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  • 401.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology.
    Prepared for the social dimension of teaching for sustainable development? - Student teachers' and teachers' views on learning, responsibility and collaboration in relation to education and professional work2008In: AARE 2008 International Education Conference,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 402.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Medical Pedagogics. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hopwood, Nick
    University of Technology, Sydney.
    Lee, Alison
    University of Technology, Sydney.
    Researching Professional Learning and Practice: What does it mean to 'be there'?2012In: “Professions and Professional Learning in Troubling Times:Emerging Practices and Transgressive Knowledges. UNIVERSITY OF STIRLING, UK Wednesday 9thMay – Friday 11th May 2012, 2012, p. 11-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If we aim to understand professional learning and practice in material, embodied and discursive terms,then one obvious place to turn methodologically is to ethnography and observation. Ethnographicmethods normally presuppose the physical presence of the researcher in the research setting. In thispaper we explore what it might mean to observe, document and represent practices throughethnographic work in contexts of (i) interdisciplinary collaboration; (ii) economic and time pressures,making extended periods of observation difficult; and (iii)multi-sited, including international, collaboration.As we conduct and plan projects that involve scholars from different national and disciplinarybackgrounds, and imagine the temporal and spatial opportunities and constraints within which ourresearch unfolds, we are forced to think through what it means to ‘be there’, observing, in the field, aspractices and learning unfold. The material contexts in which we now work challenge the notion of thesingle ethnographer whose embodied presence in the field underpins an embodied understanding of theworld. We have to rely on others’ experiences, read field notes we didn’t write ourselves, engage withsituations where we don’t share a common language with participants, and make sense of the differentways data, analysis and theory have meaning for us as collaborators from health, geography andeducation backgrounds, drawing on a range of theoretical frames in our research.In order to grapple more fully and tangibly with these issues, we undertook a piece of observational workin a health professional education setting in Linköping, Sweden. An experienced gynaecologist andeducator, ‘Birgit’, runs evening sessions for small groups of medical students. Central to these are the‘professional patients’ – women who make themselves, their bodies, available so that students can learnand practise pelvic examination. Two of us, Madeleine and Nick, were present at one evening’s session;Alison was not. In the paper we will present excerpts from Nick’s and then Madeleine’s account of thesame ‘moment’ during the session. These will be followed by reflections from Alison as a remote‘participant’, on the sorts of understandings and questions that arise for her in this different position. Wewill then develop a collective response to the ‘data’, foregrounding ways in which our personal,professional, and disciplinary backgrounds or ways of being shape our engagement with the world, thedifferent accounts, and our responses to each other. We complicate notions of ‘being there’ to exploremultiple ‘beings there’ and ‘beings apart’, highlighting important theoretical and methodological issuesaround observation, representation, and analysis, and reflecting on these in terms of theoreticalgroundings of our substantive analysis in practice theory.

  • 403.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Transition from higher education to work life2005In: AARE,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 404.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Johansson, K.
    The transition from higher education to work life: a comparison between a problem-based learning programme and conventional programmes in higher education2005In: NEERA conference,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 405.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    From senior student to novice worker: Learning trajectories in political science, psychology and mechanical engineering2006In: Studies in Higher Education, ISSN 0307-5079, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 569-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study focuses on the transition from higher education to working life. Research has hitherto described the transition in rather general terms, and there is still only limited knowledge about how graduates construe themselves as professionals, or how they experience the transition to the sociocultural contexts of working life. In this study, the transition is viewed as a trajectory between different communities of practice. Three different Master's programmes at Linkping University are focused on and compared: political science, psychology and mechanical engineering. The specific aims are to: (i) identify aspects of identity and knowledge formation as reported by informants, both as senior students and later as novice workers with 18 months of work experience; (ii) identify features of discourses of knowledge and competence operating in the programmes and working life; and (iii) to relate the results to differences in the way the programmes are designed. The results indicate that the psychology programme prepares for working life in a rational way, that is, the generic skills and substantive knowledge acquired seem to correspond to the demands of professional work. The other programmes stand out as preparing for working life either by providing generic skills that need to be transformed in professional work, or by containing elements that mainly play a ritual role rather than corresponding to the demands of working life.

  • 406.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The transition from higher education to worklife: The outcomes of a PBL programme and a conventional programme2005In: PBL in Context. Bridging Work and Education,2005, Tampere: Tampere University Press , 2005, p. 23-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PBL IN CONTEXT - BRIDGING WORK AND EDUCATION The aim of the conference is to provide an innovative international forum for discussion and for generating and sharing new ideas for the pedagogical development of working life and education. We welcome teachers from different disciplines, researchers, developers and trainers of working life to come together to the land of the midnight sun. The main themes of the conference are Problem-based learning in context: * Epistemology and Praxis * Curriculum and learning environments * Professional Development and Learning management * Evaluation and Assessment The conference is also a continuation for PBL conferences organized 1995 and 2000 by University of Linköping, Sweden.

  • 407.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Karseth, B.
    Lababidi, T.
    Cackowska, M.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Freshmen Students on Education and Work2002Report (Other academic)
  • 408.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Walters, Shirley
    University of Western Cape.
    Making the invisible visible. On participation and communication in a global, web-based master's programme2006In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 69-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the discourse of an intercontinental on-line Master's programme in adult learning, using English as the lingua franca of the programme and involving four collaborating universities in Sweden, South Africa, Canada and Australia. The programme is highly interactive, emphasising communication between students. Taking the variation in participation as the point of departure, a discourse analysis aiming at analysing the contingencies contributing to the pattern of communication in the programme was undertaken. Data consist of a variety of texts on-line web-documents, written notes, and narratives that participants wrote about their lives related to participation in the programme. The use of English as the lingua franca contributed to a mistake anxiety, which for some students was hampering their communication in the programme. Aspects of the material world such as the vast differences in the efforts and costs for participating in the programme were also highly interrelated to the shaping of socio-culturally situated identities among the students and thereby contributing to the variation in frequency in participation. The results show that the official discourse of the programme as a text, with its emphasis on equity, change and development, gets subordinated to the discourses produced and reproduced by the students in the programme as a discursive practice and social practice. The students' accounts reveal that there are fragments of an alternative discourse emerging, based on mutual concern and friendship, which might suggest a potential for changing the communicative patterns in the programme.

  • 409.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Walters, Shirley
    University of Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Understanding voices as text: Discerning discourses in an intercultural learning environment2006In: Standing Conference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 410.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Medical Pedagogics. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lee, Alison
    University of Technology, Sydney.
    Materialities of Professional Learning: Troubling the Urban/Rural Divide in Sites of Professional Knowledge Enactments: Professional learning within the frames of higher education. How is this possible?2011In: 'Urban Education'.  European Conference for Educational Research, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This symposium presents studies of different professional groups – educators, nurses, police and social workers in Italy, Norway, Scotland and Sweden - to address two main themes in professional learning and knowledge construction. First, it outlines ways of understanding professional learning as material enactments of knowledge. Second, it troubles the category of ‘urban’ spaces of professional knowledge, exploring the ways that professionals enact different forms of knowledge work and objectual relationships at different sites. These sites of practice may be more urban or more rural, but together form the machinery of professionals’ knowledge production.

     

    To the first theme, all four papers draw from theoretical perspectives that step aside from subject-centred, reflectivist orientations of professional learning to focus on the socio-material webs of practice. They explore the ways that professional knowledge is distributed and constructed or performed differently in different local sites. The paper authors, drawing from actor-network theory, science and technology studies, complexity science, Knorr-Cetina’s object-relations, and practice-based theory are all conceptualising professional learning as a matter of negotiating different knowledge resources to assemble and order strategies, objects, texts, technologies and values in moments of activity.

     

    To the second theme, the papers each show how professional knowledge seems intended to flow outwardly from urban-based centres of research and practice, where resources are concentrated to develop ‘evidence-based’ universalised best practices that are then incorporated into regulatory codes and professional development for all practitioners, including those operating in very different settings such as remote ‘rural’ and community-based sites. For example, paper one examines police work and knowledge in Scotland, showing how models of best practice for police work are often derived from large urban environments, but then become reconfigured and recoded in non-urban environments where professionals must draw from other knowledge strategies such as community relationships and local resources. In paper two, hospital nurses in Norway engage in validating and explicating knowledge-based procedures in some working sites, while other sites are dominated by application of these in the interaction with patients/clients. If we are to understand the knowledge production and knowledge relations comprising professional learning, we need to take into account these different sites.

     

    Furthermore, the papers show how professional practice and knowledge is difficult to conceive as bordered in particular static spaces designated as ‘urban’ or ‘rural’. The Scottish police case study shows that communities which some may describe as rural are in fact considered to be urban by many inhabitants, and also that certain ‘urban’ characteristics are enacted in more remote spaces. Professionals themselves can be highly mobile, transporting objects and texts embedding particular practices and knowledge across more rural or more urban sites of practice. The social workers case shows how professionals move across sites that encapsulate elements of both rurality and urbanity. All four cases show, in different ways, how professional knowledge is produced as professionals learn through combining very different, even conflicting, resources in everyday enactments of knowledge: local practices and values, organisational traditions and policies, disciplinary knowledge bases and commitments of their particular professions, regulatory standards for practice, transnational and web-based knowledge, improvised work-arounds, and so forth.

     

    These two themes – the materiality of professionals’ learning and the diverse but connected enactments of professional knowledge at different sites – have important implications for continuing professional development. Each paper shows why and how to reconceptualise notions of ‘developing’ professionals to focus instead on professionals’ attunement to the different knowledge resources available, the knowledge strategies that can be most productive for them, and the ways that knowledge is enacted differently across different sites of practice.

  • 411.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Mendel, Maria
    Dyrdal Solbrekke, Tone
    Cackowska, Malgorszata
    Struzunska, Ania
    Structural and cultural conditions of higher education2010In: Students as Journeymen Between Cultures of Higher Education and Work: A longitudinal European Study of the Transition from Higher Education to Work Life / [ed] Lars Owe Dahlgren, Saarbrücken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The book reports on a longitudinal European resesrch project aiming at understanding how the transition between higher education and work life is experienced by the students. Informants are selected from a variety of study programs such as Psychology, Political science, Engineering and Law. The students are interviewed at the end of their studies and later after about one and a half year of work life experience. The aim is to describe and understand in what ways the studies have prepared the students for work life. The results indicate great differences between programs and also between the participating universities located in Sweden, Norway, Poland and Germany.

  • 412.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Petocz, Peter
    Macquarie University, Sydney.
    Reid, Anna
    Macquarie University, Sydney.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Preparation for professional work? A meta-analysis of two international research projects on the transition from higher education to work life2007In: 5th International Conference on Researching Work and Learning,2007, Cape Town: University Press , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     How do students experience their formal studies in preparation for professional work? This common research interest was the incentive to explore the intersections between two large international research projects that both build on a large number of interviews with students about their conceptions of learning and work in different disciplines and professional areas. Analysis of the Swedish and Australian data sets showed the important interplay between students' individual ideas about learning and future work within their workplace. Through the use of techniques of qualitative meta-analysis, we have linked the results from both projects and constructed a model of significant features of professional learning. In this paper, we apply the model to one case study from each of the research projects, and in turn use these case studies to illuminate the model. The model shows how students may be inclined towards the development of professional identities and engagement with their studies and profession, depending on the relationships between the students- perceptions of learning for work and their views of professional knowledge. We suggest that the model can be used to investigate the nature of professionally oriented knowledge, but also as a means to analyse the impact of higher education, curriculum planning and teaching for professional formation.  

  • 413.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Reid, Anna
    Macquarie University, Sydney.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Petocz, Peter
    Macquarie University, Sydney.
    Learning for the professions: Lessons from linking international research projects2008In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 129-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the core of higher education is the experience of students whose focus for learning is often directed towards their future employability. In this paper, we explore the intersections between two large international research projects involving over 500 students. Interviews with students yielded their conceptions of learning and work in specific discipline and professional areas. Analysis of the Swedish and Australian data sets showed the important interplay between students' individual ideas about learning and future work with their workplace. A meta-analysis of the two projects highlights the utility of higher education for students' future working life and suggests ways in which institutions and policy makers can critique current practice in a way that will incline curriculum and teaching development towards professional formation. © 2007 Springer Science + Business Media B.V.

  • 414.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Reid, Anna
    Faculty of Education Macquarie University, Sydney.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    petocz, Peter
    Macquarie University, Sydney.
    Identity and Engagement for professional formation2007In: Meaning, Relevance and Variation. The second nordic conference on adult learning,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Students entering university have notions surrounding their future professions. In someinstances the profession has a high social status and the work in that area is well known, inother areas the nature of professional work is opaque. In this paper we discuss the ways inwhich students develop a sense of identity with their profession, how the nature of the profession impacts on identity formation, how students engage with learning based on their professional expectations, and how their pedagogic experience as a whole leads towards their professional formation. We suggest that Wenger-s community of practice models that highlight integrated or distributed forms of engagement may be enhanced through a consideration of dimensions of learning, identity formation and engagement with professionally encountered content. To explore these issues we combine the research outcomes of two international projects, the Journeymen and Professional Entity projects, involving over 500 students in a variety of discipline areas. Students in these projects participated in semi-structured interviews that focused their attention on their understanding and experience of professional work, and the way in which their learning contributed to the development of their professional identities.Identity formation and engagement can be seen to be a relation with the students- learning experience - which in themselves build up an expectation of the intending profession - and the manner in which they anticipate or practice in professional working life. We postulate that students- views of their profession and their pedagogic experiences combine to incline themtowards a clear or diffuse sense of professional engagement. 

  • 415.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Richardson, Barbara
    Kalman, Hildur
    Re-defining the reflective practitioner2004In: Developing Practice Knowledge for Health Professionals / [ed] Joy Higgs, Barbara Richardson, Madeleine Abrandt Dahlgren, Oxford: Butterworth & Heineman , 2004, p. 15-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current climate of accountability and public scrutiny in the health and social care professions demands a high level of responsibility by health professionals in terms of understanding, updating and credibly using their professional knowledge. To achieve this, health professionals need to acknowledge the wide variety of sources from which their knowledge is generated: they need a sound working knowledge of practice epistemology which investigates the nature of knowledge and knowledge generation which underlies practice. The call from community, governments and employers is for evidence-based practice with the expectation that health professionals fully understand the knowledge which underpins their practice and can therefore justify their practice. This book examines the nature, generation and development of professional knowledge in the health professions, with particular emphasis on physiotherapy, occupational therapy, medicine and nursing. It is a user-friendly resource book accessible for practitioners, clinical educators, tertiary educators, research students and researchers. What constitutes practice knowledge? How is this knowledge created and developed?What roles do health professionals play in understanding and developing their practice knowledge? Readers, whether from a practice, education or research background, are invited to consider the implications of these questions for their practice. More than ever, the rapidly changing worlds of work and society are providing many challenges to the adequacy of the knowledge bases of the health professions and the capacity of health professionals to critique and develop their knowledge to meet community needs. These issues are explored in this book.

  • 416.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Richardson, Barbara
    Sjöström, Björn
    Professions as communities of practice2004In: Developing Practice Knowledge for Health Professionals / [ed] Joy Higgs, Barbara Richardson, Madeleine Abrandt Dahlgren Higgs, Joy, Oxford: Butterworth & Heineman , 2004, p. 71-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current climate of accountability and public scrutiny in the health and social care professions demands a high level of responsibility by health professionals in terms of understanding, updating and credibly using their professional knowledge.To achieve this health professionals need to acknowledge the wide variety of sources from which their knowledge is generated: they need a sound working knowledge of practice epistemology which investigates the nature of knowledge and knowledge generation which underlies practice. The call from community, governments and employers is for evidence-based practice with the expectation that health professionals fully understand the knowledge which underpins their practice and can therefore justify their practice.This book examines the nature, generation and development of professional knowledge in the health professions with particular emphasis on physiotherapy, occupational therapy, medicine and nursing. It is a user-friendly resource book accessible for practitioners, clinical educators, tertiary educators, research students and researchers.What constitutes practice knowledge? How is this knowledge created and developed? What roles do health professionals play in understanding and developing their practice knowledge?Readers, whether from a practice, education or research background, are invited to consider the implications of these questions for their practice. More than ever the rapidly changing worlds of work and society are providing many challenges to the adequacy of the knowledge bases of the health professions and the capacity of health professionals to critique and develop their knowledge to meet community needs. These issues are explored in this book.

  • 417.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Environmental Science.
    Questioning to learn and learning to question: Structure and function of problem-based learning scenarios in environmental science education2001In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 263-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In problem-based learning, scenarios relating to real life are used as a point of departure for the learning process. Even though the importance of suitable cases or scenarios in bringing about a fruitful learning process is emphasised in the literature, few studies focus on how they actually function in the learning process. This study focuses on how the scenarios used in a ten-week introductory course of a new four-year undergraduate programme in environmental science functioned in terms of the structure and content of the questions they evoked. Data were gathered through diary notes from nine groups of students, comprising 5-8 students per group. The data were subjected to a qualitative analysis aimed at describing the structure and content of the questions generated by the groups. Five different kinds of questions were identified and labelled, encyclopaedic, meaning-oriented, relational, value-oriented and solution-oriented. All scenarios generated questions pertaining to all five categories in all groups, but the emphasis varied. The results are discussed in relation to the design of scenarios, and in relation to students' approaches to learning.

  • 418.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Environmental Science.
    Questioning to learn and learning to question: Structure and function of PBL scenarios in environmental science education.2000In: Second International Conference on Problem-Based Learning in Higher Education,2000, 2000Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In problem-based learning, scenarios relating to real life are used as a point of departure for the learning process. Even though the importance of suitable cases or scenarios to bring about a fruitful learning process is emphasised in the literature, few studies focus on how they actually function in the learning process. This study focuses on how the scenarios used in a ten-week introductory course of a new four-year, undergraduate programme in environmental science functioned in terms of the structure and content of the questions they evoked. Data were gathered through diary notes from nine groups of students, comprising 5-8 students per group. The data were subjected to a qualitative analysis aimed at describing the structure and content of the questions generated by the groups. Five different kinds of questions were identified and labelled; A. Encyclopaedic, B. Meaning-oriented, C. Relational, D. Value-oriented and E. Solution-oriented.  All scenarios generated questions pertaining to all five categories in all groups, but the emphasis varied. The results are discussed in relation to the design of scenarios, and in relation to students’ approaches to learning.

  • 419.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Environmental Science.
    Real-life situations as a promotor of the learning process1999In: 5th auDes international conference in environmental sciences,1999, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 420.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Environmental Science.
    Structure and function of PBL scenarios in environmental science education.1999In: Universitetspedagogisk konferens: CUL-dagen 1999,1999, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 1999, p. 109-116Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 421. Abrandt, M.
    et al.
    Castensson, R.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    PBL from the teacher's perspective. Conceptions of the tutor's role within problem based learning.1998In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 36, p. 437-447Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 422.
    Abrashi, Agnesa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sternlund, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundberg, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valentinson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ”Och så händer det något som förändrar ens liv”: En antologi om omställningar i livet2011Student paper second term, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ur ett symbolisk interaktionistiskt perspektiv är människan en social varelse som lever i ett samhälle som är under ständigt skapande. I det samhälle där individen genom interaktion både formas och skapas är samhälle och individ tätt förenade vilket är den utgångspunkt vi genomgående valt att förhålla oss till i denna antologi. Antologin belyser omställningar i livet genom fyra olika bidrag. Agnesa Abrashis bidrag heter ”Ett nytt skede i livet – en studie om identitet och moderskap” och behandlar hur mammor ser på sitt identitetsskapande. Annika Sternlund tar upp adopterades syn på sitt identitetsskapande och sina livsvillkor i bidraget ”Rötterna är där hjärtat rotar sig”. Amanda Sundberg belyser i sitt bidrag ”Som barn var man ju förväntansfull – en studie om individer som immigrerat vid unga år” fem immigranters brott i livet i och med flytten till ett nytt land. Helenas Valentinsons bidrag "Man känner ju i benen och det att man inte är 17 år längre" handlar om de förändringar som sker när en individ blir pensionär. Gemensamt för antologin är även att vi relaterar identitetsskapandet i förhållande till tillhörighet och utanförskap. Slutsatsen för denna studie är att individens livsvillkor påverkas av faser i livet vilket inverkar på identitetsskapandet. På så sätt ses identiteten som något föränderligt.

  • 423.
    Abrashi, Agnesa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundberg, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kvotflyktingar i Sverige: En kvalitativ studie om arbete och samverkan inom flyktingmottagande2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien belyser uttagningsprocessen och mottagandet av kvotflyktingar ur de arbetandes perspektiv samt studerar samverkan mellan olika aktörer som arbetar med frågan. Studien är uppdelad i fyra delar där första delen tar upp processen och samverkan mellan aktörer. Andra delen belyser problematik och konsekvenser kring samverkan samt olika aktörers synsätt. Granskning av likheter och skillnader mellan kvotflyktingar och andra flyktinggrupper belyses i tredje delen och sista delen tar upp hur lagstiftning och kriterier inverkar i processen.

  • 424.
    Abrashi, Getoar
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    En ny arbetsmarknadspolitik2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Då Moderaterna, tillsammans med de övriga Allianspartierna, vann riksdagsvalet 2006 blev det också klart att en ny arbetsmarknadspolitik skulle komma att drivas i Sverige. Ändringar i bland annat arbetslöshetsförsäkringen har genomförts för att öka incitamenten för arbetssökande att acceptera ett jobberbjudande. Arbetslöshetsersättningen ska inte längre vara ett sätt att försörja sig på utan det ska löna sig att arbeta. Men vad betyder ändringarna i arbetslöshetsförsäkringen för de individer som drabbas av dem? Och hur konstrueras bilden av dessa individer i det empiriska materialet? Syftet med studien är således att undersöka hur Moderaterna konstruerar bilder av grupper som befinner sig utanför arbetsmarknaden, till exempel arbetslösa och förtidspensionärer. Syftet är också att analysera vilka lösningar Moderaterna presenterar på denna problematik samt vilka konsekvenser dessa åtgärder får för individer som står utanför arbetsmarknaden.

  • 425.
    Abrashi, Getoar
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Unga och arbetslösa: Upplevelser av ungdomsarbetslöshet i en bruksort2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on youth unemployment in Finspång, often referred as an industrial community. The theoretical framework of the thesis is based on social constructionism and covers theoretical discourse analysis, intersectionality and social capital. The study is based on qualitative interviews with 7 unemployed individuals between the ages of 19-24 and an interview with an employee at the employment office in the community. The main subject in this thesis is the youngsters experience with unemployment, labour, the employment office, the impacts of social capital and the labour market in the community. The analysis focuses in how the respondents discuss their experienced problems with their unemployment. My analysis shows that unemployed youngsters are willing to work but feels that they’re restrained by their age, sex and lack of adequate social network. The analysis also shows that the youngster’s expectations on the employment office possibilities to help them get a job are unfulfilled which creates a general negative view. It seems that the high expectations of help often are based on communication and/or information problems between the youngsters and the employment office.

  • 426.
    Abrasonis, Gintautas
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Oates, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kovacs, Gyoergy J
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Grenzer, Joerg
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heinig, Karl-Heinz H
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Martinavicius, Andrius
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Jeutter, Nicole
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Baehtz, Carsten
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Tucker, Mark
    University of Sydney.
    Bilek, Marcela M M
    University of Sydney.
    Moeller, Wolfhard
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Nanoscale precipitation patterns in carbon-nickel nanocomposite thin films: Period and tilt control via ion energy and deposition angle2010In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 108, no 4, p. 043503-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodic precipitation patterns in C:Ni nanocomposites grown by energetic ion codeposition are investigated. Films were grown at room temperature by ionized physical vapor deposition using a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc. We reveal the role of the film composition, ion energy and incidence angle on the film morphology using transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering. Under these growth conditions, phase separation occurs in a thin surface layer which has a high atomic mobility due to energetic ion impacts. This layer is an advancing reaction front, which switches to an oscillatory mode, producing periodic precipitation patterns. Our results show that the ion induced atomic mobility is not random, as it would be in the case of thermal diffusion but conserves to a large extent the initial direction of the incoming ions. This results in a tilted pattern under oblique ion incidence. A dependence of the nanopattern periodicity and tilt on the growth parameters is established and pattern morphology control via ion velocity is demonstrated.

  • 427.
    Abrate, Alberto
    et al.
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Buono, Roberta
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Canu, Tamara
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Esposito, Antonio
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Del Maschio, Alessandro
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Luciano, Roberta
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy; IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Bettiga, Arianna
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Colciago, Giorgia
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Guazzoni, Giorgio
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Benigni, Fabio
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Hedlund, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology. IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Altaner, Cestmir
    Slovak Academic Science, Slovakia; St Elisabeth Cancer Institute, Slovakia.
    Montorsi, Francesco
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Cavarretta, Ilaria T. R.
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Italy.
    Mesenchymal stem cells expressing therapeutic genes induce autochthonous prostate tumour regression2014In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 50, no 14, p. 2478-2488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as vehicles of therapeutic genes represent a unique tool to activate drugs within a neoplastic mass due to their property to home and engraft into tumours. In particular, MSC expressing the cytosine deaminase:: uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CD-MSC) have been previously demonstrated to inhibit growth of subcutaneous prostate cancer xenografts thanks to their ability to convert the non-toxic 5-fluorocytosine into the antineoplastic 5-fluorouracil. Since both the immune system and the tumour microenvironment play a crucial role in directing cancer progression, in order to advance towards clinical applications, we tested the therapeutic potential of this approach on animal models that develop autochthonous prostate cancer and preserve an intact immune system. As cell vectors, we employed adipose-tissue and bone-marrow MSC. CD-MSC toxicity on murine prostate cancer cells and tumour tropism were verified in vitro and ex-vivo before starting the preclinical studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was utilised to follow orthotopic tumour progression. We demonstrated that intravenous injections of CD-MSC cells, followed by intraperitoneal administration of 5-fluorocytosine, caused tumour regression in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, which develops aggressive and spontaneous prostate cancer. These results add new insights to the therapeutic potential of specifically engineered MSC in prostate cancer disease.

  • 428.
    Abreu, Fernanda
    et al.
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Leão, Pedro
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Vargas, Gabriele
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Cypriano, Jefferson
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Figueiredo, Viviane
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Bazylinski, Dennis A.
    University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA.
    Lins, Ulysses
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Culture-independent characterization of a novel magnetotactic member affiliated to the Beta class of the Proteobacteria phylum from an acidic lagoon2018In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 2615-2624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) comprise a group of motile microorganisms common in most mesothermal aquatic habitats with pH values around neutrality. However, during the last two decades, a number of MTB from extreme environments have been characterized including: cultured alkaliphilic strains belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria class of the Proteobacteria phylum; uncultured moderately thermophilic strains belonging to the Nitrospirae phylum; cultured and uncultured moderately halophilic or strongly halotolerant bacteria affiliated with the Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria classes and an uncultured psychrophilic species belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria class. Here, we used culture-independent techniques to characterize MTB from an acidic freshwater lagoon in Brazil (pH ? 4.4). MTB morphotypes found in this acidic lagoon included cocci, rods, spirilla and vibrioid cells. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was the only mineral identified in magnetosomes of these MTB while magnetite magnetosome crystal morphologies within the different MTB cells included cuboctahedral (present in spirilla), elongated prismatic (present in cocci and vibrios) and bullet-shaped (present in rod-shaped cells). Intracellular pH measurements using fluorescent dyes showed that the cytoplasmic pH was close to neutral in most MTB cells and acidic in some intracellular granules. Based on 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analyses, some of the retrieved gene sequences belonged to the genus Herbaspirillum within the Betaproteobacteria class of the Proteobacteria phylum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization using a Herbaspirillum-specific probe hybridized with vibrioid MTB in magnetically-enriched samples. Transmission electron microscopy of the Herbaspirillum-like MTB revealed the presence of many intracellular granules and a single chain of elongated prismatic magnetite magnetosomes. Diverse populations of MTB have not seemed to have been described in detail in an acid environment. In addition, this is the first report of an MTB phylogenetically affiliated with Betaproteobacteria class.

  • 429.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Ab initio modeling of materials relevant for modern energy technologies2008In: Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on the Training in Basic Radiation Materials Science and its Applications to Radiation Effects Studies and Development of Advanced Radiation-Resistant Materials,2008, Italy: Italy , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 430.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Magneto-structural coupling in itinerant systems2008In: International Workshop on Ab initio Description of Iron and Steel: Magnetism and Phase Diagrams ADIS08,2008, Germany: Garmany , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 431.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Phase stability and structural characterization of surface and thin film alloys2008In: 12th International Conference on Theoretical Aspects of Catalysis ICTAC-12,2008, Bulgaria: Bulgaria , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 432.
    Abrikosov, Igor A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Steneteg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultberg, Lasse
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellman, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yu Mosyagin, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Moscow, Russia.
    Lugovskoy, Andrey V.
    Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Russia.
    Barannikova, Svetlana A.
    Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia; Department of Physics and Engineering, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Finite Temperature, Magnetic, and Many-Body Effects in Ab Initio Simulations of Alloy Thermodynamics2013In: TMS2013 Supplemental Proceedings, John Wiley & Sons, 2013, p. 617-626Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio electronic structure theory is known as a useful tool for prediction of materials properties. However, majority of simulations still deal with calculations in the framework of density functional theory with local or semi-local functionals carried out at zero temperature. We present new methodological solution.s, which go beyond this approach and explicitly take finite temperature, magnetic, and many-body effects into account. Considering Ti-based alloys, we discuss !imitations of the quasiharmonic approximation for the treatment of lattice vibrations, and present an accurate and easily extendable method to calculate free ,energies of strongly anharmonic solids. We underline the necessity to going beyond the state-of-the-art techniques for the determination of effective cluster interactions in systems exhibiting mctal-to-insulator transition, and describe a unified cluster expansion approach developed for this class of materials. Finally, we outline a first-principles method, disordered local moments molecular dynamics, for calculations of thermodynamic properties of magnetic alloys, like Cr1-x,.AlxN, in their high-temperature paramagnetic state. Our results unambiguously demonstrate importance of finite temperature effects in theoretical calculations ofthermodynamic properties ofmaterials.

  • 433.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Asker, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Ruban, A.V.
    Department of Material Science and Engineering Royal Institute of Technology.
    Phase Stabilities of Alloys From First-Principles2008In: XVII International Materials Research Congress,2008, Mexico: Mexico , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 434.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ekholm, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ponomareva, Alena V.
    Theoretical Physics Department, Moscow Steel and Alloys Institute, Russua.
    Barannikova, Svetlana A.
    Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia.
    Importance of Thermally Induced Magnetic Excitations in First-principles Simulations of Elastic Properties of Transition Metal Alloys2012In: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 190, p. 291-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the importance of accounting for the complex magnetic ground state and finite temperature magnetic excitations in theoretical simulations of structural and elastic properties of transition metal alloys. Considering Fe72Cr16Ni12 face centered cubic (fcc) alloy, we compare results of first-principles calculations carried out for ferromagnetic and non-magnetic states, as well as for the state with disordered local moments. We show that the latter gives much more accurate description of the elastic properties for paramagnetic alloys. We carry out a determination of the magnetic ground state for fcc Fe-Mn alloys, considering collinear, as well as non-collinear states, and show the sensitively of structural and elastic properties in this system to the detailed alignment between magnetic moments. We therefore conclude that it is essential to develop accurate models of the magnetic state for the predictive description of properties of transition metal alloys.

  • 435.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fors, Cecilia
    Nobelpriset som fortfarande är en gåta2010In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 2, p. 14-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 436.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kissavos, Andreas E.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liot, Francois
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peil, O.
    Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ruban, A. V.
    Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Competition between Magnetic Structures in the Fe-Rich FCC FeNi Alloys2007In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 014434-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the results of a systematic ab initio study of the magnetic structure of Fe rich fcc FeNi binary alloys for Ni concentrations up to 50 at. %. Calculations are carried out within density-functional theory using two complementary techniques, one based on the exact muffin-tin orbital theory within the coherent potential approximation and another one based on the projector augmented-wave method. We observe that the evolution of the magnetic structure of the alloy with increasing Ni concentration is determined by a competition between a large number of magnetic states, collinear as well as noncollinear, all close in energy. We emphasize a series of transitions between these magnetic structures, in particular we have investigated a competition between disordered local moment configurations, spin spiral states, the double layer antiferromagnetic state, and the ferromagnetic phase, as well as the ferrimagnetic phase with a single spin flipped with respect to all others. We show that the latter should be particularly important for the understanding of the magnetic structure of the Invar alloys.

  • 437.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knutsson, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase Stability and Elasticity of TiAlN2011In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 1599-1618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review results of recent combined theoretical and experimental studies of Ti1−xAlxN, an archetypical alloy system material for hard-coating applications. Theoretical simulations of lattice parameters, mixing enthalpies, and elastic properties are presented. Calculated phase diagrams at ambient pressure, as well as at pressure of 10 GPa, show a wide miscibility gap and broad region of compositions and temperatures where the spinodal decomposition takes place. The strong dependence of the elastic properties and sound wave anisotropy on the Al-content offers detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti1−xAlxN alloy films and multilayers. TiAlN/TiN multilayers can further improve the hardness and thermal stability compared to TiAlN since they offer means to influence the kinetics of the favorable spinodal decomposition and suppress the detrimental transformation to w-AlN. Here, we show that a 100 degree improvement in terms of w-AlN suppression can be achieved, which is of importance when the coating is used as a protective coating on metal cutting inserts.

  • 438.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liot, Francois
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marten, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smirnova, E. A.
    Theoretical Physics Department, Moscov Steel and Alloys Institute, Moscow, Russia.
    Magnetism in systems with reduced dimensionality and chemical disorder: the local environment effects2006In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, E-ISSN 1873-4766, Vol. 300, no 1, p. 211-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study influence of the local chemical environment, the so-called local environment effects, on the electronic structure and properties of magnetic systems with reduced dimensionality and chemical disorder, and show that they play a crucial role in a vicinity of magnetic instability. As a model, we consider Fe–Ni Invar. We present results obtained from ab initio calculations of the electronic structure, magnetic moments, and exchange interactions in random fcc Fe–Ni alloy, for a single monolayer alloy film on a Cu (0 0 1) substrate as well as in the bulk. We analyze the difference between the film and the bulk magnetization, which is found to be most pronounced for dilute alloys. We also analyze a sensitivity of the individual magnetic moments and effective exchange parameters to the local chemical environment of the atoms.

  • 439.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marten, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olovsson, Weine
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Local environment effects in random metallic alloys2005In: The Science of Complex Alloy Phases: proceedings of a symposium held during the TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition in San Francisco, California, USA, February 13-17, 2005, to honor the Wiliam Hume-Rothery Award recipient Professor Uichiro Mizutani / [ed] Thaddeus B. Massalski and Patrice E. A. Turchi, USA: TMS , 2005, 1, p. 87-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is published in honor of the 2005 Hume-Rothery Award Recipient, Uichiro Mizutani. It emphasizes both theoretical and experimental aspects of electronic, structural, and thermodynamic properties of complex alloy phases. Leading experts provide an assessment of our current understanding of the structural properties of complex materials, including quasicrystalline and amorphous alloys. Special emphasis is placed on our understanding of why nature is able to stabilize complex atomic arrangements and on recent results related to structurally complex alloy phases. These topics, in the spirit of the work carried out by U. Mizutani, constitute the main theme of the book

  • 440.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Marten, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Olsson, P.
    Uppsala University.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Electronic theory of materials properties: from fundamental understanding towards materials design2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

           

  • 441.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Mikhaylushkin, Arkady
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Asker, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Ab initio modeling of alloying effects at extreme conditions2008In: Second EuroMinScI Conference,2008, France: ESF , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 442.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nikonov, A. Yu
    Russian Academic Science, Russia .
    Ponomareva, A. V.
    National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Russia .
    Dmitriev, A. I.
    Russian Academic Science, Russia National Research Tomsk State University, Russia .
    Barannikova, S. A.
    Russian Academic Science, Russia National Research Tomsk State University, Russia .
    Theoretical Modeling of Thermodynamic and Mechanical Properties of the Pure Components of Ti and Zr Based Alloys Using the Exact Muffin-Tin Orbitals Method2014In: Russian Physics Journal, ISSN 1064-8887, E-ISSN 1573-9228, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 1030-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exact muffin-tin orbitals (EMTO) method belongs to the third and latest generation of first-principles methods of calculating the electronic structure of materials in the so-called approximation of muffin-tin (MT) orbitals within the framework of the density functional theory. A study has been performed of its applicability for modeling the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of the pure components of Ti and Zr based alloys. The total energies of Ti, Zr, Nb, V, Mo, and Al are calculated in three crystal structures - face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and hexagonal close-packed (HCP). For all of these elements and crystal structures, we have calculated the theoretical values of the lattice constants, elastic constants, and equations of state. The stable crystal structures have been determined. In all cases, calculations by the EMTO method predict the correct structure of the ground state. For stable structures we compared the obtained results with experiment and with calculations using full potential methods. We have demonstrated the reliability of the EMTO method and conclude that its further application for effective modeling of the properties of disordered alloys based on Ti and Zr is possible.

  • 443.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olovsson, W.
    Uppsala University.
    Wallenius, J.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ab initio simuleringar av materialegenskaper: från grundläggande teori mot design av material2004In: Nytt från NSC, no 19, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 444.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. NUST MISIS, Russia.
    Ponomareva, A. V.
    NUST MISIS, Russia.
    Nikonov, A. Yu.
    National Research Tomsk State University, Russia; SB RAS, Russia.
    Zharmukhambetova, A. M.
    National Research Tomsk State University, Russia.
    Mosyagin, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. NUST MISIS, Russia.
    Lugovskoy, A. V.
    NUST MISIS, Russia.
    Hellman, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dmitriev, A. I.
    National Research Tomsk State University, Russia; SB RAS, Russia.
    Barannikova, S. A.
    National Research Tomsk State University, Russia; SB RAS, Russia.
    Theoretical description of pressure-induced phase transitions: a case study of Ti-V alloys2015In: High Pressure Research, ISSN 0895-7959, E-ISSN 1477-2299, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss theoretical description of pressure-induced phase transitions by means of first-principles calculations in the framework of density functional theory. We illustrate applications of theoretical tools that allow one to take into account configurational and vibrational disorders, considering Ti-V alloys as a model system. The universality of the first-principles theory allows us to apply it in studies of different phenomena that occur in the Ti-V system upon compression. Besides the transitions between different crystal structures, we discuss isostructural transitions in bcc Ti-V alloys. Moreover, we present arguments for possible electronic transitions in this system, which may explain peculiar behaviour of elastic properties of V upon compression.

  • 445.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia.
    Ponomareva, A. V.
    National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia.
    Steneteg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barannikova, S. A.
    National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia; National Research Tomsk State University, Russia; SB RAS, Russia.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Recent progress in simulations of the paramagnetic state of magnetic materials2016In: Current opinion in solid state & materials science, ISSN 1359-0286, E-ISSN 1879-0348, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 85-106Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review recent developments in the field of first-principles simulations of magnetic materials above the magnetic order disorder transition temperature, focusing mainly on 3d-transition metals, their alloys and compounds. We review theoretical tools, which allow for a description of a system with local moments, which survive, but become disordered in the paramagnetic state, focusing on their advantages and limitations. We discuss applications of these theories for calculations of thermodynamic and mechanical properties of paramagnetic materials. The presented examples include, among others, simulations of phase stability of Fe, Fe-Cr and Fe-Mn alloys, formation energies of vacancies, substitutional and interstitial impurities, as well as their interactions in Fe, calculations of equations of state and elastic moduli for 3d-transition metal alloys and compounds, like CrN and steels. The examples underline the need for a proper treatment of magnetic disorder in these systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 446.
    Abrikossova, Natalia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investigation of nanoparticle-cell interactions for development of next generation of biocompatible MRI contrast agents2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Progress in synthesis technologies and advances in fundamental understanding of materials with low dimensionality has led to the birth of a new scientific field, nanoscience, and to strong expectations of multiple applications of nanomaterials. The physical properties of small particles are unique, bridging the gap between atoms and molecules, on one side, and bulk materials on the other side. The work presented in this thesis investigates the potential of using magnetic nanoparticles as the next generation of contrast agents for biomedical imaging. The focus is on gadolinium-based nanoparticles and cellular activity including the uptake, morphology and production of reactive oxygen species.

    Gd ion complexes, like Gd chelates, are used today in the clinic, world-wide. However, there is a need for novel agents, with improved contrast capabilities and increased biocompatibility. One avenue in their design is based on crystalline nanoparticles. It allows to reduce the total number of Gd ions needed for an examination. This can be done by nanotechnology, which allows one to improve and fine tune the physico- chemical properties on the nanomaterial in use, and to increase the number of Gd atoms at a specific site that interact with protons and thereby locally increase the signal. In the present work, synthesis, purification and surface modification of crystalline Gd2O3-based nanoparticles have been performed. The nanoparticles are selected on the basis of their physical properties, that is they show enhanced magnetic properties and therefore may be of high potential interest for applications as contrast agents.

    The main synthesis method of Gd2O3 nanoparticles in this work was the modified “polyol” route, followed by purification of as-synthesized DEG-Gd2O3 nanoparticles suspensions. In most cases the purification step involved dialysis of the nanoparticle samples. In this thesis, organosilane were chosen as an exchange agent for further functionalization. Moreover, several paths have been explored for modification of the nanoparticles, including Tb3+ doping and capping with sorbitol.

    Biocompatibility of the newly designed nanoparticles is a prerequisite for their use in medical applications. Its evaluation is a complex process involving a wide range of biological phenomena. A promising path adopted in this work is to study of nanoparticle interactions with isolated blood cells. In this way one could screen nanomaterial prior to animal studies.

    The primary cell type considered in the thesis are polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) which represent a type of the cells of human blood belonging to the granulocyte family of leukocytes. PMNs act as the first defense of the immune system against invading pathogens, which makes them valuable for studies of biocompatibility of newly synthesized nanoparticles. In addition, an immortalized murine alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S), THP-1 cell line, and Ba/F3 murine bone marrow-derived cell line were considered to investigate the optimization of the cell uptake and to examine the potential of new intracellular contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging.

    In paper I, the nanoparticles were investigated in a cellular system, as potential probes for visualization and targeting intended for bioimaging applications. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence from human neutrophils was studied in presence of Gd2O3 nanoparticles. In paper II, a new design of functionalized ultra-small rare earth-based nanoparticles was reported. The synthesis was done using polyol method followed by PEGylation, and dialysis. Supersmall gadolinium oxide (DEG-Gd2O3) nanoparticles, in the range of 3-5 nm were obtained and carefully characterized. Neutrophil activation after exposure to this nanomaterial was studied by means of fluorescence microscopy. In paper III, cell labeling with Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hematopoietic cells was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In paper IV, ultra-small gadolinium oxide nanoparticles doped with terbium ions were synthesized as a potentially bifunctional material with both fluorescent and magnetic contrast agent properties. Paramagnetic behavior was studied. MRI contrast enhancement was received, and the luminescent/ fluorescent property of the particles was attributable to the Tb3+ ion located on the crystal lattice of the Gd2O3 host. Fluorescent labeling of living cells was obtained. In manuscript V, neutrophil granulocytes were investigated with rapid cell signaling communicative processes in time frame of minutes, and their response to cerium-oxide based nanoparticles were monitored using capacitive sensors based on Lab-on-a-chip technology. This showed the potential of label free method used to measure oxidative stress of neutrophil granulocytes. In manuscript VI, investigations of cell-(DEGGd2O3) nanoparticle interactions were carried out. Plain (DEG-Gd2O3) nanoparticles, (DEG-Gd2O3) nanoparticles in presence of sorbitol and (DEG-Gd2O3) nanoparticles capped with sorbitol were studied. Relaxation studies and measurements of the reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils were based on chemiluminescence. Cell morphology was evaluated as a parameter of the nanoparticle induced inflammatory response by means of the fluorescence microscopy.

    The thesis demonstrates high potential of novel Gd2O3-based nanoparticles for development of the next generation contrast agents, that is to find biocompatible compounds with high relaxivity that can be detected at lower doses, and in the future enable targeting to provide great local contrast.

    List of papers
    1. Effects of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles on the oxidative burst from human neutrophil granulocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles on the oxidative burst from human neutrophil granulocytes
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    2012 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 23, no 27, p. 275101-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously shown that gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles are promising candidates to be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this study, these nanoparticles were investigated in a cellular system, as possible probes for visualization and targeting intended for bioimaging applications. We evaluated the impact of the presence of Gd2O3 nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human neutrophils, by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Three sets of Gd2O3 nanoparticles were studied, i.e. as synthesized, dialyzed and both PEG-functionalized and dialyzed Gd2O3 nanoparticles. In addition, neutrophil morphology was evaluated by fluorescent staining of the actin cytoskeleton and fluorescence microscopy. We show that surface modification of these nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is essential in order to increase their biocompatibility. We observed that the as synthesized nanoparticles markedly decreased the ROS production from neutrophils challenged with prey (opsonized yeast particles) compared to controls without nanoparticles. After functionalization and dialysis, more moderate inhibitory effects were observed at a corresponding concentration of gadolinium. At lower gadolinium concentration the response was similar to that of the control cells. We suggest that the diethylene glycol (DEG) present in the as synthesized nanoparticle preparation is responsible for the inhibitory effects on the neutrophil oxidative burst. Indeed, in the present study we also show that even a low concentration of DEG, 0.3%, severely inhibits neutrophil function. In summary, the low cellular response upon PEG-functionalized Gd2O3 nanoparticle exposure indicates that these nanoparticles are promising candidates for MR-imaging purposes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Physics, 2012
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79667 (URN)10.1088/0957-4484/23/27/275101 (DOI)000305802000001 ()
    Available from: 2012-08-14 Created: 2012-08-13 Last updated: 2018-11-12
    2. Synthesis and Characterization of PEGylated Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for MRI Contrast Enhancement
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and Characterization of PEGylated Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for MRI Contrast Enhancement
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    2010 (English)In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 5753-5762Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, much attention has been given to the development of biofunctionalized nanoparticles with magnetic properties for novel biomedical imaging. Guided, smart, targeting nanoparticulate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents inducing high MRI signal will be valuable tools for future tissue specific imaging and investigation of molecular and cellular events. In this study, we report a new design of functionalized ultrasmall rare earth based nanoparticles to be used as a positive contrast agent in MRI. The relaxivity is compared to commercially available Gd based chelates. The synthesis, PEGylation, and dialysis of small (3−5 nm) gadolinium oxide (DEG-Gd2O3) nanoparticles are presented. The chemical and physical properties of the nanomaterial were investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Neutrophil activation after exposure to this nanomaterial was studied by means of fluorescence microscopy. The proton relaxation times as a function of dialysis time and functionalization were measured at 1.5 T. A capping procedure introducing stabilizing properties was designed and verified, and the dialysis effects were evaluated. A higher proton relaxivity was obtained for as-synthesized diethylene glycol (DEG)-Gd2O3 nanoparticles compared to commercial Gd-DTPA. A slight decrease of the relaxivity for as-synthesized DEG-Gd2O3 nanoparticles as a function of dialysis time was observed. The results for functionalized nanoparticles showed a considerable relaxivity increase for particles dialyzed extensively with r1 and r2 values approximately 4 times the corresponding values for Gd-DTPA. The microscopy study showed that PEGylated nanoparticles do not activate neutrophils in contrast to uncapped Gd2O3. Finally, the nanoparticles are equipped with Rhodamine to show that our PEGylated nanoparticles are available for further coupling chemistry, and thus prepared for targeting purposes. The long term goal is to design a powerful, directed contrast agent for MRI examinations with specific targeting possibilities and with properties inducing local contrast, that is, an extremely high MR signal at the cellular and molecular level.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2010
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54946 (URN)10.1021/la903566y (DOI)000276562300061 ()
    Available from: 2010-04-23 Created: 2010-04-23 Last updated: 2018-10-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hematopoietic cells for MRI contrast enhancement
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hematopoietic cells for MRI contrast enhancement
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: International journal of nano medicine, ISSN 1178-2013, Vol. 6, p. 3233-3240Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    As the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) broadens, the importance of having specific and efficient contrast agents increases and in recent time there has been a huge development in the fields of molecular imaging and intracellular markers. Previous studies have shown that gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles generate higher relaxivity than currently available Gd chelates: In addition, the Gd2O3 nanoparticles have promising properties for MRI cell tracking. The aim of the present work was to study cell labeling with Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hematopoietic cells and to improve techniques for monitoring hematopoietic stem cell migration by MRI. Particle uptake was studied in two cell lines: the hematopoietic progenitor cell line Ba/F3 and the monocytic cell line THP-1. Cells were incubated with Gd2O3 nanoparticles and it was investigated whether the transfection agent protamine sulfate increased the particle uptake. Treated cells were examined by electron microscopy and MRI, and analyzed for particle content by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry. Results showed that particles were intracellular, however, sparsely in Ba/F3. The relaxation times were shortened with increasing particle concentration. Relaxivities, r1 and r2 at 1.5 T and 21°C, for Gd2O3 nanoparticles in different cell samples were 3.6–5.3 s-1 mM-1 and 9.6–17.2 s-1 mM-1, respectively. Protamine sulfate treatment increased the uptake in both Ba/F3 cells and THP-1 cells. However, the increased uptake did not increase the relaxation rate for THP-1 as for Ba/F3, probably due to aggregation and/or saturation effects. Viability of treated cells was not significantly decreased and thus, it was concluded that the use of Gd2O3 nanoparticles is suitable for this type of cell labeling by means of detecting and monitoring hematopoietic cells. In conclusion, Gd2O3 nanoparticles are a promising material to achieve positive intracellular MRI contrast; however, further particle development needs to be performed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Manchester, UK: Dove Medical Press Ltd, 2011
    Keywords
    gadolinium oxide, magnetic resonance imaging, contrast agent, cell labeling, Ba/F3 cells, THP-1 cells
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72275 (URN)10.2147/IJN.S23940 (DOI)000298164300001 ()
    Note

    funding agencies|Swedish Research Council| 621-2007-3810 621-2009-5148 521-2009-3423 |VINNOVA| 2009-00194 |Center in Nanoscience and Technology at LiTH (CeNano)||

    Available from: 2011-11-24 Created: 2011-11-24 Last updated: 2018-10-29
    4. Synthesis and Characterization of Tb3+-Doped Gd2O3 Nanocrystals: A Bifunctional Material with Combined Fluorescent Labeling and MRI Contrast Agent Properties
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and Characterization of Tb3+-Doped Gd2O3 Nanocrystals: A Bifunctional Material with Combined Fluorescent Labeling and MRI Contrast Agent Properties
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 113, no 17, p. 6913-6920Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles doped with terbium ions were synthesized by the polyol route and characterized as a potentially bifunctional material with both fluorescent and magnetic contrast agent properties. The structural, optical, and magnetic properties of the organic-acid-capped and PEGylated Gd2O3:Tb3+ nanocrystals were studied by HR-TEM, XPS, EDX, IR, PL, and SQUID. The luminescent/fluorescent property of the particles is attributable to the Tb3+ ion located on the crystal lattice of the Gd2O3 host. The paramagnetic behavior of the particles is discussed. Pilot studies investigating the capability of the nanoparticles for fluorescent labeling of living cells and as a MRI contrast agent were also performed. Cells of two cell lines (THP-1 cells and fibroblasts) were incubated with the particles, and intracellular particle distribution was visualized by confocal microscopy. The MRI relaxivity of the PEGylated nanoparticles in water at low Gd concentration was assessed showing a higher T-1 relaxation rate compared to conventional Gd-DTPA chelates and comparable to that of undoped Gd2O3 nanoparticles.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12944 (URN)10.1021/jp808708m (DOI)000265529700009 ()
    Note

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Submitted

    Available from: 2008-02-21 Created: 2008-02-21 Last updated: 2018-10-29Bibliographically approved
  • 447.
    Abrikossova, Natalia
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    In-vitro studier av inflammatorisk svar från helblod och neutrofila granulocyter vid aktivering med nanopartiklar2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete var att studera inflammatoriska effekter i mänskligt helblod och neutrofila granulocyter exponerade och stimulerade av nanopartiklar av gadoliniumoxid. Projektet utreder den toxiska potentialen hos nanopartiklar med olika kemiska och morfologiska egenskaper.

    I experimenten undersöktes cellresponsen hos blodceller exponerade med ofunktionaliserade och funktionaliserade nanopartiklarna. Effekterna av funktionaliserade och ofunktionaliserade nanopartiklarna på aggregation och syreradikalproduktion i helblod och hos neutrofila granulocyter studerades med hjälp av lumi-aggregometri.

    Studier har visat att varken ofunktionaliserade eller funktionaliserade nanopartiklarna ger aggregation i blodet. Syreradikalproduktionen ökar däremot. Resultaten av studier i helblod visar att stimulering med spädnings serier av funktionaliserade nanopartiklar ger mindre frisättning av syreradikaler än spädnings serier med ofunktionaliserade nanopartiklar. Detta bekräftas med studier av morfologiska skillnader i neutrofila granulocyter som var stimulerade med olika typer av nanopartiklar. Detta gjordes med hjälp av fluorescensmikroskopi. Resultaten från studierna tyder på att funktionaliserade nanopartiklar är mindre inflammatoriska än ofunktionaliserade nanopartiklar.

  • 448.
    Abrikossova, Natalia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Skoglund, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bengtsson, Torbjorn
    University of Örebro, Sweden .
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles on the oxidative burst from human neutrophil granulocytes2012In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 23, no 27, p. 275101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously shown that gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles are promising candidates to be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this study, these nanoparticles were investigated in a cellular system, as possible probes for visualization and targeting intended for bioimaging applications. We evaluated the impact of the presence of Gd2O3 nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human neutrophils, by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Three sets of Gd2O3 nanoparticles were studied, i.e. as synthesized, dialyzed and both PEG-functionalized and dialyzed Gd2O3 nanoparticles. In addition, neutrophil morphology was evaluated by fluorescent staining of the actin cytoskeleton and fluorescence microscopy. We show that surface modification of these nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is essential in order to increase their biocompatibility. We observed that the as synthesized nanoparticles markedly decreased the ROS production from neutrophils challenged with prey (opsonized yeast particles) compared to controls without nanoparticles. After functionalization and dialysis, more moderate inhibitory effects were observed at a corresponding concentration of gadolinium. At lower gadolinium concentration the response was similar to that of the control cells. We suggest that the diethylene glycol (DEG) present in the as synthesized nanoparticle preparation is responsible for the inhibitory effects on the neutrophil oxidative burst. Indeed, in the present study we also show that even a low concentration of DEG, 0.3%, severely inhibits neutrophil function. In summary, the low cellular response upon PEG-functionalized Gd2O3 nanoparticle exposure indicates that these nanoparticles are promising candidates for MR-imaging purposes.

  • 449.
    Abring, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transaktionsexponerade kassaflöden: En kvalitativ studie om hur styrdokument reglerar den praktiska hanteringen av transaktionsexponerade kassaflöden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As a result of increased international trading, adequate management of transaction exposure has become more important. Foreign currency cash flows are associated with different risks and thus give cause to distinct transaction exposure with overseas trading. Previous research advocates that management of transaction exposure is controlled through policy documents and we have identified a lack of research in how policy documents of Swedish firms are designed.

    Problem: To what extent is previous research agreeing with how Swedish firms have developed policy documents for managing transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows?

    Aim: The aim of the study is, compared to what previous research advocates, to examine and analyze how policy documents for managing transaction exposure are designed within the Swedish firms. The study also aims to analyze the differences in the policy document for the transaction exposure in different foreign currency cash flows, as well as the factors that give reasons to possible deviations.

    Conclusions: The findings of the study indicate a clear congruence between previous research and established practices of how policy documents for managing transaction exposure are designed in Swedish firms. Policy documents are comprehensive in their design; regulate the risk management strategy but not the management procedures. Even though the actual management of transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows indicates significant discrepancies, the policy document doesn’t regulate any of them. Giving reason for a different management are: factors related to the foreign exchange market characteristics, company-specific factors and other influencing market factors.Contribution: The study contributes to a better understanding and clearer differentiation of how Swedish firms control the management of transaction exposure, from a business perspective. Moreover, the study intends to give rise to the interest in how and on which grounds companies differently control the management of transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows.

  • 450.
    Abrishami, Mahdi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dynamic Link Flow Estimation according to Historical Travel Times2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vast application of ITS and the availability of numerous on-road detection devices has resulted in variety of alternative data sources to be exploited and used in the field of traffic modelling. In this thesis, historical travel times, as an alternative data source, is employed on the developed method to perform dynamic network loading. The developed method, referred to as DNLTT, uses the share of each route available in the route choice set from the initial demand, as well as link travel times to perform the network loading. The output of the algorithm is time-dependent link flows. DNLTT is applied on Stockholm transportation network, where it is expected to have variation in link travel times in different time-periods, due to network congestion. In order to calculate the route shares, a time-sliced OD matrix is used. The historical travel times and the routes in the route choice set are extracted from an existing route planning tool. An available logit model, which considers the route travel time as the only logit parameter, is used for the route share calculation and the network loading is performed according to 2 different methods of DNLTT and DL. The evaluation of results is done for a toy network, where there happen different network states in different time-periods. Furthermore, the model output from Stockholm case study is analyzed and evaluated. The dynamic behavior of DNLTT is studied by analysis of link flows in different time-periods. Furthermore, the resulting link flows from both network loading methods are compared against observed link flows from radar sensors and the statistical analysis of link flows is performed accordingly. DNLTT exhibits a better performance on the toy network compared to DL, where the increasing link travel times cause the link flows to decline in different time-periods. However, the output of the developed method does not resemble the observed link flows for the investigated links in Stockholm case study. It is strongly believed, that the performance of DNLTT on the investigated transportation network potentially improves, in case the historical travel times better resemble the network dynamics. In addition to a more reliable data set, an OD adjustment process in all the time-periods is believed to generate better model output.

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