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  • 401.
    Zhou, Yi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Du, Chunxia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers, Dept Chem & Biol Engn.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Observation of a Charge Transfer State in Low-Bandgap Polymer/Fullerene Blend Systems by Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Studies2009In: ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, ISSN 1616-301X, Vol. 19, no 20, p. 3293-3299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of charge transfer states generated by the interaction between the fullerene acceptor PCBM and two alternating copolymers of fluorene with donor-acceptor-donor comonomers are reported; the generation leads to modifications in the polymer bandgap and electronic structure. In one of polymer/fullerene blends, the driving; force for photocurrent generation, i.e., the gap between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of the donor and acceptor, is only 0.1 eV, but photocurrent is generated. It is shown that the presence of a charge transfer state is more important than the driving force. The charge transfer states are visible through new emission peaks in the photoluminescence spectra and through electroluminescence at a forward bias. The photoluminescence can be quenched under reverse bias, and can be directly correlated to the mechanism of photocurrent generation. The excited charge transfer state is easily dissociated into free charge carriers, and is an important intermediate state through which free charge carriers are generated.

  • 402.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    et al.
    Jilin University.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barrau, Sophie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tian, Wenjing
    Jilin University.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inverted and transparent polymer solar cells prepared with vacuum-free processing2009In: SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, ISSN 0927-0248, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 497-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inverted transparent polymer solar cells were fabricated by sequentially depositing several organic layers from fluids, on ITO/glass substrates. ITO was used as a cathode to collect electrons. The photovoltage of these diodes can be increased by up to 400 mV by inserting a buffer layer of polyethylene oxide between ITO and the active layers, which results in 4-fold enhancement of power conversion efficiency under the illumination of 100 mW/cm(2) simulated AM1.5 solar light. The enhancement of V., is consistent with the work function change between ITO and ITO/PEO measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. Solar cell production without vacuum processing may lower production costs.

  • 403.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    et al.
    State Key Lab for Supramolecular Structure and Materials Jilin University.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Barrau, Sophie
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Tian, Wenjing
    State Key Lab for Supramolecular Structure and Materials Jilin University.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Investigation on Polymer Anode Design for Flexible Polymer Solar Cells2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 404.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    et al.
    State Key Lab for Supramolecular Structure and Materials Jilin University.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Tian, Wenjing
    State Key Lab for Supramolecular Structure and Materials Jilin University.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Multifolded Polymer Solar Cells on Flexible Substrates2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 033302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 405.
    Zhuang, Wenliu
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Zhen, Hongyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kroon, Renee
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellstrom, Stefan
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Hou, Lintao
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Gedefaw, Desta
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Molecular orbital energy level modulation through incorporation of selenium and fluorine into conjugated polymers for organic photovoltaic cells2013In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 1, no 43, p. 13422-13425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrated an effective chemical approach to modulate the energy levels of conjugated polymers by synergistically combining fluorine substitution and thiophene-selenophene exchange. Such modifications from TQ1 resulted in a significantly enhanced open-circuit voltage up to 1.0 V while retaining high photovoltaic performance.

  • 406.
    Åsberg, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björk, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höök, Fredrik
    Solid State Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hydrogels from a water-soluble Zwitterionic polythiophene: dynamics under pH change and biomolecular interactions observed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring2005In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 21, no 16, p. 7292-7298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water-soluble zwitterionic polythiophene, poly(3-((S)-5-amino-5- carboxyl-3-oxapentyl)-2,5-thiophene) hydrochloride (POWT), is a conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) with properties well suited for biochip applications. CPEs readily form hydrogels when exposed to water-based buffer solutions or biomolecule solutions. In this work, we used in situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring to collect information on the interaction between POWT films exposed to buffers with different pH and POWT/DNA chains. Our data show that POWT swells significantly when exposed to low-pH buffers, such as pH 4 acetate, this is seen as an increase in thickness and decrease in viscosity obtained via a Voight-based modeling of combined f and D QCM-D measurements. The magnitude of thickness and viscosity change upon changing from a pH 10 carbonate buffer to pH 4 acetate is 100% increase in thickness and 50% decrease in viscosity. The response of the hydrogel under pH change is well correlated with fluorescence data from POWT films on glass. The state of the hydrogel is important during interaction with biomolecules; illustrated by the observation that a swollen CPE hydrogel adsorbs a higher amount of DNA than a compacted one. In agreement with previous results, the QCM-D data confirmed that the POWT/DNA hydrogel sense complementary DNA specifically and with negligible binding of noncomplementary DNA. These results are important for efficient constructions of biochips in water environments using this class of materials.

  • 407.
    Åsberg, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hydrogels of a conducting conjugated polymer as 3-D enzyme electrode2003In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 199-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have utilized the highly conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) aqueous dispersion (PEDOT/PSS) to build a conducting hydrogel matrix. Together with appropriate biomolecules this constitutes a hydrogel bio-electrode. The open hydrogel structure makes diffusion of analytes surrounding the cells into the matrix electrode easier. If enzymes are utilized, osmium is used as mediator between the prosthetic group of the enzyme and the conducting polymer matrix. Osmium also functions as a crosslink point to poly-4-vinylpyridine, which together with the magnesium crosslinked PEDOT/PSS gives a rigid hydrogel. The enzyme Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as a model enzyme to evaluate the enzyme-enhanced electrode. We evaluated the electrode at pH 7, which is the pH choice for many biological systems. From cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements we deduced that a very low reduction potential was needed to reduce the prosthetic group. Constant potential amperometry were performed to demonstrate the biosensor capabilities. A differential sensitivity of 0.13 A M−1 cm−2 through the 0–30 μM concentration range was achieved. Both the biostability and the influence on conductivity, important aspects when for example making nerve- or cell-electrodes, were investigated.

  • 408.
    Åsberg, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fluorescence quenching and excitation transfer between semiconducting and metallic organic layers2004In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 96, no 6, p. 3140-3147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present a simple approach to study the interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in conjugated polymers in organic electronic devices. Interlayer quenching constants KIL of 1.5 M−1 between a fluorescent molecule and a doped polymer in a layered sample demonstrates the importance of understanding the quenching of excited states in polymeric devices. A combination of Förster resonance energy transfer and quenching of photoluminescence between a fluorescent molecule and a conjugated polymer in its semiconducting and metallic states were studied. The polymer is a chiral 3-substituted polythiophene (POWT) and the fluorescent molecule is fluorescein bound to dextran (D-FITC). Bilayer samples with fluorescein on top of the POWT were fabricated and studied with absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and electrochemical doping methods. When POWT is electrochemically dedoped it is possible to enhance the photoluminescence in the polymer layer by excitation transfer from the fluorescein layer. Our results demonstrate that PL from the polythiophene disappears rapidly as soon as the layer is doped. As the doping of polymer layer increases the fluorescence from the fluorescein on top of the polymer decreases, due to excitation quenching. Models for excitation transfer and excitation quenching in POWT/FITC bilayer devices have been developed. This model predicts a linear relationship between the PL from the two molecules, in agreement with our experimental findings. These results are relevant for the development of electroluminescent devices or solar cells based on conjugated polymers.

  • 409.
    Åsberg, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Surface energy modified chips for detection of conformational states and enzymatic activity in biomolecules2006In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 2205-2211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel patterning method for anchoring biomolecules and noncovalent assembled conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)/biomolecule complexes to a chip surface is presented. The surface energy of a hydrophilic substrate is modified using an elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp, containing a relief pattern. Modification takes place on the parts where the PDMS stamp is in conformal contact with the substrate and leaves low molecular weight PDMS residues on the surface resulting in a hydrophobic modification, and then biomolecules and CPE/biomolecule complexes are then adsorbed in a specific pattern. The method constitutes a discrimination system for different conformations in biomolecules using CPEs as reporters and the PDMS modified substrates as the discriminator. Detection of different conformations in two biomacromolecules, a synthetic peptide (JR2E) and a protein (calmodulin), reported by the CPE and resolved by fluorescence was demonstrated. Also, excellent enzyme activity in patterned CPE/horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme was shown, demonstrating that this method can be used to pattern biomolecules with their activity retained. The method presented could be useful in various biochip applications, such as analyzing proteins and peptides in large-scale production, in making metabolic chips, and for making multi-microarrays.

  • 410.
    Åslund, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herland, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hammarström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Studies of luminescent conjugated polythiophene derivatives-Enhanced spectral discrimination of protein conformational states2007In: Bioconjugate chemistry, ISSN 1043-1802, E-ISSN 1520-4812, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 1860-1868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved probes for amyloid fibril formation are advantageous for the early detection and better understanding of this disease-associated process. Here, we report a comparative study of eight luminescent conjugated polythiophene derivates (LCPs) and their discrimination of a protein (insulin) in the native or amyloid-like fibrillar state. For two of the LCPs, the synthesis is reported. Compared to their monomer-based analogues, trimer-based LCPs showed significantly better optical signal specificity for amyloid-like fibrils, seen from increased quantum yield and spectral shift. The trimer-based LCPs alone were highly quenched and showed little interaction with native insulin, as seen from analytical ultracentrifugation and insignificant spectral differences from the trimer-based LCP in buffered and native protein solution. Hence, the trimer-based LCPs showed enhanced discrimination between the amyloid-like fibrillar state and the corresponding native protein.

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