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  • 301.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    An exploratory expansion of the concept of product-service systems beyond products and services2018Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 73, s. 185-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems (PSS) are seen as an important part inmoving towards increased environmental sustainability within the holisticconcept of a circular economy. While PSS are increasingly prevalent inindustry and a multitude of methods and tools have been developed to aidtheir implementation and use, this paper argues that the concept may bemeaningfully extended beyond the design and provision of products andservices alone to include large technical systems. Through a literaturereview and the analysis of four case studies, commonalities anddifferences between PSS and large technical systems are identified. Whilethis only constitutes a first step into the expansion of the scope of PSSand additional, more applied research is required, the PSS concept isdiscussed as a key facilitator of improved environmental performance ofindustrial activities and consumption if applied on a system-level.

  • 302.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejiá Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental technology exports: Analyzing Swedish government and firms' initiatives2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries have historically relied to a great extent on exports as an important component of theireconomic system. With the current globalization trends and increased competitiveness, promotingexports has therefore become a common strategy in order to boost economic growth. Exports ofenvironmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and acontribution to global sustainability. For this objective, governments provide different initiativesaimed at promoting foreign commerce among firms. The aim of this article is to assess the perceptionof the effectiveness of governmental initiatives for export promotion among Swedish environmentaltechnology firms. In addition, the article addresses firms’ internal initiatives to reach potential foreignmarkets through the use of modern communication channels. Data about 728 Swedish environmentaltechnology companies was collected and analyzed by using a combination of desktop research and aweb-based survey. The findings show a relatively high export orientation among the respondentcompanies. However, a majority of the respondents claim not to be aware of governmental initiativesthat fit their particular needs. Those who do show a high level of participation in such initiatives, butmost could not relate this participation to successful businesses abroad. From the firms’ perspective,presence on the Internet was considered to be a plausible indicator of their internal initiatives tocapture potential foreign customers. An analysis of the companies’ web sites, their languagecustomization options and the information they provide was undertaken. Results show that a largenumber of companies have functional web sites. However, the percentage of web sites with languagecustomization options was relatively low.The findings suggest that governmental initiatives have to consider the particular composition andneeds of the environmental technology sector in order to be more effective. On the other hand,although companies show to be proactive in the use of the Internet for increasing their outreach,language customization must be addressed as an important component when using such a tool. Bothgovernmental and firms’ initiatives remain important contributions to export success. In this regard,collaboration and communication between governmental export promotion agencies and firmsrepresents an important first step.

  • 303.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejiá-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 222-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

  • 304.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Intermediaries in sustainability transitions – differences and similarities of relevance for policy2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability transitions require changes in existing socio-technological systems. Authors have underlined the relevance of intermediaries in the design and implementation of policies intended to facilitate sustainability transition. Still, in the literature, the organizations or actors empirically examined as intermediaries are very diverse and the concept of intermediary is used interchangeably from context to context. There is a risk that policy makers face difficulties understanding differences among intermediaries. As a consequence, some intermediaries may be used for unfitting or unrealistic purposes. In this paper, we propose to identify the similarities and differences among intermediaries, which are relevant for policy design. We base our comparison on three main characteristics: intermediaries’ ownership and funding, their scope of action and the target recipients of their services. What emerged from our findings is that differences matter for intermediaries’ short-term or long-term orientation, actor-level or system-level focus, and demand-side or supply-side target. We end the paper by discussing the implications for policy design.

  • 305.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mika, Kuisma
    Aalto University School of Business. Finland.
    Kivimaa, Paula
    University of Sussex, UK & Finnish Environment Institute SYKE.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Conceptualising the system level activities of intermediaries – experiences from the support system for eco-innovators in Finland, Germany and Sweden2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual gap exists regarding the system level activities of intermediaries. This article addresses this gap by answering research questions about how the system level activities of intermediaries can be conceptualised, and empirical demonstrated. In doing so, we study intermediaries in support systems for eco-innovators in three regions across Finland, Germany and Sweden. From our empirical findings and the literature on systemic intermediaries we conceptualise four systems levels of intermediation: (i) between individual entities, (ii) within networks, (iii) across networks and (iv) within innovation systems. These four conceptual levels are based on: (a) the entities between which the intermediaries operate, (b) the intermediation roles and (c) the scope of appropriation of the potential intermediation benefits. Contrary to previous literature on systemic intermediaries which presents such intermediaries as coherent entities, our discussions suggest a heterogeneity of roles within such intermediaries on multiple system levels which can generate internal tensions. Thus, we introduce the term systemic intermediation as a flexible alternative for describing the system level activities of intermediaries compared to systemic Intermediaries dominant in the literature. For researchers and policy makers, this contribution is an essential step which can facilitate a systematic analysis of the impacts of intermediaries in innovation systems.

  • 306.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Components of business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems2016Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 128, s. 156-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for sustainable development are arguably part of the most discussed issues among political and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by global challenges such as climate change, urbanization, and critical natural resource depletion. Sustainable development will require deep structural and wide-reaching changes in current institutions, technologies, and businesses. Furthermore, new approaches are needed to facilitate the development, diffusion, and implementation of environmental technologies. In the academic discourse different concepts, e.g., ecodesign and Product/Service System design, have been proposed within the framework of sustainable development. To deliver even more system-wide environmental improvements, these concepts have been challenged to be expanded in focus beyond products and services to include large technical systems encompassing non-technological dimensions. Motivated by these, the goal of this article is twofold. First, to offer an expanded view on ecodesign of product/service systems using a perspective of large technical systems. Second, to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems such as district heating supply, waste management, and renewable energy systems. Using qualitative semi-structured interviews and company documentation analysis, this study examines five companies that develop and diffuse large scaled environmental technology systems. As a result of these case studies, we propose components of business concepts that incorporate both technological and non-technological dimensions. Our proposed business concept components are: market (including regulation), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy are particularly important in the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems.

  • 307.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Design of business concept with environmental technology2013Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, strategies for sustainable development are arguably among the most discussed issues among political, public and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by major trends such as climate change, rapid urbanization, critical material and energy resource depletion. To facilitate sustainable development, deep structural and wide reaching changes seem needed in current technologies, infrastructure, businesses and institutions. In the academic discourse, different concepts, methods and tools, have been proposed and continue to be expounded within the framework of sustainable development. Notable among them include the concepts of ecodesign, and product and service systems design. These concepts have contributed to environmental improvements but have been challenged by critics to be expanded beyond products and services to include non-technological changes in order to deliver system wide environmental improvements.

    Departing from this background, the goal of this article is twofold, first to offer an expanded view on environmental conscious design of products and services with large scaled sociotechnical systems and then to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems. In doing this, we offer a new way of describing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems which incorporates non-technological dimensions such as meeting formal and informal expectations. We propose a set of components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology offering. These components are: market (including regulations), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Among these factors, regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy were  found as particular for environmental technology diffusion.

  • 308.
    Kant, Marvin
    et al.
    Department of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Innovation intermediaries: What does it take to survive over time?2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 229, s. 911-930Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation intermediaries are recognised as crucial actors that can facilitate the innovation process, support eco-innovation and contribute to sustainable entrepreneurship. However, little is known about the temporal dimension of innovation intermediaries and how they change over time to survive, which is crucial if intermediaries are to contribute to long term sustainability-oriented transformations. An in-depth case study design with a comparative approach was chosen to examine four innovation intermediaries at different development stages in the related fields of CO2 utilisation and Carbon Capture Storage technology in Europe, the USA, and Australia. This study sheds light on the survival of innovation intermediaries over time: Firstly, by describing the dynamics in an intermediary's (a) characteristics, (b) scope, (c) objectives, and (d) roles and activities. Secondly, by identifying at least four interrelated factors influencing an intermediary's survival: (i) neutrality, (ii) technological context, (iii) shared consensus, and (iv) internal value creation. Thus, this article contributes to the literature by highlighting the complexity and tensions in the survival of intermediaries through an analysis of both internal and contextual factors, as opposed to previous literature which has mainly focused on how intermediaries change their roles and activities over time to survive.

  • 309.
    Kantola, Jussi
    et al.
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Peura, Pekka
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    de Leeuw, Tim
    Tilburg Univ, Netherlands.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Naaranoja, Marja
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Segev, Aviv
    Korea Adv Inst Sci and Technol, South Korea.
    Huisingh, Donald
    Univ Tennessee, TN USA.
    Innovative products and services for sustainable societal development: Current reality, future potential and challenges2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, s. S1-S10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This special volume originates from the International Conference on Innovation and Management held at University of Vaasa in Finland in 2014. Talks with the key note speaker and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Cleaner Production led to an idea to develop a special volume about innovative products and services according to the themes of the conference. Thus, the purpose of this special volume is to explore different viewpoints of how innovative products and services may support sustainable societal development. There are five thematic areas with papers that describe new advancements in different industries and organizations. The included papers cover relevant theoretical background and present case studies and practical results. This special volume shows that great progresses are being made in different thematic areas but also that there are so much more waiting to be done for sustainable societal development. This volume indicates that cross-disciplinary approach is truly needed to achieve societal sustainable development. This requires people to change their mindsets and genuinely co-operate towards better future. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 310.
    Karimi Asli, Kaveh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Strategies for promoting sustainable behavior regarding electricity consumption in student residential buildings in the city of Linköping2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving sustainable consumption of energy is an important issue due to the increasing demand for energy and its environmental impact. One of the biggest consumers of the global energy production is the residential sector. Factors determining pattern of energy consumption in this sector are firstly, characteristics of the buildings and equipment and appliances which are used inside them and secondly, people who are using the buildings. The former could be approached by using efficiency strategies; i.e. designing and using materials and utilities which are low energy demanding or reducing consumption of energy. The latter could be reached by adoption of demand side management strategies which could improve pattern of energy consumption by the end users. Combining these strategies bring out energy-smart buildings with energy-smart people as the users. This project aims at introducing potential approaches to strategies of promoting sustainable behavior regarding energy consumption in individuals, with the focus on the students of Linköping University living in the properties of housing company of the city, Studentbostäder.

    For fulfilling this purpose, literature review has been done for finding influencing factors on and strategies for shaping of pro-environmental behavior. In the next step, two projects with focus on demand side management for changing energy consumption of individuals have been studied. Afterward, a questionnaire based on the results of the literature review was prepared and used to gain an understanding of first: attitude, values, knowledge, and awareness of students of Linköping University regarding environmental issues, and second: point of view of the students toward the strategies for shaping pro-environmental behavior.

    Results of the above mentioned methods were used for identifying characteristics of a demand side management project based on provision of feedback on energy consumption for the users. It has been proposed that designing and implementing such project has the potential of affecting pattern of energy consumption by people and lead to its reduction, especially among students accommodating at housing company of city of Linköping, Studentbostäder. More studies are needed for finding feasibility of implementing such project.

  • 311.
    Karlkvist, Anton
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Johansson, Albin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Intermediärers bidrag till stödsystemet och deras förmåga att främja eko-innovation: En fallstudie på Östergötland2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom litteraturen för innovationsintermediärer har många studier utförts med syftet att kartlägga intermediärers bidrag till enskilda företag. Däremot finns det ett forskningsgap gällande hur intermediärer bidrar till det system de verkar inom. Den här uppsatsen adresserar detta gap genom att visualisera hur ett regionalt stödsystem är organiserat och förklarar hur aktiviteter inom systemet kan analyseras i relation till litteratur på intermediärer inom innovation. För att åstadkomma detta kombineras en litteraturstudie med empiriska data insamlade från det regionala stödsystemet i Östergötland. Vidare kategoriseras systemiska aktörer och projekt i ett modifierat nätverk för interna nischprocesser med syftet att kunna analysera deras individuella funktioner och kvantifiera deras kollektiva bidrag för att underlätta utvecklingen och spridningen av eko-innovationer.  

    Studien indikerar att stödsystemet som helhet har gjort mycket för att generera och sprida information om systemförbättringar – ett arbete som underlättas genom det gemensamma målet som stödsystemets ingående aktörer verkar för att uppfylla, samt genom den transparens som råder mellan offentligt förankrade aktörer. Vidare har ett stort genomslag av den europeiska kommissionens reformerade sammanhållningspolitik i regionen resulterat i omfattande åtaganden för att bygga nätverksplattformar utifrån regionala styrkeområden. 

    Erhållna resultat antyder dessutom att det studerade systemet är koordinerat kring ett centraliserat kluster av aktörer med stora ekonomiska resurser samt med en potential att på ett effektivt sätt förmedla kontakter i nätverket, vilket bedöms vara en följd av systemaktiviteternas höga beroende av strukturfondsmedel från EU som genom sina krav på medfinansiering ”förskjuter” makt åt resursstarka organisationer. I det studerade systemet karaktäriseras dessa framförallt genom sin starka koppling till offentligheten. I Östergötland är det Region Östergötland, regionens motsvarighet till landsting, som har det offentliga ansvaret för tillväxt. Detta går också i linje med organisationens centrala roll och inflytande i nätverket samt övergripande strategiska och koordinerade roll inför resterande aktörer i systemet, vilket bland annat demonstreras genom organisationens förmåga att samla och mobilisera andra aktörer i systemet. Centralt i systemet förekommer även Linköpings Universitet, vars roll i stödsystemet framförallt består i att överföra kunskap från akademin till systemet, vilket bland annat illustreras i nätverkskartorna där universitetets starka inflytande springer ur forskares och studenters frekventa inblandning i olika typer av samverkansprojekt. 

    Bland de decentraliserade organisationerna i nätverket återfinns i större utsträckning offentligt (via finansiering) förankrade organisationer som operativt tillhandahåller företags- och innovationsstöd, och därmed fyller en viktig roll som ”förlängda armar” ut i näringslivet, samt som ingångsportar till systemet för entreprenörerna som söker stöd. Dessa decentraliserade organisationer arbetar även ofta med nischade fokusområden och erbjudanden, där till exempel Cleantech Östergötland arbetar för att främja samverkan mellan miljöteknikbolag från näringslivet med offentligheten och akademin, samtidigt som organisationen politiskt representerar miljöteknikbolag för uppströms påverkansarbete. 

    I vetenskaplig litteratur rörande intermediärers roll för att främja nischer presenteras policy- och regimförnyelse vara ett av de viktigaste åtagandena som systemiska intermediärer åtar sig. I uppsatsen redogörs det för hur Region Östergötland och Länsstyrelsen Östergötland är de organisationer i det studerade systemet som arbetar med de tydligaste kanalerna för uppströms påverkansarbete och att utmana existerande samhällsstrukturer, vilket bland annat verkställs genom organisationernas åtagande att artikulera behov för det regionala näringslivet. Som offentliga organisationer präglade av teknologisk och politisk neutralitet finns det däremot en utmaning för dessa organisationer att kunna främja eko-innovation som nisch, vilket för stödsystemet i allmänhet, och Region Östergötland i synnerhet, bör innebära ökade incitament att belysa, vårda och främja de organisationer i systemet som fokuserar på att främja eko-innovation. 

  • 312.
    Karlsson, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Value System for Sustainable Manufacturing: A study of how sustainability can create value for manufacturing companies2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was conducted in the field of Environmental technology for the Sustainability & Technology Assessment group, at Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology. Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology is a research institute, striving to contribute to Singapore’s industrial capital through use-inspired research.

    The manufacturing industry contributes to a significant portion of the world´s total energy and resource consumption. This resource consumption could be reduced significantly through sustainable initiatives and technologies already available today. The reasons why companies choose not to invest in such technologies are often not due to technical factors, but rather due to financial factors. Financial barriers exist because investments are made on the basis of cost based value systems, which seldom justify investments in sustainable technology. When investments are made, the primary reason is to reduce costs while intangible benefits are ignored. However, this study shows that sustainability creates intangible value that current value systems cannot account for. Understanding the true value of sustainability would help decision makers realize that sustainable manufacturing is a viable business opportunity.

    This thesis studies the effect sustainable attributes has on a company’s ability to generate value. A value system is proposed, linking 40 sustainable attributes to value domains of intangible value. The value of sustainable attributes is quantified using the Sustainable Value approach. The study shows that social indicators, deemed by others to be unsuitable, can be used when proper adjustments to the Sustainable Value approach are made. A case study was performed on the Swedish manufacturing company Finess Hygiene AB to investigate the applicability of the model. The case study showed that the value system was applicable using data that already exists within the company, but the main challenge lies in collecting good and reliable benchmark data. Benchmark data is significantly easier to obtain in Sweden than Singapore for users wishing to apply the proposed value system. A follow up study should be performed to study the potential of a large scale adoption of the value system in Singapore.

  • 313.
    Karlsson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Sund, Linnea
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Life cycle assessments of arable land use options and protein feeds: A comparative study investigating the climate impact from different scenarios in the agricultural sector2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the climate impact from different arable land use options and protein feeds aimed for cattle. This has been made by executing two life cycle assessments (LCAs). The first LCA aimed to compare the following three arable land use options:

    • Cultivation of wheat used for production of bioethanol, carbon dioxide and DDGS
    • Cultivation of rapeseed used for production of RME, rapeseed meal and glycerine
    • Fallow in the form of long-term grassland

    The second LCA aimed to compare the three protein feeds DDGS, rapeseed meal and soybean meal. In the LCA of arable land, the functional unit 1 ha arable land during one year was used and the LCA had a cradle-to-grave perspective. The LCA of protein feeds had the functional unit 100 kg digestible crude protein and had a cradle-to-gate perspective, hence the use and disposal phases of the feeds were excluded.

    Bioethanol, DDGS and carbon dioxide produced at Lantmännen Agroetanol, Norrköping, were investigated in this study. The production of RME, rapeseed meal and glycerine were considered to occur at a large-scale plant in Östergötland, but no site-specific data was used. Instead, general data of Swedish production was used in the assessment. The wheat and rapeseed cultivations were considered to take place at the same Swedish field as the fallow takes place.

    The protein feed DDGS was produced at Lantmännen Agroetanol and the rapeseed meal was assumed to be produced at a general large-scale plant in Sweden. In the soybean meal scenario, a general case for the Brazilian state Mato Grosso was assumed and no specific production site was investigated. Data required for the LCAs was retrieved from literature, the LCI database Ecoinvent and from Lantmännen Agroetanol.

    In the LCA of arable land use options, system expansion was used on all products produced to be able to compare the wheat and rapeseed scenarios with the fallow scenario. In the LCA of protein feeds, system expansion was used on co-products. The products in the arable land use options and the co-products in the protein feed scenarios are considered to replace the production and use of products on the market with the same function.

    The result shows that the best arable land use option from a climate change perspective is to cultivate wheat and produce bioethanol, carbon dioxide and DDGS. This is since wheat cultivation has a higher yield per hectare compared to rapeseed and therefore a bigger amount of fossil products and feed ingredients can be substituted. To have the arable land in fallow is the worst option from a climate change perspective, since no products are produced that can substitute alternative products. Furthermore, the result shows that DDGS and rapeseed meal are to prefer before soybean meal from a climate change perspective, since soybean meal has a higher climate impact than DDGS and rapeseed meal. This can be explained by the smaller share of co-products produced in the soybean meal scenario compared to the DDGS and rapeseed meal scenarios. Since the production and use of co-products leads to avoided greenhouse gas emissions (since they substitute alternatives), the amount of co-products being produced is an important factor. A sensitivity analysis was also executed testing different system boundaries and variables critical for the result in both LCAs.

    The conclusion of this study is that arable land should be used to cultivate wheat in order to reduce the total climate impact from arable land. Furthermore, it is favorable for the climate if DDGS or rapeseed meal are used as protein feeds instead of imported soybean meal.

  • 314.
    Karlsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åslund, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ekonomiska och miljömässiga förutsättningar för landfill mining: En förstudie av tre olika deponityper på Filbornaanläggningen i Helsingborg2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens stora materialanvändning är påfrestande för jordens naturresurser. En möjlig källa för framtida resurser är deponier; i avfallet som tidigare deponerats finns ofta såväl återvinningsbara metaller som avfall passande för energiåtervinning. Konceptet landfill mining (LFM) är ett sätt att utnyttja de resurser som finns i deponier och innebär att deponierna grävs ut med efterföljande material- och energiåtervinning.En deponi där landfill mining skulle kunna vara aktuellt är Filbornadeponin i Helsingborg. Tre avsnitt av Filbornadeponin anses vara extra intressanta för en eventuell utgrävning; Lagringsytan, BCR1 och Rökille. Detta examensarbete är en förstudie inför framtida LFM-projekt på Filbornadeponin och syftet är att identifiera kritiska faktorer för projektens genomförande. I arbetet ingår att ta fram materialsammansättningen för aktuella deponier samt en utredning av de ekonomiska och miljömässiga förutsättningarna för respektive projekt.Arbetet är fallstudieinspirerat med målet att kartlägga förutsättningarna för respektive deponi. Detta uppnås via en bakgrundsstudie för respektive deponi, där faktorer som deponivolym, avfallets ålder, materialsammansättning och metangasproduktion undersöks. Bakgrundsstudien kompletteras av en fältstudie där provgrävningar/provborrning, plockanalys och kemisk analys bidrar med mer information. För att genomföra de ekonomiska och miljömässiga beräkningarna ställs två scenarier upp för respektive deponi, ett referensfall där verksamheten fortgår som idag och ett landfill mining-scenario med utgrävning och efterföljande behandling enligt deponiernas specifika förutsättningar.De ekonomiska resultaten visar att två av tre deponier får en större kostnad för LFM-scenariot än för en fortsatt verksamhet liknande den idag. Samtidigt visar de miljömässiga resultaten att stora miljövinster finns kopplade till en utgrävning av de två deponierna Lagringsytan och BCR1. Vid en utgrävning av dessa kan utsläpp av stora mängder metanekvivalenter förhindras. Miljöresultaten för en utgrävning av Rökille uppvisar istället en försämrad miljöprestanda jämfört med referensfallet.Baserat på resultatet har främst sex stycken kritiska faktorer för lönsamhet och miljöprestanda påvisats: (1) Det är svårt att hitta tillgänglig data om en deponis materialsammansättning på förhand och den information som finns är ofta osäker. (2) Ett LFM-projekt kan förhindra framtida metanutsläpp. Dock finns risken att inbunden metangas förekommer i massorna, vilken kan frigöras vid utgrävningen. (3) Det krävs specifik utformning av separationsprocessen och lämplig teknik framtagen särskilt för landfill mining finns inte på marknaden i dagsläget. (4) Lagstiftningen inom området är oklar och ett flertal bestämmelser motverkar resursåtervinningen av gamla deponier. Exempelvis kan riktvärden för metallinnehåll och deponiskatt påverka utfallet för en utgrävning. (5) Metaller är i dagsläget de enda inkomstbringande materialfraktionerna i ett LFM-projekt. Dessutom ger återvinningen av metaller utsläppsbesparingar i form av undvikna utsläpp från jungfruliga metaller. (6) Kostnaden för att skicka bränslefraktionen till förbränning är den enskilt största kostnadsposten i LFM-scenarierna för de två deponierna med en brännbar fraktion. Samtidigt leder förbränningen till utsläpp av fossil koldioxid eftersom en stor del av det brännbara materialet utgörs av plast.

  • 315.
    Karunanithi, Ambarish
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    System analysis of de-watering process for treating biogas digestate2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increasing production of biogas for transportation and other purposes, generation of biogas digestate is also increased. Biogas digestate is considered as an organic fertilizer which can potentially replace mineral fertilizer used for agricultural purpose as they contain rich soil and plant nutrient. Processing and logistics of the biogas digestate became a challenging opportunity due to presence of higher water content in the raw biogas digestate that is obtained from wet anaerobic digestion process. Many research groups and organizations are involved in designing a sustainable processing mechanism for biogas digestate so that they can be marketable and commercially available as bio-fertilizers. Among various identified processing options, de-watering is an important and mandatory process (solid-liquid separation) involved in full scale biogas digestate processing. This work is focused in systemic assessment of the environmental impacts associated with biogas digestate de-watering process using Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology. Various operational options are considered for the de-watering process and analyzed accordingly. A comparison from environmental and economical perspective is made within the operational options to find out which one can be efficiently used.

  • 316.
    Kihl, Anders
    et al.
    Ragn-Sells AB.
    Aid, Graham
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Ragn-Sells AB.
    Driving Forces and Inhibitors of Secondary Stock Extraction2016Inngår i: The Open Waste Management Journal, ISSN 1876-4002, E-ISSN 1876-4002, Vol. 9, s. 11-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though it’s well known that our common resources are limited and that recycling is key for a sustainable future; inreality we see few examples of true recycling where virgin raw material is substituted by waste. There are endless numbers ofexamples where waste is utilized to some extent without solving the core issue: reducing the need of extracting virgin raw materials.This article analyses some of the driving forces and inhibitors of secondary stock extraction to explore why it’s so difficult establishlarge scale secondary stock extraction although suitable technologies are available. The authors discuss and suggest possible ways forreducing some of the main barriers presented.

  • 317.
    Kimita, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Akasaka, Fumiya
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Requirement Analysis for User-Oriented Service Design2009Inngår i: 42nd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 318.
    Kimita, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Akasaka, Fumiya
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Requirement Analysis for User-Oriented Service Design2009Inngår i: Asian International Journal of Science and Technology Production & Manufacturing Engineering, ISSN 1906-151X, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 11-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In manufacturing, systems combining physical products and services have been attracting much attention. For such systems, designers need to focus on customer requirements rather than on the achievement of functionality. Methods are proposed in this paper for the analysis of requirements and extension of the design process proposed in Service Engineering. The focus is on the specification of service users in a client organization and on the extraction of their requirements in consideration of the organizational objectives of the client. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by an application, where a bank is a target client of a service.

  • 319.
    Kimita, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Hara, Tatsunori
    The University of Tokyo.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Arai, Tamio
    The University of Tokyo.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    An Integrated Analysis of Customer Value and Environmental Burden for Environmentally Conscious Design2009Inngår i: International journal of design engineering, ISSN 1751-5874, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 262-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 320.
    Kimita, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    A failure analysis method for designing highly reliable product-service systems2018Inngår i: Research in Engineering Design, ISSN 0934-9839, E-ISSN 1435-6066, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 143-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, product-service systems (PSSs), which create value by integrating a physical product and a service, have been attracting attention. In PSSs, it is critical for a provider to offer highly reliable products and services. To do so, the provider needs to effectively and efficiently detect possible failures, and then, take adequate measures against them in the conceptual design stage. However, in current studies on product failure analysis, service aspects are not covered in analyzing failure causes and developingmeasures. On the other hand, product aspects are hardly considered in existing methods of service failure analysis. To fill the gap, this paper proposes a method for failureanalysis in PSS design called PSS failure mode and effect analysis (PSS FMEA). Especially, this paper extends theframework of FMEA, and then, a procedure for PSS FMEA is introduced so that designers can analyze failures and develop measures in consideration of both product andservice aspects. Furthermore, the proposed method supports designers in finding new business opportunities. The proposed method was applied to a real offering of products and services by a cleaning machine provider and found effective.

  • 321.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Actors' incentives for improved waste management: the role of regulation and market interactions2007Inngår i: 4th International Society for Industrial Ecology Conference,2007, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 322.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Concentrate or dilute contaminants?2006Inngår i: COST Action E37 vork shop - Sustainability through new technologies for enhanced wood durability,2006, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 323.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Concentrate or dilute contaminants?: Strategies for Swedish wood waste2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to assess the environmental consequences of management strategies for wood waste in Sweden. There is a special focus on separation strategies and in what way such measures influence environmental aspects such as the presence of heavy metals in the waste. Actors’ incentives and capacity to influence wood waste management are analysed, emphasising the importance of driving forces such as governmental regulation and market interactions.

    The results show that, in comparison to present dilution practice, separation of contaminants would lead to decreased heavy metal emissions during combustion of wood waste while still recovering a similar energy yield from the waste. Such measures would also increase possibilities for resource-saving reuse of the generated ash. For most metals, however, long-term pollution concerns related to accumulations in landfills and unintentional co-recycling are difficult to address, regardless of separation strategy. An exception is industrial preservative-treated wood waste that according to regulation is to be separately handled as hazardous, for which separation measures also would address such future concerns. This indicates that governments could play an important role in environmental policy by, for instance, stimulating separate handling of certain discarded products.

    Actors in the energy sector involved in fuel and heat production have quite restricted capacities for separation of contaminants in wood waste. Instead, achieving substantially less contaminated wood waste seems to require actors in the waste and construction sectors to develop source separation measures. The fact that such measures often involve actors lacking professional standards for waste management constitutes a fundamental obstacle to efficient separation. Perhaps even more hampering is that source separation at present leads to increased waste disposal costs for actors in the construction sector. Such economic outcomes of source separation are unfavourable, since these actors consider wood waste as a disposal problem for which the costs should be minimised. Despite these obstacles, however, the results show that some actors have proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation.

    At present, only a minor share of industrial preservative–treated wood waste is separately handled as hazardous. For actors in the energy, waste and construction sectors, the incentives for such measures appear low even though introduced regulations potentially could have created such incentives. It appears as if a lack of steering mechanisms such as communication and supervision have neutralised the inherent pressure from regulation in many cases. Quality requirements, on the other hand, can be concluded to be of outmost importance for motivating separation measures. Unfortunately, market forces encourage actors in the energy sector to practice inconsistent enforcement of quality requirements. As a consequence, actors in the waste and construction sectors do not experience any strong pressure for separation of contaminants from their customers. In fact, such an inconsistent enforcement of quality requirements seems to have counteracted legal pressures for separation, due to present customer-oriented business management.

    Delarbeid
    1. Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.
    2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of recovered waste wood (RWW) originating from construction and demolition activities (C&DWW) and industrial activities (IWW) are annually generated in Sweden. RWW is also imported for use as an energy source at biofuel boilers. Increased use of biomass is one strategy to decrease environmental impact, in general, and the emissions of green house gases, in particular. This study addresses the environmental and resource implications of metal occurrence in RWW that is used as an energy source at biofuel boilers. RWW contains elevated concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury, nickel, lead and possibly cadmium. The metal composition of Swedish and imported RWW differs in that Swedish RWW contains higher concentrations of arsenic, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper, while imported RWW contains higher concentrations of lead, mercury and cadmium. Ashes from combustion of RWW are nowadays generally disposed in landfills due to their elevated metal concentrations. This practice makes it impossible to use these ashes as filler material thereby replacing extraction of raw materials and decreasing the need for landfill space. Furthermore, landfilling leads to accumulation of hazardous heavy metals that poses a future environmental and health problem. If RWW from construction and demolition should contribute optimally to a sustainable energy system, cleaner waste wood flows are a prerequisite. The elementary measure is to track potential pollution sources in this waste stream and find out which are significant. Furthermore, since most of the RWW is untreated and unpolluted wood, there is a great environmental potential to separate this flow through the waste management system. Such an approach might lead to decreased environmental pollution of heavy metals and an improved resource management.

    Emneord
    Heavy metal pollution, Demolition waste, Recovered waste wood, Industrial waste streams, Sustainable development, Waste bioenergy
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14069 (URN)10.1016/S0921-3449(03)00100-9 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-10-09 Laget: 2006-10-09 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13
    2. Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 158-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14070 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2005.07.017 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-10-09 Laget: 2006-10-09 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13
    3. Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 103-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden recovered waste wood (RWW) is used for heat production, which reduces the share of waste that is landfilled and recovers the energy content of the waste. However, this waste contains contaminated materials that pollute RWW with heavy metals, causing downstream environmental problems. The main objective of this study was to analyse how different upstream-oriented strategies to manage RWW, influence the arising of environmental pressures downstream the waste management system. Today, the contaminated materials in RWW are handled together with the main waste flow. This upstream approach was compared with a separation strategy that removes contaminants from the main waste flow thereby handling these materials separately downstream the waste management system. An extended substance flow analysis (SFA) methodology that also includes resource issues was applied for the analysis. The results show that the upstream separation strategy exhibits potential environmental benefits. However, to accurately prevent environmental pollution also in a long time perspective, upstream separation strategies must be combined with downstream measures aimed to immobilise the contaminants in by-products. Otherwise, such separation strategies, as the current handling of RWW, may cause temporal and spatial shifting of problems. To enable immobilising measures, however, upstream separation strategies are important since they decrease the volume problem.

    Emneord
    Waste management strategies, Heavy metals, Problem shifting, Substance flow analysis
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14071 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.03.002 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-10-09 Laget: 2006-10-09 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13
    4. Preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden: Waste beyond control
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden: Waste beyond control
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 471-486Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Wood preservatives contain hazardous substances that cause environmental implications during waste management. The objective of this study was to analyse the waste management of preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden from a pollution perspective and in regard to the present waste policy. Firstly, the generation of waste was modelled and then the methods of disposal were analysed from direct inquiries to waste facilities and from mass balance considerations. The results show that the discarded amount of preservative-treated sawn timber has increased and today exceeds 150 000 tonnes per year. This waste generation will continue for many years and will contain several thousand tonnes of arsenic and chromium. According to the Swedish Waste Decree, preservative-treated sawn timber is to be separately handled as hazardous waste. At present, however, most of the waste unintentionally becomes dispersed in non-hazardous waste, making it difficult to control the outflows of hazardous substances from preservative-treated sawn timber.

    Emneord
    preservatives; sawn timber; wood waste; waste management; hazardous substances; environmental pollution; material flow analysis; substance flow analysis; environmental policy; regulations; industrial ecology; strategic sustainable development; Sweden
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14072 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2006.012272 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-10-09 Laget: 2006-10-09 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13
    5. Swedish recovered wood waste: Linking regulation and contamination
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Swedish recovered wood waste: Linking regulation and contamination
    2008 (engelsk)Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 638-648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995–2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14073 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2007.03.010 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-10-09 Laget: 2006-10-09 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13
    6. Recycling centres in Sweden and their strategic importance for the environmental performance of the waste management system
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Recycling centres in Sweden and their strategic importance for the environmental performance of the waste management system
    Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14074 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-10-09 Laget: 2006-10-09 Sist oppdatert: 2010-01-13
  • 324.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Urban and landfill mining: emerging global perspectives and approaches2010Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, nr 16-17, s. 1772-1773Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 325.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Återvinnare för industrin 20072007Inngår i: Återvinnare för industrin, Stockholm: Rekord Media och Produktion AB , 2007, s. 94-95Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 326.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Getting serious about mining the technosphere: a review of recent landfill mining and urban mining research2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, s. 1-9Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reviews the articles in a special volume of Journal of Cleaner Production on urban mining and landfill mining, identifying what is seen as relevant for exploring the feasibility of such approaches and which societal changes and research areas are essential for their further dissemination. In doing so, we put the articles in relation to previous research and a modified resilience model displaying dimensions of relevance for socio-ecological transitions, i.e., Metabolic flows, Governance andamp; knowledge, Business dynamics and Infrastructure andamp; markets. The main contributions of the articles in the special volume are in regards to metabolic issues (e.g. characterization of technospheric material stocks and societal impacts of landfill mining) and business dimensions (e.g. economics, organizational issues and management tools). Two articles also provide original contributions by conceptualizing these emerging approaches and defining what makes them different from existing recycling strategies and practices. We conclude that urban mining and landfill mining show high potential but that state-of-the-art is theoretical, implying a need for applied approaches to develop applicable methods and technology and to assess performance of such activities in practice. However, realization of these approaches faces interdisciplinary and long-term challenges, which apart from technology and facts also needs to address non-technical conditions in terms of governance, market dynamics and organizational structures and cultures.

  • 327.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Developing a monitoring method facilitating continual improvements in the sorting of waste at recycling centres2010Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 32-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Beneficial use of waste relies on efficient systems for collection and separation. In Sweden, a bring system involving recycling centres for collection of bulky, electr(on)ic and hazardous waste has been introduced. A significant share of this waste is incorrectly sorted, causing downstream environmental implications. At present, however, there is a lack of affordable and accurate monitoring methods for providing the recycling centres with the necessary facts for improving the sorting of waste. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the usability of a simplified and potentially more suitable waste monitoring method for recycling centres. This method is based on standardised observations where the occurrence of incorrect sorting is monitored by taking digital pictures of the waste which then are analysed according to certain guidelines. The results show that the developed monitoring method could offer a resource-efficient and useful tool for proactive quality work at recycling centres, involving continuous efforts in developing and evaluating measures for improved sorting of waste. More research is however needed in order to determine to what extent the obtained results from the monitoring method are reliable.

  • 328.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The strategic role of recycling centres for environmental performance of waste management systems2010Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 362-367Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how different actors influence the sorting quality of waste at recycling centres. Visitors (i.e. citizens) play an essential role since they conduct the actual sorting. They have difficulties sorting many of their discarded products, leading to decreased performance of the entire waste management system of which recycling centres are a part. Several measures addressing this problem are identified such as product design, improved terminology for labelling waste and increased manning at recycling centres. A fundamental task for managers and employees is to further develop information and guidance for visitors, both at home and at recycling centres. Several obstacles for improvements are also discussed, including working conditions and the economy of recycling centres, as well as the routines for communication and quality assurance among actors in the recycling business.

  • 329.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Utveckling av en bättre avfallsterminologi på återvinningscentraler: kartläggning och empiriska försök2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det råder en stor variation mellan återvinningscentraler med avseende på hur fraktioner benämns, vilka fraktioner som finns tillgängliga och vad de ska innehålla. En utveckling av en mer standardiserad terminologi, som samtidigt beaktar de lokala skillnaderna mellan återvinningscentralerna, skulle i detta sammanhang ge många fördelar och bland annat möjliggöra fortlöpande, nationella informations- och folkbildningsinsatser.

    På de flesta återvinningscentraler används flera, helt olika principer för att benämna avfallet. Vissa fraktioner benämns efter behandlingsmetod, andra efter vad avfallet kommer att användas till eller så namnger man fraktionerna efter vilka material och produkter de ska innehålla. Detta är på många sätt förvirrande för besökarna och leder till en hel del felsortering. Därför bör man eftersträva att renodla terminologin genom att endast använda en princip för att benämna avfallet.

    Mycket talar för att en terminologi som konsekvent utgår från vilka material- och produkter fraktionerna ska innehålla är att föredra. Återvinningscentraler bör därför undvika att använda olika behandlingsmetoder och användningsområden för avfallet i skyltningen eftersom sådan information ger ganska lite stöd till besökarna.

    Många besökare sorterar i huvudsak efter sina tidigare erfarenheter. De läser därför inte skyltarna noggrant utan fokuserar på rubrikerna och ögnar bara snabbt igenom resten av texten. Av den orsaken är det extra viktigt att man placerar den viktigaste informationen först det vill säga material- och produktexempel. För mycket detaljinformation på skyltarna (många materialexempel, förbudstexter, hänvisningar, etc.) gör det också extra svårt för denna typ av besökare att snabbt identifiera den relevanta informationen för dem i en specifik situation.

    För att fastställa hur mycket information och exakt vilka ord och begrepp som ska användas på skyltarna för att åstadkomma bäst sortering krävs mer forskning i form av ett större antal empiriska försök. I detta projekt har vi tagit fram grundläggande kunskap som kan ligga till grund för utformandet av sådana försök.

  • 330.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Verktyg för bättre sortering på återvinningscentraler2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 331.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlsson, Annica
    Environmental Strategies Research, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) & Sweden and Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Urban mining - Prospecting for metals in the invisible city2010Inngår i: Knowledge Collaboration & Learning for Sustainable Innovation, ERSCP-EMSU conference, Delft, The Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In theory, ‘urban mining’ has a huge potential for enabling more efficient resource use and offering new business opportunities for the cleantech and recycling industries. This concept involves recovering technospheric stocks of previously employed natural resources that have been taken out of use without being collected for waste management. Such hibernating material stocks can be found in old water supply, sewage and power distribution networks – urban structures rich in for example iron and copper. This paper aims to analyze the potential for urban mining of the metals copper and aluminum from hibernating power and communication cables in Sweden. Emphasis is on the economic feasibility of two different approaches for realizing such initiatives. The results indicate that separate extraction of obsolete cables situated below ground in a city is not yet likely to be economically justified for power grid managers. Even in case of integrated recovery during other maintenance work on the grids, additional project costs often exceed potential revenues for the cables. In rural areas, however, both separate and integrated recovery of hibernating cables seem straightforwardly profitable, especially for obsolete copper cables belonging to the regional communication network. It is concluded however that the viability of urban mining is not only a matter of economics. Research aiming to analyze technical, economic, environmental and other institutional conditions for realization of urban mining is therefore strongly encouraged.

  • 332.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlsson, Annica
    The Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden.
    Urban mining: hibernating copper stocks in local power grids2011Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, nr 9-10, s. 1052-1056Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large technical systems serving the everyday needs of people, such as water supply systems, power gridsor communication networks, are rich in accumulated metals. Over time, parts of these systems have beentaken out of use without the system infrastructure being removed from its original location. Such metalstocks in hibernation thus constitute potential resource reservoirs accessible for recovery. In this paper,obsolete stocks of copper situated in the local power grids of two Swedish cities are quantified. Emphasisis also on economic conditions for extracting such “hibernating” cables. The results show that on a percustomer basis, the two power grids contain similar amounts of copper, i.e. 0.04e0.05 tonnes persubscriber. However, the share of the copper stock that is in hibernation differs between the grids. In thelarger grid of Gothenburg, almost 20% of the copper accumulated in the grid is no longer in use, while theobsolete share does not exceed 5% in the city of Linköping. For managers of local power grids, recovery ofhibernating cables could be beneficial if integrated with other maintenance work on the grid. At thepresent price of copper, however, separate recovery of obsolete cables is not economically justified.

  • 333.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental and economic conditions for landfill mining2009Inngår i: 2009 ISIE Conference: 5th International Conference on Industrial Ecology: Transition Towards Sustainability, 2009, s. 189-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    "At the conference we would like to present selected results from an ongoing research project

    aiming to address the environmental and economic potentials of landfill mining (LFM) in Sweden. LFM means the excavation processing treatment or recycling of waste that over the years have been dumped in waste deposits. In the first part of the presentation the environmental potential of LFM on the national scale of Sweden will be quantified in terms of selected impact categories (global warming potential material and energy resource flows etc.). Preliminary results show that this overall potential is huge and could for instance lead to avoided climate gas emissions corresponding to 4–5 times the annual Swedish emissions. Critical factors (efficiency of waste technology transportation distances etc.) determining to what extent such potentials can be realised in practice i.e. in specific LFM–projects will then be discussed. The second and final part of the presentation will solely focus on conditions for realisation. Here we will discuss under what circumstances LFM is profitable and contributes to economic growth. Our ongoing research show that only the raw material value of Swedish waste deposits is beyond 10 billion Euros (€). However no matter how large the economic potential appears on the national scale the realisation of LFM will always be done by actors on the project level. For these individual companies benefits must simply outweigh the costs. There are however many factors that may influence the profitability of specific projects such as revenues for recovered materials efficiency of technology environmental taxes and waste disposal fees labour regulatory compliance expenses and so on. We will categorise such factors into a few critical drivers enablers and barriers for implementation of LFM and discuss them in terms of technology legislation and market interactions."

  • 334.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landfill mining: A critical review of two decades of research2012Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 513-520Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is nowa well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions,local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has beensuggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing,treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill miningcovering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research paperspublished during the period 1988–2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily beenseen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space andlocal pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources,mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically,simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstratingmoderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recentresearch findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resourceextraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that facilitating implementationinvolves a number of research challenges in terms of technology innovation, clarifying theconditions for realization and developing standardized frameworks for evaluating economic and environmentalperformance from a systems perspective. In order to address these challenges, a combination ofapplied and theoretical research is required.

  • 335.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Landfill mining: on the potential and multifaceted challenges of implementation2015Inngår i: Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste / [ed] Mohammad J. Taherzadeh and Tobias Richards, Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group, 2015, 1, s. 313-330Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews landfill mining research. By applying industrial ecology and transition perspectives, it aims to address two research questions: (i) Why should we learn how to mine the landfills? and (ii) Why don’t we mine the landfills? Emphasis is on how institutional conditions influence feasibility and further dissemination of this strategy. While benefits of landfill mining mainly materialise on the societal level, it is concluded that current policy, legislative and market conditions provide minor incentives for private actors to engage in such activities. Facilitating realisation is therefore not just a matter of knowledge production and technology but will rely on knowledge dissemination and strong actor networks that engage in politics, influence public opinion and advocate landfill mining as a way to solve wider societal concerns.

  • 336.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Potential and conditions for mining the technosphere2013Inngår i: Second International Academic Symposium of Enhanced Landfill mining / [ed] Peter Tom Jones, Daneel Geysen, Houthalen-Helchteren, Belgium: Haletra , 2013, s. 19-36Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews landfill mining research. By applying industrial ecology and transition perspectives, it aims to address two research questions: (i) Why should we learn how to mine the landfills? and (ii) Why don’t we mine the landfills? Emphasis is on how institutional conditions influence feasibility and further dissemination of this strategy. While benefits of landfill mining mainly materialise on the societal level, it is concluded that current policy, legislative and market conditions provide minor incentives for private actors to engage in such activities. Facilitating realisation is therefore not just a matter of knowledge production and technology but will rely on knowledge dissemination and strong actor networks that engage in politics, influence public opinion and advocate landfill mining as a way to solve wider societal concerns.

  • 337.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Environmental issues related to the flow of waste wood through the Swedish building sector - A problem description2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 338.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood2007Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 103-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden recovered waste wood (RWW) is used for heat production, which reduces the share of waste that is landfilled and recovers the energy content of the waste. However, this waste contains contaminated materials that pollute RWW with heavy metals, causing downstream environmental problems. The main objective of this study was to analyse how different upstream-oriented strategies to manage RWW, influence the arising of environmental pressures downstream the waste management system. Today, the contaminated materials in RWW are handled together with the main waste flow. This upstream approach was compared with a separation strategy that removes contaminants from the main waste flow thereby handling these materials separately downstream the waste management system. An extended substance flow analysis (SFA) methodology that also includes resource issues was applied for the analysis. The results show that the upstream separation strategy exhibits potential environmental benefits. However, to accurately prevent environmental pollution also in a long time perspective, upstream separation strategies must be combined with downstream measures aimed to immobilise the contaminants in by-products. Otherwise, such separation strategies, as the current handling of RWW, may cause temporal and spatial shifting of problems. To enable immobilising measures, however, upstream separation strategies are important since they decrease the volume problem.

  • 339.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.2004Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of recovered waste wood (RWW) originating from construction and demolition activities (C&DWW) and industrial activities (IWW) are annually generated in Sweden. RWW is also imported for use as an energy source at biofuel boilers. Increased use of biomass is one strategy to decrease environmental impact, in general, and the emissions of green house gases, in particular. This study addresses the environmental and resource implications of metal occurrence in RWW that is used as an energy source at biofuel boilers. RWW contains elevated concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury, nickel, lead and possibly cadmium. The metal composition of Swedish and imported RWW differs in that Swedish RWW contains higher concentrations of arsenic, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper, while imported RWW contains higher concentrations of lead, mercury and cadmium. Ashes from combustion of RWW are nowadays generally disposed in landfills due to their elevated metal concentrations. This practice makes it impossible to use these ashes as filler material thereby replacing extraction of raw materials and decreasing the need for landfill space. Furthermore, landfilling leads to accumulation of hazardous heavy metals that poses a future environmental and health problem. If RWW from construction and demolition should contribute optimally to a sustainable energy system, cleaner waste wood flows are a prerequisite. The elementary measure is to track potential pollution sources in this waste stream and find out which are significant. Furthermore, since most of the RWW is untreated and unpolluted wood, there is a great environmental potential to separate this flow through the waste management system. Such an approach might lead to decreased environmental pollution of heavy metals and an improved resource management.

  • 340.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden: Waste beyond control2006Inngår i: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 471-486Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood preservatives contain hazardous substances that cause environmental implications during waste management. The objective of this study was to analyse the waste management of preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden from a pollution perspective and in regard to the present waste policy. Firstly, the generation of waste was modelled and then the methods of disposal were analysed from direct inquiries to waste facilities and from mass balance considerations. The results show that the discarded amount of preservative-treated sawn timber has increased and today exceeds 150 000 tonnes per year. This waste generation will continue for many years and will contain several thousand tonnes of arsenic and chromium. According to the Swedish Waste Decree, preservative-treated sawn timber is to be separately handled as hazardous waste. At present, however, most of the waste unintentionally becomes dispersed in non-hazardous waste, making it difficult to control the outflows of hazardous substances from preservative-treated sawn timber.

  • 341.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion2006Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 158-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW.

  • 342.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Tracking pollution sources in waste wood - A first step to integrated material flows between sectors, Recycling, close loop economy, secondary resources,2002Inngår i: International Society for Industrial Ecology Meeting,2002, 2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 343.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Libiseller, Claudia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Swedish recovered wood waste: Linking regulation and contamination2008Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 638-648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995–2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

  • 344.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Potential and conditions for landfill mining in Sweden2008Inngår i: Gordon Research Conference Industrial Ecology,2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 345.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landfill mining: a review of three decades of research2010Inngår i: Knowledge Collaboration & Learning for Sustainable Innovation, ERSCP-EMSU conference, Delft, The Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-established fact however that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such resource and pollution problems and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering an analysis of trends, objectives and research topics in 39 papers published during the period 1988–2008. The results show that so far landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional waste management issues such as lack of landfill space or facilitation of final closure and remediation of waste deposits. Although most initiatives also have involved some effort to recover deposited resources (primarily cover soil material), such constituents have been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings however indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as future reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears gigantic, it is argued that facilitating implementation also involves a number of challenges in terms of technology innovation, concepts for realization and frameworks for evaluating economic and environmental performance.

  • 346.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.
    Potential metal resources in waste incineration ash deposits2012Inngår i: SUM 2012 Symposium on Urban Mining, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Incineration of waste has always been connected to large metal flows, and it has long been a concern from an environmental point of view, with special focus given to high metal concentrations in the flue gas. However, these metal flows could have also been seen as a potential resource stock available for extraction. This study aims to assess the potential of Swedish waste incineration ash deposits as sources for metal extraction. A second, and equally important aim, is to contribute knowledge for priority-setting of future research on metal extraction methods from such residues.

     

    The results from this study indicate that the metal flows are still considerable. The total amounts of scrap metal in these deposits are significant, and nearly amount to the annual collection of both ferrous and non-ferrous scrap in Sweden. Furthermore, for some of the metals studied the annual flows in Sweden seem to be higher than the metal flows in slag from the copper and steel industries. The main research regarding the extraction of metals from MSWI ash has focused on fly ash. However, by looking at the total potential amounts in different deposits, the results in this study suggest that, from an environmental and economic point of view, the highest potential seems to be for metal stocks in the bottom ash. One metal that has not been high on the research agenda is Titanium, which, due to a high raw material value combined with large amounts in deposits, is ranked at the top from both the economic and environmental perspectives. The results also show that there currently seems to be less incentive to extract the scarcer metals both from an economic and an environmental point of view.

    The article gives suggestions for future research. For example, how much of the metals in the deposits are in a chemical form, making them suitable for extraction? Which challenges arise if the focus of extraction is turned towards the bottom ashes, with their lower concentrations but higher total amounts? Furthermore, research is needed on how accessible different types of deposits are, and what type of institutional and technological challenges and possibilities would arise in a real-world extraction activity.

  • 347.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Department of Engineering Management, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    How to evaluate (enhanced) landfill mining: A critical review of recent environmental and economic assessments2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining / [ed] [ed] Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium, KU Leuven , 2018, s. 317-332Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 348.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Urban infrastructure mines: on the economic and environmental motives of cable recovery from subsurface power grids2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, s. 353-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsurface power grids constitute one of the largest copper stocks in many industrialized cities. Over time, parts and zones of these systems have been continuously disconnected and abandoned, resulting in the emergence of urban infrastructure ores. This study aims to assess how current conditions and practices influence economic and environmental motives of cable recovery from such power grids. By applying an infrastructure managers perspective and evaluating 16 scenarios involving different extraction technologies and procedures, surface materials, urban locations and types of cables, we identify key areas where solutions or changes to increase incentives for cable recovery are needed. The assessed scenarios display significantly different cable extraction costs, where excavation in city centers with asphalt or cobblestone pavements generates the highest costs while greenbelts offer the best conditions. In most cases, cable revenues are not even close to outweighing the extraction costs. This is especially true for paper-coated cables or cables with aluminum conductors, for which the revenues are much lower than for plastic-insulated copper cables. Although economic conditions could be improved by integrating cable recovery to regular system upgrade projects or by applying non-digging technologies, clear incentives rely on the cable in question being especially valuable. Most of the cable recovery scenarios display environmental motives in terms of net savings in GHG emissions due to metal recycling. In contrast to the economic results, recycling of aluminum power cables is here more awarding than that of corresponding copper cables. We conclude that under current conditions urban mining does not make economic sense to infrastructure managers unless it is integrated as an added value to system upgrade projects. Apart from such re-arrangements in infrastructure provision, several other practice-related changes to cut cable extraction costs are possibly within reach for the managers. Still, an economically motivated practice relies on several external performance drivers such as market diffusion of non-digging technologies, improved cable recycling processes, and increased scrap metal prices. Our conclusion that the arguments for urban mining are currently more environmental than financial, points towards changed perspectives where such activities are seen as a way for infrastructure managers to contribute to societal goals such as climate change mitigation and reduced mineral resource dependence. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 349.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Syntesrapport från projektet Städer som gruvor: tio huvudpunkter2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Städer är centrala i hållbarhetsarbetet, inte minst på grund av att den urbana livsstilen är en starkt bidragande orsak till många av dagens resurs– och miljöproblem. Men städer uppvisar också möjligheter till förändring och utveckling av lösningar för en effektivare användning av resurser. Ledningsbundna infrasystem för el, tele, fjärrvärme, vatten, etc. utgör stadens tekniska ryggrad. Att upprätthålla dessa markförlagda systems funktioner bygger på ett ständigt återkommande behov av schaktarbeten, vilket förutom stora kostnader orsakar betydande miljöpåverkan och intrång i stadslivet. Dessa nätverk innehåller också stora förråd av metaller som koppar och aluminium, vilka över tiden har lagrats i alla de hundratusentals mil av kablar och rör som ligger nedgrävda under våra gator och torg. Idag sker ingen återvinning av dessa metaller utan systemdelarna lämnas i regel bara kvar i marken efter att ha tagits ur bruk.

    Vid Linköpings universitet har vi under flera år bedrivit forskning om “Städer som gruvor” tillsammans med nätägare och återvinningsföretag som Tekniska Verken i Linköping, Skanova och Stena Recycling. Projektet har finansierats av Vinnova och syftat till att ta fram kunskap om när, var och hur återvinning kan bli en del av infrasystemens förvaltning.

    Syftet med denna syntesrapport är att sammanfatta de viktigaste lärdomarna från projektet Städer som gruvor II på ett lättillgängligt sätt. Rapporten består av tio huvudpoänger. De berör allt ifrån infrasystemens resurspotential och förutsättningar för återvinning, till behov av förändringar i praktik och policy. Dessa poänger täcker givetvis inte in alla resultat från projektet utan ambitionen är snarare att peka på centrala motiv, möjligheter och utmaningar och därigenom lyfta frågan bland branschens aktörer och andra intressenter. Förhoppningen är att vi på detta sätt kan så ett frö till diskussion om förändring i riktning mot en resurseffektivare förvaltning av stadens ledningsbundna infrastruktur.

    För den som vill veta mer finns en lista på källmaterial och kontaktpersoner i slutet av rapporten.

  • 350.
    Kumar, Allan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trinh, Gian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    How Uncertainty is Perceived and Managed in Design by PSS Providers?: Relation of PSS types Provided2012Inngår i: The Philosopher's Stone for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8th - 9th, 2012 / [ed] Yoshiki Shimomura, Koji Kimita, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, , s. 91-96s. 91-96Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives new insight into how PSS providers perceive and react to different types of uncertainties regarding PSS in their planning, design, and development through an interview study. The companies were found to be most concerned about Market Uncertainty, Supplier Coordination Uncertainty, and Uncertainty of Innovative Services, in this order. The uncertainty types perceived as opportunity by a greater number of firms were Market Uncertainty, Environment Uncertainty, and Uncertainty of Product Functioning. Furthermore, the companies that offer Use-Oriented Service or Result-Oriented Service seemed to perceive lower risks than those offering only Product-Oriented Service.

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