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för verksamhetsstöd och utveckling, Verksamhetsutveckling vård och hälsa.
    A Systematic Review of the Technology Acceptance Model in Health Informatics2018Inngår i: Applied Clinical Informatics, ISSN 1869-0327, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 604-634Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background One common model utilized to understand clinical staff and patients technology adoption is the technology acceptance model (TAM). Objective This article reviews published research on TAM use in health information systems development and implementation with regard to application areas and model extensions after its initial introduction. Method An electronic literature search supplemented by citation searching was conducted on February 2017 of the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases, yielding a total of 492 references. Upon eliminating duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 134 articles were retained. These articles were appraised and divided into three categories according to research topic: studies using the original TAM, studies using an extended TAM, and acceptance model comparisons including the TAM. Results The review identified three main information and communication technology (ICT) application areas for the TAM in health services: telemedicine, electronic health records, and mobile applications. The original TAM was found to have been extended to fit dynamic health service environments by integration of components from theoretical frameworks such as the theory of planned behavior and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, as well as by adding variables in specific contextual settings. These variables frequently reflected the concepts subjective norm and self-efficacy, but also compatibility, experience, training, anxiety, habit, and facilitators were considered. Conclusion Telemedicine applications were between 1999 and 2017, the ICT application area most frequently studied using the TAM, implying that acceptance of this technology was a major challenge when exploiting ICT to develop health service organizations during this period. A majority of the reviewed articles reported extensions of the original TAM, suggesting that no optimal TAM version for use in health services has been established. Although the review results indicate a continuous progress, there are still areas that can be expanded and improved to increase the predictive performance of the TAM.

  • 323.
    Ramsell, Elina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Identifying functions for smartphone basedapplications in volunteer emergency response2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management / [ed] Zeno Franco, José J. González, José H. Canós, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management , 2019, s. 1044-1056Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency response organisations struggle with resource constraints and thereby faces challenges in providing high-quality public services. Utilising voluntary first responders is one way to address these challenges. There are different types of volunteers who can help at an emergency site, e.g. citizen volunteers or voluntary professionals from other occupations. To successfully engage with and utilise these resources, adequate information and communication technology (ICT) is necessary. In this meta-study, combining and further exploring two previous studies, the aim is to identify, analyse and evaluate suitable functions for smartphone applications that can be used to dispatch and support volunteers. The results show that the functions can be divided into essential ones that are necessary for the response to work at all, and others that might contribute to a more effective response. The study also shows that the same functions can be used for different volunteer groups.

  • 324.
    Randorff Højen, Anne
    et al.
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Medical Informatics, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Sundvall, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosenbeck Gøeg, Kirstine
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Medical Informatics, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Visualizing sets of SNOMED CT concepts to support consistent terminology implementation and reuse of clinical dataManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Inconsistent use of concepts is an obstacle when implementing SNOMED CT to improve comparability of information. Terminology implementation should be approached by common strategies for navigating and selecting proper concepts. This study aims to explore ways of illustrating common pathways and ancestors of particular sets of concepts, to support consistent use of SNOMED CT in EHR-system implementation processes. The prototype presented here is an interactive web-based reimplementation of the terminology visualization tool TermViz. The open source prototype contains terminological features that are of relevance when exploring and comparing sets of concepts in SNOMED CT. This includes interactively rearranging graphs, fetching more concept nodes, illustrating least common parents and shared pathways in merged graphs etc. Future work should focus on evaluating the developed prototype in order to assess its applicability in EHR-system-implementation contexts.

  • 325.
    Ranerup, Agneta
    et al.
    Department of Applied Information Technology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Person-centred Care (GPCC), Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Inger
    Centre for Person-centred Care (GPCC), Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Actors and intentions in the development process of a mobile phone platform for self-management of hypertension2015Inngår i: Informatics for Health and Social Care, ISSN 1753-8157, E-ISSN 1753-8165, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 299-318Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to enhance the knowledge regarding actors and intentions in the development process of a mobile phone platform for self-management of hypertension. Methods: Our research approach was a 14-month longitudinal “real-time ethnography” method of description and analysis. Data were collected through focus groups with patients and providers, patient interviews, and design meetings with researchers and experts. The analysis was informed by the concepts of actors and inscriptions in actor-network theory (ANT). Results: Our study showed that laypersons, scientific actors, as well as technology itself, might influence development processes of support for self-management of hypertension. The intentions were inscribed into the technology design as well as the models of learning and treatment. Conclusions: The study highlighted important aspects of how actors and intentions feature in the development of the mobile phone platform to support self-management of hypertension. The study indicated the multifacetedness of the participating actors, including the prominent role of technology. The concrete results of such processes included questions in the self-report system, learning and treatment models.

  • 326.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Making Sense of Adaptations: Resilience in High-Risk Work2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To cope with variations, disturbances, and unexpected events in complex socio-technical systems people are required to continuously adapt to the changing environment, sometimes in novel and innovative ways. This thesis investigates adaptive performance in complex work settings across domains, with a focus on examining what enables and disables successful adaptations, and how contextual factors shape performance. Examples of adaptive performance studies include a crisis command team dealing with the loss of key personnel, a crew coping with unreliable system feedback in the cockpit, and a nursing team managing an overload of patients. The two main contributions of this thesis is the analysis of cases of people coping with variations and disturbances, and the development of conceptual models to report findings, structure cases, and make sense of sharp-end adaptations in complex work settings. The findings emphasise that adaptive performance outside procedures and textbook scenarios at the sharp end is a critical ability to cope with variation and unexpected events. However, the results also show that adaptations may come at the cost of new vulnerabilities and system brittleness. Analysing adaptive performance in everyday events informs safety management by making visible limitations and possibilities of system design, organisational structures, procedures, and training.

    Delarbeid
    1. Sensemaking following surprise in the cockpit-a re-framing problem
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sensemaking following surprise in the cockpit-a re-framing problem
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 623-642Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Re-framing is the process by which a person "fills the gap" between what is expected and what has been observed, that is, to try and make sense of what is going on following a surprise. It is an active and adaptive process guided by expectations, which are based on knowledge and experience. In this article, surprise situations in cockpit operations are examined by investigating the re-framing process. The results show difficulties that pilots have in re-framing following surprise, including the identification of subtle cues and managing uncertainties regarding automated systems, coping with multiple goals, tasks and narrow time frames and identifying an appropriate action. A crew-aircraft sensemaking model is presented, outlining core concepts of re-framing processes and sensemaking activities. Based on the findings, three critical areas are identified that deserve further attention to improve pilot abilities to cope with unexpected events; (1) identification of what enables and obstructs re-framing, (2) training to build frames and develop re-framing strategies and (3) control strategies as part of the re-framing process.

    Emneord
    Sensemaking; Surprise; Cockpit operations; Re-framing; Training
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132839 (URN)10.1007/s10111-016-0390-2 (DOI)000386502500001 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Man4Gen

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-12-06 Laget: 2016-11-30 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13
    2. Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work
    Vise andre…
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 78-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Managing complexity and uncertainty in high risk, socio-technical, systems requires people to continuously adapt. Designing resilient systems that support adaptive behaviour requires a deepened understanding of the context in which the adaptations take place, enablers for successful adaptations and their affect the overall system. Also, it requires a focus on how people actually perform, not how they are presumed to perform according to textbook situations. We propose a framework to analyse adaptive behaviour in everyday situations where systems are working near the margins of safety. The examples that underlie the framework are derived from nine focus groups with representatives working with safety related issues in different work domains, including health care, nuclear, transportation and emergency services. Further, the variety space diagram is developed as a means to illustrate how system variability, disturbances and constraints affect work performance.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Sage Publications, 2014
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91989 (URN)10.1177/1555343413498753 (DOI)2-s2.0-84893856937 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-05-07 Laget: 2013-05-07 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 79-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Common characteristics of crisis situations are ambiguous and unplanned for events. The need for improvised roles can therefore be an imperative factor for the success of an operation. The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of the processes taking place during improvised work ‘‘as it happens’’. A case study of a crisis management team at work is presented and provides an in-depth analysis of the information and communication flow of persons acting in improvised roles, including con- textual factors influencing the task at hand. The analysis suggests that three main factors lay behind decreased per- formance by the team when some of its members were forced to take on roles for which they lacked professional training; lack of language skills, lack of domain knowledge and insufficient organizational structure of the tasks. Based on the observations from this case study, we suggest three ways of improving a team’s performance and hence resil- ience when forced to improvise due to lack of personnel in one or more required competence areas. These are training to take on the responsibility for tasks or roles outside ones professional area of specialization, developing formal routines for changes in roles and tasks and developing and using tools and routines for information sharing.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer, 2013
    Emneord
    Role improvisation, Crisis management, Resilience engineering, Organizational improvisation, Episode analysis
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80311 (URN)10.1007/s10111-011-0186-3 (DOI)000313737400010 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-08-23 Laget: 2012-08-23 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07
    4. A framework for learning from adaptive performance
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A framework for learning from adaptive performance
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resilience engineering in practice. Vol. 2: Becoming resilient / [ed] Christopher P. Nemeth, Erik Hollnagel, Surrey: Ashgate, 2014, 2, s. 79-95Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Surrey: Ashgate, 2014 Opplag: 2
    Emneord
    Political Science, Labor & Industrial Relations, Psychology, Industrial & Organizational Psychology, Technology & Engineering, Technical Writing
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133849 (URN)9781472425157 (ISBN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-12 Laget: 2017-01-12 Sist oppdatert: 2019-07-05bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 327.
    Reiss, Attila
    et al.
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Hendeby, Gustaf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stricker, Didier
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    A Competitive Approach for Human Activity Recognition on Smartphones2013Inngår i: ESANN 2013, ESANN , 2013, s. 455-460Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a competitive approach developed for an activity recognition challenge. The competition was defined on a new and publicly available dataset of human activities, recorded with smartphone sensors. This work investigates different feature sets for the activity recognition task of the competition. Moreover, the focus is also on the introduction of a new, confidence-based boosting algorithm called ConfAda- Boost.M1. Results show that the new classification method outperforms commonly used classifiers, such as decision trees or AdaBoost.M1.

  • 328.
    Reiss, Attila
    et al.
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Hendeby, Gustaf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stricker, Didier
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Towards Robust Activity Recognition for Everyday Life: Methods and Evaluation2013Inngår i: 7th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare (PervasiveHealth), 2013, IEEE , 2013, s. 25-32Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The monitoring of physical activities under realistic, everyday life conditions - thus while an individual follows his regular daily routine - is usually neglected or even completely ignored. Therefore, this paper investigates the development and evaluation of robust methods for everyday life scenarios, with focus on the task of aerobic activity recognition. Two important aspects of robustness are investigated: dealing with various (unknown) other activities and subject independency. Methods to handle these issues are proposed and compared, a thorough evaluation simulates usual everyday scenarios of the usage of activity recognition applications. Moreover, a new evaluation technique is introduced (leave-one-other-activity-out) to simulate when an activity recognition system is used while performing a previously unknown activity. Through applying the proposed methods it is possible to design a robust physical activity recognition system with the desired generalization characteristic.

  • 329.
    Rezaei, Hengameh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Models complexity measurement2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for measuring the quality aspects and need for higher maintainability and understandability of the models are increasing within the field of software engineering and management. Among these, complex models are of special interest for designers as they are more correlated to the eventual reliability of the system and therefore are considered very important. This study presents a method for measuring the complexity of existing software models in Ericsson seeking to raise the maintainability and understandability of the software engineering project in progress. A literature survey was performed in order to find a list of all potentially useful metrics. Narrowing down the long list of metrics was carried out by interviews with designers at Ericsson. Utilizing statistical data analysis based on interviews results was the next step. Beside, workshops were used for evaluating the reliability of preliminary data analysis and an empirical formula was generated for models’ complexity prediction. Metrics such as “non-self-transitions”, “transitions per states”, and “state depth” are the most important for calculating the models’ complexity score (rank) and for these metrics threshold values were set. Challenges and experiences gained in this study demonstrated the importance of incorporating user generated feedback in the empirical complexity modeling studies

  • 330.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    et al.
    CTS, Uninova, Dep. de Eng. Electrot ́ ecnica , Faculdade de Ci ˆ encias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Barata, Jose
    CTS, Uninova, Dep. de Eng. Electrot ́ ecnica , Faculdade de Ci ˆ encias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Onori, Mauro
    KTH-Production Eng.Dept., EPS Group Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hanisch, Christoph
    Festo AG & Co. KG, Esslingen, Germany.
    Hoos, Johannes
    Festo AG & Co. KG, Esslingen, Germany.
    Rosa, Rogerio
    CTS, Uninova, Dep. de Eng. Electrot ́ ecnica , Faculdade de Ci ˆ encias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Self-organization in automation-the IDEAS pre-demonstrator2011Inngår i: Proceedings IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Crown Conference Centre, Melbourne, Australia, 07-10 November, 2011, IEEE , 2011, s. 2752-2757Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While the application of IT in automation gains traction, mostly motivated by the introduction of Service Orientated Approaches and Multiagent modelling, it is sometimes unclear to practitioners what is the full potential and boundaries of such concepts and technologies. The FP7 IDEAS project is focused in the design and development of Multiagent systems in a Mechatronic context which, to a great extent, implies that Mechatronic Agents must consider and respect mechanical/physical constraints while delivering the widely acknowledged (yet elusively demonstrated) characteristics that may render Agent-based control unique in respect to tolerance to disturbances, plug-ability and scalability. In this context, the present paper details the preliminary proof of concept prototype that validates the IDEAS Mechatronic Agent Architecture. The focus of this early demonstrator is to enlighten on how self-organization, inspired by the Evolvable Assembly System (EAS) Paradigm, can be exploited towards promoting the above mentioned characteristics. The main lessons learned, open points and future developing directions are distilled as the prototype is presented.

  • 331.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    et al.
    Faculty of Science and Technology, New University of Lisbon.
    Barata, José
    Faculty of Science and Technology, New University of Lisbon.
    New Shop Floor Control Approaches for Virtual Enterprises2006Inngår i: Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies, ISSN 1646-1223, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 39-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The virtual enterprise paradigm seems a fit response to face market instability and the volatile nature of business opportunities increasing enterprise’s interest in similar forms of networked organisations. The dynamic environment of a virtual enterprise requires that partners in the consortium own reconfigurable shop floors. This paper presents new approaches to shop floor control that meet the requirements of the new industrial paradigms and argues on work re-organization at shop floor level.

  • 332.
    Rogstadius, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Visualizing the Ethiopian Commodity Market2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Ethiopia Commodity Exchange (ECX), like many other data intensive organizations, is having difficulties making full use of the vast amounts of data that it collects. This MSc thesis identifies areas within the organization where concepts from the academic fields of information visualization and visual analytics can be applied to address this issue.Software solutions are designed and implemented in two areas with the purpose of evaluating the approach and to demonstrate to potential users, developers and managers what can be achieved using this method. A number of presentation methods are proposed for the ECX website, which previously contained no graphing functionality for market data, to make it easier for users to find trends, patterns and outliers in prices and trade volumes of commodieties traded at the exchange. A software application is also developed to support the ECX market surveillance team by drastically improving its capabilities of investigating complex trader relationships.Finally, as ECX lacked previous experiences with visualization, one software developer was trained in computer graphics and involved in the work, to enable continued maintenance and future development of new visualization solutions within the organization.

  • 333.
    Rosenlund, Tom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik.
    Mårtensson, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik.
    Privatpersoners upplevelse av säkerhet i molntjänster2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var dels att undersöka hur privatpersoner upplever säkerheten i SaaS-baserade molntjänster, men även att undersöka hur säkerhetsrisker påverkar privat-personers tillit till molntjänsten och dess leverantör, samt om resultatet i de tidigare nämndafrågorna skiljer sig åt beroende på respondentens ålder.

    Studiens empiriska material inhämtades med kvantitativ metod, en enkätundersökningbestående av 16 frågor. Antalet respondenter var 88 personer, varav 66% var män, 27% kvinnor, och 7% angav annat kön eller inget kön. 51% var 17-24 år, 22% var 25-39 år, och 23% 40-60 år. Den kvantitativa datan analyserades kvalitativt med tidigare forskning pånärliggande områden.

    Resultatet visade att 80% av respondenterna använde någon molntjänst. 30% ansåg attmolntjänster är säkra, 20% att de ej är säkra. Resterande 50% av respondenterna hadeingen åsikt, eller ansåg att det skiljer sig mellan olika molntjänster. Generellt uppfattade deäldre respondenterna risken som större än de yngre att molntjänster kan komma att utsättasför till exempel en hackerattack. De yngre respondenterna ansåg att faktorer som moln-tjänsteleverantören har kontroll över, till exempel gränssnitt, att datan krypteras, och supportär viktigare än vad de äldre ansåg.

  • 334.
    Rosenqvist, Adam Rosenqvist
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Curovac, Dino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Användarmedverkan vid kravinsamling: En kvalitativ studie kring positiva och negativa aspekter med användarmedverkan vid kravinsamling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kandidatuppsats behandlar synen på användarmedverkan vid kravinsamling hos projektledare i svenska IT-företag. IT-system kan bidra med mycket positivt i en verksamhet - om det görs på rätt sätt efter användarens krav. För att få in användarnas krav behövs användarnas medverkan: användarmedverkan. Det råder dock en oklarhet i om användarmedverkan vid kravinsamling bidrar med positiv inverkan på IT-projekt eller inte. Denna kandidatuppsats syfte är att försöka reda ut denna oklarhet genom vår metod som innebär att intervjua projektledare på svenska IT-företag vars standardsystem konfigureras efter användarens krav. Utifrån dessa intervjuer försöker vi få fram de positiva såväl som negativa sidor med användarmedverkan vid kravinsamling enligt de intervjuade projektledarna. Vidare vill vi också reda ut vilken roll användarna egentligen har vid kravinsamlingen samt huruvida påverkan av användarmedverkan vid kravinsamling kan förutses - redan innan ett projekt har börjat. Med detta menas huruvida projektledarna redan innan projektet påbörjats, vet om användarmedverkan vid kravinsamling kommer ha positiv utgång på projektet eller inte.

    Kandidatuppsatsen lyfter fram hur dagens projektledare ser på användarmedverkan vid kravinsamling och dess positiva och negativa effekter. Projektledarna får också ta ställning till möjligheter och problem som presenterats i teori. Kandidatuppsatsen bygger på nämnda teori som främst består av vetenskapliga artiklar med inslag av litteratur.

    Jämförelser mellan nämnda teori och de intervjuade projektledarna visar på en överlag samstämmande syn på användarmedverkan vid kravinsamling i både teori och intervjuer. Respondenterna sinsemellan och teorin tycks vara väl överens om framförallt vilka positiva effekter som finns med användarmedverkan vid kravinsamling. Exempelvis är samtliga överens om att användarmedverkan i kravinsamlingsprocessen leder till bättre och mer precisa krav. Respondenterna skiljer sig samtidigt från teorin på vissa områden, exempelvis när det kommer till synen på extra resurser för att ha användarmedverkan. Det visar sig också att respondenterna menar att det går att förutse påverkan av användarmedverkan vid kravinsamling under förutsättningen att det finns kompetenta och villiga användare. 

  • 335.
    Rossell, David T.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Implementation of Open Innovation Strategies: A Byers-Supplier Perspective2014Inngår i: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 18, nr 06, s. -23, artikkel-id 1440013Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The open innovation concept has been discussed for more than a decade. However, there are relatively few studies related to implementation of open innovation. Barriers of implementation have been identified, but they are not related to the external knowledge searched for. This multiple-case study adds to current understanding of implementing open innovation strategies by focusing on the cooperation and coordination challenges when opening up for different types of supplier knowledge. Possible solutions and trade-offs between short-term benefits and long-term goals are presented that take into consideration the character of knowledge and human behavior. By applying theories such as knowledge-based view and transaction cost theories on empirical findings, different explanations are sought that bring new insights into managing open innovation.

  • 336.
    Rosén, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Neikter, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Burgio, Paolo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Benini, Luca
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Bus Access Design for Combined Worst and Average Case Execution Time Optimization of Predictable Real-Time Applications on Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip2011Inngår i: 17th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS'11), Chicago, IL, USA, April 11-14, 2011., 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization techniques for improving the average-case execution time of an application, for which predictability with respect to time is not required, have been investigated for a long time in many different contexts. However, this has traditionally been done without paying attention to the worst-case execution time. For predictable real-time applications, on the other hand, the focus has been solely on worst-case execution time optimization, ignoring how this affects the execution time in the average case. In this paper, we show that having a good average-case delay can be important also for real-time applications for which predictability is required. Furthermore, for real-time applications running on multiprocessor systems-on-chip, we present a technique for optimizing the average case and the worst case simultaneously, allowing for a good average-case execution time while still keeping the worst case as small as possible.

  • 337.
    Rycroft-Malone, Jo
    et al.
    Bangor Univ, Wales.
    Seers, Kate
    Univ Warwick, England.
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Cox, Karen
    Fontys Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands.
    Crichton, Nicola
    London South Bank Univ, England.
    Harvey, Gill
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Hawkes, Claire
    Univ Warwick, England.
    Kitson, Alison
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Australia.
    McCormack, Brendan
    Queen Margaret Univ Edinburgh, Scotland.
    McMullan, Christel
    Univ Birmingham, England.
    Mockford, Carole
    Univ Warwick, England.
    Niessen, Theo
    Fontys Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands.
    Slater, Paul
    Ulster Univ, North Ireland.
    Titchen, Angie
    Ulster Univ, North Ireland.
    van der Zijpp, Teatske
    Fontys Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands.
    Wallin, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Div Nursing, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci and Soc, Stockholm, Sweden; Dalarna Univ, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A realist process evaluation within the Facilitating Implementation of Research Evidence (FIRE) cluster randomised controlled international trial: an exemplar2018Inngår i: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundFacilitation is a promising implementation intervention, which requires theory-informed evaluation. This paper presents an exemplar of a multi-country realist process evaluation that was embedded in the first international randomised controlled trial evaluating two types of facilitation for implementing urinary continence care recommendations. We aimed to uncover what worked (and did not work), for whom, how, why and in what circumstances during the process of implementing the facilitation interventions in practice.MethodsThis realist process evaluation included theory formulation, theory testing and refining. Data were collected in 24 care home sites across four European countries. Data were collected over four time points using multiple qualitative methods: observation (372h), interviews with staff (n=357), residents (n=152), next of kin (n=109) and other stakeholders (n=128), supplemented by facilitator activity logs. A combined inductive and deductive data analysis process focused on realist theory refinement and testing.ResultsThe content and approach of the two facilitation programmes prompted variable opportunities to align and realign support with the needs and expectations of facilitators and homes. This influenced their level of confidence in fulfilling the facilitator role and ability to deliver the intervention as planned. The success of intervention implementation was largely dependent on whether sites prioritised their involvement in both the study and the facilitation programme. In contexts where the study was prioritised (including release of resources) and where managers and staff support was sustained, this prompted collective engagement (as an attitude and action). Internal facilitators (IF) personal characteristics and abilities, including personal and formal authority, in combination with a supportive environment prompted by managers triggered the potential for learning over time. Learning over time resulted in a sense of confidence and personal growth, and enactment of the facilitation role, which resulted in practice changes.ConclusionThe scale and multi-country nature of this study provided a novel context to conduct one of the few trial embedded realist-informed process evaluations. In addition to providing an explanatory account of implementation processes, a conceptual platform for future facilitation research is presented. Finally, a realist-informed process evaluation framework is outlined, which could inform future research of this nature.Trial registrationCurrent controlled trials ISRCTN11598502.

  • 338.
    Rydergren, Clas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mendoza, Ivan
    KU Leuven, L-Mob, Leuven Mobility Research Center, CIB, Leuven, Belgium;Universidad del Azuay, Cuenca, Ecuador.
    Tampère, Chris MJ
    KU Leuven, L-Mob, Leuven Mobility Research Center, CIB, Leuven, Belgium.
    Discovering Regularity in Mobility Patterns to Identify Predictable Aggregate Supply for Ridesharing2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2672, s. 213-223Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterogeneous data collected by smartphone sensors offer new opportunities to study a person’s mobility behavior. The mobility patterns extracted from the travel histories found in these data enable agents residing in mobile devices to model transitions between visited locations, so that upcoming trips can be predicted after observing a set of events, and assistance can be planned in advance. When several agents cooperate, the forecasted trips made by multiple users can provide a potential supply for shared mobility systems such as dynamic ridesharing. These trips must be sufficiently regular and frequent to be reliably announced as shareable trips. This paper describes a methodology to identify a predictable aggregate supply for ridesharing via mobility patterns discovered in users’ travel histories. The methodology empirically quantifies measures like the regularity and frequency of these patterns on a dataset consisting of 967 users scattered across different geographical areas. The sample exhibits high heterogeneity with respect to these measures (hence, of predictability, regardless of the prediction method). This paper shows how frequency of trip patterns decreases, while regularity increases, when additional dimensions such as departure times are added to the analysis. It was concluded that the traveler flexibility with regard to accepting less regular trips is vital to discover a larger supply. These results provide insights to develop future applications able to take advantage of this approach, to increase ridesharing rates, allowing a critical mass to be more easily attained.

  • 339.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling.
    Design Criteria for Public e-Services2009Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 340.
    Saamel, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Pham, Anh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kartläggning av införandet av ett nytt verksamhetsstödjande system och användarnas olika roller: En fallstudie på Norrköpings kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    IT-system används dagligen av människor i deras arbete för att underlätta och stödja dem. Det har blivit ett merdigitalt samhälle och de flesta myndigheter och organisationer använder sig av IT-system för att bland annat effektivisera det dagliga arbetet. Detta kan medföra att komplexiteten ökar i interaktionen mellan användare och IT-system och därmed ställa högre krav på systemet. Tidigare kunskap lyfter fram det viktiga arbetet med användarna när man inför ett nytt IT-system i en organisation, men trots detta framkommer det i media att misslyckade IT-projekt är vanligt.

    Projektledningen har ofta höga krav på sig, och att användarna ska involveras är ett av dessa. Att tid-och kostnadsfrågor anses vara viktigare än användarna kan vara en anledning varför införande av IT-system misslyckas, eftersom det inte har anpassats till dessa användare. Detta väckte ett intresse hos oss och det var att undersöka hur tidigare forskning förhåller sig till verkligheten. Anser projektledningen att det är viktigt att involvera användarna ett projekt? Vilka olika roller kan användarna ha i ett projekts olika faser?

    Vårt syfte med denna studie är att kartlägga hur projektledningen organiserar ett projekt vidinförandet av ett verksamhetsstödjande system. Vi vill även undersöka hur projektledningen ser på att involvera användarna för att kunna få ett lyckat införande. Utifrån olika personers perspektiv i projektledningen vill vi undersöka hur användarnas roller kan se uti ett projekts olika faser. Detta undersökte vi med hjälp av en empirisk undersökning genomförd på ett projekt som pågick i Norrköpings kommun, där det nya IT-systemet Treserva skulle införas i vård-och omsorgsenheterna.

    Utifrån resultatet av vår analys har vi kommit fram till att projektledningen anser att användarna är viktiga i arbetet med att införa ett IT-system. De har fått vara involverade från början av projektet och har därmed kunnat påverka det. Användarna har fått olika roller i projektets olika faser, till exempel som kravställare, testare samt superanvändare. Projektledningen har därmed haft användarna i fokus, vilket kan vara en framgångsfaktor vid införandet av Treserva. Delar av projektledningen kommer ifrån verksamheterna i vård-och omsorgsenheterna vilket vi anser kan vara en av anledningarna till att fokus har legat på användarna.

  • 341.
    Sadoghi, Amirhossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Burdakov, Oleg
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Optimeringslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Piecewise Monotonic Regression Algorithm for Problems Comprising Seasonal and Monotonic Trends2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research piecewise monotonic models for problemscomprising seasonal cycles and monotonic trends are considered.In contrast to the conventional piecewise monotonicregression algorithms, our approach can efficientlyexploit a priori information about temporal patterns. Itis based on reducing these problems to monotonic regressionproblems defined on partially ordered data sets. Thelatter are large-scale convex quadratic programming problems.They are efficiently solved by the GPAV algorithm.

  • 342.
    Sadoghi, Amirhossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Javad, Raheel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Yield Management for Developing Countries  airline industries.2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s world economy is lead by trading sector, which increased the demand of different types of cargo services. Among all types of cargo, demand in “Cargo by Air” increased rapidly. Which increased the demand of low cost airlines or on another side it push the airlines to reduce their fairs. There is no doubt that Operation Research shows a potential to entrepreneurs and investment banks to invest on this venture. In this domain, revenue or yield management principles have very strong relation to form it, which can be traced back over 30 years in the airline industry. In 1970 after release of pricing law by United States government, Pacific Southwest & Southwest Airlines was the one, who first time introduced low cost airlines. Later in the mid of 1980’s, most of the US airlines introduced revenue management in response to those low-cost airlines. Many airlines used this principle and their profit margins increased exponentially. In a similar way the history of European low cost carriers began with the liberation of the flight market in the European Union. By the passage of time all most, all the developed countries adopt yield management principles to increase the profit turn margins but there is a huge gape for adopting this concept in the developing countries. This is because of lack of awareness in the public sector and also there are very few companies, who offer such services. The applicability of this technology may be varied across different developing countries and this is dependent on the level of their economic condition and market growth.

       In this research will consider the history of yield management and factors that drive the multi-pricing in the perishable product pricing. We will also review the main methodologies that are used in each of these areas also investigate new scenario that can brought opportunities for developed countries. Furthermore, will try to identify reasons why this concept failed or not that much popular in the developing countries

  • 343.
    Samii, Soheil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Power Modeling and Scheduling of Tests for Core-based System Chips2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The technology today makes it possible to integrate a complete system on a single chip, called "System-on-Chip'' (SOC). Nowadays SOC designers use previously designed hardware modules, called cores, together with their user defined logic (UDL), to form a complete system on a single chip. The manufacturing process may result in defect chips, for instance due to the base material, and therefore testing chips after production is important in order to ensure fault-free chips.

    The testing time for a chip will affect its final cost. Thus it is important to minimize the testing time for each chip. For core-based SOCs this can be done by testing several cores at the same time, instead of testing the cores sequentially. However, this will result in a higher activity in the chip, hence higher power consumption. Due to several factors in the manufacturing process there are limitations of the power consumption for a chip. Therefore, the power limitations should be carefully considered when planning the testing of a chip. Otherwise it can be damaged during test, due to overheating. This leads to the problem of minimizing testing time under such power constraints.

    In this thesis we discuss test power modeling and its application to SOC testing. We present previous work in this area and conclude that current power modeling techniques in SOC testing are rather pessimistic. We therefore propose a more accurate power model that is based on the analysis of the test data. Furthermore, we present techniques for test pattern reordering, with the objective of partitioning the test power consumption into low parts and high parts.

    The power model is included in a tool for SOC test architecture design and test scheduling, where the scheduling heuristic is designed for SOCs with fixed- width test bus architectures. Several experiments have been conducted in order to evaluate the proposed approaches. The results show that, by using the presented power modeling techniques in test scheduling algorithms, we will get lower testing times and thus lower test cost.

  • 344.
    Sandberg, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorseende.
    Model-Based Video Coding Using a Colour and Depth Camera2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis, a model-based video coding algorithm has been developed that uses input from a colour and depth camera, such as the Microsoft Kinect. Using a model-based representation of a video has several advantages over the commonly used block-based approach, used by the H.264 standard. For example, videos can be rendered in 3D, be viewed from alternative views, and have objects inserted into them for augmented reality and user interaction.

    This master thesis demonstrates a very efficient way of encoding the geometry of a scene. The results of the proposed algorithm show that it can reach very low bitrates with comparable results to the H.264 standard.

  • 345.
    Sandström Krantz, Alexander
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik.
    Node hardening verification2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Secure networks require each node to individually be as secure as possible. Transporting telecommunication data using IP based networks increases the need for security solutions due to increased exposure to threats. Ericsson currently provides a reference solution for carrying radio traffic over standardized Ethernet using IP, which in the current version relies on third party equipment. This equipment, and their recommended configuration, needs to be tested to ensure that the reference solution is as secure as possible.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to provide Ericsson with a template that describes how security testing of the currently recommended equipment can be carried out.

  • 346.
    Saul, Caroline Jennings
    et al.
    Eawag Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci and Technol, Switzerland; Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Eawag Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci and Technol, Switzerland; Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Digital Transformation as an Enabler for Advanced Services in the Sanitation Sector2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikkel-id 752Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People in Base of the Pyramid markets still face difficulties when it comes to sanitation. Container-based Sanitation (CBS) services represent a promising advanced sanitation service. Despite the observed outcomes of CBS services, organizations face obstacles when providing these services. To overcome these obstacles, digital transformations of these services are being carried out. We rely on multiple case studies to understand these digital transformations. Our findings highlight (1) the challenges these case organizations faced before engaging in the digital transformation, (2) their individual digital transformation pathways, and (3) a general framework for digital transformations in BoP markets.

  • 347.
    Schonlau, Matthias
    et al.
    Univ Waterloo, Canada.
    Gweon, Hyukjun
    Western Univ, Canada.
    Wenemark, Marika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Automatic Classification of Open-Ended Questions: Check-All-That-Apply Questions2019Inngår i: Social science computer review, ISSN 0894-4393, E-ISSN 1552-8286, artikkel-id UNSP 0894439319869210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Text data from open-ended questions in surveys are challenging to analyze and are often ignored. Open-ended questions are important though because they do not constrain respondents answers. Where open-ended questions are necessary, often human coders manually code answers. When data sets are large, it is impractical or too costly to manually code all answer texts. Instead, text answers can be converted into numerical variables, and a statistical/machine learning algorithm can be trained on a subset of manually coded data. This statistical model is then used to predict the codes of the remainder. We consider open-ended questions where the answers are coded into multiple labels (all-that-apply questions). For example, in the open-ended question in our Happy example respondents are explicitly told they may list multiple things that make them happy. Algorithms for multilabel data take into account the correlation among the answer codes and may therefore give better prediction results. For example, when giving examples of civil disobedience, respondents talking about "minor nonviolent offenses" were also likely to talk about "crimes." We compare the performance of two different multilabel algorithms (random k-labelsets [RAKEL], classifier chains [CC]) to the default method of binary relevance (BR) which applies single-label algorithms to each code separately. Performance is evaluated on data from three open-ended questions (Happy, Civil Disobedience, and Immigrant). We found weak bivariate label correlations in the Happy data (90th percentile: 7.6%), and stronger bivariate label correlations in the Civil Disobedience (90th percentile: 17.2%) and Immigrant (90th percentile: 19.2%) data. For the data with stronger correlations, we found both multilabel methods performed substantially better than BR using 0/1 loss ("at least one label is incorrect") and had little effect when using Hamming loss (average error). For data with weak label correlations, we found no difference in performance between multilabel methods and BR. We conclude that automatic classification of open-ended questions that allow multiple answers may benefit from using multilabel algorithms for 0/1 loss. The degree of correlations among the labels may be a useful prognostic tool.

  • 348.
    Seyyedi, Navisa
    et al.
    Urmia Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Rahimi, Bahlol
    Urmia Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Eslamlou, Hamid Reza Farrokh
    Urmia Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för verksamhetsstöd och utveckling, Verksamhetsutveckling vård och hälsa.
    Afshar, Hadi Lotfnezhad
    Urmia Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Mobile phone applications to overcome malnutrition among preschoolers: a systematic review2019Inngår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 19, artikkel-id 83Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundMalnutrition is one of the most important reasons for child mortality in developing countries, especially during the first 5years of life. We set out to systematically review evaluations of interventions that use mobile phone applications to overcome malnutrition among preschoolers.MethodsThe review was conducted and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA statement. To be eligible, the study had to have evaluated mobile phone interventions to increase nutrition knowledge or enhance behavior related to nutrition in order to cope with malnutrition (under nutrition or overweight) in preschoolers. Articles addressing other research topics, older children or adults, review papers, theoretical and conceptual articles, editorials, and letters were excluded. The PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases covering both medical and technical literature were searched for studies addressing preschoolers malnutrition using mobile technology.ResultsSeven articles were identified that fulfilled the review criteria. The studies reported in the main positive signals concerning the acceptance of mobile phone based nutritional interventions addressing preschoolers. Important infrastructural and technical limitations to implement mHealth in low and middle income countries (LMICs) were also communicated, ranging from low network capacity and low access to mobile phones to specific technical barriers. Only one study was identified evaluating primary anthropometric outcomes.ConclusionsThe review findings indicated a need for more controlled evaluations using anthropometric primary endpoints and put relevance to the suggestion that cooperation between government organizations, academia, and industry is necessary to provide sufficient infrastructure support for mHealth use against malnutrition in LMICs.

  • 349.
    Shuaib, Muhammad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik.
    Two-Tone PLL  for On-Chip Test In 90nm-Technology2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this report the two-tone PLL circuit intended for on-chip test of RF blocks is presented. The primary application is the third order intermodulation test (TOI), vital for RF front-ends. If the spectral analysis can also be completed by DSP available on the chip or on board, it provides a built in self-test (BiST) which can replace costly test instrumentation (ATE). The advantage of the designed two-tone PLL is that it practically prevents the locking effect while keeping the two oscillation frequencies close. Also by careful design the possible intermodulation distortion of the two-tone stimulus can be avoided.

    The two-tone PLL has been designed and verified at the system level using Verilog-A models in Cadence TM. Besides, two building blocks of the PLL were implemented at the circuit level in 90nm CMOS technology. The obtained results are promising in terms of a practical two-tone BiST implementation.

  • 350.
    Sivatki, Ghennadii
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Synthesis-driven Derivation of Process Graphs from Functional Blocks for Time-Triggered Embedded Systems2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded computer systems are used as control systems in many products, such as VCRs, digital cameras, washing machines, automobiles, airplanes, etc. As the complexity of embedded applications grows and time-to-market of the products they are used in reduces, designing reliable systems satisfying multiple require-ments is a great challenge. Successful design, nowadays, cannot be performed without good design tools based on powerful design methodologies. These tools should explore different design alternatives to find the best one and do that at high abstraction levels to manage the complexity and reduce the design time.

    A design is specified using models. Different models are used at different de-sign stages and abstraction levels. For example, the functionality of an application can be specified using hierarchical functional blocks. However, for such design tasks as mapping and scheduling, a lower-level flat model of interacting processes is needed. Deriving this model from a higher-level model of functional blocks is the main focus of this thesis. Our objective is to develop efficient strategies for such derivations, aiming at producing a process graph specification, which helps the synthesis tasks to find schedulable implementations. We proposed several strategies and evaluated them experimentally.

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