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  • 351.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landfill mining: a review of three decades of research2010Inngår i: Knowledge Collaboration & Learning for Sustainable Innovation, ERSCP-EMSU conference, Delft, The Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-established fact however that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such resource and pollution problems and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering an analysis of trends, objectives and research topics in 39 papers published during the period 1988–2008. The results show that so far landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional waste management issues such as lack of landfill space or facilitation of final closure and remediation of waste deposits. Although most initiatives also have involved some effort to recover deposited resources (primarily cover soil material), such constituents have been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings however indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as future reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears gigantic, it is argued that facilitating implementation also involves a number of challenges in terms of technology innovation, concepts for realization and frameworks for evaluating economic and environmental performance.

  • 352.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.
    Potential metal resources in waste incineration ash deposits2012Inngår i: SUM 2012 Symposium on Urban Mining, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Incineration of waste has always been connected to large metal flows, and it has long been a concern from an environmental point of view, with special focus given to high metal concentrations in the flue gas. However, these metal flows could have also been seen as a potential resource stock available for extraction. This study aims to assess the potential of Swedish waste incineration ash deposits as sources for metal extraction. A second, and equally important aim, is to contribute knowledge for priority-setting of future research on metal extraction methods from such residues.

     

    The results from this study indicate that the metal flows are still considerable. The total amounts of scrap metal in these deposits are significant, and nearly amount to the annual collection of both ferrous and non-ferrous scrap in Sweden. Furthermore, for some of the metals studied the annual flows in Sweden seem to be higher than the metal flows in slag from the copper and steel industries. The main research regarding the extraction of metals from MSWI ash has focused on fly ash. However, by looking at the total potential amounts in different deposits, the results in this study suggest that, from an environmental and economic point of view, the highest potential seems to be for metal stocks in the bottom ash. One metal that has not been high on the research agenda is Titanium, which, due to a high raw material value combined with large amounts in deposits, is ranked at the top from both the economic and environmental perspectives. The results also show that there currently seems to be less incentive to extract the scarcer metals both from an economic and an environmental point of view.

    The article gives suggestions for future research. For example, how much of the metals in the deposits are in a chemical form, making them suitable for extraction? Which challenges arise if the focus of extraction is turned towards the bottom ashes, with their lower concentrations but higher total amounts? Furthermore, research is needed on how accessible different types of deposits are, and what type of institutional and technological challenges and possibilities would arise in a real-world extraction activity.

  • 353.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Department of Engineering Management, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    How to evaluate (enhanced) landfill mining: A critical review of recent environmental and economic assessments2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, 2018 / [ed] Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels, Leuven: KU Leuven , 2018, s. 317-332Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining has been proclaimed as an alternative strategy to address unwanted impacts of waste deposits. In real-life projects, such excavation and processing of deposited waste has mainly been used to facilitate traditional objectives such as remediation, land reclamation or creation of landfill airspace. A key target of recent landfill mining research is, however, to go beyond this type of local motives and enhance the recovery of materials and energy resources by developing advanced processing technologies. Although such an ambitiousapproach clearly displays a wider societal potential, it also adds complexity to the implementation and assessment of pros and cons of landfill mining.

  • 354.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Urban infrastructure mines: on the economic and environmental motives of cable recovery from subsurface power grids2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, s. 353-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsurface power grids constitute one of the largest copper stocks in many industrialized cities. Over time, parts and zones of these systems have been continuously disconnected and abandoned, resulting in the emergence of urban infrastructure ores. This study aims to assess how current conditions and practices influence economic and environmental motives of cable recovery from such power grids. By applying an infrastructure managers perspective and evaluating 16 scenarios involving different extraction technologies and procedures, surface materials, urban locations and types of cables, we identify key areas where solutions or changes to increase incentives for cable recovery are needed. The assessed scenarios display significantly different cable extraction costs, where excavation in city centers with asphalt or cobblestone pavements generates the highest costs while greenbelts offer the best conditions. In most cases, cable revenues are not even close to outweighing the extraction costs. This is especially true for paper-coated cables or cables with aluminum conductors, for which the revenues are much lower than for plastic-insulated copper cables. Although economic conditions could be improved by integrating cable recovery to regular system upgrade projects or by applying non-digging technologies, clear incentives rely on the cable in question being especially valuable. Most of the cable recovery scenarios display environmental motives in terms of net savings in GHG emissions due to metal recycling. In contrast to the economic results, recycling of aluminum power cables is here more awarding than that of corresponding copper cables. We conclude that under current conditions urban mining does not make economic sense to infrastructure managers unless it is integrated as an added value to system upgrade projects. Apart from such re-arrangements in infrastructure provision, several other practice-related changes to cut cable extraction costs are possibly within reach for the managers. Still, an economically motivated practice relies on several external performance drivers such as market diffusion of non-digging technologies, improved cable recycling processes, and increased scrap metal prices. Our conclusion that the arguments for urban mining are currently more environmental than financial, points towards changed perspectives where such activities are seen as a way for infrastructure managers to contribute to societal goals such as climate change mitigation and reduced mineral resource dependence. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 355.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Syntesrapport från projektet Städer som gruvor: tio huvudpunkter2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Städer är centrala i hållbarhetsarbetet, inte minst på grund av att den urbana livsstilen är en starkt bidragande orsak till många av dagens resurs– och miljöproblem. Men städer uppvisar också möjligheter till förändring och utveckling av lösningar för en effektivare användning av resurser. Ledningsbundna infrasystem för el, tele, fjärrvärme, vatten, etc. utgör stadens tekniska ryggrad. Att upprätthålla dessa markförlagda systems funktioner bygger på ett ständigt återkommande behov av schaktarbeten, vilket förutom stora kostnader orsakar betydande miljöpåverkan och intrång i stadslivet. Dessa nätverk innehåller också stora förråd av metaller som koppar och aluminium, vilka över tiden har lagrats i alla de hundratusentals mil av kablar och rör som ligger nedgrävda under våra gator och torg. Idag sker ingen återvinning av dessa metaller utan systemdelarna lämnas i regel bara kvar i marken efter att ha tagits ur bruk.

    Vid Linköpings universitet har vi under flera år bedrivit forskning om “Städer som gruvor” tillsammans med nätägare och återvinningsföretag som Tekniska Verken i Linköping, Skanova och Stena Recycling. Projektet har finansierats av Vinnova och syftat till att ta fram kunskap om när, var och hur återvinning kan bli en del av infrasystemens förvaltning.

    Syftet med denna syntesrapport är att sammanfatta de viktigaste lärdomarna från projektet Städer som gruvor II på ett lättillgängligt sätt. Rapporten består av tio huvudpoänger. De berör allt ifrån infrasystemens resurspotential och förutsättningar för återvinning, till behov av förändringar i praktik och policy. Dessa poänger täcker givetvis inte in alla resultat från projektet utan ambitionen är snarare att peka på centrala motiv, möjligheter och utmaningar och därigenom lyfta frågan bland branschens aktörer och andra intressenter. Förhoppningen är att vi på detta sätt kan så ett frö till diskussion om förändring i riktning mot en resurseffektivare förvaltning av stadens ledningsbundna infrastruktur.

    För den som vill veta mer finns en lista på källmaterial och kontaktpersoner i slutet av rapporten.

  • 356.
    Kumar, Allan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trinh, Gian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    How Uncertainty is Perceived and Managed in Design by PSS Providers?: Relation of PSS types Provided2012Inngår i: The Philosopher's Stone for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8th - 9th, 2012 / [ed] Yoshiki Shimomura, Koji Kimita, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, , s. 91-96s. 91-96Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives new insight into how PSS providers perceive and react to different types of uncertainties regarding PSS in their planning, design, and development through an interview study. The companies were found to be most concerned about Market Uncertainty, Supplier Coordination Uncertainty, and Uncertainty of Innovative Services, in this order. The uncertainty types perceived as opportunity by a greater number of firms were Market Uncertainty, Environment Uncertainty, and Uncertainty of Product Functioning. Furthermore, the companies that offer Use-Oriented Service or Result-Oriented Service seemed to perceive lower risks than those offering only Product-Oriented Service.

  • 357.
    Kuranchie, Francis Atta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    The potential of energy efficiency measures in micro and small scale businesses in Kumasi-Ghana2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In industry, energy efficiency reduces operating cost and emissions to the environment whiles enhancing energy security. In order to ensure the sustainability of micro and small scale businesses in a developing country such as Ghana, measures that can ensure energy efficiency are therefore essential for these businesses to have a productive and economical operation that will ensure their sustainability.

    In this study, the potential of energy efficiency measures for micro and small scale businesses have been examined by performing industrial energy systems analysis on some selected micro and small scale businesses in Kumasi-Ghana through a practical study and administering of questionnaire about their energy consumption. Legislative instruments that are linked with energy use in Ghana were looked into. Some possible energy efficiency measures that could be adopted by these businesses have been analyzed.

    In this study it is established that energy supply to these businesses is not reliable and it is continuously becoming expensive. In addition, other findings were that value could be added to the processes of these businesses if they incorporate energy efficiency measures in their operations. The main driving force that will encourage these businesses to incorporate energy efficiency measures in their operation is the energy prices increase; therefore, their interest is the measures that could reduce their energy cost rather than the positive impacts that will come to the environment. In doing this renewable energy has the greatest potential in ensuring energy efficiency to these businesses. Finally, it is established that there are no specific legislations on energy use that will bring negative effects to these businesses and this could create enabling environment for private investors of energy efficiency.

  • 358.
    Land, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Sweden.
    Graneli, Wilhelm
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Florida Gulf Coast Univ, FL 34112 USA; Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Swedish Inst Marine Environm, Sweden.
    Hoffmann, Carl Christian
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Mitsch, William J.
    Florida Gulf Coast Univ, FL 34112 USA.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Verhoeven, Jos T. A.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    How effective are created or restored freshwater wetlands for nitrogen and phosphorus removal? A systematic review2016Inngår i: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikkel-id 9Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Eutrophication of aquatic environments is a major environmental problem in large parts of the world. In Europe, EU legislation (the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive), international conventions (OSPAR, HELCOM) and national environmental objectives emphasize the need to reduce the input of nutrients to freshwater and marine environments. A widely used method to achieve this is to allow water to pass through a created or restored wetland. However, the large variation in measured nutrient removal rates in such wetlands calls for a systematic review. Methods: Searches for primary studies were performed in electronic databases and on the internet. One author performed the screening of all retrieved articles at the title and abstract level. To check that the screening was consistent and complied with the agreed inclusion/exclusion criteria, subsets of 100 articles were screened by the other authors. When screening at full-text level the articles were evenly distributed among the authors. Kappa tests were used to evaluate screening consistency. Relevant articles remaining after screening were critically appraised and assigned to three quality categories, from two of which data were extracted. Quantitative synthesis consists of meta-analyses and response surface analyses. Regressions were performed using generalized additive models that can handle nonlinear relationships and interaction effects. Results: Searches generated 5853 unique records. After screening on relevance and critical appraisal, 93 articles including 203 wetlands were used for data extraction. Most of the wetlands were situated in Europe and North America. The removal rate of both total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) is highly dependent on the loading rate. Significant relationships were also found for annual average air temperature (T) and wetland area (A). Median removal rates of TN and TP were 93 and 1.2 g m(-2) year(-1.), respectively. Removal efficiency for TN was significantly correlated with hydrologic loading rate (HLR) and T, and the median was 37 %, with a 95 % confidence interval of 29-44 %. Removal efficiency for TP was significantly correlated with inlet TP concentration, HLR, T, and A. Median TP removal efficiency was 46 % with a 95 % confidence interval of 37-55 %. Although there are small differences in average values between the two quality categories, the variation is considerably smaller among high quality studies compared to studies with lower quality. This suggests that part of the large variation between studies may be explained by less rigorous study designs. Conclusions: On average, created and restored wetlands significantly reduce the transport of TN and TP in treated wastewater and urban and agricultural runoff, and may thus be effective in efforts to counteract eutrophication. However, restored wetlands on former farmland were significantly less efficient than other wetlands at TP removal. In addition, wetlands with precipitation-driven HLRs and/or hydrologic pulsing show significantly lower TP removal efficiencies compared to wetlands with controlled HLRs. Loading rate (inlet concentrations x hydraulic loading rates) needs to be carefully estimated as part of the wetland design. More research is needed on the effects of hydrologic pulsing on wetlands. There is also a lack of evidence for long-term (>20 years) performance of wetlands.

  • 359.
    Laner, David
    et al.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Cencic, Oliver
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Quantitative Analysis of Critical Factors for the Climate Impact of Landfill Mining2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, nr 13, s. 6882-6891Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining has been proposed as an innovative strategy to mitigate environmental risks associated with landfills, to recover secondary raw materials and energy from the deposited waste, and to enable high-valued land uses at the site. The present study quantitatively assesses the importance of specific factors and conditions for the net contribution of landfill mining to global warming using a novel, set-based modeling approach and provides policy recommendations for facilitating the development of projects contributing to global warming mitigation. Building on life-cycle assessment, scenario modeling and sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify critical factors for the climate impact of landfill mining. The net contributions to global warming of the scenarios range from -1550 (saving) to 640 (burden) kg CO(2)e per Mg of excavated waste. Nearly 90% of the results total variation can be explained by changes in four factors, namely the landfill gas management in the reference case (i.e., alternative to mining the landfill), the background energy system, the composition of the excavated waste, and the applied waste-to-energy technology. Based on the analyses, circumstances under which landfill mining should be prioritized or not are identified and sensitive parameters for the climate impact assessment of landfill mining are highlighted.

  • 360.
    Laner, David
    et al.
    Univ Kassel, Germany; TU Wien, Austria.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Horttanainen, Mika
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Finland.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Rosendal, Rene Moller
    Danish Waste Solut ApS, Denmark.
    Stanisavljevic, Nemanja
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Systematic assessment of critical factors for the economic performance of landfill mining in Europe: What drives the economy of landfill mining?2019Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 95, s. 674-686Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining (LFM) is a strategy to mitigate environmental impacts associated with landfills, while simultaneously recovering dormant materials, energy carriers, and land resources. Although several case study assessments on the economy of LFM exist, a broader understanding of the driving factors is still lacking. This study aims at identifying generically important factors for the economy of LFM in Europe and understanding their role in developing economically feasible projects in view of different site, project and system-level conditions. Therefore, a set-based modeling approach is used to establish a large number (531,441) of LFM scenarios, evaluate their economic performance in terms of net present value (NPV), and analyze the relationships between input factors and economic outcome via global sensitivity analysis. The scenario results range from -139 Euro to +127 Euro/Mg of excavated waste, with 80% of the scenarios having negative NPVs. Variations in the costs for waste treatment and disposal and the avoided cost of alternative landfill management (i.e. if the landfill was not mined) have the strongest effect on the scenario NPVs, which illustrates the critical role of system level factors for LFM economy and the potential of policy intervention to incentivize LFM. Consequently, system conditions should guide site selection and project development, which is exemplified in the study for two extreme regional archetypes in terms of income and waste management standard. Future work should further explore the developed model to provide decision support on LFM strategies in consideration of alternative purposes, stakeholders, and objectives. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2021-07-09 14:49
  • 361.
    Larsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Life cycle assessment of floor care: A comparative study of the Twister™ method and floor care methods using polish and wax2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In Today’s society there are a wide variety of floor and floor materials. An extensive range of products and methods are also used to ensure that these floors remain functional. All floor types and products create environmental impact of various kinds and magnitudes.

    This study was initiated by the authors in order to evaluate the Twister™- method’s environmental pros and cons in relation to other traditional floor care methods. This has been ascertained through a Life Cycle Assessment which was conducted within the study. The study has been in co-operation with HTC Sweden AB, the developer of the Twister™- method.

    A Life Cycle Assessment helps to identify and quantify the environmental impact of a product or a service, from a holistic perspective, which incorporates extraction of materials, their manufacture, use and waste management. The software application SimaPRo 7.0 has been used in this study, from which the Eco-indicator 99 method has been selected.

    In the study, the Twister™ method is compared with other floor care methods using polish and wax. The analysis also includes a breakdown of the Twister™ method, as well as a breakdown of the Twister™ pad manufactured by HTC Sweden AB.

    The results show that the elements of the Twister™ method with the greatest environmental impact are the scrubbing machine that is used and the energy consumption that the Twister™ method requires. The results also show that the Twister™ method has a significantly lower environmental impact than floor care methods using polish or wax. The parts of the Twister™ pad that have the greatest environmental impact are the industrial diamonds and the  material that makes up the pad.

  • 362.
    Larsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Livscykelanalys av golvvård: En jämförande studie av Twister™-metoden och golvvårdsmetoder med polish och vax2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle finns det en stor variation på golv och golvmaterial. Till dessa finns det en stor variation av de produkter och metoder som används för att hålla dessa golv funktionsdugliga. Samtliga golv och produkter ger upphov till miljöpåverkan av olika storlek och sort.

    Denna studie är initierad av författarna för att utvärdera hur Twister™- metoden står sig miljömässigt, jämfört med andra traditionella golvvårdsmetoder. Detta sker genom en livscykelanalys. Arbetet har skett i samarbete med företaget HTC Sweden AB som har utvecklat Twister™-metoden.

    En livscykelanalys ställer en produkt eller tjänst miljöpåverkan utifrån helhetsperspektiv innefattande materialframställning, tillverkning, användning och resthantering. Som hjälp i denna studie har programvaran SimaPro 7.0 använts vari metoden Eco-indikator 99 valts.

    I studien ställs Twister™-metoden mot golvvårdsmetoder innefattande polish och vax. I analysen sker även en nedbrytning av Twister™-metoden likväl en nedbrytning av den Twister™-rondell som HTC Sweden AB tillverkar.

    Resultatet visar att den del av Twister™-metoden som har störst miljöpåverkan är den skurmaskin som används och den energianvändning som Twister™-metoden kräver. Resultatet visar även att Twister™-metoden har signifikant lägre miljöpåverkan än golvvårdsmetoderna polish och vax. De delar av Twister™-rondellen som har störst miljöpåverkan är de industridiamanter och den rondell, som Twister™-rondellen består av.

  • 363.
    Larsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Inventering och bedömning av förorenade områden inom division Energi, Tekniska Verken i Linköping2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was commissioned by Tekniska verken, Energy Division with the overall aim to investigate the concept of environmental debt and what it means for a business. Furthermore, a sustainable risk and responsibility investigation shall be carried out on the concerned areas. Finally, the priority areas shall be highlighted and proposed actions presented.

     

    The Swedish Environmental debt concept was presented in 1992 by Arne Jarnelöv. Environmental debt is defined as restoration costs for environmental damage. In the early days the concept did not take into account who was responsible, but the environmental debts was regarded as a humanity debt to future generations. For a company an environmental debt means that you are legally responsible for the debt under the Swedish environmental law. It also means that the remedy cost is to be accounted for. Environmental liabilities can be a significant problem in a company's sustainability efforts and contaminated areas can also lead to the company gaining a reputation for undertaking of environmentally hazardous activities. The responsibility for deposited waste is primarily with the depositor and secondly with the landowner.

     

    The inventory and compilation show that the Energy division has two properties with major pollution problems.

     

    At the KV1 site a gas works was operating for 60 years contributing to widespread pollution. Impregnated poles were also stored at two different locations at the site. Finally, 30-50 m below the KV1 site is a 90 000 m³ large cavern used during the cold war for emergency storage of high-sulfur thick oil. The oil storage ended in the beginning of the 1990s but an estimated 2 000 m³ of oil is left on the surface and in cracks in the rock face. The cavern is not clad which means that the oil was stored on a water bed directly against the rock wall. Today the water surface is kept at a lower level to prevent spreading of oil pollution. Remediating caverns is complicated and cost a lot of time. The company has to leave the site within the next 30 years, which makes a plan of action for different pollution situations crucial.

     

    The Kallerstad landfill is the next prioritized site. It was in operation from 1955 to 1973.  Large amounts of household and industrial waste was deposited in the early years. In 1958 the first waste incineration power plant was built at the KV1 site and the deposit was limited to none combustible waste. The landfill is located in an old mud pit which reduces the risk of spreading. The landfill was in municipal ownership and operation until 1961 when Tekniska Verken took sole ownership and operation.

     

    On some of the hydropower stations other activities has been contaminating sediment and soil. On a few properties there have been oil leaks which have been remedied to currently approved levels.

     

    It is of great importance for business enterprises to obtain an overall picture of their environmental debts as they beside the financial burden might potentially need environmentally hazardous activities to remedy. All contaminated properties within the Energy division should have excavation procedures in place. As remediation of oil caverns is a time consuming activity a preliminary investigation into the KV1 site cavern should be initiated as soon as possible. An excavation procedure should be established for the KV1 site. A dialogue to determine the responsibility relationship between the municipality and Tekniska Verken should be established about the

  • 364.
    Leong, Elaine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Water Situation In China - Crisis Or Business As Usual?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies indicates China is experiencing a water crisis, were several regions are suffering of severe water scarcity and rivers are heavily polluted. On the other hand, water is used inefficiently and wastefully: water use efficiency in the agriculture sector is only 40% and within industry, only 40% of the industrial wastewater is recycled. However, based on statistical data, China’s total water resources is ranked sixth in the world, based on its water resources and yet, Yellow River and Hai River dries up in its estuary every year. In some regions, the water situation is exacerbated by the fact that rivers’ water is heavily polluted with a large amount of untreated wastewater, discharged into the rivers and deteriorating the water quality. Several regions’ groundwater is overexploited due to human activities demand, which is not met by local. Some provinces have over withdrawn groundwater, which has caused ground subsidence and increased soil salinity. So what is the situation in China? Is there a water crisis, and if so, what are the causes?

    This report is a review of several global water scarcity assessment methods and summarizes the findings of the results of China’s water resources to get a better understanding about the water situation. All of the methods indicated that water scarcity is mainly concentrated to north China due to rapid growth, overexploitation from rivers and reduced precipitation. Whereas, South China is indicated as abundant in water resources, however, parts of the region are experiencing water scarcity due to massive dam constructions for water storage and power production. Too many dam constructions in a river disrupts flow of the river water and pollutants are then accumulated within floodgates.

    Many Chinese officials and scholars believe that with economic growth comes improved environmental quality when the economy has reached to a certain of per-capita level. However, with the present water situation it is not sustainable or possible for China to keep consuming and polluting its water resources. Improvement of environmental quality does not come automatically with increased income, and policies, laws and regulations are needed in order to stop further deterioration of the environment.

    China’s water situation is not any news and the key factor is human activities, but the question is how to solve it. China’s water crisis is much more complex than over exploitation of groundwater and surface water. There are three water issues in China:  “too much water – floods, too little water – droughts, and too dirty water – water pollution” (Jun & Chen, 2001). Thus, solving China’s water crisis is a huge challenge to solve without negatively affecting the economic growth.

     

  • 365.
    Leong, Elaine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Water Situation In China - Crisis Or Business As Usual?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies indicates China is experiencing a water crisis, were several regions are suffering of severe water scarcity and rivers are heavily polluted. On the other hand, water is used inefficiently and wastefully: water use efficiency in the agriculture sector is only 40% and within industry, only 40% of the industrial wastewater is recycled. However, based on statistical data, China’s total water resources is ranked sixth in the world, based on its water resources and yet, Yellow River and Hai River dries up in its estuary every year. In some regions, the water situation is exacerbated by the fact that rivers’ water is heavily polluted with a large amount of untreated wastewater, discharged into the rivers and deteriorating the water quality. Several regions’ groundwater is overexploited due to human activities demand, which is not met by local. Some provinces have over withdrawn groundwater, which has caused ground subsidence and increased soil salinity. So what is the situation in China? Is there a water crisis, and if so, what are the causes?This report is a review of several global water scarcity assessment methods and summarizes the findings of the results of China’s water resources to get a better understanding about the water situation. All of the methods indicated that water scarcity is mainly concentrated to north China due to rapid growth, overexploitation from rivers and reduced precipitation. Whereas, South China is indicated as abundant in water resources, however, parts of the region are experiencing water scarcity due to massive dam constructions for water storage and power production. Too many dam constructions in a river disrupts flow of the river water and pollutants are then accumulated within floodgates.Many Chinese officials and scholars believe that with economic growth comes improved environmental quality when the economy has reached to a certain of per-capita level. However, with the present water situation it is not sustainable or possible for China to keep consuming and polluting its water resources. Improvement of environmental quality does not come automatically with increased income, and policies, laws and regulations are needed in order to stop further deterioration of the environment.China’s water situation is not any news and the key factor is human activities, but the question is how to solve it. China’s water crisis is much more complex than over exploitation of groundwater and surface water. There are three water issues in China: “too much water – floods, too little water – droughts, and too dirty water – water pollution” (Jun & Chen, 2001). Thus, solving China’s water crisis is a huge challenge to solve without negatively affecting the economic growth.

  • 366.
    Li, Congdong
    et al.
    School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China / College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Zhang, Fanshun
    School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.
    Cao, Cejun
    Institute of Physical Internet, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jinan University (Zhuhai Campus), Zhuhai, 519070, China / College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Institute of Physical Internet, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jinan University (Zhuhai Campus), Zhuhai, 519070, China / Department of Production, University of Vaasa, 65200 Vaasa, Finland.
    Qu, Ting
    Institute of Physical Internet, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jinan University (Zhuhai Campus), Zhuhai, 519070, China.
    Organizational coordination in sustainable humanitarian supply chain: an evolutionary game approach2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 219, s. 291-303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable humanitarian supply chain has a great impact on saving lives, decreasing human suffering and contributing to development. Organizational coordination plays an important role in it, although it is uncommon to be established due to the conflicting interests and expectations. To cope with the problem and achieve the sustainability of humanitarian supply chain, the coordination between private sector and humanitarian organization was further discussed with the help of sustainable principle regarding stakeholder approach. Different from the existing literature that elaborated the drivers and the advantages of coordination, this paper aims to explore the coordination mechanism regarding whether to coordinate, when to adopt the optimal coordinated strategy and how such a strategy can perform well. To analyze the tendency of the coordinated decisions, evolutionary game models concerning traditional and trust mechanisms were developed. Then, computational studies based on hypothetic data were simulated to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Results indicated that the coordination decision was affected by coordinated returns and costs, normal returns and extra returns in terms of the traditional mechanism. Several situations in regard to the coordinated decisions were analyzed by adopting evolutionary stable strategies. Moreover, trust had a significantly positive impact on coordination promotion under the support of potential returns and high-level trust. Finally, managerial insights for achieving the sustainable humanitarian supply chain were given from the perspective of organizational coordination and strategy.

  • 367.
    Lilja, Dennis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Konsekvenser av vätgasproduktion för fordonsdrift: klimatpåverkan och energieffektivitet för olika produktionsvägar för vätgas jämfört med fordonsgas och vindkraftsel producerat av energibolag i Östergötland2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 2016 har flera politiska incitament genomförts för att undersöka möjligheten för att få den nordiska vätgasmarknaden att växa. Vätgas är en energibärare med potential att användas som ett miljövänligt drivmedelsalternativ för transportflottan eftersom utsläppen vid användning med bränslecell är rent vatten och bränslecellsbilar har en hög energieffektivitet i jämförelse med bilar med traditionella förbränningsmotorer. De enda utsläppen som förknippas med vätgas är de som sker i samband med produktionen av gasen. Det finns flera olika sätt att producera vätgas ur olika substrat. Idag produceras den mesta vätgasen från naturgas på raffinaderier för användning i bensin- och dieselproduktion. Det planeras en expansion av tankstationer för vätgas i Sverige, men då det finns få producenter så finns det ett intresse för Tekniska verken i Linköping AB att undersöka vad olika produktionsvägar för vätgas har för fördelar och nackdelar i jämförelse med andra biodrivmedel som fordonsgas och elektricitet. Studiens syfte var att undersöka tekniskt lämpliga produktionsvägar för vätgas som är kompatibla med biogasproduktion eller vindkraftsel, och jämföra de olika produktionsvägarna med biogas och vindkraftsel i relation till klimatpåverkan och energieffektivitet då drivmedel för 100 km körsträcka produceras. Efter en teknisk screening av vätgasproduktion, biogasproduktion och elektricitet från vindkraft konstanterades att vätgasproduktion viaångreformering av biogas, tvåstegsrötning av organiskt avfall och PEM-elektrolys är de produktionsvägar som har bäst potential för miljövänlig vätgasproduktion hos Tekniska verken i Linköping AB. Vidare kartlades viktiga parametrar för modellering och simulering av klimatpåverkan i programvaran simaPro. För jämförelse av produktionsvägarna för vätgas från rötning av matavfall användes WTW-metodik. För jämförelsen mellan elektricitet och elektrolys användes modifierad LCA-metodik med klimatpåverkan för hela livscykeln för vindkraftverket men för resterande processteg användes endast klimatpåverkan för driften för produktionen. Resultaten för jämförelsen mellan produktion av biogas, ångreformering och tvåstegsrötning visar ingen tydlig skillnad i varken klimatpåverkan eller energieffektivitet. Studien påvisar däremot att ångreformering av fordonsgas behöver mindre mängd matavfall för produktion av drivmedel för 100 km körsträcka (38 kg/100km) i jämförelse med tvåstegsrötning (44 kg/100km) och biogas (54 kg/100 km). För jämförelsen mellan produktion av vätgas via elektrolys och vindkraftsel visades systemet för vindkraftsel (23,6 kWh/100 km) vara dubbelt så energieffektivt jämfört med systemet för elektrolys (50,9 kWh/100 km), medan systemens klimatpåverkan förhöll sig till en liknande ratio med 0,154 kg CO2-eq utsläpp/100 km i jämförelse med 0,343 kg CO2-eq utsläpp/100 km. Studien visar att vid analys av energieffektivitet och klimatpåverkan för närbesläktade produktionssystem så spelar energieffektiviteten i använd bil stor roll för resultatet. Studiens resultat är framförallt intressant för svenska energibolag som vill veta mer om vätgasproduktion och hur dess klimatnytta och energiproduktion förhåller sig till andra fossilfria drivmedel.

  • 368.
    Lin, Han-Hsuan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Handling of Environmental Related Requirements: Awareness and Ability to Act at Small and Medium Sized Electric and Electronic Companies2008Student paper other, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental related product requirements are increasing worldwide from government authorities, customers and other stakeholders. For small and medium sized companies manufacturing electric and electronic products it is more difficult compared to bigger companies to meet new product related requirements due to smaller budget, resources and knowledge. This research studies the awareness and ability to act upon changes when small and medium sized companies in Sweden face environmental related requirements.

    The result is compared to previous conducted studies in a number of Asian countries. The study has been conducted through face-to-face interviews (12 companies), phone interviews (6 companies), and questionnaires (50 companies). After a preliminary literature study and targeting of objective companies interviews were made at first with the questionnaire study based on results from the interviews. In total, respondents from 68 companies participated in this research. Results from the study reveal that companies both in Sweden and Asia experience the same directives from EU and that WEEE and RoHS have had the biggest impact upon companies. Outside the EU market, companies do not comply with the legislations in the same way. There is a difference in how Swedish companies choose to treat environmental related product requirements as compared to electric and electronic companies in Asia. Furthermore, legislations are a very effective form to affect companies’ environmental work and adaptations, especially if it is imposed directly on the product itself. Both Swedish and Asian companies feel they need more education, more information about environmental related product requirements and more support from government authorities in order to cope with increasing demands from customers and legislations.

  • 369.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Engineering designers' experience of design for environment methods and tools - Requirement definitions from an interview study2006Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 487-496Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an increasing number of Design for Environment (DfE) methods and tools, industrial utilization is still limited. Identifying Engineering Designers' requirements is a useful way to increase the utilization of DfE methods and tools. This paper is based on existing literature and a semi-structured interview study at an industrial equipment company. Different reasons why engineering designers utilize methods and tools are presented, as well what makes a method or tool actively utilized. Several engineering designer requirements for methods and tools are identified and described. Several identified requirements that a DfE method ought to fulfill are listed and described. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 370.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hur skapa mervärde med integrerade produkt- och tjänsteerbjudanden.2006Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 371.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Product Developers Work with Eco-Design in Swedish Small and Medium-Sized Companies2009Inngår i: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2009: 6th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the many existing Eco-design methods and tools, their use is still limited. When they are used, these methods and tools are often not integrated in the product development process. The purpose of this research is, given a special focus on Eco-design methods and tools, to increase the knowledge concerning engineering designers’ use of methods and tools. Even though more and more approaches focus on how to perform Eco-design, as well as on what is required for its successful integration, there seems to be a gap between the developers and the presumptive users, e.g. designers. In the study, 12 CEOs, 5 marketing mangers and 12 design managers were questioned.

  • 372.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ekermann, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Structure for Categorization of EcoDesign Methods and Tools2013Inngår i: Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Singapore 17-19 April, 2013 / [ed] Andrew Y. C. Nee, Bin Song, Soh-Khim Ong, Singapore: Springer, 2013, 1, s. 117-122Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited volume presents the proceedings of the 20th CIRP LCE Conference, which cover various areas in life cycle engineering such as life cycle design, end-of-life management, manufacturing processes, manufacturing systems, methods and tools for sustainability, social sustainability, supply chain management, remanufacturing,

  • 373.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Life cycle assessment of floor care: a comparative study of the Twister™ method and floor care methods using polish and wax2009Inngår i: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2009: 6th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, Sapporo, Japan, 2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was initiated by the authors in order to evaluate the Twister™ method’s environmental pros and cons in relation to other traditional floor care methods using polish and wax. This has been ascertained through a Life Cycle Assessment which was conducted within the study. The study has been in co-operation with HTC Sweden AB, the developer of the Twister™ method.

    The results show that the elements of the Twister™ method with the greatest environmental impact are the scrubbing machine that is used and the low energy consumption that the Twister™ method requires. The results also show that the Twister™ method has a significantly lower environmental impact than floor care methods using polish or wax. The parts of the Twister™ pad that have the greatest environmental impact are the industrial diamonds and the material that makes up the pad.

  • 374.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental and Economic Contribution of Design Changes in Integrated Product Service Offerings2013Inngår i: Product-Service Integration for Sustainable Solutions: Proceedings of the 5th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Bochum, Germany, March 14th - 15th, 2013 / [ed] Horst Meier, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 435-446Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book contains the 5th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, and presents current research on product-service systems written by experts in the field.

  • 375.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    State-of-the-art in companies regarding customised offering design2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 376.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlsson, Emma
    Actor's and System Maps for Integrated Product Service Offerings: Practical Experience from Two Companies2014Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 16, s. 320-325Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to analyze how proposed Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) actors and system maps can be utilized in order to identify and access IPSO-related requirements. Furthermore, the objective is to identify and analyze how IPSO-related requirements are managed and transformed into product-related design aspects. Literature review, interviews and workshops were the primary research methods used. The conclusion is that participating companies have realized that there are several issues within their operations that can be improved, and proposed maps provide support for this. These maps provide useful detailed information compared to other approaches, and are easy to use.

  • 377.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Hallberg, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Innovative Customized Offering Design2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 378.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Business Implications of Integrated Product Service Offerings and Resulting Potential Engineering Issues2009Inngår i: ICED 09 - The 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, vol 4:: Product and Systems Design / [ed] Norell Bergendahl, M.; Grimheden, M.; Leifer, L.; Skogstad, P.; Lindemann, U., The Design Society, 2009, s. 71-82Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a shift in mechanical industry from a focus on physical products to product-service systems (PSS). The objective of this paper is to map out engineering implications and challenges based on five empirical examples of integrated product-service offerings (IPSOs). The paper is mainly based on case studies at Swedish manufacturing companies of different sizes. The following IPSOs were studied: (1) Lighting Function, (2) Core Plugs, (3) Material Handling, (4) Plate compacting, and (5) Thrust. These examples show that the orientation towards IPSOs implies several important strategic implications for a provider. Based on the examples, a discussion is presented concerning existing and potential engineering issues related to engineering requirements, development process and risks and opportunities with IPSOs.

  • 379.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    Product/Service Systems Experiences: an International Survey of Swedish, Japanese, Italian and German Manufacturing Companies2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 1st CIRP IPS2 Conference: Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2), Cranfield: Cranfield University Press , 2009, s. 74-81Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service Systems have recently grown in manufacturers’ interest. This paper presents an international survey of manufacturers from Sweden, Japan, Italy and Germany. The results show that customer connection and demands along with increased competition were main driving forces for product/service systems. Also, most product/service systems include physical products, maintenance and repairs. Staff working with product development, marketing and after sales were the major actors in product/service system development. As in traditional product sales, most product/service systems still have the ownership of physical products transferred to the customer/user. Physical products used in product/service systems are seldom adapted for product/service systems.

  • 380.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Business Implications of Integrated Product and Service Offerings2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 1st CIRP Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2) Conference / [ed] Rajkumar Roy and Essam Shehab, Cranfield CERES , 2009, s. 165-172Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the business implications of Integrated Product and Service Offerings (IPSOs). The objective is to show examples of the business implications of IPSOs from a supplier’s perspective, and to suggest specifications for supporting methods needed for such an industrial company. The paper is largely based on empirical case studies of 120 Swedish manufacturing companies of all sizes. Results from the case studies show that both small and large companies that conduct the transition towards IPSOs face several important strategic challenges, some of them associated with high risk.

  • 381.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Product Design Considerations for Improved Integrated Product/Service Offerings2013Inngår i: Handbook of Sustainable Engineering / [ed] Joanne Kauffman, Kun-Mo Lee, Springer Netherlands, 2013, s. 669-689Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook's content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key assets based on new materials, optimized resource management, and new energy sources. Contributions reflect a focus on state-of-the art insights into employing smart materials, recycling e-waste, water utilization, solar cells, product lifecycles, transportation and reverse manufacturing. Supportive of this, underlying issues such as engineering education, consumer behaviour and the regulatory climate complete the handbook's comprehensive treatment of the problems and most promising solutions.

  • 382.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental and economic benefits of Integrated Product Service Offerings quantified with real business cases2014Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, nr 1, s. 288-296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper quantifies environmental and economic benefits of the Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) in real practice from a life cycle perspective, in comparison with its corresponding product-sales type business as a reference. The paper also discusses the engineering activities contributing to those effects, as well as their enablers. To reach this goal, the paper investigates three IPSOs as real-life business cases in industry. Those cases are selected from different sectors and have different characteristics. In addition, the paper calculates and compares environmental impacts and economic costs of different offerings in each case through the use of Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing, respectively. In all three cases, IPSOs had environmental and economic advantages in comparison with the product-sales type business. The engineering activities contributing to those advantages under IPSOs were recycling, remanufacturing, reuse, maintenance, and holistic planning and operation. The enablers were found to be high flexibility for realizing products and services and close relationships with relevant actors.

  • 383.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    An outline of an interactive model for service engineering of functional sales offers2006Inngår i: DS 36: Proceedings DESIGN 2006, the 9th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Marjanovic, D, 2006, s. 897-904Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present an outline of an interactive design model that can be used for Service Engineering of functional sales concepts. This paper also aims to show how the previous service engineering research relates to this new model. A further aim is also to verify the overall outline of the interactive design model. The proposed model’s overall outline has been confirmed by and discussed with eight companies and further supported by the output from the literature review, and seems to be relevant for different types of functional sales offers. Therefore, the conclusion is that the proposed model gives a relevant image of important lifecycle activities for Service Engineering of functional sales offers.

  • 384.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH.
    Hur företag bör arbeta i framtagandet av integrerade produkt- och tjänsteerbjudanden2007Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 385.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Industrial cleaning with Qlean Water: a case study of printed circuit boards2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 47, s. 19-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing companies are looking for ways to substitute environmentally problematic cleaning methods for surface treatments with more environmentally friendly ones. In this paper, one potential solution is described. The Qlean method, based on cleaning with highly pure water (in this paper defined as Qlean Water), is a novel cleaning method. This method, now utilized at one plant at a leading major international electronic company, has substituted previous chemical-based methods for cleaning printed circuit boards prior to lacquering. This paper presents, based on that company's primary data, a comparative study using environmental analysis and economic life cycle cost review between cleaning with Qlean Water and conventional cleaning. The focus is on the environmental and economic performance of the two alternatives. The conclusion is that Qlean Water offers both a significant economic and environmental cost reduction and a better product. This is the case even though all identified economic benefits derived from using Qlean Water, e.g. that the quality and technical lifetime have been extended for the printed circuit boards with the Qlean Water cleaning method, are not considered in the economic analysis.

  • 386.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    Department of Machine Design, School of Industrial Technology and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik.
    Learning networks: a method for Integrated Product and Service Engineering - experience from the IPSE project2008Inngår i: Manufacturing Systems and Technologies for the New Frontier: The 41st CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems May 26–28, 2008, Tokyo, Japan / [ed] Mamoru Mitsuishi, Kanji Ueda, Fumihiko Kimura., London: Springer , 2008, s. 495-500Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the Integrated Product and Service Engineering (IPSE) project is to develop a methodology for companies that want to make the journey of moving from selling products to also sell Integrated Product and Service Offerings. In order to achieve that major changes are needed in the companies. In this paper the learning network approach is described as well as the content of the workshop series that the companies participated in. The findings show that a learning network approach is beneficial methodology for achieving changes in the companies, since the participants learn from each other and from the researchers.

  • 387.
    Lindfors, Axel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Samhällseffekter av alternativa drivmedel2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att uppnå en fossiloberoende fordonsflotta i Östergötlands krävs ökad elektrifiering och mer biodrivmedel, så kallade alternativa drivmedel. För att uppnå detta mål undersöks i rapporten följande: samhällseffekter från produktion och användning av alternativa drivmedel, samhällseffekternas storleksordningar, samhällseffekternas ursprung (produktion eller användning) samt hur olika alternativa drivmedel ger upphov till olika samhällseffekter.

    Rapporten utgår från Sveriges miljömål och BRP+ för att beskriva vilka samhällseffekter produktion och användning av alternativa drivmedel för med sig. 12 huvudområden och 16 indikatorer formulerades, utifrån Sveriges miljömål och BRP+, och dessa används i rapporten för att bedöma samhällseffekterna av fem olika alternativa drivmedel (biogas, etanol, HVO, el och vätgas). Huvudområdena som bedömdes var ökad resursåtervinning, förbättrad luftkvalitet, ökade investeringar i alternativa drivmedel, ökad biodiversitet och minskad ekotoxicitet, ökad tillgänglighet, minskat buller, minskad försurning & övergödning, ökad regional sysselsättning, ökad regional lönesumma, mer förnybar energi och ökad energisäkerhet, minskad klimatpåverkan samt ökad näringsåtervinning.

    För att belysa samhällseffekternas storleksordningar användes även fyra scenarion med olika stor mängd produktion och användning av alternativa drivmedel. Dessa scenarion applicerades på fyra av huvudområdena: ökad regional sysselsättning, ökad regional lönesumma, mer förnybar energi och ökad energisäkerhet samt minskad klimatpåverkan. Resultatet av detta blev exempelvis att produktion av alternativa drivmedel i framtiden utgöra mellan 0,8 och 1,2 % av den regionala lönesumman samt användning av dessa reducera Östergötlands totala klimatgasutsläpp med mellan 17 % och 52 %. Det stora spannet beror på vilka alternativa drivmedel som produceras samt i vilken mängd.

    Illustrationer gjordes för att visa vilka alternativa drivmedel som ger upphov till vilka samhällseffekter. Dessa visar relativ storlek och om effekten är positiv eller negativ för samhället. Dessa illustrationer visar att det är viktigt att utvärdera alternativa drivmedel ur ett multi-dimensionellt perspektiv för att inte missa externa effekter och mervärden.

    Till sist visade samhällseffektsbedömningen att vissa samhällseffekter endast uppkommer i produktionen respektive användningen av alternativa drivmedel. Om målet är att uppnå så många positiva samhällseffekter som möjligt krävs det alltså både produktion och användning. Idag importeras majoriteten av våra alternativa drivmedel, alltså går vi miste om produktionseffekterna. Detta är med hög sannolikhet en konsekvens av det fokus på användningseffekter, främst klimatpåverkan, som länge dominerat samhällsdebatten på detta ämnesområde. Nu behövs policy, strategier och initiativ som både stimulerar produktion och användning av alternativa drivmedel så att alla positiva samhällseffekter uppnås.

  • 388.
    Lindfors, Axel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Peltonen Ramkvist, Erika
    Region Östergötland.
    Östergötlands potential för biodrivmedelsproduktion och utökad elektrifiering: Delprojektrapport delprojekt 2: Hållbara transporter i Östergötland2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att möta bestämmelser om en fossiloberoende fordonsflotta och uppfylla direktivet om förnybar energi krävs en ökad mängd biodrivmedel- och elanvändning i fordon. Dessa mål införlivas genom lokala och regionala initiativ runt om i Sverige. Inhemsk produktion av biodrivmedel för med sig en mängd positiva effekter så som säkrad bränsletillgång, ökad lokal sysselsättning, mer skatteintäkter och en säker avfallshantering av organiskt avfall. För att ge underlag till hur Östergötland bör agera för att bidra till en fossiloberoende fordonsflotta inventeras i denna rapport Östergötlands biomassa- och biodrivmedelpotential samt länets elnätskapacitet.

    Studien har applicerat en metod där tidigare studier och intervjuer med sakkunniga legat till grund för datainsamlingen. Därefter har en syntes om hur framtiden för Östergötlands biodrivmedelpotential kan se ut arbetats fram av projektgruppen. Under hela projektets arbetsgång har intressenter varit delaktiga, både med information och data men även i att utforma projektets tillvägagångssätt, upplägg och presentation. Denna höga grad av intressentengagemang bidrar till att resultatet blir mer relevant och att intressenter känner sig mer delaktiga i projektets resultat. Dessutom ökar lärandet från projektet då projektgruppen och intressenter delar med sig mer fritt av erfarenheter och kunskap.

    Resultatet visar att Östergötland har goda förutsättningar för ökad biodrivmedelproduktion och ökad elektrifiering av vägtrafiken. Idag kommer större delen av biodrivmedel i Östergötland från primärråvaror eller avfall från hushåll och kommunala aktiviteter. För att realisera en större potential krävs att lantbruks- och skogsbrukssektorerna involveras i högre grad. De mest lovande substraten som inte idag används är flytgödsel, fastgödsel, vall, avloppsvatten från pappers- och massabruk samt skogsrester. Dessa kan tidigt realiseras och tillsammans står de för en betydande del av potentialen. Östergötlands biodrivmedelspotential uppskattas till 3 400 GWh per år. En stor del av denna potential är svårrealiserad och kräver stora insatser om den ska realiseras till 2030.

    Elnätets kapacitet i Östergötland identifieras inte som något kortsiktigt problem av elnätsbolagen i Östergötland. Om elnätet får problem att hantera en ökad elfordonsflotta ger detta först upphov till elkvalitetsproblem och sedan att nätet kan slås ut. Gällande personbilar kan hushållsnära laddning medföra att elserviser och transformatorer måste förstärkas i vissa områden (framförallt i förorter och på landsbygden). På längre sikt kan en kraftig ökning av eldrivna fordon göra att kapacitet i vissa lokala elnät måste byggas ut. I dessa områden kan finansiering bli en kritisk fråga då potentiella elbilsägare kan välja att avstå från att byta bil om det medför att de måste betala en högre nätavgift. Samtidigt blir sannolikt icke-elbilsägare inte glada om de måste betala en högre avgift för att andra skaffar elbil i deras område. För tung- och busstrafik kan vissa punkter bli kritiska och kräva stora förstärkningar. Större vägstråk, bussdepåer och rastplatser kommer behöva klara av att flera fordon kan ladda med iii hög effekt under samma tid på dagen. På dessa platser behövs sannolikt elnätet förstärkas.

    På grund av att elnätsprojekt ofta har lång ledtid visar analysen av resultatet att el bör prioriteras i personbilar och mindre fordon då de påfrestar elnätet mindre. Denna fordonskategori kan även kompletteras med CBG-fordon (komprimerad biogas) och etanolfordon för att uppnå en högre grad av fossilfria fordon. För tyngre transporter pekar analysen på ED95 (etanoldiesel), LBG (förvätskad biogas), HVO och RME. HVO och RME kan redan idag sättas in i tyngre transporter medan ED95 och LBG är några år bort. På detta sätt fås en kontinuerlig ökning av fossilfria fordon fram till 2030 vilket gynnar klimat, miljö och drivmedelsproducenter.

  • 389.
    Lindfors, Axel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Assessing the Potential, Performance and Feasibility of Urban Solutions: Methodological Considerations and Learnings from Biogas Solutions2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 14, artikkel-id 3756Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities of the world are faced with multiple sustainability challenges, for example related to food and energy supply, transportation, waste management, clean air, and more. Preferably, these challenges are addressed with broad and interconnected solutions with the ambition of addressing several challenges simultaneously, in this paper referred to as multi-functional urban solutions. Implementation of multi-functional urban solutions requires well informed decisions, supported by knowledge about the potential contributions that the solutions can make to a more sustainable city as well as on issues that may hinder or facilitate their implementation. Thus, in this paper, we suggest a soft multi-criteria decision analysis method that can be used to gather and structure this knowledge. This method acknowledges the importance of incorporating local knowledge, is based on life-cycle thinking, and is flexible and open-ended by design so that it can be tailored to specific needs and conditions. The method contributes to existing practices in sustainability assessment and feasibility studies, linking and integrating potential and performance assessment with issues affecting solutions’ feasibility of implementation. This method offers a way for local authorities, researchers and exporting companies to organize and structure the diverse range of knowledge to be considered for more informed decisions regarding the implementation of multi-functional urban solutions. While the main contributions of the paper are methodological, brief descriptions of two studies that have applied this method to assess biogas solutions are shown as clarifying examples. One of these studies was performed in Chisinau, Moldova and the other in Johannesburg, South Africa.

  • 390.
    Lindfors, Axel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Lärkhammar, Sofie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    If we buy your vehicles, can we produce our own fuel?: An early assessment method for the market expansion of biomethane solutions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Biomethane made from the anaerobic digestion of organic waste can provide several economic and environmental benefits such as: the valorisation of waste products, increased resource efficiency, increased retention of nutrients through recycling of biogas digestate (Banks, et al., 2011), reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (Börjesson, et al., 2016) as well as the reduction of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions (Börjesson & Berglund, 2007).To help actors understand when and where biomethane solutions can succeed, including the qualitative and quantitative aspects of a solution, an Early Assessment Method has been developed. The categories included in the assessment are potential, feasibility, economic and environmental performance. The Early Assessment Method was developed using a multi-criteria framework and consists of 15 key areas and 24 key indicators that should be considered when assessing biomethane solutions. Each quantitative indicator can be assessed either with site-specific data or by using generic equations and average values while the qualitative indicators are given a five-grade scale to facilitate the assessment.The potential category focuses on assessing how much raw material there is in the investigated area and how much of the usable products can be produced. The final areas are: biomass potential, biomethane potential and bio-fertilizer potential. In the feasibility assessment, qualitative aspects are assessed using a five-grade scale. The key areas for feasibility include: customer demand, competing applications, strategies for renewable fuels, legislation, economic instruments and infrastructure suitability. Performance is assessed both for economic performance and environmental performance to understand how the biomethane solution would perform if implemented. Economic performance includes both an indicator for cost per unit produced and an indicator for the investment cost for each production step. The key areas included are: biogas generation cost, biogas upgrading cost and biomethane distribution cost. The environmental performance is evaluated to understand how environmental aspects would change if biomethane replaced an alternative fuel on the market in the studied region. Key areas to assess this are: climate impact, air quality and nutrient recycling. These areas highlight some important benefits of using biomethane over fossil fuels, which are the most common fuels for heavy-duty vehicles.A two-part Early Assessment Tool was also developed. The tool is included in the method, but can be used separately if the user has a basic knowledge of biomethane. It assists with information collection, through a questionnaire, and structuring and presenting data, through a spreadsheet. The design of the Early Assessment Tool favours simplicity and usability while striving to maintain relevant information. It is meant to be used both for educational and investigative purposes when providing an early assessment of biomethane solutions within a certain region. The result from the tool can aid when making decisions and help with identifying which local actors to involve and what consultancy work might be needed to realise a biomethane solution.

  • 391.
    Lindkvist Haziri, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Feedback from Remanufacturing: Its Unexploited Potential to Improve Future Product Design2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 15, s. 1artikkel-id 4037Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Company interest and research in the circular economy and remanufacturing have increased as a means of reducing negative environmental impacts. Remanufacturing is an industrial process whereby used products are returned to a state of like-new. However, few products are designed for remanufacturing, and further research and industrial efforts are needed to facilitate more widespread use of design for remanufacturing. One crucial factor facilitating design for remanufacturing is the integration of feedback in the product design process. Thus, the objective of this paper is to analyse feedback flows from remanufacturing to product design. Hence, a literature study and multiple case studies were conducted at three companies that design, manufacture and remanufacture different kinds of products. The cross-case analysis revealed the five barriers of the lack of internal awareness, lack of knowledge, lack of incentives, lack of feedback channels and non-supportive organisational structures, and the five enablers of business opportunities, integrated design processes, customers’ demand, laws, regulations and standards, and new technologies. To establish improved feedback from remanufacturing to product design, the barriers need to be addressed and the enablers explored. Thus, improved feedback from remanufacturing to product design will improve the design of future products suited for a more circular economy.

  • 392.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploring the Use of Product Life-Cycle Information in Two Value Chains Including Remanufacturing2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Not many products are designed for remanufacturing. One of the reasons may be that the information flows to and from remanufacturers are not in level with the other information flows in the product life-cycle. In this paper, the information flows within two value chains including remanufacturing and PSS are investigated. The case studies show that the remanufacturing part of the value chain is not strongly included in the information flows in the product life-cycle. This means that valuable feedback about the product design and condition at end-of-life is neglected. Further, information feed forward, which could potentially make the remanufacturing process more efficient, is not satisfactorily implemented.

  • 393.
    Lindqvist, Annica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    von Malmborg, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell miljöteknik.
    What can we learn from local substance flow analyses? The review of cadmium flows in Swedish municipalities2004Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 12, nr 8-10, s. 909-918Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities are important actors in the transition towards sustainable development. They can play important roles for the promotion of industrial ecology systems oriented management of resources and pollutants on the local and regional level. In this context, the method of substance flow analysis (SFA) has been argued to be supportive to municipal environmental management, although, performing an SFA is often time consuming and demands a great deal of work. It may be a task hard to fulfil on a regular basis for many local authorities. A crucial issue is, then, to what extent it is possible to learn from other SFA studies? Aiming to contribute to this understanding, this paper analyses comparative results of SFA case studies of the cadmium metabolism in three structurally different municipalities in Sweden. The analyses illustrate that in addition to specific knowledge gained from a single case study, there is also general knowledge that may constitute important information for environmental decision-making in other local authorities. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 394.
    Lindskog, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Flytande biogas som bränsle för sjöfartssektorn: Möjligheter och hinder för Östersjöområdet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att bidra till en bättre förståelse för LBG:s förutsättningar inom sjöfarten genom att kartlägga vilka möjligheter och hinder som finns för att använda LBG som bränsle i Östersjöområdet. Studien består av en analytisk kartläggning som baseras i en litteraturstudie och kompletteras av en intervjustudie med branschaktörer.  Uppsatsen använder en kombinerad PESTLE/SWOT-metodik, där en kartläggning har utförts med hjälp av en PESTLE-analys för att identifiera områden och faktorer. Faktorerna har därefter analyserats genom en SWOT-analys för att svara på rapportens formulerade huvudfrågeställning. Resultatet visar att potentialen för LBG inom sjöfartsbranschen är stor, särskilt då den huvudsakliga infrastrukturen för bränslet finns på plats med anledning av LNG:s framväxt i Östersjöområdet. Den volymmässiga avsättningspotentialen för bränslen är också stor inom sjöfarten, och LBG har unika styrkor jämfört med LNG och i sjöfarten redan etablerade bränslen. LBG:s styrkor ligger i linje med de målsättningar som finns kring omställning till förnybara bränslen i transportsektorn, samt de strategier och mål som finns om att reducera koldioxidutsläpp på global och europeisk nivå. Intervjuade rederier menar att de ser utvecklingen mot LBG som ett naturligt steg för sin LNG-drivna flotta och att testverksamhet pågår med inblandning av LBG i LNG-drivna fartyg. Tre faktorer identifierades som särskilda viktiga för utvecklingen mot LBG i sjöfartsbranschen i Östersjön. En av dessa berör produktionskapaciteten av LBG, där sjöfartsbranschens stora energibehov medför att endast en begränsad inblandning av LBG är möjlig i dagsläget. Ett annat identifierat fokusområde består i LBG-kostnad för sjöfarten, där den hårda konkurrenssituationen inom branschen negativt påverkar rederiers möjligheter att bekosta inblandning av LBG. Förutsättningarna påverkas också av att fartygsbränslen för kommersiell sjöfart är skattefria och att andra potentiella branscher för LBG medger möjlighet till skattemässiga subventioner. I uppsatsen skissas det på förslag för hur man kan avhjälpa dessa hinder och bättre utnyttja LBG:s styrkor som fartygsbränsle i Östersjöområdet.

  • 395. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail and Road Infrastructure: Reviewing Applicability in Sweden2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to explore and propose a more effective management of rail and road infrastructure and the possibility of a more resource-efficient road and rail infrastructure by applying business models based on performance and a life-cycle perspective.

    There is a lack of efficiency in the Swedish rail and road infrastructure industries - at the same time as the availability of the rail tracks and roads is essential. Rail and road infrastructure have long lifetimes, around 40-60 years, and during these decades regular maintenance and reconstruction are needed to ensure proper function. Large amounts of resources are required to construct the infrastructure, and the overall environmental pressure depends substantially on this.

    This research is largely based on interviews conducted with the buyer, contractors and design consultants for rail and road infrastructure in Sweden. Literature reviews have been conducted to develop the framework needed to analyze the empirical findings. This research contributes by building on theory in areas such as Integrated Product Service Offerings (IPSOs) and eco-design, and this abstract presents a brief summary of the overall conclusions.

    Several challenges for rail and road infrastructure in Sweden have been identified, such as the lack of information and knowledge transfer between different projects and actors. This is due to e.g. the use of traditional short-term contracts and conservative cooperate cultures, creating sub-optimizations in management. Increased collaboration, through e.g. partnering, seems to be a promising way to increase the information and knowledge transfer between actors by increasing trust and interaction. In this way, management would be more effective, and by involving contractors in the design phase, more efficient technical solutions could be developed and used. Additionally, increased involvement by the design consultants and an iterative information loop between design, construction and maintenance could also be beneficial. The research indicates that increased cooperation increases trust. In this way, there is a possibility to remove the detailed requirements that prevent new ways of working.

    Rail and road infrastructure have characteristics, such as the resources used and the importance of availability, that are well-suited for IPSOs. This performance-based business model with a life-cycle perspective provides incentives to optimize the use of resources and provide a holistic view for management that is lacking today for rail and road infrastructure. However, a long-term contract such as an IPSO creates uncertainties. The actors are risk-averse, which is an obstacle in the development of new business models and contract forms. Most of the risks and uncertainties identified are due to lack of experience. This implies that an implementation of IPSOs will have a steep learning curve. Additionally, risk allocation between the actors is important for effective management: too much risk for the suppliers will make them reluctant in developing new solutions, and they will use a risk premium to cover up for the risk.

    Delarbeid
    1. PSS Contracts for Rail and Road Infrastructure
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>PSS Contracts for Rail and Road Infrastructure
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Functional Thinking for Value Creation. Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th-6th, 2011 / [ed] Jürgen Hesselback & Christoph Herrmann, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, s. 291-296Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity development for rail and road infrastructure has been weak a long time; and explanation can be found in the traditional contracts used, with little room for incentives for innovation. This literature study investigates the use of the few realized PSS contracts within the rail and road infrastructure. The descriptions and the scientific reports are on a synoptic level and a majority of the reports are funded by the involved actors, showing that there is an interest for PSS contracts in the industry and indicating significant potential for further research in the area.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011
    Emneord
    Rail infrastructure; Road Infrastructure; Literature review
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70261 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-19689-8_51 (DOI)978-3-642-19688-1 (ISBN)978-3-642-19689-8 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    The 3rd CIRP International Conference on IPS2 2011, May 5th-6th, Braunschweig, Germany
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-08-29 Laget: 2011-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2014-09-03bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Integrated Product Service Offerings for rail infrastructure: benefits and challenges regarding knowledge transfer and cultural change in a Swedish case
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Integrated Product Service Offerings for rail infrastructure: benefits and challenges regarding knowledge transfer and cultural change in a Swedish case
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 166-174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate potential benefits and challenges regarding knowledge transfer and cultural change from the provider and buyer perspectives when using IPSOs for Swedish rail infrastructure. Considering material use and the importance of availability of the tracks makes rail infrastructure an interesting candidate for a business model based on a life-cycle approach, which can result in a reduction in cost and environmental impact.

    The concept of the Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) has in several business areas proven to be a means with potential to reduce the environmental impact of products and services, increase cost efficiency and quality, and act as a driver for change. The business model, which is based on a life-cycle approach, focuses on the function instead of the initial price of the product.

    Among the main findings are the lack of information and knowledge transfer that act as a barrier for innovation, and that the buyer's conservative business culture makes it difficult to implement new types of contracts. Since IPSO contracts require improved information transfer, they could potentially stimulate innovation as well as processes for evaluation of the contracts. By involving the contractors in the design phase their knowledge could be used in a better way, creating a feedback loop from practice to design.

    The empirical part, focusing on the rail infrastructure industry in Sweden, has been collected using individual interviews and a group interview approach.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Rail infrastructure, Long-term contracts, Supplier–buyer relationships, Knowledge transfer
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109976 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.06.039 (DOI)000356194300017 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-08-29 Laget: 2014-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-05bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Scenarios for Resource Efficient Rail Infrastructure: Applying Integrated Product Service Offerings
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Scenarios for Resource Efficient Rail Infrastructure: Applying Integrated Product Service Offerings
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: PRODUCT SERVICES SYSTEMS AND VALUE CREATION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 16, s. 13-139Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rail infrastructure in Sweden, with its long lifetime, large amounts of materials used and traditional procurement, has escalating maintenance costs. What would occur if the infrastructure is instead procured as an Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO)? This paper discusses scenarios for increased resource efficiency and more value for the money spent by applying an IPSO perspective to rail infrastructure. The best option depends on the conditions at the construction site as well as how much the availability of the tracks is valued.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2014
    Serie
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 16
    Emneord
    Rail infrastructure, maintenance, availability, product service systems
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109977 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2014.06.001 (DOI)000345448900023 ()
    Konferanse
    6th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPSS)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-08-29 Laget: 2014-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2015-01-08bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Partnering – a Way to Reach Resource-Efficient and Effective Road Infrastructure Projects through Increased Information and Knowledge Transfer?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Partnering – a Way to Reach Resource-Efficient and Effective Road Infrastructure Projects through Increased Information and Knowledge Transfer?
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is behind other industries when it comes to efficiency, and partnering has been discussed as a way to increase the cooperation in and technical performance of projects. For partnering to be successful several different aspects have to be in place, among them information sharing and trust. The objective is therefore to investigate implications of partnering as a way to reach more resource-efficient and effective road infrastructure projects through increased information and knowledge transfer.

    The article investigates a road project realized using less time than estimated as well as achieving a lower total cost than budgeted. Partnering resulted in a close collaboration and increased trust among the actors, and the co-location of the actors led to the exchange of information and especially informal communication. Information was easily accessed and transferred between the actors, and the cooperation facilitated knowledge transfer between the different functions. This cut the lead times on information transfer and decision making, especially in the integrated construction and design phase, making the project more efficient. Also, solutions adapted for the site were chosen thanks to the active design approach. Instead of spending time on remaking poorly-adapted designs, time could be spent on other things, making the process more effective as well. The success of the project suggests that partnering could be a way forward in the road infrastructure industry. However, even more resource-efficient solutions could have been chosen if the project had a life-cycle perspective.

    Emneord
    Buyer-supplier collaboration, partnering, resource efficiency, road infrastructure, knowledge transfer, information transfer
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109979 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-08-29 Laget: 2014-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2015-01-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Through-life Engineering Services / [ed] Louis, Rajkumar Roy, Springer, 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Among construction companies in Sweden, incentives for development, increased efficiency and raised competence are low. In Sweden, construction contracts are currently used to a large extent, and have shortcomings concerning weak incentives for development of procedures. The over-detailed specifications cause major obstacles for the rail infrastructure industry in terms of technical development. There is clearly a need for change, and it is now in the strategy of the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) to get as much railway as possible for the money it spends. This includes increased productivity, level of innovation and competition, as well as a will to think more from a life-cycle perspective and increase cost efficiency. Changes in the business model is one of the strategies mentioned to reach these goals.

    Performance contracting could increase the drivers for change within the industry and thereby increase cost efficiency and quality from a life cycle perspective. This type of contracting is also known as an Integrated Product Service Offering, or IPSO, and implies that one actor has the responsibility to deliver a result and therefore has incentives to optimize the use of energy and material. An IPSO has a lifecycle perspective, and the combination of products and services can be combined into an optimized solution for the customer, as well as give the manufacturing company the possibility to have control over the product throughout its whole life-cycle. PSS provides the supplier with the opportunity to increase the value of the solution for the customer by integrating components in new ways, as well as incentives for the supplier to realize a more economical and environmental development when considering the whole lifecycle. More money spent on the construction, and thereby improved quality, could result in reduced cost for maintenance work. On the other hand, too high a cost for construction can never be motivated by future savings for the maintenance cost.

    New business models such as IPSO contracts create challenges such as uncertainty concerning forecasting costs at the bidding phase of the contract. With a business model focusing on delivering a result, a lot of the risk previously carried by the user is now assumed by the provider, and it can be difficult rededicating and controlling the risks and uncertainties. In this case the term “risk” is defined as the threat of loss from an unwanted event, to include financial, performance or timescale loss. Risk assessments, including forecasting and economic development, are very important for these long-term contracts and both the supplier side and the buyer side have to be considered. For longterm performance contracts risks caused by uncertainties arise in the bidding stage. Key uncertainties for a IPSO contract are performance, operation, training, engineering, affordability and commercial uncertainties.

    In cooperation with the STA, the DORIS (Development of integrated product service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure Systems) project investigates the potential use of IPSO contracts for rail infrastructure. So far, only one such contract has been realized; this was partly funded by private capital, and no such initiatives are currently planned. This limited experience in the industry calls for more thorough research. In line with this, the aim of this paper is to identify potential risk components when using IPSO for rail infrastructure for both the provider and buyer perspectives. Furthermore, the paper seeks to investigate how these risks can be potentially reduced or avoided.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer, 2014
    Serie
    Decision Engineering, ISSN 1619-5736 ; 2014
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73900 (URN)978-3-319-12110-9 (ISBN)
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-16 Laget: 2012-01-16 Sist oppdatert: 2015-01-07bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 396. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure: Potential Benefits and Challenges2012Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of different materials are used when building and maintaining railway infrastructure, and the environmental impacts from the upstream production stages are significant. Industry’s motivation to innovate is low, new products or methods are rarely used, and the lowest price is the main driver for selecting a tender.

    Integrated Product Service Offerings, or IPSO, has been put forward in the research literature as a potential concept to, from a life-cycle perspective, reduce the environmental impact of products and services, increase cost efficiency and quality, and act as a driver for change. Therefore, this thesis attempts to answer to the aim: “Can the concept of Integrated Product Service Offerings improve the management of rail infrastructure and if so, what would such an implementation induce in terms of risk factors?” The Swedish rail infrastructure is used as a case to discuss the considerations and feasibility of such an implementation. Theories such as product development, information asymmetry and innovation are used to complement the literature focusing on IPSO. The empirical part of the thesis has been collected using individual interviews, group interviews and a survey approach.

    The contracts currently used in the railway industry have several advantages, such as being a familiar business model that is straightforward to calculate for the contractors. However, they are not optimal for innovation due to e.g. detailed specifications, standards and technological and market lock-in effects. Technological and market lock-in, in combination with a lack of information transfer between different contracts and actors, are major disadvantages with the current practice. Furthermore, the buyer’s conservative business culture makes it difficult to implement new types of contracts since it is difficult to break old habits. Even though the providers are part of the same mature market, the organizational changes needed for them to fulfill IPSO contracts are not seen as a barrier.

    A benefit with IPSO is the holistic life-cycle perspective that provides incentives for dematerialization, resulting in a more resource-efficient and durable infrastructure. IPSO requires improved information transfer, something which stimulates innovation as well as processes for evaluation of the contracts. Further benefits are potential incentives to get contractors involved in the design phase, where the major decisions about the life-cycle are made, in order to reduce the infrastructure's environmental impact and total life-cycle cost. The contractors hope that IPSO contracts will make the buyer focus less on e.g. the initial purchasing price and more on the total life-cycle cost in relation to quality in order to get the best solution.

    The actors see themselves as parties with opposing interests. At the same time, IPSO will most likely imply more long-term cooperation, something that calls for common interests, shared risks and flexibility. The innovation possibilities with IPSO could benefit from loosening up the material handling monopoly that the buyer currently holds. Since the buyer is a dominant actor within the industry, this organization has major possibilities to introduce changes that the other actors would have to conform to.

    Several challenges with IPSO are discussed, and most of them are derived from the risk and uncertainty aspects that come with long-term contracts and inexperience with a new business model. On one hand, the contractors request more flexibility; on the other hand, they are reluctant to take on more responsibility that could lead to increased risk. However, risk does not have to be seen as something completely negative, as it depends on how the contractors choose to deal with it. They can either develop the necessary skills and competence needed to identify and handle the risk in a strategic manner, foster a competitive advantage, or take the problems as they come in a more ad hoc way. A way to reduce risk and uncertainty seems to be to focus on transparency and information sharing between the actors and the contracts. This would also open up IPSO contracts for reinvestments, where the current lack of information concerning the condition of the facilities results in reluctance for IPSO contracts.

    This research has focused on IPSO for rail infrastructure management, using the Swedish rail infrastructure as a case to discuss the considerations and feasibility of such an implementation. The conclusions, therefore, are valid for rail infrastructure in other geographical locations as well.

    Delarbeid
    1. PSS Contracts for Rail and Road Infrastructure
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>PSS Contracts for Rail and Road Infrastructure
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Functional Thinking for Value Creation. Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th-6th, 2011 / [ed] Jürgen Hesselback & Christoph Herrmann, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, s. 291-296Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity development for rail and road infrastructure has been weak a long time; and explanation can be found in the traditional contracts used, with little room for incentives for innovation. This literature study investigates the use of the few realized PSS contracts within the rail and road infrastructure. The descriptions and the scientific reports are on a synoptic level and a majority of the reports are funded by the involved actors, showing that there is an interest for PSS contracts in the industry and indicating significant potential for further research in the area.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011
    Emneord
    Rail infrastructure; Road Infrastructure; Literature review
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70261 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-19689-8_51 (DOI)978-3-642-19688-1 (ISBN)978-3-642-19689-8 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    The 3rd CIRP International Conference on IPS2 2011, May 5th-6th, Braunschweig, Germany
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-08-29 Laget: 2011-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2014-09-03bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. PSS Contracts for Rail Infrastructure
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>PSS Contracts for Rail Infrastructure
    2011 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased costs and little incentives for technical development within the rail infrastructure industry has resulted in an increased interest for new contracting types such as PSS. This paper examines the current situation, investigates benefits and challenges when using PSS contracts and attempts to develop a model for traditional contracts and PSS contracts. The results show that advantages such as incentives for development and potentially lower costs are challenged by a conservative buyer in combination with reservations due to inexperience and insecurity working with this business model making the actors questioning the feasibility. The models developed clearly show the different phases of the contracts and states what actor that is responsible for the each phase. This is useful when comparing different contracts and also when to determine responsibility and issues related to the interface between different phases and actors.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70260 (URN)
    Konferanse
    The R&D Management Conference 2011, June 28-30, Norrköping, Sweden
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-08-29 Laget: 2011-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2012-01-16bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Theoretical Environmental Comparison of Integrated Product Service Offerings vs. Traditional Sales
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Theoretical Environmental Comparison of Integrated Product Service Offerings vs. Traditional Sales
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Systems Engineering / [ed] Boris Cogan, IN-TECH, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The book "Systems Engineering: Practice and Theory" is a collection of articles written by developers and researches from all around the globe. Mostly they present methodologies for separate Systems Engineering processes; others consider issues of adjacent knowledge areas and sub-areas that significantly contribute to systems development, operation, and maintenance. Case studies include aircraft, spacecrafts, and space systems development, post-analysis of data collected during operation of large systems etc. Important issues related to "bottlenecks" of Systems Engineering, such as complexity, reliability, and safety of different kinds of systems, creation, operation and maintenance of services, system-human communication, and management tasks done during system projects are addressed in the collection. This book is for people who are interested in the modern state of the Systems Engineering knowledge area and for systems engineers involved in different activities of the area. Some articles may be a valuable source for university lecturers and students; most of case studies can be directly used in Systems Engineering courses as illustrative materials.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    IN-TECH, 2011
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73895 (URN)10.5772/2121 (DOI)979-953-307-410-7 (ISBN)
    Merknad

    Hittar inte linken???

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-16 Laget: 2012-01-16 Sist oppdatert: 2015-06-02bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Through-life Engineering Services / [ed] Louis, Rajkumar Roy, Springer, 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Among construction companies in Sweden, incentives for development, increased efficiency and raised competence are low. In Sweden, construction contracts are currently used to a large extent, and have shortcomings concerning weak incentives for development of procedures. The over-detailed specifications cause major obstacles for the rail infrastructure industry in terms of technical development. There is clearly a need for change, and it is now in the strategy of the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) to get as much railway as possible for the money it spends. This includes increased productivity, level of innovation and competition, as well as a will to think more from a life-cycle perspective and increase cost efficiency. Changes in the business model is one of the strategies mentioned to reach these goals.

    Performance contracting could increase the drivers for change within the industry and thereby increase cost efficiency and quality from a life cycle perspective. This type of contracting is also known as an Integrated Product Service Offering, or IPSO, and implies that one actor has the responsibility to deliver a result and therefore has incentives to optimize the use of energy and material. An IPSO has a lifecycle perspective, and the combination of products and services can be combined into an optimized solution for the customer, as well as give the manufacturing company the possibility to have control over the product throughout its whole life-cycle. PSS provides the supplier with the opportunity to increase the value of the solution for the customer by integrating components in new ways, as well as incentives for the supplier to realize a more economical and environmental development when considering the whole lifecycle. More money spent on the construction, and thereby improved quality, could result in reduced cost for maintenance work. On the other hand, too high a cost for construction can never be motivated by future savings for the maintenance cost.

    New business models such as IPSO contracts create challenges such as uncertainty concerning forecasting costs at the bidding phase of the contract. With a business model focusing on delivering a result, a lot of the risk previously carried by the user is now assumed by the provider, and it can be difficult rededicating and controlling the risks and uncertainties. In this case the term “risk” is defined as the threat of loss from an unwanted event, to include financial, performance or timescale loss. Risk assessments, including forecasting and economic development, are very important for these long-term contracts and both the supplier side and the buyer side have to be considered. For longterm performance contracts risks caused by uncertainties arise in the bidding stage. Key uncertainties for a IPSO contract are performance, operation, training, engineering, affordability and commercial uncertainties.

    In cooperation with the STA, the DORIS (Development of integrated product service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure Systems) project investigates the potential use of IPSO contracts for rail infrastructure. So far, only one such contract has been realized; this was partly funded by private capital, and no such initiatives are currently planned. This limited experience in the industry calls for more thorough research. In line with this, the aim of this paper is to identify potential risk components when using IPSO for rail infrastructure for both the provider and buyer perspectives. Furthermore, the paper seeks to investigate how these risks can be potentially reduced or avoided.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer, 2014
    Serie
    Decision Engineering, ISSN 1619-5736 ; 2014
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73900 (URN)978-3-319-12110-9 (ISBN)
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-16 Laget: 2012-01-16 Sist oppdatert: 2015-01-07bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 397.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Partnering – a Way to Reach Resource-Efficient and Effective Road Infrastructure Projects through Increased Information and Knowledge Transfer?Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is behind other industries when it comes to efficiency, and partnering has been discussed as a way to increase the cooperation in and technical performance of projects. For partnering to be successful several different aspects have to be in place, among them information sharing and trust. The objective is therefore to investigate implications of partnering as a way to reach more resource-efficient and effective road infrastructure projects through increased information and knowledge transfer.

    The article investigates a road project realized using less time than estimated as well as achieving a lower total cost than budgeted. Partnering resulted in a close collaboration and increased trust among the actors, and the co-location of the actors led to the exchange of information and especially informal communication. Information was easily accessed and transferred between the actors, and the cooperation facilitated knowledge transfer between the different functions. This cut the lead times on information transfer and decision making, especially in the integrated construction and design phase, making the project more efficient. Also, solutions adapted for the site were chosen thanks to the active design approach. Instead of spending time on remaking poorly-adapted designs, time could be spent on other things, making the process more effective as well. The success of the project suggests that partnering could be a way forward in the road infrastructure industry. However, even more resource-efficient solutions could have been chosen if the project had a life-cycle perspective.

  • 398.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    PSS Contracts for Rail Infrastructure2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased costs and little incentives for technical development within the rail infrastructure industry has resulted in an increased interest for new contracting types such as PSS. This paper examines the current situation, investigates benefits and challenges when using PSS contracts and attempts to develop a model for traditional contracts and PSS contracts. The results show that advantages such as incentives for development and potentially lower costs are challenged by a conservative buyer in combination with reservations due to inexperience and insecurity working with this business model making the actors questioning the feasibility. The models developed clearly show the different phases of the contracts and states what actor that is responsible for the each phase. This is useful when comparing different contracts and also when to determine responsibility and issues related to the interface between different phases and actors.

  • 399.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    PSS for rail and road infrastructure: a literature study2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity development for rail and road infrastructure has been weak for a longer period of time and some explanation can be found in the traditional contracts used with little room for incentives for innovation and development for the contractor. In cooperation with the Swedish Transport Administration a project was launched to investigate the possibility for Product Service System, PSS contracts within the rail infrastructure in Sweden to develop the current praxis. The first step in this study is to investigate benefits and challenges with PSS contracts using a literature study.

    The ongoing PSS projects show positive outcomes so far, even though it is too early to evaluate the whole process. The most significant benefits with PSS contracts for rail infrastructure are development of technologies, increased efficiency and cost reductions, potentially new innovations, a life cycle perspective providing incentives for environmental consideration and closer relationships between procurer and contractor. It is not straight forward to change to this new way of contracting and to obtain the benefits several challenges have to be overcome such as changes in the work processes, risk allocation and to find a suitable the price mechanism.

  • 400.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure2014Inngår i: Through-life Engineering Services / [ed] Louis, Rajkumar Roy, Springer, 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Among construction companies in Sweden, incentives for development, increased efficiency and raised competence are low. In Sweden, construction contracts are currently used to a large extent, and have shortcomings concerning weak incentives for development of procedures. The over-detailed specifications cause major obstacles for the rail infrastructure industry in terms of technical development. There is clearly a need for change, and it is now in the strategy of the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) to get as much railway as possible for the money it spends. This includes increased productivity, level of innovation and competition, as well as a will to think more from a life-cycle perspective and increase cost efficiency. Changes in the business model is one of the strategies mentioned to reach these goals.

    Performance contracting could increase the drivers for change within the industry and thereby increase cost efficiency and quality from a life cycle perspective. This type of contracting is also known as an Integrated Product Service Offering, or IPSO, and implies that one actor has the responsibility to deliver a result and therefore has incentives to optimize the use of energy and material. An IPSO has a lifecycle perspective, and the combination of products and services can be combined into an optimized solution for the customer, as well as give the manufacturing company the possibility to have control over the product throughout its whole life-cycle. PSS provides the supplier with the opportunity to increase the value of the solution for the customer by integrating components in new ways, as well as incentives for the supplier to realize a more economical and environmental development when considering the whole lifecycle. More money spent on the construction, and thereby improved quality, could result in reduced cost for maintenance work. On the other hand, too high a cost for construction can never be motivated by future savings for the maintenance cost.

    New business models such as IPSO contracts create challenges such as uncertainty concerning forecasting costs at the bidding phase of the contract. With a business model focusing on delivering a result, a lot of the risk previously carried by the user is now assumed by the provider, and it can be difficult rededicating and controlling the risks and uncertainties. In this case the term “risk” is defined as the threat of loss from an unwanted event, to include financial, performance or timescale loss. Risk assessments, including forecasting and economic development, are very important for these long-term contracts and both the supplier side and the buyer side have to be considered. For longterm performance contracts risks caused by uncertainties arise in the bidding stage. Key uncertainties for a IPSO contract are performance, operation, training, engineering, affordability and commercial uncertainties.

    In cooperation with the STA, the DORIS (Development of integrated product service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure Systems) project investigates the potential use of IPSO contracts for rail infrastructure. So far, only one such contract has been realized; this was partly funded by private capital, and no such initiatives are currently planned. This limited experience in the industry calls for more thorough research. In line with this, the aim of this paper is to identify potential risk components when using IPSO for rail infrastructure for both the provider and buyer perspectives. Furthermore, the paper seeks to investigate how these risks can be potentially reduced or avoided.

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