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  • 401.
    Lind, Leili
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health Sciences & Social Work, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Digital pens and pain diaries in palliative home healthcare: Professional caregivers’ experiences.2007In: Medical Informatics and the Internet in Medicine, ISSN 1753-8157, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 287-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequent pain assessment by the use of pain diaries for the follow-up of pain treatment can facilitate the caregivers' work with pain control in home health care. The aim was to explore and describe professional caregivers' experiences of palliative home health-care patients' use of pain diaries and digital pen technology for frequent pain assessment. A system for the follow-up of pain treatment was implemented in routine care and evaluated by means of a qualitative content analysis. Three nurses, two physicians and one secretary were interviewed. Additional analysis data were collected from patients' medical records, and the system log. The caregivers showed a shifting outlook towards the pain-assessment method, an initial cautious outlook due to low expectations of the patients' abilities to use the pain assessment method. Despite this, the caregivers experienced positive outcomes in terms of an increased awareness of pain, and positive patient influences including increased participation in their care, increased security, and improved changes in pain treatment as a response to reported pain assessments. Pain assessment by the use of pain diaries and digital pen technology has positive influences on palliative home-care patients and supports the caregivers' focus on the pain.

  • 402.
    Lind, Leili
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Växjö University.
    Patients’ use of digital pens for pain assessment in advanced palliative home healthcare.2008In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, E-ISSN 1872-8243, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 129-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Appropriate pain assessment is a necessary prerequisite for adequate pain control. A way to follow-up on the pain is to let patients use paper-based or electronic pain diaries.

    Purpose: The aim was to explore and describe palliative home care patients’ experiences of assessing their pain by using a pain diary together with digital pen and mobile Internet technology.

    Methods: A system for the follow-up of pain treatment was developed and evaluated by means of a qualitative cross-case content analysis. From December 2002 until September 2003 12 palliative patients, who initially assessed VAS pain ≥ 35 mm (VAS 0–100 mm), used the system. Patients reported their momentary pain intensity and the number of consumed extra doses of analgesics three times per day. Analysis data were collected from interviews with patients and spouses, questionnaires, medical records, and the system log.

    Results: In spite of severe illness and difficulties in comprehending the technology and system intervention, patients found the pain diary and digital pen easy to use for pain assessment. Patients took a greater part in their own care and experienced an improved contact with their caregivers, which led to a sense of increased security. The medical records showed a quick response to variations in the patients’ health status by means of changes in medical treatment.

    Conclusions: The pain assessment system for palliative patients using pain diaries together with digital pen and wireless Internet technology constitutes an effortless method and has positive influences on the care.

  • 403.
    Lind, Leili
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundvall, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shahsavar, Nosrat
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Requirements and prototyping of a home health care application based on emerging JAVA technology.2002In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, Vol. 68, no 1-3, p. 129-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT support for home health care is an expanding area within health care IT development. Home health care differs from other in- or outpatient care delivery forms in a number of ways, and thus, the introduction of home health care applications must be based on a rigorous analysis of necessary requirements to secure safe and reliable health care. This article reports early experiences from the development of a home health care application based on emerging technologies. A prototype application for the follow-up of diabetes patients is presented and discussed in relation to a list of general requirements on home health care applications.

  • 404.
    Lind, Leili
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Sundvall, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Experiences from development of home health care applications based on emerging Java technology2001In: MEDINFO 2001,2001, Amsterdam: IOS Press , 2001, p. 830-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 405.
    Lind, Leili
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Verheijden Klompstra, Leonie
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Implementation and testing of a digital pen and paper tool to support patients with heart failure and their health care providers in detecting early signs of deterioration and monitor adherence2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 406.
    Lind, Leili
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Verheijden Klompstra, Leonie
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Implementation and testing of the digital pen to support patients with heart failure and their health care providers in detecting early signs of deterioration and monitor adherence - a pilot study2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 407.
    Lindgren, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Semi-Automatic Translation of Medical Terms from English to Swedish: SNOMED CT in Translation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare has been overseeing translations of the international clinical terminology SNOMED CT from English to Swedish. This study was performed to find whether semi-automatic methods of translation could produce a satisfactory translation while requiring fewer resources than manual translation. Using the medical English-Swedish dictionary TermColl translations of select subsets of SNOMED CT were produced by ways of translation memory and statistical translation. The resulting translations were evaluated via BLEU score using translations provided by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare as reference before being compared with each other. The results showed a strong advantage for statistical translation over use of a translation memory; however, overall translation results were far from satisfactory.

  • 408.
    Lindholm, P
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Karlsson, L
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Gill, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Wigertz, Ove
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Linnarsson, Dag
    Dept of Physiology and Pharmacology Karolinska Institutet.
    Time components of circulatory transport from the lungs to a peripheral artery in humans2006In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 96-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood gas changes occurring in the lung undergo delay and damping on their way to a peripheral artery sampling site. Knowledge of the time components of circulatory transfer is important for the understanding of respiratory control and cardiovascular reflexes in response to blood gas transients. Providing steady state with regard to V̇A/ Q̇ distribution, cardiac output and peripheral blood flow, the relationship between the time courses of small end-tidal and peripheral PO2 changes is determined by the transfer function of the interposed vascular segment. This transfer function, expressed as delay time TD and mean transit time (MTT), was measured in six well-trained subjects, allowing the calculation of arterial time-courses from end-tidal to the reverse. They were studied at rest and during four different dynamic leg exercise intensities in the supine posture. TD and MTT amounted to 15.8 ± 1.7 (mean ± SEM) and 18.3 ± 2.1 s at rest and were shortened to 7.7 ± 0.6 and 11.5 ± 1.8 s during exercise at 170 W. The shortening of TD and MTT did not appear to be simply an inverse function of cardiac output, suggesting that the shortening occurs in the central circulatory segment but not in the arm segment. © Springer-Verlag 2006.

  • 409.
    Lindholm, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards Data Centric Sampling for Volume Rendering2013In: SIGRAD 2013 / [ed] T. Ropinski and J. Unger, Linköping University Electronic Press , 2013, p. 55-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new method for sampling the volume rendering integral in volume raycasting where samples are correlated based on transfer function content and data set values. This has two major advantages. First, visual artifacts stemming from structured noise, such as wood grain, can be reduced. Second, we will show that the volume data does not longer need to be available during the rendering phase; a surface representation is used instead, which opens up ample oppurtinities for rendering of large data. We will show that the proposed sampling method gives higher quality renderings with fewer samples when compared to regular sampling in the spatial domain.

  • 410.
    Lindvall, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Örnvall, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Data Modelling for Home Healthcare Applications2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technology of today makes it possible to change the way traditional healthcare is conducted. As the population grows older, and the elderly is becoming an increasing part of the whole population, the need for cost efficient and personalised care increases. By implementing home healthcare IT projects, it is possible for more patients to be treated at home with sustained quality of care.

    This thesis documents the work of a master’s degree project carried out during the autumn of 2005. The project is part of a research project within the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Linköping University. The project aims at developing a data model for storing medical data. The model should be general and easy to expand. This model is intended to be used within a larger system allowing a patient to measure medical data from a remote location.

  • 411.
    Linge, Jennifer
    et al.
    Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    West, Janne
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Romu, Thobias
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bell, Jimmy
    Westminster University, London, UK.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    The Body Composition Profile – Enhancing the Understanding of Obesity using UK Biobank Imaging Data2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 412.
    Linge, Jennifer
    et al.
    Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Whithcher, Brandon
    Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dimitriu, Alexandra
    Pfizer inc. Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Associating Body Composition Profiling to Propensity for Diabetes2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 413.
    Linge, Jennifer
    et al.
    Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Whithcher, Brandon
    Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dimitriu, Alexandra
    Pfizer inc., Cambrige, MA, USA.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Associating Body Composition Profiling to Propensity for Diabetes – Enhancing the Description of the Overweight and Obese Subjects2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 414.
    Linnarsson, Rolf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Drug interactions in primary care - a retrospective database study1991In: MIE91,1991, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 1991, p. 195-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 415.
    Linnarsson, Rolf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Drug interactions in primary health care1995In: Yearbook of medical informatics 1995, Stuttgart: Schattauer , 1995, p. 154-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 416.
    Linnarsson, Rolf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Medical audit based on computer-stored patient records exemplified with an audit of hypertenstion care1993In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 11, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 417.
    Linnarsson, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Methods, design and components for a computer-based patient record to promote quality care in general practice1993Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the introduction of the first computer-based patient records (CPR), there have been expectations concerning the potential of CPR not only to support patient care but also to improve its quality. In this thesis methods and models for CPR in general practice are investigated, particularly with respect to possibilities and limitations concerning quality assurance and decision support.

    A common thread throughout the thesis is the case of the Kronan Health Centre, where the evolution of a working CPR system in primazy care has been demonstrated. Based on the experiences at Kronan, a conceptual model of CPR has been developed which is aimed at meeting the requirements necessary for a system so that it has the desired impact on quality of care. Three basic components constitute the main part of the model: a patient database, a data dictionary and a medical knowledge base. A structured and standardized CPR is advocated. A controlled medical vocabulary, represented in the model by the data dictionary, is the component that links the patient database and the medical knowledge base together.

    The empirical part of the thesis is based on two retrospective database studies and two audit studies. In these studies, the primary data source has been the patient database at the Kronan Health Centre, and the primary method of data collection has been database querying using amedical query language. The main empirical results of the studies are: I) There is a relation between diabetes and hypertension (which is in accordance with the hypothesis of a common metabolic syndrome); 2) Potential dmg interacrions occur at a higb rate in general practice, particularly in elderly patients; 3) Medical audit perfurmed with the particular method described can improve patient care within a short term perspective as well as in the long run; 4) Use of CPR facilitates the review of medical records that is needed in audit.

    A framework for CPR-based quality assurance in primary health care is proposed. The role of CPR within this framework is to facilitate initial and repeated data collection and data analysis and to make feasible an integration of a quality system into routine practice. Based on the conceptual model and on the implications of the empirical studies, a CPR system with integrated decision support has been developed and implemented at the Kronan Health Centre. Decision support has been focused on the real needs of the practitioners and on management rather than diagnosis. Computer reminders related to drug prescribing and computerized care protocols constitute the concurrent audit part of the quality system.

  • 418.
    Linnarsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Malmberg, Britt-Gerd
    Kronan Health Center Sundbyberg.
    Computerized medical record - a tool for quality assurance in primary health care1990In: MIE90,1990, IOS Press , 1990, p. 693-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 419.
    Linnarsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Wigertz, Ove
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    An infological model of an integrated medical information system1989In: MEDINFO89,1989, Tokyo: Elsevier Science Publ , 1989, p. 40-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 420.
    Linnarsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Wigertz, Ove
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    The data dictionary - a controlled vocabulary for integrating clnical databases and medical knowledge bases1989In: Methods of Information in Medicine, ISSN 0026-1270, Vol. 28, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 421.
    Liss, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society.
    Aspevall, Olle
    Karolinska institutet.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Interpreting definitions: The problem of interpreting definitions of medical concepts2004In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 7, p. 137-141Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 422.
    Liszka-Hackzell, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prediction of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients using a hybrid AI technique1999In: Computers and biomedical research, ISSN 0010-4809, E-ISSN 1090-2368, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 132-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the problems in the management of the diabetic patient is to balance the dose of insulin without exactly knowing how the patient's blood glucose concentration will respond. Being able to predict the blood glucose level would simplify the management. This paper describes an attempt to predict blood glucose levels using a hybrid AI technique combining the principal component method and neural networks. With this approach, no complicated models or algorithms need be considered. The results obtained from this fairly simple model show a correlation coefficient of 0.76 between the observed and the predicted values during the first 15 days of prediction. By using this technique, all the factors affecting this patient's blood glucose level are considered, since they are integrated in the data collected during this time period. It must be emphasized that the present method results in an individual model, valid for that particular patient under a limited period of time. However, the method itself has general validity, since the blood glucose variations over time have similar properties in any diabetic patient.

  • 423.
    Liszka-Hackzell, Jan J.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Categorization of fetal heart rate patterns using neural networks2001In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 269-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitized data from CTG (cardiotocography) measurements (fetal heart rate and uterine contractions) have been used for categorization of typical heart rate patterns before and during delivery. Short time series of CTG data, about 7 min duration, have been used in the categorization process. In the first part of the study, selected CTG data corresponding to 10 typical cases were used for purely auto associative unsupervised training of a Self-Organizing Map Neural Network (SOM). The network may then be used for objective categorization of CTG patterns through the map coordinates produced by the network. The SOM coordinates were then compared. In the second part of the study, a hybrid neural network consisting of a SOM network and a Back-Propagation network (BP) was trained with data corresponding to a number of basic heart rate patterns as described by eight manually selected indices. Test data (different than the training data) were then used to check the performance of the network. The present study shows that the categorization process, in which neural networks were used, can be reliable and agree well with the manual categorization. Since the categorization by neural networks is very fast and does not involve human efforts, it may be useful in patient monitoring.

  • 424.
    Liszka-Hackzell, Jan J.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Medical data time series analyses using AI techniques2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many areas of medicine, we collect serial measurements of different variables as they change over time. Changes in a time series is often reflective of a change in a patient's status and may be helpful in guiding the appropriate therapy. As we tend to collect data more data as well as more frequently and for longer periods of time, the amount of information available to the clinician grows. Even though there is and has been a siguificant development in medical technology, the management of these growing anaounts of data still requires manual interpretation in many cases.

    Typically, the information collected from serial measurements of data is used to establish a trend, which may be related to a patient's progress or deterioration. Isolated measurements of a variable also contiibute to a better understanding of a patient's status. The physician ahnost always manually interprets this type of infonnation. Time series may contain other types of information that may not be as easily be interpreted this way.

    This thesis describes a number of cases where other types of information have been extracted from medical data time series. Time series may contain information that can be used for prediction as well as categorization (diagnosis). Except from the potential of improving patient care, this information is also helpful in expanding the understanding of the processes involved in each example.

    The methods used in this thesis include principal component analysis, neural networks, cross-correlation analysis and the wavelet transform. By applying these methods to analyse the information in the various time series, adaptable and effective tools for an increased understanding of these problems may be created. This may contribute to better patient management by providing the clinician with improved decision support.

    List of papers
    1. Categorization of fetal heart rate patterns using neural networks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Categorization of fetal heart rate patterns using neural networks
    2001 (English)In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 269-276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Digitized data from CTG (cardiotocography) measurements (fetal heart rate and uterine contractions) have been used for categorization of typical heart rate patterns before and during delivery. Short time series of CTG data, about 7 min duration, have been used in the categorization process. In the first part of the study, selected CTG data corresponding to 10 typical cases were used for purely auto associative unsupervised training of a Self-Organizing Map Neural Network (SOM). The network may then be used for objective categorization of CTG patterns through the map coordinates produced by the network. The SOM coordinates were then compared. In the second part of the study, a hybrid neural network consisting of a SOM network and a Back-Propagation network (BP) was trained with data corresponding to a number of basic heart rate patterns as described by eight manually selected indices. Test data (different than the training data) were then used to check the performance of the network. The present study shows that the categorization process, in which neural networks were used, can be reliable and agree well with the manual categorization. Since the categorization by neural networks is very fast and does not involve human efforts, it may be useful in patient monitoring.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29553 (URN)10.1023/A:1010779205000 (DOI)14924 (Local ID)14924 (Archive number)14924 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Prediction of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients using a hybrid AI technique
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients using a hybrid AI technique
    1999 (English)In: Computers and biomedical research, ISSN 0010-4809, E-ISSN 1090-2368, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 132-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    One of the problems in the management of the diabetic patient is to balance the dose of insulin without exactly knowing how the patient's blood glucose concentration will respond. Being able to predict the blood glucose level would simplify the management. This paper describes an attempt to predict blood glucose levels using a hybrid AI technique combining the principal component method and neural networks. With this approach, no complicated models or algorithms need be considered. The results obtained from this fairly simple model show a correlation coefficient of 0.76 between the observed and the predicted values during the first 15 days of prediction. By using this technique, all the factors affecting this patient's blood glucose level are considered, since they are integrated in the data collected during this time period. It must be emphasized that the present method results in an individual model, valid for that particular patient under a limited period of time. However, the method itself has general validity, since the blood glucose variations over time have similar properties in any diabetic patient.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29804 (URN)10.1006/cbmr.1998.1506 (DOI)15216 (Local ID)15216 (Archive number)15216 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Analysis of the information content in sonoclot data and reconstruction of coagulation test variables
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the information content in sonoclot data and reconstruction of coagulation test variables
    2002 (English)In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Sonoclot Coagulation AnalyzerTM is a viscoelastometer used for in vitro analysis of the coagulation process from the start of fibrin formation, through polymerization of the fibrin monomer, platelet interaction, and eventually to clot retraction and lysis. In this paper, we have analyzed series of Sonoclot curves and simultaneously obtained coagulation tests (APT, PT, Fibrinogen, Platelet Count, and D-dimer) from patients who underwent total hip replacements (THA). By using the Principal Component Analysis method (PCA), we found that the most important coagulation test variables as reflected in the Sonoclot signature, are Platelet Count, PT, and Fibrinogen. Also, by using a Back-Propagation Neural Network (BP), we were able to reconstruct the coagulation variables Platelet Count, PT, and Fibrinogen from the Sonoclot curve with a reasonable accuracy. This would also indicate that these three coagulation test variables are most important in determining the appearance of the Sonoclot signature.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29552 (URN)10.1023/A:1013007202250 (DOI)14923 (Local ID)14923 (Archive number)14923 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Analysis of the relationship between activity and pain in chronic and acute low back pain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the relationship between activity and pain in chronic and acute low back pain
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the temporal relationship between pain and activity in patients with acute or chronic low back pain. Our hypothesis was that activity exacerbates acute pain, but not chronic pain. To test this hypothesis, we concurrently measured activity and pain using continual electronic recording, and analyzed the data using the cross-correlation function.

    After obtaining IRB approval and patient consent, we studied fifteen patients with acute low back pain and fifteen patients with chronic low back pain over 3 weeks. The activity levels were collected automatically using a wrist accelerometer, and were sampled every 1-minute. The pain levels were recorded semi-automatically using a computerized pocket-sized diary, every 90 minutes. The patients were prompted to enter a number between 0 and 10, where 0 is no pain, and 10 is the worst possible pain. Patients were allowed to enter additional measurements as often as they wanted.

    The first seven and the last seven of the daily pain and activity time series from each patient were then analyzed using the cross-correlation function at various time lags between -60 and +60 minutes. The null hypothesis was tested by R to Z transformation, followed by a one-sample t-test against an expected Z score of zero.

    We found that during the first seven measurement periods of acute low back pain, there was a significant (p<0.01) degree of cross-correlation between activity and pain. As these patients improved and reported less pain, the relationship between activity and pain disappeared. There was no such relationship at any point in time among the patients with chronic low back pain. These results confirmed our hypothesis in this small sample of patients.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81435 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-09-14 Last updated: 2012-09-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Categorization and analysis of pain and activity in patients with low back pain using neural network technique
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Categorization and analysis of pain and activity in patients with low back pain using neural network technique
    2002 (English)In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 337-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Low back pain represents a significant medical problem, both in its prevalence and its cost to society. Most episodes of acute low back pain resolve without significant long-term functional impact. However, a minority of patients experience extended chronic pain and disability. In this paper, we have explored new techniques of patient assessment that may prospectively identify this minority of patients at risk of developing poor outcomes. We studied 15 patients with acute low back pain and 25 patients with chronic low back pain over 4 month's time. Patients monitored their pain and activity levels continuously over the first 3 weeks. Pain and functional status were assessed at baseline and at 3 weeks following enrollment. Follow-up assessment of functional status and progress were performed at 2 and 4 months. The pain and activity levels were categorized using a self-organizing-map neural network. A back-propagation neural network was trained with the categorization and outcome data. There was a good correlation between the true and predicted values for general health (r = 0.96, p < 0.01) and mental health (r = 0.80, p < 0.01). No significant correlation was found if activity and pain data were not entered into the analysis. Our results show that neural network techniques can be applied effectively to categorizing patients with acute and chronic low back pain. It is our hope that future research will allow these categorizations to be tied to prognostic and therapeutic decisions in patients who present with episodes of back pain.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29551 (URN)10.1023/A:1015820804859 (DOI)14922 (Local ID)14922 (Archive number)14922 (OAI)
    Note

    On the day of the defence day the status of this article was accepted.

    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 425.
    Liszka-Hackzell, Jan J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ekback, Gustaf
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Analysis of the information content in sonoclot data and reconstruction of coagulation test variables2002In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sonoclot Coagulation AnalyzerTM is a viscoelastometer used for in vitro analysis of the coagulation process from the start of fibrin formation, through polymerization of the fibrin monomer, platelet interaction, and eventually to clot retraction and lysis. In this paper, we have analyzed series of Sonoclot curves and simultaneously obtained coagulation tests (APT, PT, Fibrinogen, Platelet Count, and D-dimer) from patients who underwent total hip replacements (THA). By using the Principal Component Analysis method (PCA), we found that the most important coagulation test variables as reflected in the Sonoclot signature, are Platelet Count, PT, and Fibrinogen. Also, by using a Back-Propagation Neural Network (BP), we were able to reconstruct the coagulation variables Platelet Count, PT, and Fibrinogen from the Sonoclot curve with a reasonable accuracy. This would also indicate that these three coagulation test variables are most important in determining the appearance of the Sonoclot signature.

  • 426.
    Lundberg, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Friman, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, J
    Borga, M
    Söderfeldt, B
    Knutsson, H
    Detection of neural activity in functional MRI using canonical correlation analysis.2001Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for detecting neural activity in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is introduced. It is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA), which is a multivariate extension of the univariate correlation analysis widely used in fMRI. To detect homogeneous regions of activity, the method combines a subspace modeling of the hemodynamic response and the use of spatial relationships. The spatial correlation that undoubtedly exists in fMR images is completely ignored when univariate methods such as as t-tests, F-tests, and ordinary correlation analysis are used. Such methods are for this reason very sensitive to noise, leading to difficulties in detecting activation and significant contributions of false activations. In addition, the proposed CCA method also makes it possible to detect activated brain regions based not only on thresholding a correlation coefficient, but also on physiological parameters such as temporal shape and delay of the hemodynamic response. Excellent performance on real fMRI data is demonstrated. Magn Reson Med 45:323-330, 2001

  • 427.
    Lundström, C.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Knutsson, H.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automated Histogram Characterization of Data Sets for Image Visualization Using Alpha-Histograms2009Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 428.
    Lundström, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Ljung, Patric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    The alpha-histogram: Using Spatial Coherence to Enhance Histograms and Transfer Function Design2006In: Proceedings Eurographics/IEEE Symposium on Visualization 2006, Lisbon, Portugal, 2006, p. 227-234Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high complexity of Transfer Function (TF) design is a major obstacle to widespread routine use of Direct Volume Rendering, particularly in the case of medical imaging. Both manual and automatic TF design schemes would benefit greatly from a fast and simple method for detection of tissue value ranges. To this end, we introduce the a-histogram, an enhancement that amplifies ranges corresponding to spatially coherent materials. The properties of the a-histogram have been explored for synthetic data sets and then successfully used to detect vessels in 20 Magnetic Resonance angiographies, proving the potential of this approach as a fast and simple technique for histogram enhancement in general and for TF construction in particular.

  • 429.
    Lyth, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Swen-Olof
    Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Andrén, Ove
    Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Shahsavar, Nosrat
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A decision support model for cost-effectiveness of radical prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 19-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. This study aimed to develop a probabilistic decision support model to calculate the lifetime incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) between radical prostatectomy and watchful waiting for different patient groups. Material and methods. A randomized trial (SPCG-4) provided most data for this study. Data on survival, costs and quality of life were inputs in a decision analysis, and a decision support model was developed. The model can generate cost-effectiveness information on subgroups of patients with different characteristics. Results. Age was the most important independent factor explaining cost-effectiveness. The cost-effectiveness value varied from 21 026 Swedish kronor (SEK) to 858 703 SEK for those aged 65 to 75 years, depending on Gleason scores and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. Information from the decision support model can support decision makers in judging whether or not radical prostatectomy (RP) should be used to treat a specific patient group. Conclusions. The cost-effectiveness ratio for RP varies with age, Gleason scores, and PSA values. Assuming a threshold value of 200 000 SEK per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, for patients aged ≤70 years the treatment was always cost-effective, except at age 70, Gleason 0–4 and PSA ≤10. Using the same threshold value at age 75, Gleason 7–9 (regardless of PSA) and Gleason 5–6 (with PSA >20) were cost-effective. Hence, RP was not perceived to be cost-effective in men aged 75 years with low Gleason and low PSA. Higher threshold values for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer could be discussed.

  • 430.
    Läthén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Thord
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Lenz, Reiner
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Level set based segmentation using gradient descent with momentum2009In: SSBA 2009, Symposium on image analysis,2009, Halmstad, Sweden: Halmstad University , 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 431.
    Läthén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Thord
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lenz, Reiner
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Momentum Based Optimization Methods for Level Set Segmentation2009In: Momentum Based Optimization Methods for Level Set Segmentation: Second International Conference, SSVM 2009, Voss, Norway, June 1-5, 2009. Proceedings / [ed] Gerhard Goos, Juris Hartmanis, and Jan van Leeuwen, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 124-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Segmentation of images is often posed as a variational problem. As such, it is solved by formulating an energy functional depending on a contour and other image derived terms. The solution of the segmentation problem is the contour which extremizes this functional. The standard way of solving this optimization problem is by gradient descent search in the solution space, which typically suffers from many unwanted local optima and poor convergence. Classically, these problems have been circumvented by modifying the energy functional. In contrast, the focus of this paper is on alternative methods for optimization. Inspired by ideas from the machine learning community, we propose segmentation based on gradient descent with momentum. Our results show that typical models hampered by local optima solutions can be further improved by this approach. We illustrate the performance improvements using the level set framework.

  • 432.
    Läthén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Cros, Olivier
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Non-ring Filters for Robust Detection of Linear Structures2010In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2010, p. 233-236Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many applications in image analysis include the problem of linear structure detection, e.g. segmentation of blood vessels in medical images, roads in satellite images, etc. A simple and efficient solution is to apply linear filters tuned to the structures of interest and extract line and edge positions from the filter output. However, if the filter is not carefully designed, artifacts such as ringing can distort the results and hinder a robust detection. In this paper, we study the ringing effects using a common Gabor filter for linear structure detection, and suggest a method for generating non-ring filters in 2D and 3D. The benefits of the non-ring design are motivated by results on both synthetic and natural images.

  • 433.
    Läthén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonasson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Blood vessel segmentation using multi-scale quadrature filtering2010In: Pattern Recognition Letters, ISSN 0167-8655, E-ISSN 1872-7344, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 762-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The segmentation of blood vessels is a common problem in medical imagingand various applications are found in diagnostics, surgical planning, trainingand more. Among many dierent techniques, the use of multiple scales andline detectors is a popular approach. However, the typical line lters usedare sensitive to intensity variations and do not target the detection of vesselwalls explicitly. In this article, we combine both line and edge detection usingquadrature lters across multiple scales. The lter result gives well denedvessels as linear structures, while distinct edges facilitate a robust segmentation.We apply the lter output to energy optimization techniques for segmentationand show promising results in 2D and 3D to illustrate the behavior of ourmethod. The conference version of this article received the best paper award inthe bioinformatics and biomedical applications track at ICPR 2008.

  • 434.
    Läthén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonasson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase Based Level Set Segmentation of Blood Vessels2008In: Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, IEEE Computer Society , 2008, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The segmentation and analysis of blood vessels hasreceived much attention in the research community. Theresults aid numerous applications for diagnosis andtreatment of vascular diseases. Here we use level setpropagation with local phase information to capture theboundaries of vessels. The basic notion is that localphase, extracted using quadrature filters, allows us todistinguish between lines and edges in an image. Notingthat vessels appear either as lines or edge pairs, weintegrate multiple scales and capture information aboutvessels of varying width. The outcome is a “global”phase which can be used to drive a contour robustly towardsthe vessel edges. We show promising results in2D and 3D. Comparison with a related method givessimilar or even better results and at a computationalcost several orders of magnitude less. Even with verysparse initializations, our method captures a large portionof the vessel tree.

  • 435.
    Läthén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Lindholm, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Lenz, Reiner
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Evaluation of transfer function methods in direct volume rendering of the blood vessel lumen2014In: Proceedings from the EG VCBM 2014. Eurographics Workshop on Visual Computing for Biology and Medicine, Vienna, Austria, September 4–5, 2014 / [ed] Ivan Viola and Katja Buehler and Timo Ropinski, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2014, p. 117-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visualization of contrast enhanced blood vessels in CT angiography data presents a challenge due to varying concentration of the contrast agent. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the correctness (effectiveness) in visualizing the vessel lumen using two different 3D visualization strategies, thereby assessing the feasibility of using such visualizations for diagnostic decisions. We compare a standard visualization approach with a recent method which locally adapts to the contrast agent concentration. Both methods are evaluated in a parallel setting where the participant is instructed to produce a complete visualization of the vessel lumen, including both large and small vessels, in cases of calcified vessels in the legs. The resulting visualizations are thereafter compared in a slice viewer to assess the correctness of the visualized lumen. The results indicate that the participants generally overestimated the size of the vessel lumen using the standard visualization, whereas the locally adaptive method better conveyed the true anatomy. The participants did find the interpretation of the locally adaptive method to be less intuitive, but also noted that this did not introduce any prohibitive complexity in the work flow. The observed trends indicate that the visualized lumen strongly depends on the width and placement of the applied transfer function and that this dependency is inherently local rather than global. We conclude that methods that permit local adjustments, such as the method investigated in this study, can be beneficial to certain types of visualizations of large vascular trees

  • 436.
    Läthén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindholm, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lenz, Reiner
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automatic Tuning of Spatially Varying Transfer Functions for Blood Vessel Visualization2012In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 2345-2354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) is commonly used in clinical routine for diagnosing vascular diseases. The procedure involves the injection of a contrast agent into the blood stream to increase the contrast between the blood vessels and the surrounding tissue in the image data. CTA is often visualized with Direct Volume Rendering (DVR) where the enhanced image contrast is important for the construction of Transfer Functions (TFs). For increased efficiency, clinical routine heavily relies on preset TFs to simplify the creation of such visualizations for a physician. In practice, however, TF presets often do not yield optimal images due to variations in mixture concentration of contrast agent in the blood stream. In this paper we propose an automatic, optimization- based method that shifts TF presets to account for general deviations and local variations of the intensity of contrast enhanced blood vessels. Some of the advantages of this method are the following. It computationally automates large parts of a process that is currently performed manually. It performs the TF shift locally and can thus optimize larger portions of the image than is possible with manual interaction. The method is based on a well known vesselness descriptor in the definition of the optimization criterion. The performance of the method is illustrated by clinically relevant CT angiography datasets displaying both improved structural overviews of vessel trees and improved adaption to local variations of contrast concentration. 

  • 437.
    Magyar, Gabor
    et al.
    IMT LiU .
    Arkad, Kristina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Ericsson, K-E
    Östgötadata Linköping.
    Gill, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Xiao-Ming, Gao
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Linnarsson, Rolf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Wigertz, Ove
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Realizing medical knowledge in MLM form as working modules in a patient information system1991In: IMIA Software Engineering in Medical Informatics,1991, Elsevier Science Publ , 1991, p. 481-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 438.
    Magyar, Gabor
    et al.
    IMT LiU.
    Arkad, Kristina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Xiao-Ming, Gao
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Gill, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Wigertz, Ove
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Strategies for efficient implementation of the Arden Syntax for medical decision support1991In: MIE91,1991, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 1991, p. 222-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 439.
    malmberg, Britt-Gerd
    et al.
    Kronan District Health Care Sundbyberg.
    Linnarsson, Rolf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Quality circles - a new mthod for quality assurance in PHC. Use of computerized medical records for medical audit in a district health care1990In: MIE90,1990, IOS Press , 1990, p. 671-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 440.
    Martinez-Costa, Catalina
    et al.
    Medical University of Graz, Austria.
    Cornet, Ronald
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schulz, Stefan
    Medical University of Graz, Austria.
    Kalra, Dipak
    UCL, England.
    Semantic enrichment of clinical models towards semantic interoperability. The heart failure summary use case2015In: JAMIA Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, ISSN 1067-5027, E-ISSN 1527-974X, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 565-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To improve semantic interoperability of electronic health records (EHRs) by ontology-based mediation across syntactically heterogeneous representations of the same or similar clinical information. Materials and Methods Our approach is based on a semantic layer that consists of: (1) a set of ontologies supported by (2) a set of semantic patterns. The first aspect of the semantic layer helps standardize the clinical information modeling task and the second shields modelers from the complexity of ontology modeling. We applied this approach to heterogeneous representations of an excerpt of a heart failure summary. Results Using a set of finite top-level patterns to derive semantic patterns, we demonstrate that those patterns, or compositions thereof, can be used to represent information from clinical models. Homogeneous querying of the same or similar information, when represented according to heterogeneous clinical models, is feasible. Discussion Our approach focuses on the meaning embedded in EHRs, regardless of their structure. This complex task requires a clear ontological commitment (ie, agreement to consistently use the shared vocabulary within some context), together with formalization rules. These requirements are supported by semantic patterns. Other potential uses of this approach, such as clinical models validation, require further investigation. Conclusion We show how an ontology-based representation of a clinical summary, guided by semantic patterns, allows homogeneous querying of heterogeneous information structures. Whether there are a finite number of top-level patterns is an open question.

  • 441. Martin-Sanchez, F.
    et al.
    Babic, Ankica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Doupi, P.
    Orphanoudakis, S.
    de Moor, G.
    Kulikowski, C.
    Iakovidis, I.
    Sarachan, B.
    Hermosilla, I.
    Sousa, A.
    Thireos, G.
    Abraham-Fuchs, K.
    Engelbrecht, R.
    Lampe, K.
    de Groen, P.
    Cinquin, P.
    Van der Lei, J.
    Vicente, F.J.
    Baud, R.
    Jehenson, P.
    Zahlmann, G.
    Jones, T.
    Breton, V.
    Ghazal, P.
    Dugas, M.
    Eils, R.
    Nörager, S.
    Apweiler, R.
    Rossing, N.
    Zvarova, J.
    Spekowius, G.
    Maojo, V.
    Synergy between medical informatics and bioinformatics: Facilitating genomic medicine for future health care2004In: Journal of Biomedical Informatics, ISSN 1532-0464, E-ISSN 1532-0480, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 30-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we review the results of BIOINFOMED, a study funded by the European Commission (EC) with the purpose to analyse the different issues and challenges in the area where Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics meet. Traditionally, Medical Informatics has been focused on the intersection between computer science and clinical medicine, whereas Bioinformatics have been predominantly centered on the intersection between computer science and biological research. Although researchers from both areas have occasionally collaborated, their training, objectives and interests have been quite different. The results of the Human Genome and related projects have attracted the interest of many professionals, and introduced new challenges that will transform biomedical research and health care. A characteristic of the 'post genomic' era will be to correlate essential genotypic information with expressed phenotypic information. In this context, Biomedical Informatics (BMI) has emerged to describe the technology that brings both disciplines (BI and MI) together to support genomic medicine. In recognition of the dynamic nature of BMI, institutions such as the EC have launched several initiatives in support of a research agenda, including the BIOINFOMED study.

  • 442.
    Martínez-Costa, Catalina
    et al.
    Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University, Graz, Austria.
    Queiroz de Andrade, André
    Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University, Graz, Austria; Information Science Graduate Program, School of information Science, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kalra, Dipak
    The Centre for Health Informatics and Multiprofessional Education, University College London, United Kingdom.
    Schulz, Stefan
    Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University, Graz, Austria; Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, University Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany.
    Towards the harmonization of Clinical Information and Terminologies by Formal Representation2012In: European Journal for Biomedical Informatics, ISSN 1801-5603, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 3-10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 443.
    Mathiesen, Ulrik
    et al.
    Oskarshamn Hospital .
    Krusinska, Ewa
    Technical University of Wroclaw, Poland .
    Bodemar, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Chowdhury, Shamsul
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Babic, Ankica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Franzén, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Frydén, Aril
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine.
    Wigertz, Ove
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Investigation and follow-up of patients with raised levels of liver transaminases. Computerised support for high quality and cost-effetiveness1994In: Medical Informatics in Europe MIE94,1994, 1994, p. 196-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 444.
    Middleton, Michael
    et al.
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Haufe, William
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Hooker, Jonathan
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Romu, Thobias
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Tunón, Patrik
    Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linköping.
    Hamilton, Gavin
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA.
    Wolfson, Tanya
    Computational and Applied Statistics Laboratory (CASL), San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC), University of California, San Diego, CA.
    Gamst, Anthony
    Computational and Applied Statistics Laboratory (CASL), San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC), University of California, San Diego, CA.
    Loomba, Rohit
    3Department of Medicine (Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology), University of California, San Diego, CA.
    Sirlin, Claude
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA.
    Quantifying Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Thigh Muscle Volume and Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction: Repeatability and Accuracy of an MR Imaging–based, Semiautomated Analysis Method2017In: Radiology, ISSN 0033-8419, E-ISSN 1527-1315, Vol. 283, no 2, p. 438-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to determine the repeatability and accuracy of an   commercially available (Advanced MR Analytics [AMRA®]; Linköping, Sweden) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based, semi-automated method to quantify abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle volume as well as hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF)

    Materials and Methods

    This prospective study was approved by an institutional review board (IRB) and was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant. All subjects provided written informed consent. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years, and willingness to participate. Exclusion criteria were contraindication to MRI. Three-dimensional, T1-weighted, dual-echo body-coil images were acquired from base of skull to knees at 3T, twice before and once after taking subjects off the scanner table (total of three acquisitions). Source images were reconstructed offline to generate water, and calibrated fat images where pure adipose tissue has unit value and absence of adipose tissue has zero value. Abdominal adipose tissues and thigh muscles were segmented, and their volumes estimated using AMRA  a semi-automated analysis method and, as a reference standard, manually. Hepatic PDFF was estimated using a confounder-corrected chemical-shift encoded MRI method with hybrid complex-magnitude reconstruction., and, as a reference standard, with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Tissue volume and hepatic PDFF intra- and inter-examination repeatability was assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) analysis. Tissue volume and hepatic PDFF accuracies were assessed by linear regression using their respective reference standards.

    Results

    Twenty adult subjects were enrolled (18 female, age range 25 - 76 yrs, body mass index range 19.3 to 43.9 kg/m2). Adipose and thigh muscle tissue volumes estimated using the semi-automated analysis method had intra-and inter-examination ICCs between 0.996 and 0.998, and CVs between 1.5 and 3.6%. For hepatic MRI PDFF, intra- and inter-examination ICCs were ≥ 0.994 and CVs, ≤ 7.3%. Agreement between semi-automated and manual volume estimates, and between MRI and MRS hepatic PDFF estimates, was high, with regression slopes and intercepts not significantly different from the identity line (all p’s > 0.05), and R2’s between 0.744 and 0.994.

    Conclusions

    This MRI-based, semi-automated method provides high repeatability, and high accuracy for estimating abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle volumes, and hepatic PDFF.

  • 445.
    Middleton, Michael
    et al.
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Haufe, William
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Hooker, Jonathan
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Romu, Thobias
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tunón, Patrik
    Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Szeverenyi, Nick
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Hamilton, Gavin
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Wolfson, Tanya
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States; Computational and Applied Statistics Laboratory (CASL), University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Gamst, Anthony
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States; Computational and Applied Statistics Laboratory (CASL), University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Loomba, Rohit
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Sirlin, Claude B.
    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Repeatability and accuracy of a novel, MRI-based, semi-automated analysis method for quantifying abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle volumes2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current MRI methods to estimate body tissue compartment volumes rely on manual segmentation, which is laborious, expensive, not widely available outside specialized centers, and not standardized. To address these concerns, a novel, semi-automated image analysis method has been developed. Image acquisition takes about six minutes, and uses widely available MRI pulse sequences. We found that this method permits comprehensive body compartment analysis and provides high repeatability and accuracy. Current and future clinical and drug development studies may benefit from this methodology, as may clinical settings where monitoring change in these measures is desired.

  • 446.
    Moidu, Khalid
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Analysis of prerequisites to introduce computer-based information systems in health care: a developing country study1989Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To attain a state of global health requires integrated efforts of many professionals. The lingua franca for the many professionals involved in health care is data and information. For example, information on the extent of an infectious disease found in a community is required by the health care management, to mobilize appropriate resources. Information on the pattern and spread of a disease is vital for the care providers, to understand how to best control and care for the affected. That action is based on information is well recognized; in response, information systems to support health care delivery are being developed, including computer-based systems. Systems that meet the composite needs of the organization must support the peripheral care providers with appropriate information, and then extract from the database of the primary care provider the appropriate primary data for the health care administration. This data will then be more accurate, since the data providers are also the prime users of data and information.

    Before designing an information system that supports the health care providers and management, detailed analyses of the developmental state, the human element, the technological potential, and the social implications of such system, are required. This comprehensive analysis serves as a prerequisite to the study and design of the organization's information system. Especially in developing countries, the successful introduction of computers demands a well defined strategy adapted to the local conditions. The design must be preceded by a Stage of Assessment (STAGE I) and a Stage of System Analysis (STAGE II).

    In Stage I, the Part I of the study required an assessment: of acceptance, of existing skills, the capability to learn, and the capacity to absorb the technology, of the people in the environment. The appraisal (survey) of the human element of the system, an end-user group (physicians), was accomplished through self-enumerating questionnaires. The results highlighted respondents' interest and expectations from computer based information systems. Fears such as for redundancy (i.e., a superfluousness in their jobs) were expressed [1].

    In Stage I, Part II of the study, the problems concerning the technological potential of computers and the justification to use computers over manual information systems, especially in a dispersed primary health care organization, were addressed. Whether the system design should be either administration-oriented (top down) or health professional-oriented (bottom up), as well as the development of criteria other than those based on cost-benefit for systems evaluation, were the other points of issue. By the application of syntheses methodologies, such-as the Delphi technique, Glaser's state of the art, and including a literature review, the computer's potential to support health care delivery was evaluated. The computer's role was classified and its decision support at each level to the health care professionals described. The conclusions derived were that a computer could today support the decision process by ensuring method and supplying knowledge. However, the application of computers as tools for reasoning is in rather limited areas and is still a field calling for further research [II]. The properties that give information value were identified and a justification for a computer-based information system delineated. To support primary health care delivery, an integrated system design is required. An alternate methodology to evaluate such systems is described [III].

    In Stage II, the study is conducted within specific co-operating primary health care organizations, and the conclusions from Stage I studies provided the guide-lines for this stage. A descriptive study of district health sites in developing countries was undertaken. As a part of the systems analysis study, questionnaires were mailed to the three principle sets of data providers/users, (i.e., the district health administrator, hospital consultant, and the primary health care physicians). Preliminary assessments extracted from some sites on attitudes towards and acceptance of computers in health care are presented in this thesis.

    The conclusion derived is that a prelude study to develop guide-lines for computerization is essential before conducting an in-depth methodological systems analysis. Each health care site must therefore be assessed before an appropriate computer-based information system is developed for implementation in that environment.

  • 447.
    Moidu, Khalid
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Application of an essential data set based computer system in support of maternal and chiild care1992In: International journal of bio-medical computing, ISSN 0020-7101, Vol. 31, p. 159-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 448.
    Moidu, Khalid
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Computer-based support for maternal and child care at primary health centres1992Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Health infonnation systems are reported to be weak and inadequate in supporting public health programs, since at the primary health centre, which is the level of first contact, the information infrastructure is weak. This thesis reports a health systems research effort to strengthen the infonnation infrastructure, specifically to develop an application software to support the delivery of maternal and child care at the primary health centre. Technical advances have made micro-computers affordable, which is directly due to the trend toward lower prices. However, there is still a lack of flexible low cost software for large scale implementation. This health systems research used methodologies based on empirical findings combined with the engineering process of design and development. Based on the shared characteristics of the sites and the human component requirements, an application software was developed and tested.

    The investigation had three distinct stages, the first of which was a prerequisites analysis to assess the human issues of acceptance and attitudes using a questionnaire based study. The results demonstrated that responding physicians were interested in using computers, but an information gap existed. Respondents with somecomputer experience and prior information accepted the potential of the computer as a decision support tool, but those without experience had reservations (I). The first stage also included a literature review to identify the values of infonnation justifying computer role rather than manual methods used in a primary health centte (II). The second stage was a multi~centre systems analysis study using questionnaires and site visits to identify the common base for development of an application software. Analysis by contingency tables showed diversity in socio-organizational factors between the sites (III), while commonality was observed in the data collection records and this was confinned by the site study. The site study further identified that a core data set is shared by all levels of administration and care providers in delivery of a health programme. Development of a common application software requires identification of the core data set (IV). The third stage was to design and develop the software. For this the Essential Data Set for the selected domain of Maternal Health Services was defined by means of infological modelling, A software prototype was developed, and using rettospective data entry from a Swedish maternal health centre records the acceptability of the data set and applicability of the software were tested (V). The software developed, which was independent of organizational behaviour, provided us with a package that could be used by different health organizations. It was implemented differently by different organizations using their own economic resources. The results demonstrated that the software provided the foundation for microplanning, and that the management at a site was able to identify the needs and lacunae. At another site the target group for family planning motivation was fine tuned to a subset, and the action resulted in 25% of the subset accepting a permanent method. The database will also be an asset in quality assurance by ensuring continuity in care and the resultant large database based on a prospective common data collection protocol will be a base for health outcomes research. A further observation is the economic loss due to dropouts from the immunization programme. The approximated cost per fully immunized child is estimated at US$ 15. As a result of dropouts from the cohort the cost rose to US$ 54 per fully immunized child, but with computer supported follow-up the dropouts decreased and the cost fell to US$ 22 per fully immunized child (VI). The economic benefits are proof that such systems are not an expenditure but are instead an investment.

  • 449.
    Moidu, Khalid
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Singh, Ashok Kumar
    IMT LIU.
    Boström, Karin
    Dept of Obstetrics and Gynaecology University Hospital Linköping.
    Chowdhury, Shamsul
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Trell, Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice.
    Wigertz, Ove
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Towards an essential data set: Applicability in the domain of maternal health services1992In: Methods of Information in Medicine, ISSN 0026-1270, Vol. 31, p. 182-192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 450.
    Moidu, Khalid
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Singh, Ashok Kumar
    IMT LiU.
    Boström, Karin
    Dept Obstetrics LiU.
    Wigertz, Ove
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Trell, Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice.
    Kjessler, B
    Dept Obstetrics LiU.
    MCHS: an application software for family welfare programmes1992In: Medical Informatics & the Internet in Medicine, ISSN 1753-8157, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 279-291Article in journal (Refereed)
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