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  • 351.
    Svensson, Gary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lärkner, BengtLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Det gröna spåret2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatdebatt. Klimathot. Klitmtsmart mat. Miljö- och klimatmärkning. Orden kan inte kännas annat än bekanta. Frågor gäillande miljön och klimatet är idag inte isolerade utan oavsett om det gäller tvättmedel, fordonsindustrin eller pensionssparande så kan frågor om varor och tjänsters påverkan på miljön komma att undersökas och ifrågasättas. Texterna i denna antologi spänner över skilda områden med klimat och miljö som den gemensamma nämnaren. Författarna studerar visuell kultur med uttryck genom reklam, film och design utififrån frågan hur ser vår visuella vardag ut med alla de budskap ommiljön och klimatet?

    Josefine Stridsberg och Tony Lundin skildrar den gröna färgens förankring inom miljöpolitiska rörelser och studerar hur fårgen grönt har kommit att likställas med miljövänligt. Med utgångspunkt i tidskriften Allt i Hemmet gör Stridsberg och Lundin en resa genom miljöfrågor, politik och konsumtion.

    Marie-Louise Crona och Elin Dahlstedt granskar en rad annonser från dagspressen i jakten på den miljövänliga reklamen. Hur ser dessa miljövänliga annonser ut? Finns det någon gemensam näimnare och vad tycker konsumenterna om annonsern?

    Pctra Pihl studerar hur dc ekologiska livsmedlen presenteras rent visuellt genom förpackningsdesignen. På vilket sätt skiljer sig förpackningsdesignen åt mellan ekologiska och icke ekologiska livsmedel?

    Lovisa Kragerud och Linn Haller fokuserar i sin text på hur hygien- och kosmetikprodukter ofta framhålls som naturliga och direkt sprungna ur växtriket. Vad är naturlig skönhet? Vad är egentligen naturligt?

    Julie Anne Sjaastad och Katja Rosen tar pulsen på klimatdebatten genom att analysera filmen An lnconvenient Truth. Författarna fokuserar på filmens retoriska grepp där Al Gore har en framträdande roll.

    Petra Pihl

    April 2009

  • 352.
    Svensson, Gary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Wærn, Yvonne
    Linköpings universitet.
    Portrayal Classification - Of Educational Hypermedia on the Internet2002In: Visual literacy in message design : selected readings / [ed] Robert E Griffin; Jung Lee, Ph. D.; Vicki S Williams, Loretto: International Visual Literacy Association , 2002, p. 211-223Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 353.
    Svensson, Gary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Wærn, Yvonne
    Linköpings universitet.
    Pettersson, Rune
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Appearances of the Paper Paper and the Web Paper2004In: 35th Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association Conference,2003, 2004, p. 225-232Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 354.
    Svensson Limsjö, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Media and Communication Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Adelsvärd, Viveka
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berättelsen om Estonia. Svenska passagerare och estniska besättningsmän1999In: Möten : en vänbok till Roger Säljö / [ed] Ullabeth Sätterlund Larsson, Kerstin Bergqvist, Linköping: Tema Kommunikation, Linköpings universitet , 1999, p. 443-460Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 355.
    Svensson Limsjö, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Media and Communication Studies.
    Adelsvärd, Viveka
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Tala om problem - lärarstrategier i skolans kvartssamtal1995In: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 356. Svensson, Staffan
    et al.
    Kjellgren, Karin
    Linell, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Negotiating side effects in follow-up appointments for hypertension2006In: Medication adherence, side effects and patient-physician interaction in hypertension / [ed] Staffan Svensson, Göteborg: Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Internal Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University , 2006, p. 116-130Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the incidence of which it is possible to reduce by prophylactic treatment with antihypertensive drugs. In clinical practice, however, only a minority of patients reach target blood pressure levels. The resulting gap between actual and potential health gains has been attributed to the fact that many patients do not take prescribed treatment as recommended, i.e. ”medication non-adherence”. This phenomenon is, however, insufficiently understood. We investigated the topic of adherence by way of a randomised questionnaire material comprising 1013 patients, and audio-recordings of 51 patient-physician consultations and 33 interviews with the patients made after the consultations. All patients came for regular follow-up appointments with their physicians and were under treatment with antihypertensives. In the questionnaire material, we found that patients who reported side effects of their drugs tended to rate their future risk of cardiovascular complications as being higher. Analysis of the interview data showed that patients had various reasons for sticking to the treatment recommendations: trust in physicians and wanting to avoid sequelae of hypertension were common arguments for doing so, while having side effects and disliking pharmaceuticals in general were reasons against. In the follow-up appointments, we found that the determinants of treatment decisions, i.e. the measured blood pressure values and (suspected) side effects, were defined through negotiation between patients and physicians. On the whole, patients and physicians were more in agreement about the interpretation of blood pressure values than of side effects, and physicians had the last say in the decision-making. We concluded that the antecedents of decisions about using medication are surrounded by uncertainty, and that it is the patient’s interpretation of the ”facts” that, ultimately, determines if and how antihypertensive medications will be taken.

  • 357. Svensson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linell, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Kjellgren, Karin
    Making sense of blood pressure values in follow-up appointments for hypertension2006In: Medication adherence, side effects and patient-physician interaction in hypertension / [ed] Staffan Svensson, Göteborg: Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Internal Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University , 2006, p. 100-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the incidence of which it is possible to reduce by prophylactic treatment with antihypertensive drugs. In clinical practice, however, only a minority of patients reach target blood pressure levels. The resulting gap between actual and potential health gains has been attributed to the fact that many patients do not take prescribed treatment as recommended, i.e. ”medication non-adherence”. This phenomenon is, however, insufficiently understood. We investigated the topic of adherence by way of a randomised questionnaire material comprising 1013 patients, and audio-recordings of 51 patient-physician consultations and 33 interviews with the patients made after the consultations. All patients came for regular follow-up appointments with their physicians and were under treatment with antihypertensives. In the questionnaire material, we found that patients who reported side effects of their drugs tended to rate their future risk of cardiovascular complications as being higher. Analysis of the interview data showed that patients had various reasons for sticking to the treatment recommendations: trust in physicians and wanting to avoid sequelae of hypertension were common arguments for doing so, while having side effects and disliking pharmaceuticals in general were reasons against. In the follow-up appointments, we found that the determinants of treatment decisions, i.e. the measured blood pressure values and (suspected) side effects, were defined through negotiation between patients and physicians. On the whole, patients and physicians were more in agreement about the interpretation of blood pressure values than of side effects, and physicians had the last say in the decision-making. We concluded that the antecedents of decisions about using medication are surrounded by uncertainty, and that it is the patient’s interpretation of the ”facts” that, ultimately, determines if and how antihypertensive medications will be taken.

  • 358.
    Svidén, Gunilla
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring sensitivity to nonverbal communication in controlled settings: Methodological considerations1993Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the issues addressed in this thesis concerns whether and how sensitivity to nonverbal communication develops during a period of time spent in professional education. In addition, this investigation is an attempt to gain insight into the complex questions which arise when nonverbal communication is studied from different theoretical perspectives and by employing different research methods. In Study I the aim was to investigate whether three groups of subjects on different levels of professional training and clinical experience differed in sensitivity to nonverbal cues which were presented ejther visually, auditively or mixed. Three groups of participants were tested with the PONS test. The results showed no statiStical differences betweengroups on the eleven different nonverbal channels or on the four affective dimensions. In Study II the aim was to study the effects of variations in response mode on participants' judgement of nonverbal communication. Research findings reveal that the meaning of nonverbal behavior cannot be separated from the social context in which it occurs and the research conditions under which it is studied. The material which was used in this study consists of twenty scenes from the PONS test. The results show that when participants described their impressions in their own words agreement was very low. But when particip·ants were forced to choose between two alternative situationaldescriptions, agreement increased considerably. In Studies Ill and IV the methodological approach intended to capture how participants on different levels of professional education perceive nonverbal behavior, and how they say they would respond. The socio-cultural perspective adopted here implies that as the individual becomes exposed to new and more specia1ized forms of social practices, he or she will perceive and handle reality in qualitatively different ways. Participants viewed patients' nonverbal behavior during treatment which had been videofilmed. After having viewed each film, participants were first asked to express in their own words how they interpreted the nonverbal behavior they had seen, and, secondly, participants wereasked how they would respond to the emotional reaction which they had inferred. Descriptions were first collected at the beginning of the first term of training and then after one and a half years. The analysis presented in Study Ill shows that after training inferences regarding emotional reactions were more detailed, complex, fluctuating and more frequently related to concrete observations. Also, trained students were more inclined to describe a conflict between patients' overt nonverbal bchavior and feelings which they appeared to try to hide. The analysis presented in Study IV reveals that after training students made more comments formulated as intentions for how to act as well as comments fonnulated as concrete strategies on how to act. A majority of trained students' comments on concrete actions were directed toward the patient's physical disability, and comments on actions intended to divert the patient from negative feelings. After training there were more comments on actions which were intended toreduce negative affect, but very few comments were fonnulated in accordance with the higher levels in Burleson's model for production of comforting messages.

    The results are discussed in terms of how different research contexts impose different demands on participants and the extent to which the requirements involved in controlled settings correspond with interpretive demands in everyday interaction.

  • 359.
    Säljö, Roger
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wyndhamn, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cognitive Operations and Educational Framing of Tasks: School as a Context for Arithmetic Thought1988In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive Operations and Educational Framing of Tasks. School as a Context for Arithmetic Thought. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 32, 61‐71. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the understanding of the contextual determination of cognitive activities. In a naturalistic experiment in a primary school setting it is shown how performance at group level on an elementary arithmetic task is influenced by the immediate context in which this problem is presented. Differences in performance between groups at various achievement levels in mathematics are amplified by corresponding differences in discovering and utilizing analogies between problems as heuristic aids. This latter kind of difference reflects – it is argued – variations in abilities in analysing and deciphering cognitive tasks at a linguistic and meta‐communicative level rather than in mastering the specific algorithmic tools. It is also argued that the functional meaning of the task as pedagogical praxis may differ between contexts.

  • 360.
    Säljö, Roger
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wyndhamn, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Forrnal Setting as Contextfor Cognitive Activities: An Ernpirical Study of Arithmetic Operations under Conflicting Premisses for Comrnunication1987In: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 233-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general concern of the present article is to contribute to an understanding of the contextual determination of cognitive activities. More specifically, the focus of the empirical research reported has been to study how pupils define and deal with cognitive tasks in situations that are recognised as pedagogical in character. Within the context of their everyday mathematics teaching, 206 twelve year old primary school pupils were given work sheets containing elementary arithmetic problems. The experimental treatment consisted of introducing (through headings and instructions) pedagogical definitions of problems that were in conflict with the nature of the problems themselves. The results indicate that the predefinitions of cognitive activities typical of educational contexts have a strong impact on the way problems are dealt with. Clear differences could be discerned between groups at different achievement levels in the extent to which the cues present in pedagogical contexts were used in defining the problem. A crucial aspect of what are conventionally conceived as differences in mathematical ability seems, judging from the present results, to have more to do with the capacity to decipher ambiguous communicative situations than with the mastery of a mathematical algorithm per se.

  • 361.
    Sätterlund Larsson, Ullabeth
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Being involved: Patient participation in health care1989Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem focussed on concerns interaction in health and medical settings between patients and health care professionals. The issues studied relate to patient participation and influence in face-to-face encounters with professionals, and to patient evaluation of selected aspects of their experiences of modem health care.

    In the theoretical background, it is argued that the health care setting is an example of a communicative situation characteristic of modem society in which people who vary in communicative power and expertise interact. Institutionalized communication thus typically involves encounters between the general public- often referred to as laymen - and one or more experts representing the views and traditions of an institution. At a general level, the central concern of the study is one of making visiblethe patients' reactions and of scrutinizing their possibilities of making themselves heard.

    The methodological approach utilized is multidisciplinary. In the ftrst two articles, a discourse analytic study of patient-physician interaction is reported; and in the latter three articles an epidemiological approach to the study of patient perceptions of various aspects of health care is used. The empirical material consists of two sources of data. For the analysis of patient-physician interaction a corpus of 20 medical interviews in a hospital clinic of internal medicine has been used. The second set of data - forming the material for the epidemiological study- was collected by means of questionnaires given to a sample of 666 persons undergoing surgery.

    The results in the first two articles focus on salient features of the interaction patterns of patient-physician dialogues. It is shown how social distance is negotiated through the use of specific forms of adress, and how requests and feedback are introduced so as to avoidface-threatening situations. It is also shown how such politeness moves can cause ambiguity in the dialogue. In the second article, the role of lifestyle habits (smoking and drinking) in clinical decision-making is studied. It is shown that the information elicited on such health hazards is vague and that the decision as to when and how to go into such issues seems to follow certain patterns representing physicians' implicit assmnptions as to the tendency of different groups to smoke and drink. In the epidemiological studies, the results reveal that ofl the whole the patients seem satisfied with their involvement in the decision to have an operation and report having the influence they expected. These results are discussed in terms of patient and health care professionals' prevailing expectancies with respect to patient influence. The results also show that the more satisfied the patients were with the outcome of the operation and the post-operative care process, the more inclined they were to state that they had been actively involved in the decision to have surgery. It is also shown that there is considerable discrepancy between patient reports and health care professionals' registration of complications after surgery.

    The results are discussed in tenns of the concept of 'voice' and the differences between the 'voice of medicine' and the 'voice of the lifeworld'. It is argued that the problem of people's involvement in health encounters and decision-making cannot be reduced to an issue of merely increasing the information provided. Attending to the problems and definitions perceived as significant in the 'voice of the lifeworld' is essential if modem health care is to deal with its traditional task of curing disease as well as its new challenge of preventing poor health.

  • 362.
    Sätterlund-Larsson, Ullabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergqvist, KerstinLinköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Möten: en vänbok till Roger Säljö1999Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 363.
    Söderlind, Solfrid
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Porträttbruk i Sverige 1840-1865: En funktions- och interaktionsstudie1993Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to illuminate the production and use of portraits in Sweden from 1840 to 1865. The initial year was when photography reached this country and the period ends with the crisis for portrait photography, in which an excessive number of practitioners wasreduced by bankruptcies.

    The thesis begins with a review of earlier research and relevant theoretical approaches. of which two should be singled out: Michael Baxandall's discussion of intention and historical distance and Wolfgang Kemp's proposals for art historical research on reception. Both of these viewpoints have been important for this study with its focus on reception.

    The chapters are each about a particular aspect of portraiture and the interaction of the parties concerned. Taken together, they are intended to provide a general picture of the variety and the complexity of the communication from which the portraits emanated. The study is based onextensive empirical sources, consisting of portraits and contemporary documents.

    The first aspect investigated is the world of art and the agents of portraiture, i.e. all the parties involved in the production and use of portraits. The findings indicate that the number of patrons around 1840 were low, that the collectors were numerous- contrary to earlier statements- and that the portrait commissioners usually came from the upper classes; occasionally, they were craftsmen but almost never peasants. This is followed by an account of the traditional types ofportrait which states that the painted portrait went through a transition towards iconographical simplification. The chapter on the advent of photography and its impact on the portrait trade summarizes earlier research in this field and extends knowledge of the early decades ofphotography, with the emphasis on how the practitioners of portraiture were affected. Here, the technologized culture in Sweden is seen as having paved the way for the introduction of photography. The interaction between photographers and other portraitists is presented as more complex than usually stated. All kinds of portraitists survived the carte-de-visite mania in the 1860s, but the miniaturists almost disappeared and the number of photographers was reduced. The element of change is also pursued in the chapter on portraiture as a process, where it involves an analysis of pronouncements by the agents. The evidence of change that is discernible in their discourse indicates a growing difference between the laymen (the commissioners, and other related beholders) and the professionals (portraitists, art critics) as regards verbal competence and use of concepts. The concluding chapter is about portraits' communicative function - how their commissioners and viewers related to portraits and which material and symbolic aspects were of contemporary significance. The photographic portrait is seen to extend rather than alter already existing portrait usage.

  • 364.
    Söderlind, Solfrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Statens slottssamlingar, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.
    Sjölander-Hovorka, AngelaLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Johannesson, LenaLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fotobilden: historien i nuet - nuet i historien : en symposiedokumentation1989Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 365.
    Tegern, Gunilla
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Frisk och sjuk: Vardagliga föreställningar om hälsan och dess motsatser1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to analyse the content of everyday conceptions of health and illness and to elucidate through this analysis what these conceptions can tell us about our time.

    The analysis is based on two types of material: interviews with lay persons about health and illness, and newspaper articles and biographies concerning certain topics. Thirty-three people were interviewed with the aid of a semi-structured questionnaire. The questions were formulated on the lines of the interview guide used by the French sociologist Claudine Herzlich in a study of the social representation of health and illness in a French group. The analytical model employed was a variant of a general model for qualitative analysis.

    Five different conceptions of health have been identified: health as absence of disease, health as well-being, health as balance, health as strength, and health as an ideal. Disease is characterised, by the lay persons, not just as just a fault in a person's body but also (and indeed primarily) as a disturbance in the person's life. It involves both a biographical and a normative non-normality, which is to say that it is a question both of not being able to be as one usually is and of not being like others. The analysis of conceptions of disease as a general phenomenon includes conceptions of causes of disease. The basis for the overall classification of the causes which have been identified is the distinction between human acts and non-acts. Corresponding to this classification of causes is a classification of disease into self-inflicted, inflicted-by-others and non-inflicted. In the latter categoty we can find heredity, bad luck and chance. In the analysis of conceptions about specific diseases, commonplace infections, Aids, cardiac infarction and cancer, there emerges a central theme which can be described as control versus fatalism. Fatalism is understood here as an expression of a criticism of the modern project.

    Whilst it is true that the explosive increase in scientific lmowledge has created a new type of certainty and of deepening faith in experts, what has happened at the same time is that our capacity for both talcing the world for granted and adopting a reflexive stance towards it has createda new uncertainty - an uncertainty as to whether the base for our present knowledge was the right one. Our double predicament is that We find ourselves betweell trust and distrust, between certainty and uncertainty.

  • 366.
    Tellgren, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tio fotografer - självsyn och bildsyn: Svensk fotografi under 1950-talet i ett internationellt perspektiv1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation Ten Photographers. Selfperception and Pictorial Perception. Swedish Photography in the I950s in an International Perspective concerns a dynamic decade for Swedish photography. It concentrates on photographers who participated in the Young Photographers (Unga fotografer) exhibition in 1949 and subsequently crystallised into Ten Photographers (Tio fotografer), a group formed in 1958 by Sten Didrik Bellander, Harry Dittmer, Sven Gillsäter, Hans Hammarskiöld, Rune Hassner, Tore Johnson, Hans Malmberg, Pål-Nils Nilsson, Georg Oddner and Lennart Olson.

    The work is based on interviews, with seven members of Ten Photographers and with the art critic Ulf Hård af Segerstad. The theory underlying the studies of Swedish photography is drawn from the critical approach which in recent years has pervaded research into the history of photography. The dissertation follows two main threads. One is the issue of how photography «becomes» art, which is primarily a discursive, socially constructed process. The other is the perception, common at the time, of photography as a language, a vehicle for human communication.

    Sweden's young photographers in the 1950s called for a change - in themselves as well as in their public - in the perception of pictures. The international culture offered them alternative ways of working with and viewing the photographic medium. It is evident that the paths for communication in Swedish cultural life complied with certain structures that governed the acceptance of photography as an artistic exercise and thereby qualified the photograph as an object for museum and institutional collections. Rune Hassner and his colleagues can be seen as powerful performers in a process of communication that generated authority, commanding the contemporary arena and also initiating an account of its history. In conclusion there is a discussion of the widespread postwar perception of photography as a language. The exhibition The Family of Man, which was based on such theories, is considered at length.

  • 367.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att medskapa Jeltsin: tankar kring en radiointervju2002In: Jagen och rösterna :: Goffman, Viveka och samtalet : texter till Viveka Adelswärd den 17 mars 2002 = Selves and voices : Goffman, Viveka and dialogue / [ed] Per Linell & Karin Aronsson, Linköping: Tema K, Linköpings universitet , 2002, p. 115-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 368.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Dialogue interpreting: A monologising practice in a dialogically organised world2004In: Target, ISSN 0924-1884, E-ISSN 1569-9986, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 105-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates dialogue interpreting as a monologising social practice, and demonstrates how this can be done within a generai theoretical framework of dialogism. Drawing on earlier research on naturally occurring, interpreted face-to-face interaction, the paper argues for treating dialogue interpreting as a separate empirical field within the generai field of Translation Studies. The constant overlap between target and source environment is identified as one of its characteristic features. Adding to the current discussion on ethics in Translation Studies, the paper finally highlights the point of distinguishing between interpreters' professional ideology and lived professional practice.

  • 369.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Dialogue Interpreting - a New Branch of Translation Studies2002In: The diversity of languages and language learning : Lund Lectures in Languages and Literature 21-22 February 2001 / [ed] Strömqvist, Sven och Marcus Uneson, Lund: Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University , 2002, p. 73-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 370.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interpreting as interaction: On dialogue-interpreting in immigration hearings and medical encounters1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on twenty recorded encounters involving, on the one hand Russian speaking laymen, on the other Swedish-speaking representatives of public institutions -- police-officers, nurses and doctors -- and, "in the middle" Dialogue Interpreters.

    The normative role (Goffman) of a professional Dialogue Interpreter, i.e. what is prescribed, for example in the official code of conduct, presupposes the performing individual to translate as closely as possible everything uttered by each party talking in her or his own language. The typical role (Goffman) of the Dialogue Interpreter, however, involves both relaying and co-ordinating these persons' talk.

    The thesis analyses the complex structure of participation framework in dialogue interpreted interaction. The variations in primary parties' and Dialogue Interpreters' speaker and hearer roles are explored. The intricate collaborative construction of interactional meaning in face-to-face encounters is investigated in detail in an analysis of the genesis and management of mis-communication events.

    The study is descriptive and exploratory in orientation. The field of research is a relatively new one, and different analytical frameworks need to be developed and applied to empirical data. The author has chosen to apply a dialogic (Bakhtin) view on discourse, rather than a monologic one, seeing interpreting as interaction, and generating categories from the corpus of data, rather than testing a priori categories.

  • 371.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Le dinamiche dell´ interpretazione dialogica e la negoziazione della 'personhood'2006In: Congresso Internationale dell´ Associazione Italiana di Linguistica Applicata,2005, Perugia: Guerra Edizioni , 2006, p. 13-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 372.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Review of "The Critical Link 2: Interpreters in the Community" by Roda P. Roberts, Silvana E. Carr, Diana Abraham & Aideen Dufour (Eds.)2000In: Interpreting, ISSN 1384-6647, E-ISSN 1569-982X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 75-78Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 373.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    The Double Role of a Dialogue Interpreter2002In: The interpreting studies reader / [ed] Franz Pöchhacker and Miriam Shlesinger, London: Routledge , 2002, p. 355-370Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of interpreting studies and the new directions the subject is taking in the twenty-first century

  • 374.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Utvecklingsidéer för en kompletterande medieutbildning vid Linköpings universitet. Utredning för filosofiska fakulteten.2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 375.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Co-operative process management: cognition and information technology1998Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 376.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Co-ordination and control in a dynamic environment2000In: Proceedings of the joint conference of APCHI 2000 (4th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Computer Interaction), ASEAN Ergonomics 2000 (6th S.E. Asian Ergonomics Society Conference): 27th November to 1st December, Singapore / [ed] Kee Yong Lim, Amsterdam, Oxford: Elsevier , 2000, p. 108-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       In the next millennium, it is anticipated that human factors issues will take centre stage in initiatives targeted at enhancing economic competitiveness and productivity. This development is already discernible in nascent knowledge and digital based industries and economies, which are expected to emerge in force in the near future and continue to dominate thereafter. These developments will establish irreversibly the emerging global economy. The theme of the APCHI 2000 conference is: "Towards a seamless integration of collaborative human computer systems" to reflect the already discernible shift in focus of human computer interaction (HCI). whilst the theme of the ASEAN Ergonomics 2000 conference is: "From user centeredness to people centeredness" to reflect the imminent shift in focus that is required of human factors. The papers in these proceedings provide a good contrast of human factors contributions to both old and new economies that make up ASEAN and APEC. They highlight the diverse roles human factors can play in advancing the quality of life in developed, developing and third world nations. They also serve as a guide to human factors practitioners in old economies on what to expect as their economies develop.

  • 377.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ingen regel utan undantag. Debatter kring princip och praktik1999In: Möten : en vänbok till Roger Säljö / [ed] Ullabeth Sätterlund Larsson, Kerstin Bergqvist, Linköping: Tema Kommunikation, Linköpings universitet , 1999, p. 485-509Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 378.
    Waern, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Dahlqvist, Patric
    Ramberg, Robert
    Learning contexts - Does multimedia affect physics learning?2000In: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences,2000, Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society , 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 379.
    Waern, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Pettersson, Rune
    Svensson, Gary
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    On Web Based Learning - Experiences from Teaching and Learning Online2002In: the 34th Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association,2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 380.
    Wahlquist, Ragne
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Webbpublicering av elevaktiviteter: en deskriptiv studie av gymnasieelevernas upplevelser2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to describe the experiences of high school students as regards the effects of their activities, in and out of lessons, being published on the web. In addition, a further purpose is to acquire knowledge about whether a website could be used as means of increasing the students level of attention, and focus, to their activities in school; and, furthermore, how such a website should be designed to correspond with the students requests.

    The implemented methods are interviews with students, school administrators and teachers. A survey was conducted covering the student’s personal experiences and opinions. Furthermore, an interface test of the website was performed. Grades and absences from earlier students were also included in the study.

    According to the interviews the students experienced that they were affected by the increased level of attention but also that their fellow-students were more affected than they were themselves; and, furthermore, higher grades and fewer absences were registered.

    The study was conducted at a high school in Stockholm where courses in art and design, with concentrations in industrial design, architecture and urban planning are offered in the Technical Program. Altogether 62 students were included while doing their first year of a total of three years.

  • 381.
    Wallheim, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies, Literature .
    En poetiskt smyckad sinnlighet: Vilhelm Fredrik Palmblads Almqvistkritik i Törnrosens bok. Nemligen den äkta och veritabla2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Denna uppsats försöker utreda innebörden av den kritik Vilhelm Fredrik Palmblad i sin år 1840 utgivna Törnrosens bok. Nemligen den äkta och veritabla (TBN) riktade mot Carl Jonas Love Almqvists författarskap. Bokens kritik undersöks mot bakgrund av Palmblads verksam-het som kritiker i Swenska Litteratur-Föreningens Tidning. Dessutom sätts Palmblads este-tiska hållning vid denna tid i relation till dels den han själv som ung, under 1810-talet, ut-tryckte, dels till den som dominerade 1830-talets debatt. Uppsatsens metod är huvudsakligen idéhistorisk.

    I början av TBN är kritiken mot Richard Furumos, d.v.s. Almqvists, författarskap huvud-sakligen formulerad utifrån ett estetiskt perspektiv. Centrala är här de båda begreppen ”reellt” och ”ideellt” som ofta placeras i motsatsställning och där det förra står för den empiriska, jordiska, verkligheten och det senare för en högre, sannare verklighet eller en ren fantasivärld. Herr Hugo menar, liksom Palmblad, att konsten ska utgå från (den empiriska) verkligheten men spegla denna på ett ideellt sätt varigenom reellt och ideellt förenas på ett sätt som mildrar eller döljer fula och stötande sidor och visar det högre, bättre och ädlare.

    En tydlig gräns dras mellan det sannas område och fiktionens område. I historiska fiktions-berättelser ska det verkliga historiska skeendet endast utgöra en bakgrund medan huvudhand-lingen och huvudpersonerna ska vara fiktiva.

    Vad gäller personteckning – och då främst personteckning i litteratur med verklighetsskild-rande anspråk – ska utgångspunkten finnas i verkligheten (vilket inte är liktydigt med verkliga personer) och utifrån denna ska sedan personerna anpassas så att de blir mer karakteristiska och inte är alltför vardagliga. På så sätt förenas i figurerna reellt och ideellt. Ensidigt onda eller goda – d.v.s. ensidigt ideella – personer är tråkiga och ska inte skildras. Viktigt är också att personerna agerar på ett psykologiskt trovärdigt sätt.

    Det sanna konstverket är för Palmblad en sammanhängande organisk helhet. Dess olika delar ska alla vara nödvändiga och knytas samman kring en gemensam centralpunkt. I ett be-rättande verk ska handlingen inte bestå av händelser som godtyckligt placerats tillsammans utan hänga samman genom en självnödvändighet där det ena leder till det andra. I denna självnödvändighet och enhetliga sammanhållning ligger också det som gör ett verk konstnär-ligt, det som höjer det över det blott reella. Ett verk som inte på detta sätt är organiskt sam-manhängande är inte i strikt mening ett konstverk utan – även om det ändå kan ha kvaliteter – något mekaniskt hopfogat.

    Hos ett konstverk kan man särskilja två element vilka här benämns ”innehåll” och ”form”. Innehållet består i ett berättande verk av själva händelserna och sättet på vilket dessa samman-fogats (d.v.s. planen eller händelseförloppet). Formen är ett konstverks omklädnad. Ett fullän-dat konstverk ska harmoniskt förena de båda elementen, men formmässiga kvaliteter kan också dölja innehållsliga brister.

    I början av TBN är det alltså utifrån detta estetiska perspektiv Almqvist kritiseras. Denne visar stundtals – och tydligast i Amorina – i sina verk det fula och stötande. Att verkligheten är sådan är inget försvar – konstnären ska nämligen uppenbara det ideella i det reella och inte bara spegla verkligheten. Almqvist sammanblandar – exempelvis i Drottningens juvelsmycke – på ett otillåtet sätt den historiska sanningens och fiktionens områden. I ”Signora Luna” har Almqvist inte tecknat personerna med utgångspunkt i verkligheten, de är istället helt och hål-let fantasiskapade idealgestalter. Ofta, exempelvis i ”Svangrottan på Ipsara”, saknar han figu-rer psykologisk trovärdighet. Vidare brister Almqvists verk i enhetlighet och sammanhållning. Det påstås att han inte bearbetar sina texter, vilket leder till att inte alla delar framstår som nödvändiga för helheten, och verken kretsar ofta inte kring någon centralpunkt. Ett stycke som ”Signora Luna” är därför inte ett organiskt verk utan mekaniskt tillverkat vilket också betyder att det i strikt mening inte är ett riktigt konstverk. Slutligen harmonierar inte hos Almqvist formen med innehållet utan den förra döljer fel och brister hos det senare.

    I fortsättningen av boken kritiseras Almqvist huvudsakligen utifrån ett politiskt och mora-liskt perspektiv. Palmblad ser i den liberala rörelsen, strävan efter demokrati och kapita-lismens rent ekonomiska drivkraft en hotande upplösning av de högre värden han menar måste vägleda människan: sanning, rättvisa och moral. Almqvist företräder i hans ögon en utveckling mot just denna långtgående normupplösning, fientlig mot hela den traditionella (patriarkala) samhällsordningen. Störst intresse ägnas Det går an – det är genom denna bok det som tidigare endast framstod som effektsökande paradoxer träder fram som delar av ett genomtänkt, men förkastligt, system. Därmed förändras också synen på Almqvist som konst-när; hans verk har nu uppnått den önskade artistiska enhetligheten och den politiska och mo-raliska kritiken har nu blivit den primära. Den äktenskapsteori som presenteras i Det går an ses som ett uttryck för en moraluppfattning där tillfälliga sexuella känslostormar segrar över högre normer och värderingar. Almqvists förvirring på det politiska och moraliska området gör att att han uppmanas att inte sysselsätta sig med den jordiska verkligheten utan istället ägna sig åt en ensidigt ideell konst – vilket också innebär att han inte duger som fulländad diktare.

    Den syn på förhållandet mellan konsten och verkligheten som Palmblad uttrycker i TBN och Swenska Litteratur-Föreningens Tidning är i grunden densamma som den han under 1810-talet bekände sig till. Samma position finner vi även hos Runeberg – en författare som ses som en företrädare för en ny, mer verklighetsinriktad skönlitteratur – och i den estetik som Christer Westling beskriver som typisk för tiden mellan ungefär 1830 och 1870. Denna teore-tiska ståndpunkt rymmer sålunda både vad som kallats ”romantik” och vad som kallats för begynnande ”realism” och det är därför viktigt att understryka att praktiska skillnader beträf-fande verklighetsskildring inte nödvändigtvis bottnar i principiellt olika teoretisk grundsyn.

  • 382.
    Wallheim, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies, Literature .
    Tiden sjelf har blifvit gammal: Ideal och verklighet i Vilhelm Fredrik Palmblads roman Familjen Falkenswärd (1844-45)2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Uppsalaromantikern Vilhelm Fredrik Palmblads (1788-1852) roman Familjen Falkenswärd (1844-45) var delvis en omarbetning av en romanföljetong (den s.k. Kalenderromanen) som Palmblad publicerade på 1810-talet i Poetisk kalender. I jämförelse med Kalenderromanen kan man i Familjen Falkenswärd se en utveckling mot ökad verklighetskontakt.

    Denna uppsats behandlar temat ideal och verklighet i Familjen Falkenswärd. Med ”verklig-het” åsyftas ingen yttre verklighet utanför romanen, eventuell realism lämnas alltså utanför undersökningen. ”Ideal” används som beteckning på de föreställningar, tankar och idéer ro-manfigurerna har om hur världen är och/eller borde vara beskaffad. Uppsatsens ämne är alltså förhållandet mellan romankaraktärernas föreställningar om världen och den verkligheten, inom romanen, som de tvingas relatera sina föreställningar till. Frågeställningarna är: hur ge-staltas relationen mellan ideal och verklighet; hur förhåller sig några av romanens huvudper-soner till glappet mellan ideal och verklighet; förefaller något av förhållningssätten vara att föredra, i så fall vilket och varför? Uppsatsen försöker dessutom placera in de problem som tas upp i en samtida kontext.

    I centrum av romanen står den unge greven August Falkensvärd och hans resor i Sverige och Europa. Familjen Falkenswärd är till den övergripande formen en bildningsroman med en förebild i Goethes Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (1795-96). Temat ideal och verklighet finns även i Goethes roman och i Kalenderromanen – i den sistnämnda dock mindre framhävt än i Familjen Falkenswärd.

    Vad gäller konsten representerar Augusts vän och reskamrat Carl Stattland ett felaktigt för-hållningssätt. Carl har ett falskt konstideal, han ser bort från religionen och verkligheten och försöker leva ett estetiskt njutningsliv. August däremot företräder ett verkligt konstideal, han inser att konsten ingenting är ”utan religionen och hjertat till medelpunkt”.

    Carl försöker ständigt leva upp till ett slags romantiskt ideal men verkligheten kommer stän-digt emellan. Besvikelsen blir stor när saker inte är eller blir som han har tänkt sig och t.o.m. när han befinner sig i ett äventyr sådant han drömt visar han sig vara oförmögen att ge sig hän.

    Även i kärleken är det Carl som är den store idealisten, han har förälskat sig i friherrinnan Castania som han inte kan få och placerar henne högt över alla andra. August kan inte välja mellan de tre av hans kusiner som han tycker om. Först väljer han Julienne, som dock är mycket sjuk. Deras kärlek lyfts upp till en hög och ren nivå; det är (till största delen) inte en kroppslig kärlek utan en själslig och religiös – detta är den bästa kärleken. Julienne avlider efter att ha framhållit Amalia – en kusin som August vuxit upp tillsammans med – som den ”himmelska varelse” hon inte tycker att hon själv är. August förstår så småningom att Amalia är den rätta för honom och det är hennes religiositet som gör att han får upp ögonen för hen-nes skönhet. I Amalia finner August en möjlighet att förena idealet – den gudomliga kärleken – med den jordiska. Amalia personifierar dessutom det trygga och välbekanta, en oexotisk, men desto verkligare, tillvaro som August försonas med. Carl finner till slut sin idealkvinna i en annan kvinnas gestalt, Augusts syster Carlina, men han frestas dessförinnan att ge vika för den krassa verkligheten och gifta sig för ekonomisk vinning.

    Carl anser att nutiden (ca 1815) är en förkastlig tid, entusiasmen är borta och det romantiska har försvunnit, istället har förståndet tagit över och gjort världen ”platt och odräglig”. Han drömmer sig tillbaka, dels till en föreställning om en avlägsen romantisk tid, dels till ett mindre avlägset förflutet när Napoleon fortfarande var den store fienden – nu har alla krig för ”äkta frihet och sjelfständighet” ersatts av inhemska strider om konstitutioner och av ”parle-rande och declamerande” i pressen. Kälkborgarna har tagit över. August drömmer sig emel-lertid inte bort till andra tider, han accepterar sakernas tillstånd och menar att ingen tid är bättre än någon annan.

    I Familjen Falkenswärd ställs det romantiska i opposition mot kälkborgerligheten, repre-senterad av Trelleborg och Carls far, Trelleborgs borgmästare Salomon Melker Stattlander. Kälkborgarna kritiseras för att se allt ur ”bekvämlighetens och den krassa nyttans synvinkel”, man saknar sinne för estetiska värden och har inte heller några fasta, oföränderliga ideal – den krassa verkligheten blir det dominerande.

    Carl, Salomon och August representerar tre olika sätt att förhålla sig till konflikten mellan ideal och verklighet. Carl är alltför upptagen av sina ideal. Salomon är alltför upptagen av verkligheten. August däremot lyckas finna en väg mellan de båda extremerna och försona idealen med verkligheten.

    Avslutningsvis diskuteras kort en tänkbar fortsättning på undersökningen med utgångspunkt i begreppen ”romantik” och ”realism”.

  • 383.
    Wennström, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Å andras vägnar: LL-boken som litteratur-, kultur- och handikappolitiskt experiment1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Easy Readers (ER) are books specially designed for adults with reading disabilities. Wellknown classics ought to be available in easily comprehended versions. This idea, originaly from the 1930s has becomea special element in the literary and cultural life of Sweden since it's inception in the 1960s. This experiment was indeed unique, but it was also closely related to other sociocultural experiments initiated by the Swedish Government. Such experiments were designed to encourage and help people on the fringes of society: i.e. disabled people, dyslectics etc. Easy-to-Read Books (in Swedish: LL-böcker) developed books of an aesthetically attractive design with the "normal" book as a model, but always combined with illustrations.

    The prospective readers are adults who are physically, mentally, culturally or socially handicapped. The producers, Easy-to-Read enterprises, are the working group of Easy-to-Read Books, and comprise publishing houses, writers, illustrators, photographers, journalists and critics of art and literature, scientists, actors in the ordinary cultural arena and representatives of the readers themselves: i.e. from organisations for the blind, for retarded persons, for persons afflicted by aphasia and dyslexia and similar handicaps.

    The aim of this study is to present the arguments and rhetoric of a cultural and litefary experiment. The study comprises a historical description of this experiment drawn from archival research into originalsources assembled and categorized by the National Board of Education and now held at the National Archives, Stockholm. The empirical material consists of memoranda, records, letters, manuscripts, magazine -articles, reports and Easy-to-Read Books. This material has been supplemented by interviews. The history of the Easy-to-Read enterprise provides evidence of the creation of a separate literary sphere. And of an attempt to engender a philosophical outlook on life. And a pedagogical approach to the problems of handicapped people and literature.

    One of the conclusions is that the prospective readers are given priority in the Easy-to-Read work. The perspective of the reader is basic to the careful design of the Easy-to-Read publications not only as regards typographical aspects such as the length of the lines, type-faces and illustrations, but also in thejudicious choice of vocabulary.

    Another conclusion is that the standard epics of the Easy-to-Read story turn out to be the history of the ordinary, so called "normal" life adapted to produce an Easy-to-Read version.

    An additional conclusion is that the Swedish Easy-to-Read work can be seen not only as a communicative process of collective creativity, but also as a series of separate processes at the level of individuals as well as actors.

  • 384.
    Wibeck, Victoria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Genmat i fokus: Analyser av fokusgruppssamtal om genförändrade livsmedel2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on social representations of genetically modified food (GMF). Drawing on data from eleven focus groups including lay people and decision-makers within the food industry, it aims to analyse how people talk about and try to comprehend and anchor the issue of GMF. It also aims to develop methods for a dialogical content analysis, so that the dynamics inherent in conversations can be captured.

    The analyses have focused on recurrent themes, topic structure, discursive construction of agents and agency, analogies and distinctions, quotes, and implicit assumptions. The main findings were. a) fear as a central theme; b) a view of nature as inherently good and of humans as topping the value hierarchy of nature; c) a critical view on knowledge, information and experts; d) feelings of a lack of agency.

    While the analyses demonstrate that lay people reflect actively and critically, expressing a lack of trust in the media, politicians and scientists, it is argued that there is a need for a dialogue between lay people and experts, in order to encourage mutual trust rather than suspicion.

  • 385.
    Wibeck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Environmental Science.
    Adelsvärd, Viveka
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Linell, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Comprendre la complexité: les focus groups comme espace de pensée et d´argumentation á propose des aliments génétiquement modifiés2004In: Bulletin de psychologie, ISSN 0007-4403, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 253-261Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 386.
    Wibeck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forstorp, Per-Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Economou, Konstantin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En god affär i Motala: journalisternas avslöjanden och läsarnas etik1998Book (Other academic)
  • 387.
    Willner, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Tema Health and Society.
    Svensson, Gary
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Hälsa och välfärd i ett historiskt perspektiv / Digitaliseringsprojekt och traditionell databehandling1998Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 388.
    Wyndhamn, Jan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Problem-solving revisited: On school mathematics as a situated practice1993Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general interest behind the present work is to contribute to an understanding of human cognition in context. More specifically, the empirical research reported focuses on how pupils define and deal with problem-solving in what for them is a regular school situation. The relationships between problem-solving and contexts- concrtete settings as well as abstract framings- are explored. Thus, cognition is studied within a sociocultural perspective and as embodied in communicative practices within institutional settings.

    The empirical material reported has been collected in a series of naturalistic experimental and quasiexperimental investigations in which pupils in different grades of the comprehensive school have solved mathematics problems under varying conditions. The variations introduced have concerned such dimensions as (i) manipulations of thecontextual ernbeddedness of problems in terms of headings provided, formulations of word problems, composition of tasks on work sheets, and the lessons during which identical tasks have been attended to, (ii) the tools and resources (computer, calendar) that have been available to pupils when solving problems, and, finally, (iii) whether studerits have been working alone or in groups.

    The results demonstrate the fundamental, yet subtle, ways in which different contextualizations of problems result in variations in interpretation and the relative difficultiespupils have in dealing with them successfully. Problem-solving in the mathematics classroom is best understoOd as a simultaneous coordination of several levels of activity. There are intricate rules for how word problerris are to be interpreted and what sorts of semiotic principles are relevant and can be relied on when coordinating what is said with an external reality and with mathematical notations and operations. Similarly, there are many levels of context in the institutionalized setting that offer structuring resources that provide suggestions for how to interpret tasks. It is also argued that mathematics teaching often results in a dilemma which is paradoxical in nature; in the attempts to utilize problem-solving as a vehicle for promiting competence that is decontextualized and abso ·act, mathematical reasoning itself becomes the dominant context for making sense of the tasks to be solved.

  • 389.
    Wyndhamn, Jan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tankeform och problemmiljö: skolan som kontext för tänkande i elementär matematik1988Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhandlingen är en sammanfattning av två empiriska studier som analyserar karaktären av kognitiva aktiviteter vid de betingelser för kommunikation som är utmärkande för pedagogiska miljöer. Elever i årskurs 6 har under vanliga matematiklektioner fått lösa vissa räkneuppgifter under olika situationella krav. I det ena experimentet ingår en enkel divisionsuppgift i ur skolsynpunkt oväntade sammanhang. I det andra omges en viss uppgift av i olika omfattning 'stöttande', analoga uppgifter. Resultaten visar att den  mikrokommunikativa problemmiljön har ett avgörande inflytande på hur problem definieras och löses. De svårigheter att framgångsrikt hantera de förelagda uppgifterna som har observerats, tycks i stor utsträckning ha att göra med fastställandet av problemets innebörd snarare än med dess lösning i snäv, algoritmisk bemärkelse. I analysen hävdas att teoretisk och praktisk förståelse av de svårigheter elever har vid elementär problemlösning, måste grundas på insikter rörande de skillnader i att bygga upp och strukturera inlärningsuppgifter som är typiska för skolan som kommunikativ miljö å ena sidan, och de som är naturliga i andra kontexter å den andra.

    List of papers
    1. The Forrnal Setting as Contextfor Cognitive Activities: An Ernpirical Study of Arithmetic Operations under Conflicting Premisses for Comrnunication
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Forrnal Setting as Contextfor Cognitive Activities: An Ernpirical Study of Arithmetic Operations under Conflicting Premisses for Comrnunication
    1987 (English)In: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 233-245Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The general concern of the present article is to contribute to an understanding of the contextual determination of cognitive activities. More specifically, the focus of the empirical research reported has been to study how pupils define and deal with cognitive tasks in situations that are recognised as pedagogical in character. Within the context of their everyday mathematics teaching, 206 twelve year old primary school pupils were given work sheets containing elementary arithmetic problems. The experimental treatment consisted of introducing (through headings and instructions) pedagogical definitions of problems that were in conflict with the nature of the problems themselves. The results indicate that the predefinitions of cognitive activities typical of educational contexts have a strong impact on the way problems are dealt with. Clear differences could be discerned between groups at different achievement levels in the extent to which the cues present in pedagogical contexts were used in defining the problem. A crucial aspect of what are conventionally conceived as differences in mathematical ability seems, judging from the present results, to have more to do with the capacity to decipher ambiguous communicative situations than with the mastery of a mathematical algorithm per se.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 1987
    Keywords
    Learning; Learning of arithmetic; Cognitive activity; Learning in school; Contextual effects on learning
    National Category
    Educational Sciences Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110832 (URN)10.1007/BF03172730 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-09-23 Created: 2014-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Cognitive Operations and Educational Framing of Tasks: School as a Context for Arithmetic Thought
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive Operations and Educational Framing of Tasks: School as a Context for Arithmetic Thought
    1988 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive Operations and Educational Framing of Tasks. School as a Context for Arithmetic Thought. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 32, 61‐71. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the understanding of the contextual determination of cognitive activities. In a naturalistic experiment in a primary school setting it is shown how performance at group level on an elementary arithmetic task is influenced by the immediate context in which this problem is presented. Differences in performance between groups at various achievement levels in mathematics are amplified by corresponding differences in discovering and utilizing analogies between problems as heuristic aids. This latter kind of difference reflects – it is argued – variations in abilities in analysing and deciphering cognitive tasks at a linguistic and meta‐communicative level rather than in mastering the specific algorithmic tools. It is also argued that the functional meaning of the task as pedagogical praxis may differ between contexts.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 1988
    Keywords
    Learning; Learning of arithmetic; Cognitive activity; Learning in school; Contextual effects on learning
    National Category
    Educational Sciences Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110834 (URN)10.1080/0031383880320202 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-09-23 Created: 2014-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 390.
    Wærn, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Pettersson, Rune
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Svensson, Gary
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies.
    Bild och föreställning2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 391.
    Öberg, Britt-Marie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Negotiation processes as talk and interaction: Interaction analyses of informal negotiations1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents interaction analyses of one Swedish and theee international negotiations, all authentic.

    The first study cancerns the phase structure and intemctional manifestations of cooperation found in the Swedish negotiation set of three sessions. The phase structure of each session was found to be related to the general negotiation structure of three main parts; an initiation phase, a problem solving phase and a resolution phase. The distribution of the two types of cooperative talk, teamtalk and grouptalk, and the general interaction character differed from phase to phase. The first phase was mainly monologic and included few instances of cooperative talk, the second phase was mainly dyadic and included several instances of team talk, while the interaction of the third phase kept switching between dyadic and multi-party talk. Teamtalk as well as grouptalk were frequently used in this phase.

    In the second study incipient miscommunication between native and non-native speakers of English was categorized and examined. Cross-cultural miscommunication was found to be an intrinsic part of the establishing of consensus and could therefore be used as a communicative resource. However, miscomrnunication related to the different socio-cultural backgrounds and to unawareness regarding the miscomrnunication sometimes had serious interactional consequences.

    The third study presents an analysis of the distribution and function of laughter in different types of international negotiations. The analyses foeussed on when the participants laughed, at what the participants laughed and how the participants laughed jointly or unilaterally. The analyses indicated firstly that laughter worked as a discourse boundary device; secondly that laughter signalled what topies were important or less important, sensitive or less sensitive and thirdly; that unilateral laughter, as opposed to joint laughter, was more frequent with those participants that were at a disadvantage.

    The fourth study describes and analyses the interactional features that justify these informal meetings to be called negotiations. It compared the premisses for and characteristics of the different negotiatians. An institutional type of talk, negotiation talk, i.e. ordinary easual conversation adapted and reshaped to fit a specific communicative event, the negotiation, was found in all the negotiatians. Negotiators pursued instrumental, relational and face-related goals of which the relational and the face-related goals were found to be more important to the negotiators than previous research implies. The negotiations were agenda driven. They included elements of conscious planning and the negotiation discourse had a particular type of topic structure, supported by a particular participation framework. Finally, every negotiation must be studied as an individual part that has reached a particular stage of development within the negotiation process. These characteristics of negotiatians call for a flexible, multi-dimensional interactional competence on thc part of the negotiator.

  • 392.
    Örulv, Linda
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Where are we? What's going to happen? Spontaneous narrating and dementia (presentation baserad på artikelarbete tillsammans med Lars-Christer Hydén)2003In: First Interdisciplinary Conference on Communication, Medicine Ethics COMET, 26-28 June 2003,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

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