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  • 451.
    Hepburn, Alexa
    et al.
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Wiggins, SallyUniversity of Strathclyde, UK.
    Discursive research in practice: New approaches to psychology and everyday interaction2007Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades new ways of conceiving the relation between people, practices and institutions have been developed, enabling an understanding of human conduct in complex situations that is distinctive from traditional psychological and sociological conceptions. This distinctiveness is derived from a sophisticated analytic approach to social action which combines conversation analysis with the fresh treatment of epistemology, mind, cognition and personality developed in discursive psychology. This text is the first to showcase and promote this new method of discursive research in practice. Featuring contributions from a range of international academics, both pioneers in the field and exciting new researchers, this book illustrates an approach to social science issues that cuts across the traditional disciplinary divisions to provide a rich participant-based understanding of action.

  • 452.
    Hepburn, Alexa
    et al.
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Size matters: Constructing accountable bodies in NSPCC helpline interaction2005Inngår i: Discourse & Society, ISSN 0957-9265, E-ISSN 1460-3624, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 625-646Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus on body size or weight has become an increasing source of concern in western society, yet few studies have looked at how people invoke body size in various settings, and the practices to which such talk might be related. Hence this study examines instances in everyday and institutional interaction in which body size is treated as a relevant concern for speakers. A discursive psychological approach is used to examine five extracts from telephone calls to a National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) helpline. The analysis focuses on how the weight or body size of others is constructed and managed, and how these descriptions can be involved in various activities. Three analytic themes emerge – the focus on how formulations of size and embodiment are drawn upon in practice; the relationship between issues of size and issues of knowledge; and the activities in which different size descriptions are enrolled, in particular, the way these activities relate to the institutional practices of the NSPCC helpline. The empirical claims about the data are also related back to basic theoretical questions, raising profound issues about the way traditional psychology has constructed eating and embodiment.

  • 453.
    Herrera Velasquez, Mateo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Uncertainties in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: An interview and questionnaire-based study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Forensic science is the field of study that studies crimes and crime scenes. One of the major sub-areas of forensic science is crime scene investigations (CSI). Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is a part of CSI and refers to the study of bloodstain patterns. The purpose of this project is to investigate the needs of those involved in the judicial chain when using a laser scanner to reconstruct a crime scene and how to represent any uncertainties. An additional purpose is to look into what expectations bloodstain pattern analysts have on their work situation. Interviews were held with nine persons involved in the judicial chain and an online questionnaire was distributed to the bloodstain pattern analysts across Sweden. To analyze the interviews a thematic analysis was used which led to three themes being identified (benefit, desires, obstacles) with eleven sub-themes. For the questionnaire two types of data were presented, numeric and written. The numeric result displayed results such as how confident they felt doing work or if the amount of cases was too much or too little. The written result displayed results showing that BPA is cumbersome, not because it is hard to use but rather because each case is unique, and many factors have to be considered. The conclusion of this study is that needs can be met using the framework that combined uncertainties and visualization, and the questionnaire showed that the bloodstain pattern analyst are a group of people who seek knowledge and welcome new technology.

  • 454.
    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis G.
    et al.
    University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Carlyon, Robert P.
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Department of Psychology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
    Davis, Matthew H.
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK.
    Brain regions recruited for the effortful comprehension of noise-vocoded words2012Inngår i: Language and cognitive processes (Print), ISSN 0169-0965, E-ISSN 1464-0732, Vol. 27, nr 7-8, s. 1145-1166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of comprehension and perceptual learning of artificially degraded [noise vocoded (NV)] speech. Fifteen participants were scanned while listening to 6-channel vocoded words, which are difficult for naïve listeners to comprehend, but can be readily learned with appropriate feedback presentations. During three test blocks, we compared responses to potentially intelligible NV words, incomprehensible distorted words and clear speech. Training sessions were interleaved with the test sessions and included paired presentation of clear then noise-vocoded words: a type of feedback that enhances perceptual learning. Listeners' comprehension of NV words improved significantly as a consequence of training. Listening to NV compared to clear speech activated left insula, and prefrontal and motor cortices. These areas, which are implicated in speech production, may play an active role in supporting the comprehension of degraded speech. Elevated activation in the precentral gyrus during paired clear-then-distorted presentations that enhance learning further suggests a role for articulatory representations of speech in perceptual learning of degraded speech.

  • 455.
    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis G.
    et al.
    Functional Brain Mapping Lab .
    Davis, Matthew H.
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Taylor, Karen J.
    Carlyon, Robert P.
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK.
    Generalization of perceptual learning of vocoded speech2011Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 283-295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work demonstrates that learning to understand noise-vocoded (NV) speech alters sublexical perceptual processes but is enhanced by the simultaneous provision of higher-level, phonological, but not lexical content (Hervais-Adelman, Davis, Johnsrude, & Carlyon, 2008), consistent with top-down learning (Davis, Johnsrude, Hervais-Adelman, Taylor, & McGettigan, 2005; Hervais-Adelman et al., 2008). Here, we investigate whether training listeners with specific types of NV speech improves intelligibility of vocoded speech with different acoustic characteristics. Transfer of perceptual learning would provide evidence for abstraction from variable properties of the speech input. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that learning of NV speech in one frequency region generalizes to an untrained frequency region. In Experiment 2, we assessed generalization among three carrier signals used to create NV speech: noise bands, pulse trains, and sine waves. Stimuli created using these three carriers possess the same slow, time-varying amplitude information and are equated for naïve intelligibility but differ in their temporal fine structure. Perceptual learning generalized partially, but not completely, among different carrier signals. These results delimit the functional and neural locus of perceptual learning of vocoded speech. Generalization across frequency regions suggests that learning occurs at a stage of processing at which some abstraction from the physical signal has occurred, while incomplete transfer across carriers indicates that learning occurs at a stage of processing that is sensitive to acoustic features critical for speech perception (e.g., noise, periodicity).

  • 456.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tinnitus2019Inngår i: Somatisk sjukdom: ett biopsykosocialt perspektiv / [ed] Ali Sarkohi, Gerhard Andersson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 1, Vol. Sidorna 217-243, s. 217-243Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 457.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tinnitus in Context: A Contemporary Contextual Behavioral Approach2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus is the experience of sounds in the ears without any external auditory source and is a common, debilitating, chronic symptom for which we have yet to develop sufficiently efficacious interventions. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has evolved over the last 20 years to become the most empirically supported treatment for treating the adverse effects of tinnitus. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of individuals do not benefit from CBT-based treatments. In addition, the theoretical underpinnings of the CBT-model are poorly developed, the relative efficacy of isolated procedures has not yet been demonstrated, and the mechanisms of therapeutic change are largely unknown. These significant limitations preclude scientific progression and, as a consequence, leave many individuals with tinnitus suffering.

    To address some of these issues, a contextual multi-method, principle-focused inductive scientific strategy, based on pragmatic philosophy, was employed in the present thesis project. The overarching aim of the thesis was to explore the utility of a functional dimensional process in tinnitus: Experiential avoidance—experiential openness/acceptance (EA). EA is defined as the inclination to avoid or alter the frequency, duration, or intensity of unwanted internal sensations, including thoughts, feelings or physical sensations. The thesis is based on experimental work (Study II, VI), process and mediation studies (Study I, III, V), and on randomized controlled trials (Study III, IV).

    Three main sets of findings supported the utility of EA in tinnitus. First, an acceptance-based treatment (i.e.,Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, ACT) was found to be effective in controlled trials. Study III demonstrated that face-to-face ACT was more effective than a wait-list control and a habituation-based sound therapy. Study IV showed that internet-delivered ACT was more effective than an active control condition (internet-discussion forum) and equally effective as an established internet-delivered CBT treatment. Second, processes research (Study I, III, V) showed that key postulated processes of change were linked to the specific technology of ACT and that these changes in processes were associated with therapeutic outcomes. Specifically, Study V found evidence to that decreases in suppression of thoughts and feelings over the course of treatment were uniquely associated with therapeutic gains in ACT as compared with CBT. Third, experimental manipulations of experiential avoidance and acceptance processes provided support to the underlying dimension (Study II, VI). That is, Study II, employing an experimental manipulation, found that controlling background sounds were associated with reduced cognitive efficiency and increased tinnitus interference over repeated experimental trials. In addition, in normal hearing participants, experimentally induced mindfulness counteracted reduced persistence in a mentally challenging task in the presence of a tinnitus-like sound stemming from initial effortful suppression of the same sound (Study VI). It is concluded that a principle-, contextual-focused approach to treatment development may represent an efficient strategy for scientific progression in the field of psychological treatments of tinnitus severity.

    Delarbeid
    1. Clients' in-session acceptance and cognitive defusion behaviors in acceptance-based treatment of tinnitus distress.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Clients' in-session acceptance and cognitive defusion behaviors in acceptance-based treatment of tinnitus distress.
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 47, nr 6, s. 523-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) is considered to be an effective treatment of distress associated with tinnitus (perception of internal noises without any outer auditory stimulation), but the processes by which the therapy works remain unclear. Mindfulness and acceptance is receiving increased attention in the treatment literature for chronic medical conditions. However, few studies have examined these and related processes with behavioral or observer measures. In the present study 57 videotapes (a total of 1710min) from 19 clients who participated in a controlled trial of an acceptance-based treatment for tinnitus distress, were coded for frequency and peak level of verbal behaviors expressing either acceptance or cognitive defusion. Frequency of cognitive defusion behaviors and peak level of cognitive defusion as well as peak level of acceptance rated in Session 2, predicted symptom reduction 6 month following treatment. These relationships were not accounted for by the improvement that had occurred prior to the measurement point of the process variables. Moreover, prior symptom changes could not predict process variables rated later in therapy (after most of the improvement in therapy had occurred). Thus, clients' in-session acceptance and cognitive defusion behaviors appear to play an important role in the reduction of negative impact of tinnitus.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18989 (URN)10.1016/j.brat.2009.02.002 (DOI)19268281 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-06-07 Laget: 2009-06-07 Sist oppdatert: 2018-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Consequences of Controlling Background Sounds: The Effect of Experiential Avoidance on Tinnitus Interference
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Consequences of Controlling Background Sounds: The Effect of Experiential Avoidance on Tinnitus Interference
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: REHABILITATION PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0090-5550, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 381-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Masking by the use of sounds has been one of the most commonly applied means of coping with tinnitus. The ability to control auditory stimulation represents a potentially important process involved in tinnitus masking strategies. Little is, however, known about the consequences of control on tinnitus experience. The present study investigated the effects of control of background sounds (type and loudness) on perceived intrusiveness of tinnitus and cognitive performance. Design: Using an experimental design with a series of trials, participants with clinically significant tinnitus (N = 35) were randomly assigned to I of 2 experimental manipulation conditions (control of sounds vs. no control of sounds). Measures: Self-reported tinnitus interference and the Digit-Symbol subtest served as dependent measures. Results: Latent growth curve modeling showed that individuals assigned to the condition with control exhibited faster growth rates on tinnitus interference (increased interference) and demonstrated slower rates of improvement on cognitive performance measures over trials compared to individuals assigned to the condition with no control. Conclusion: These results suggest that efforts to control tinnitus through sounds can be associated with increased disability in individuals with tinnitus.

    Emneord
    tinnitus, control, tinnitus interference, cognitive functioning, experiential avoidance
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52818 (URN)10.1037/a0017565 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2010-01-12 Laget: 2010-01-12 Sist oppdatert: 2018-12-12
    3. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Tinnitus Retraining Therapy in the treatment of tinnitus: A randomised controlled trial
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Tinnitus Retraining Therapy in the treatment of tinnitus: A randomised controlled trial
    Vise andre…
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 49, nr 11, s. 737-747Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The study compared the effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) with Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) on tinnitus impact in a randomised controlled trial. Sixty-four normal hearing subjects with tinnitus were randomised to one of the active treatments or a wait-list control (WLC). The ACT treatment consisted of 10 weekly 60min sessions. The TRT treatment consisted of one 150min session, one 30min follow-up and continued daily use of wearable sound generators for a recommended period of at least 8h/day for 18 months. Assessments were made at baseline, 10 weeks, 6 months and 18 months. At 10 weeks, results showed a superior effect of ACT in comparison with the WLC regarding tinnitus impact (Cohen's d=1.04), problems with sleep and anxiety. The results were mediated by tinnitus acceptance. A comparison between the active treatments, including all assessment points, revealed significant differences in favour of ACT regarding tinnitus impact (Cohen's d=0.75) and problems with sleep. At 6 months, reliable improvement on the main outcome measure was found for 54.5% in the ACT condition and 20% in the TRT condition. The results suggest that ACT can reduce tinnitus distress and impact in a group of normal hearing tinnitus patients.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2011
    Emneord
    Acceptance and commitment therapy; Stress; Social workers; Burnout; Randomized controlled trial; Stress management
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71844 (URN)10.1016/j.brat.2011.08.001 (DOI)000296941700003 ()21864830 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-11-07 Laget: 2011-11-07 Sist oppdatert: 2018-12-12
    4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Tinnitus
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Tinnitus
    Vise andre…
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0022-006X, E-ISSN 1939-2117, Vol. 80, nr 4, s. 649-661Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Our aim in this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects on global tinnitus severity of 2 Internet-delivered psychological treatments, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in guided self-help format. Method: Ninety-nine participants (mean age = 48.5 years; 43% female) who were significantly distressed by tinnitus were recruited from the community. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT (n = 32), ACT (n = 35), or a control condition (monitored Internet discussion forum; n = 32), and they were assessed with standardized self-report measures (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; Quality of Life Inventory; Perceived Stress Scale; Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire) at pre-, posttreatment (8 weeks), and 1-year follow-up. Results: Mixed-effects linear regression analysis of all randomized participants showed significant effects on the primary outcome (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) for CBT and for ACT compared with control at posttreatment (95% CI [-17.03, -2.94], d = 0.70, and 95% CI [-16.29, -2.53], d = 0.68, respectively). Within-group effects were substantial from pretreatment through 1-year-follow-up for both treatments (95% CI [-44.65, -20.45], d = 1.34), with no significant difference between treatments (95% CI [-14.87, 11.21], d = 0.16). Conclusions: Acceptance-based procedures may be a viable alternative to traditional CBT techniques in the management of tinnitus. The Internet can improve access to psychological interventions for tinnitus.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association (APA), 2012
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76865 (URN)10.1037/a0027021 (DOI)000306861800011 ()22250855 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-04-20 Laget: 2012-04-20 Sist oppdatert: 2018-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Acceptance as a Mediator in Internet-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Tinnitus
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Acceptance as a Mediator in Internet-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Tinnitus
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite demonstrated efficacy of behavioral and cognitive techniques in treating the impact of tinnitus (constant ringing in the ears), little is known about the mechanisms by which these techniques achieve their effect. The present study examined acceptance of tinnitus as a potential mediator of treatment changes on global tinnitus severity in internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (iACT) and internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT). Data from 67 participants who were distressed by tinnitus and who were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 treatments were analyzed using a multilevel moderated mediation model. We predicted that acceptance as measured with the two subscales of the tinnitus acceptance questionnaire (i.e., activity engagement and tinnitus suppression) would mediate the outcome in iACT, but not in iCBT. Results provided partial support to the notion that mediation was moderated by treatment: tinnitus suppression mediated changes in tinnitus severity in iACT, but not in iCBT. However, inconsistent with the view that the treatments worked through different processes of change, activity engagement mediated treatment changes across both iACT and iCBT. Acceptance is identified as a key source of therapeutic change in behavioral-based treatments for tinnitus.

    Emneord
    Tinnitus, acceptance, mechanisms of change, internet-delivered selfhelp, cognitive behavior therapy
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88336 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-02-03 Laget: 2013-02-03 Sist oppdatert: 2014-11-28bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Costs of Suppressing Emotional Sound and Countereffects of a Mindfulness Induction: An Experimental Analog of Tinnitus Impact
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Costs of Suppressing Emotional Sound and Countereffects of a Mindfulness Induction: An Experimental Analog of Tinnitus Impact
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. e64540-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus is the experience of sounds without an appropriate external auditory source. These auditory sensations are intertwined with emotional and attentional processing. Drawing on theories of mental control, we predicted that suppressing an affectively negative sound mimicking the psychoacoustic features of tinnitus would result in decreased persistence in a mentally challenging task (mental arithmetic) that required participants to ignore the same sound, but that receiving a mindfulness exercise would reduce this effect. Normal hearing participants (N = 119) were instructed to suppress an affectively negative sound under cognitive load or were given no such instructions. Next, participants received either a mindfulness induction or an attention control task. Finally, all participants worked with mental arithmetic while exposed to the same sound. The length of time participants could persist in the second task served as the dependent variable. As hypothesized, results indicated that an auditory suppression rationale reduced time of persistence relative to no such rationale, and that a mindfulness induction counteracted this detrimental effect. The study may offer new insights into the mechanisms involved in the development of tinnitus interference. Implications are also discussed in the broader context of attention control strategies and the effects of emotional sound on task performance. The ironic processes of mental control may have an analog in the experience of sounds.

    Emneord
    Mental control, tinnitus, emotional sound, mindfulness, suppression
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88337 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0064540 (DOI)000318852400071 ()
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-02-03 Laget: 2013-02-03 Sist oppdatert: 2018-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 458.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Backe, Victoria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Engstrand, Jonna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Tina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Holmgren, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jeppsson, Ulrika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Pollack, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Norden, Kjell
    Alternat Violence, Sweden.
    Rosenqvist, Dan
    Alternat Violence, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Preventing intimate partner violence via the Internet: A randomized controlled trial of emotion-regulation and conflict-management training for individuals with aggression problems2017Inngår i: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, ISSN 1063-3995, E-ISSN 1099-0879, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 1163-1177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of an Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT), which incorporated emotion-regulation and conflict-resolution techniques, on intimate partner violence (IPV). Another aim was to test the theoretical underpinnings of the treatment model using mediation analysis.

    Method

    Sixty-five participants with aggression problems in intimate adult relationships were recruited from the community and were randomly assigned to iCBT or to a monitored waitlist control. Participants were assessed with standardized self-report measures of IPV or aggression (Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse, Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, and Aggression Questionnaire), relationship quality (Dyadic Adjustment Scale), anxiety or depression symptomatology (Patient Health Questionnaire; Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener), at pretreatment, posttreatment (8 weeks), and 1-year follow-up. Process variables (subscales of Dysfunctional and Emotional Regulation Scale and Anger Rumination Scale) were assessed weekly over the active treatment phase.

    Results

    Robust linear regression analysis of all randomized participants showed significant treatment effects on emotional abuse relative to control at postassessment. Mediation analysis using growth curve modeling revealed that the treatment effect was partially mediated by changes in emotion-regulation ability. Controlled effects on secondary outcomes were also observed. Analyses of uncontrolled effects indicted that gains on IPV were maintained at 1-year follow-up.

    Conclusions

    iCBT focusing on enhancing conflict-resolution skills and emotion-regulation ability has the potential to reduce IPV among self-recruited individuals with mild forms of abusive behaviour in intimate relationships. Emotion-regulation ability is potentially a key therapeutic process of change.

    Key Practitioner Message

    • Internet-delivered clinician-guided cognitive behaviour therapy is a viable treatment option for reducing intimate partner violence among self-recruited individuals with mild forms of abusive behaviour.
    • For persons who display patterns of frequent and severe violence, other treatments are most likely needed.
    • Emotion-regulation training is potentially a key therapeutic component that ought to be incorporated in interventions targeting IPV.
  • 459.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Engstrand, Jonna
    Jeppsson, Ulrika
    Gustafsson, Tina
    Axelsson, Sandra
    Pollack, Maria
    Bäcke, Viktoria
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Internet-delivered acceptance-based skills training for the prevention of interpersonal violence2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 460.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Tore
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lundén, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Henrikson, Oskar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Fattahi, Kidjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johnsson, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Westin Zetterqvist, Vendela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Teknisk audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatric Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    A Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Tinnitus2012Inngår i: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0022-006X, E-ISSN 1939-2117, Vol. 80, nr 4, s. 649-661Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Our aim in this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects on global tinnitus severity of 2 Internet-delivered psychological treatments, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in guided self-help format. Method: Ninety-nine participants (mean age = 48.5 years; 43% female) who were significantly distressed by tinnitus were recruited from the community. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT (n = 32), ACT (n = 35), or a control condition (monitored Internet discussion forum; n = 32), and they were assessed with standardized self-report measures (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; Quality of Life Inventory; Perceived Stress Scale; Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire) at pre-, posttreatment (8 weeks), and 1-year follow-up. Results: Mixed-effects linear regression analysis of all randomized participants showed significant effects on the primary outcome (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) for CBT and for ACT compared with control at posttreatment (95% CI [-17.03, -2.94], d = 0.70, and 95% CI [-16.29, -2.53], d = 0.68, respectively). Within-group effects were substantial from pretreatment through 1-year-follow-up for both treatments (95% CI [-44.65, -20.45], d = 1.34), with no significant difference between treatments (95% CI [-14.87, 11.21], d = 0.16). Conclusions: Acceptance-based procedures may be a viable alternative to traditional CBT techniques in the management of tinnitus. The Internet can improve access to psychological interventions for tinnitus.

  • 461.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hedman, E.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindfors, P.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, E.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ljotsson, B.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    The specific effect of systematic exposure in irritable bowel syndrome: complier average causal effect analysis using growth mixture modeling2017Inngår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 47, nr 15, s. 2653-2662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. We reanalyzed data from a previously published randomized component study that aimed to test the incremental effect of systematic exposure in an internet-delivered cognitive behavioral treatment (ICBT) for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods. Three hundred and nine individuals with IBS were randomly assigned to either the full treatment protocol (experimental condition) or the same treatment protocol without systematic exposure (control). Participants were assessed weekly for IBS symptoms over the active treatment phase. We used a complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis, in the growth mixture modeling framework, to (1) examine the specific effect of exposure among those who received the intervention (i.e. compliers), and (2) explore the associations of pre-treatment patient characteristics with compliance status and outcome changes. Results. Fifty-five per cent of those assigned to the experimental condition were classified as compliers. The CACE analysis that took into account compliance status demonstrated that the magnitude of the incremental effect of systematic exposure on IBS symptoms was larger than the effect observed in an intention-to-treat analysis that ignored compliance status (d = 0.81 v. d = 0.44). Patients with university education showed more improvement during the exposure phase of the treatment. Pre-treatment patient characteristics did not predict compliance status. Conclusions. The effect of systematic exposure on IBS symptoms is of substantial magnitude among those individuals who actually receive the intervention (CACE). Studying the subsample of individuals who discontinue treatment prematurely and tailoring interventions to improve compliance may increase overall improvement rates in ICBT for IBS.

  • 462.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Perjohan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    How Does Exposure Therapy Work? A Comparison Between Generic and Gastrointestinal Anxiety-Specific Mediators in a Dismantling Study of Exposure Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome2018Inngår i: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0022-006X, E-ISSN 1939-2117, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 254-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Systematic exposure is potentially an effective treatment procedure for treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about the processes by which it achieves its effect on outcome. The aim of this study was to identify mediators in a previously published randomized dismantling trial in which participants with IBS were randomized to Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment (ICBT) that incorporated systematic exposure or to the same treatment protocol without exposure (ICBT-WE). Method: Weekly measurements of gastrointestinal anxiety-specific process variables (behavioral avoidance, gastrointestinal-specific anxiety) based on the gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety model, generic process variables (self-efficacy and mindful nonreactivity), and treatment outcome (IBS symptoms) were obtained from 309 participants with IBS. Growth models and cross-lagged panel models, estimated within structural equation modeling, were employed to evaluate mediators of outcome. Results: Parallel process growth modeling showed that behavioral avoidance, gastrointestinal-specific anxiety, self-efficacy mediated the incremental effect of ICBT compared to ICBT-WE. The mediated effect of avoidance was stronger for individuals scoring high on the avoidance variable at 1st measurement point. Cross-lagged regression analyses with random effects revealed that behavioral avoidance and gastrointestinal-specific anxiety had a stronger effect on subsequent symptom change rather than vice versa, whereas mindful nonreactivity and self-efficacy displayed the opposite pattern. Conclusions: The evidence collectively provided support for the hypothesis that exposure for IBS achieves its positive results by virtue of changing gastrointestinal anxiety-specific processes rather than generic processes. IBS-specific behavioral avoidance emerged as the most clear-cut mediator of the specific effect of exposure on outcome.

  • 463.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Molander, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jungermann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Costs of Suppressing Emotional Sound and Countereffects of a Mindfulness Induction: An Experimental Analog of Tinnitus Impact2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. e64540-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus is the experience of sounds without an appropriate external auditory source. These auditory sensations are intertwined with emotional and attentional processing. Drawing on theories of mental control, we predicted that suppressing an affectively negative sound mimicking the psychoacoustic features of tinnitus would result in decreased persistence in a mentally challenging task (mental arithmetic) that required participants to ignore the same sound, but that receiving a mindfulness exercise would reduce this effect. Normal hearing participants (N = 119) were instructed to suppress an affectively negative sound under cognitive load or were given no such instructions. Next, participants received either a mindfulness induction or an attention control task. Finally, all participants worked with mental arithmetic while exposed to the same sound. The length of time participants could persist in the second task served as the dependent variable. As hypothesized, results indicated that an auditory suppression rationale reduced time of persistence relative to no such rationale, and that a mindfulness induction counteracted this detrimental effect. The study may offer new insights into the mechanisms involved in the development of tinnitus interference. Implications are also discussed in the broader context of attention control strategies and the effects of emotional sound on task performance. The ironic processes of mental control may have an analog in the experience of sounds.

  • 464.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Weise, Cornelia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Tinnitus Distress2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 465.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Weise, Cornelia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Is CBT effective in the treatment of distress associated with tinnitus?: A systematic review and meta-analysis2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 466.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Westin, Vendela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hayes, Steven
    University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Clients’ in-session acceptance and cognitive defusion behaviors in ACT treatment of tinnitus distress2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 467.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Acceptance as a Mediator in Internet-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for TinnitusManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite demonstrated efficacy of behavioral and cognitive techniques in treating the impact of tinnitus (constant ringing in the ears), little is known about the mechanisms by which these techniques achieve their effect. The present study examined acceptance of tinnitus as a potential mediator of treatment changes on global tinnitus severity in internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (iACT) and internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT). Data from 67 participants who were distressed by tinnitus and who were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 treatments were analyzed using a multilevel moderated mediation model. We predicted that acceptance as measured with the two subscales of the tinnitus acceptance questionnaire (i.e., activity engagement and tinnitus suppression) would mediate the outcome in iACT, but not in iCBT. Results provided partial support to the notion that mediation was moderated by treatment: tinnitus suppression mediated changes in tinnitus severity in iACT, but not in iCBT. However, inconsistent with the view that the treatments worked through different processes of change, activity engagement mediated treatment changes across both iACT and iCBT. Acceptance is identified as a key source of therapeutic change in behavioral-based treatments for tinnitus.

  • 468.
    Hesser, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Acceptance as a mediator in internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive behavior therapy for tinnitus2014Inngår i: Journal of behavioral medicine, ISSN 0160-7715, E-ISSN 1573-3521, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 756-767Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite demonstrated efficacy of behavioral and cognitive techniques in treating the impact of tinnitus (constant ringing in the ears), little is known about the mechanisms by which these techniques achieve their effect. The present study examined acceptance of tinnitus as a potential mediator of treatment changes on global tinnitus severity in internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (iACT) and internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT). Data from 67 participants who were distressed by tinnitus and who were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 treatments were analyzed using a multilevel moderated mediation model. We predicted that acceptance as measured with the two subscales of the tinnitus acceptance questionnaire (i.e., activity engagement and tinnitus suppression) would mediate the outcome in iACT, but not in iCBT. Results provided partial support to the notion that mediation was moderated by treatment: tinnitus suppression mediated changes in tinnitus severity in iACT, but not in iCBT. However, inconsistent with the view that the treatments worked through different processes of change, activity engagement mediated treatment changes across both iACT and iCBT. Acceptance is identified as a key source of therapeutic change in behavioral-based treatments for tinnitus.

  • 469.
    Heyne, David
    et al.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus.
    Melvin, Glenn
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Gentle-Genitty, Carolyn
    Indiana Univ, IN 47405 USA.
    Differentiation Between School Attendance Problems: Why and How?2019Inngår i: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, ISSN 1077-7229, E-ISSN 1878-187X, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 8-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    School attendance problems (SAPs) are heterogeneous with respect to etiology and presentation. The long history of conceptualizing SAPs has led to a vast array of terms and definitions as well as different perspectives on the most helpful approach to classification. For educators, practitioners, researchers, and policymakers, this presents a challenge in understanding, assessing, and intervening with SAPs. This paper outlines evolution in the conceptualization of SAPs, focusing on two contemporary approaches to differentiating between them. One approach draws on the longstanding differentiation between SAP types labeled school refusal, truancy, and school withdrawal. A fourth type of SAP, labeled school exclusion, is also considered. The other approach focuses on the function of absenteeism, measured via the School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS). Anecdotal and scientific support for the SAP typology is presented, along with the benefits and shortcomings of the SRAS approach to differentiation. The paper offers suggestions for how to differentiate between SAPs and introduces the SNACK, a brief screening measure that permits differentiation by SAP type.

  • 470.
    Hill, Teci
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Allians under tvång: Behandlingssamarbete mellan elever och personal på särskilda ungdomshem2005Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of treatment alliance between staff and juvenile delinquent boys in institutional treatment under the Swedish Board of Institutions (SiS).

    The aim of this study is twofold. First, the purpose is to explore alliance phenomena in correctional institutions for young delinquents in their qualitative, rather than quantitative, aspects. Second, the study aims to explore possible preconditions - obstacles and possibilities - for the development of a genuine treatment alliance between staff and youth. In a case-within-cases design, eight boys in two institutions were followed throughout their treatments. Through participant observations, interviews, and on the basis of their case files I collected data from both the youths and the staff at different points of time during the treatment. Information from the three data sources was used for the purpose of triangulation and mutual validation.

    The main findings indicate the existence of two kinds of alliance processes, one a genuine alliance and the other a sham alliance one. The genuine alliance appears to be a rare occurrence at these institutions. On the contrary, close examination reveals that a high level of institutional adjustment on the part of a boy in custody often reflects mere sham alliance. The sham alliance builds upon a strong tacit mutual agreement between the boy and the staff to establish a non-change relation. The stronger the staff-youth agreement about this kind of relation, the stronger the sham alliance. Sham alliance serves the common avoidance of conflicting emotions (at unconscious and conscious levels) and contributes to momentary symptomatic relief. Equally important, sham alliance generates an atmosphere of calm and peace on the ward. Among several factors, one of the most significant obstacles to the development of genuine alliance is the fact that the boy is admitted to the institution not on his own will but typically strongly against it. Factors that promote the development of a genuine alliance within a correctional institution are discussed finally.

  • 471.
    Hjert, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Johansson, Rose-Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Tryggare kan ingen vara: – Polisers upplevelse och uppfattning av förberedelse inför livshotande och potentiellt traumatiserande händelser i tjänst.2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur poliser i yttre tjänst uppfattar att polisens grund- samt vidareutbildning, fyller behovet av förberedelse inför livshotande och potentiellt traumatiserande händelser i deras yrkesutövning. Datainsamling gjordes med hjälp av strukturerade intervjuer. Informanterna bestod av 10 polisassistenter ifrån myndigheterna i Linköping, Motala och Norrköping. Urvalet gjordes på basis av antal tjänsteår, där inklusionskriterierna var att informanterna skulle ha fått hela, den under 2005 införda, bastaktiken under grundutbildningen. Detta resulterade i att informanterna, efter 6 månaders aspiranttjänstgöring, hade arbetat mellan 2-14 månader. Resultatet visar att samtliga informanter känner sig väl förberedda inför livshotande och potentiellt traumatiserande händelser i tjänst, så väl det går att förberedas inför detta genom teori och praktiska övningar. Dock kan informanterna inte beskriva att de ännu tagit del av någon vidareutbildning kopplad till frågeställningen, vilket kan bero på den relativt korta tid de varit i tjänst.

  • 472. Holländare, Fredrik
    et al.
    Anthony, Susanne A
    Randestad, Mia
    Tillfors, Maria
    Carlbring, Per
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Ingemar
    Two-year outcome of internet-based relapse prevention for partially remitted depression2013Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 51, nr 11, s. 719-722Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of internet-based relapse prevention for sufferers of partially remitted depression. Eighty-four individuals with partially remitted unipolar depression were randomized to either internet-based CBT (iCBT) or to a control group. After the ten week intervention period the participants were followed for 24 months and diagnostic interviews conducted to detect relapse. The intervention and monthly self-ratings of depressive symptoms were administered via an internet-based platform that ensured secure communication with all participants. Significantly fewer participants in the iCBT group had experienced a relapse compared with those in the control group two years after the internet-based intervention. The relapse rate in the iCBT group was 13.7% (CI 95%=2.5-24.9) and in the control group it was 60.9% (CI 95%=44.8-77). Furthermore, a significantly larger proportion of the iCBT group experienced remission two years after the intervention compared with the control group. Internet-based CBT seems promising for preventing relapse in sufferers of partially remitted depression.

  • 473.
    Holländare, Fredrik
    et al.
    Psychiatric Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Sanna Aila
    Psychiatric Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Berglind, Maria
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Grape, Frida
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Division of Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hadjistavropoulos, Heather
    Department of Psychology, University of Regina, Regina, Canada.
    Tillfors, Maria
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Therapist behaviours in internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for depressive symptoms2016Inngår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 3, s. 1-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is efficacious for treating depression, with therapist guidance identified as important for favourable outcomes. We have limited knowledge, however, about the fundamental components of therapist guidance in ICBT. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine therapist messages sent to patients during the course of ICBT for depressive symptoms in order to identify common “therapist behaviours” and the extent to which these behaviours correlate with completion of modules and improvements in symptoms at post-treatment, one- and two-year follow-up. A total of 664 e-mails from 5 therapists to 42 patients were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The most frequent behaviour was encouraging that accounted for 31.5% of the total number of coded behaviours. This was followed by affirming (25.1%), guiding (22.2%) and urging (9.8%). Less frequently the therapists clarified the internet treatment frameworkinformed about module contentemphasised the importance of patient responsibilityconfronted the patient and made self-disclosures. Six of the nine identified therapist behaviours correlated with module completion. Three behaviours correlated with symptom improvement. Affirmingcorrelated significantly (r = .42, p = .005) with improvement in depressive symptoms at post-treatment and after two years (r = .39, p = .014). Encouraging was associated with outcome directly after treatment (r = .52, p = .001). Self-disclosure was correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms at post-treatment (r = .44, p = .003). The study contributes to a better understanding of therapist behaviours in ICBT for depressive symptoms. Future directions for research are discussed.

  • 474.
    Holmdahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Rydell, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Internetbehandling i verkligheten: En öppen effectivenesstudie av individanpassad internetbehandling i Norrköpings primärvård2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie utvärderades effekterna av en individanpassad vägledd självhjälpsbehandling för primärvårdspatienter meddepressiva symtom, och i förekommande fall annan psykisk ohälsa såsom ångestproblematik. Uppsatsen avsåg även att iexplorativt syfte undersöka hur behandlare och patienter upplevt behandlingsmetoden. Uppsatsen var en del i ett större projektsom beräknades pågå fram till 2012. Urvalsgruppen i denna studie var de 39 patienter som erbjöds behandlingsstart senast 11februari 2011. Behandlingseffekterna beräknades dels utifrån de 24 patienter som vid tiden för datainsamling genomfört minst trebehandlingskapitel, och dels de 13 patienter som avslutat behandlingen och fyllt i eftermätningar. Patienternas omdömen ombehandlingen inhämtades med hjälp av en utvärderingsenkät och behandlarna ombads att bidra med sina erfarenheter ochförbättringsförslag via ett frågeformulär.Resultaten visar att behandlingen har måttlig till stor effekt på depressionssymtom och måttlig effekt på ångestsymtom för deprimärvårdspatienter som genomgår den. Av de 14 patienter som fyllde i utvärderingen var majoriteten huvudsakligen nöjda ellermycket nöjda med sin behandling. Av behandlarnas svar framgick enhälligt att de önskar att internetbehandling ska finnas kvarinom Norrköpings primärvård som ett komplement till annan psykologisk behandling. Det avsevärda bortfallet av deltagare istudien pekar på att behandlingsformatet inte passar alla primärvårdspatienter. Angelägna frågor för framtida forskning är attutröna vilken subgrupp av primärvårdspatienter som är bäst betjänta av behandling via internet, samt att göra effectivenesstudiermed en jämförelsegrupp som får treatment as usual.

  • 475.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Signs for Developing Reading: Sign Language and Reading Development in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading development is supported by strong language skills, not least in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. The work in the present thesis investigates reading development in DHH children who use sign language, attend Regional Special Needs Schools (RSNS) in Sweden and are learning to read. The primary aim of the present work was to investigate whether the reading skills of these children can be improved via computerized sign language based literacy training. Another aim was to investigate concurrent and longitudinal associations between skills in reading, sign language, and cognition in this population. The results suggest that sign language based literacy training may support development of word reading. In addition, awareness and manipulation of the sub-lexical structure of sign language seem to assist word reading, and imitation of familiar signs (i.e., vocabulary) may be associated with developing reading comprehension. The associations revealed between sign language skills and reading development support the notion that sign language skills provide a foundation for emerging reading skills in DHH signing children. In addition, the results also suggest that working memory and Theory of Mind (ToM) are related to reading comprehension in this population. Furthermore, the results indicate that sign language experience enhances the establishment of representations of manual gestures, and that progression in ToM seems to be typical, although delayed, in RSNS pupils. Working memory has a central role in integrating environmental stimuli and language-mediated representations, and thereby provides a platform for cross-modal language processing and multimodal language development.

    Delarbeid
    1. Evidence of an association between sign language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Evidence of an association between sign language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 48, s. 145-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

    Children with good phonological awareness (PA) are often good word readers. Here, we asked whether Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children who are more aware of the phonology of Swedish Sign Language, a language with no orthography, are better at reading words in Swedish.

    METHODS AND PROCEDURES:

    We developed the Cross-modal Phonological Awareness Test (C-PhAT) that can be used to assess PA in both Swedish Sign Language (C-PhAT-SSL) and Swedish (C-PhAT-Swed), and investigated how C-PhAT performance was related to word reading as well as linguistic and cognitive skills. We validated C-PhAT-Swed and administered C-PhAT-Swed and C-PhAT-SSL to DHH children who attended Swedish deaf schools with a bilingual curriculum and were at an early stage of reading.

    OUTCOMES AND RESULTS:

    C-PhAT-SSL correlated significantly with word reading for DHH children. They performed poorly on C-PhAT-Swed and their scores did not correlate significantly either with C-PhAT-SSL or word reading, although they did correlate significantly with cognitive measures.

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

    These results provide preliminary evidence that DHH children with good sign language PA are better at reading words and show that measures of spoken language PA in DHH children may be confounded by individual differences in cognitive skills.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2016
    Emneord
    Deafness; Handshape; Phonological awareness; Sign language; Word reading
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122930 (URN)10.1016/j.ridd.2015.10.008 (DOI)000367766100014 ()26561215 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008-0846
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-30 Laget: 2015-11-30 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-01bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, nr 107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Ronnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into account. These results demonstrate that experience of sign language enhances the ability to imitate manual gestures once representations have been established, and suggest that the inherent motor patterns of lexical manual gestures are better suited for representation than those of non-signs. This set of findings prompts a developmental version of the ELU model, D-ELU.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2016
    Emneord
    imitation; sign language; manual gesture; representation; development
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125800 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00107 (DOI)000370127400001 ()26909050 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-08 Laget: 2016-03-04 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-10
    3. Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, nr 854Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is related to reading comprehension in hearing children. In the present study, we investigated progression in ToM in Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children who were learning to read, as well as its assocation with reading comprehension. Thirteen children at Swedish state primary schools for DHH children performed a Swedish Sign Language (SSL) version of the Wellman and Liu (2004) ToM scale, along with tests of reading comprehension, SSL comprehension, and working memory. Results indicated that ToM progression did not differ from that reported in previous studies, although ToM development was delayed despite age-appropriate sign language skills. Correlation analysis revealed that ToM was associated with reading comprehension and working memory, but not sign language comprehension. We propose that some factor not investigated in the present study, possibly represented by inference making constrained by working memory capacity, supports both ToM and reading comprehension and may thus explain the results observed in the present study.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Frontiers, 2016
    Emneord
    Deaf and hard-of-hearing, Theory of Mind, sign language, working memory, reading comprehension, Children
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128253 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00854 (DOI)000377254900001 ()
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-24 Laget: 2016-05-24 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-10
    4. Computerized Sign Language-Based Literacy Trainingfor Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Computerized Sign Language-Based Literacy Trainingfor Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, E-ISSN 1465-7325, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 404-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Strengthening the connections between sign language and written language may improve reading skills in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether computerized sign language-based literacy training improves reading skills in DHH signing children who are learning to read. Further, longitudinal associations between sign language skills and developing reading skills were investigated. Participants were recruited from Swedish state special schools for DHH children, where pupils are taught in both sign language and spoken language. Reading skills were assessed at five occasions and the intervention was implemented in a cross-over design. Results indicated that reading skills improved over time and that development of word reading was predicted by the ability to imitate unfamiliar lexical signs, but there was only weak evidence that it was supported by the intervention. These results demonstrate for the first time a longitudinal link between sign-based abilities and word reading in DHH signing children who are learning to read. We suggest that the active construction of novel lexical forms may be a supramodal mechanism underlying word reading development.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141161 (URN)10.1093/deafed/enx023 (DOI)000412206300006 ()28961874 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]; Swedish Hearing Foundation [B2015/480]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-09-25 Laget: 2017-09-25 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-13bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 476.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Evidence of an association between sign language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children2016Inngår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 48, s. 145-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

    Children with good phonological awareness (PA) are often good word readers. Here, we asked whether Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children who are more aware of the phonology of Swedish Sign Language, a language with no orthography, are better at reading words in Swedish.

    METHODS AND PROCEDURES:

    We developed the Cross-modal Phonological Awareness Test (C-PhAT) that can be used to assess PA in both Swedish Sign Language (C-PhAT-SSL) and Swedish (C-PhAT-Swed), and investigated how C-PhAT performance was related to word reading as well as linguistic and cognitive skills. We validated C-PhAT-Swed and administered C-PhAT-Swed and C-PhAT-SSL to DHH children who attended Swedish deaf schools with a bilingual curriculum and were at an early stage of reading.

    OUTCOMES AND RESULTS:

    C-PhAT-SSL correlated significantly with word reading for DHH children. They performed poorly on C-PhAT-Swed and their scores did not correlate significantly either with C-PhAT-SSL or word reading, although they did correlate significantly with cognitive measures.

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

    These results provide preliminary evidence that DHH children with good sign language PA are better at reading words and show that measures of spoken language PA in DHH children may be confounded by individual differences in cognitive skills.

  • 477.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Imitation and language development in deaf and hearing schoolchildren2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Deaf signing children and hearing children reveal different developmental trajectories in several aspects of neurocognitive functioning; however, comparative studies of imitation across these groups are lacking. Imitation has been suggested to play a part in language and cognitive development, and the ability to imitate indicates multi-modal integration and analysis (e.g., Meltzoff & Williamson, 2013). Thus, understanding the function of imitation in typical and atypical groups is of theoretical interest, but may also have practical implications. Because sign language is gesture based, it is likely that deaf signing children can tap into existing linguistic representations during gesture imitation whereas only motor representations are available for nonsigning individuals. Thus, gesture imitation is likely to be supported by different cognitive skills in the signing and non-signing individuals. Importantly, imitation may expose qualities of generic mechanisms in the representational system. Method: Thirteen school-aged deaf users of Swedish Sign Language and 36 hearing nonsigning children, at similar levels of non-verbal cognitive ability and word reading skills, performed an experimental imitation task. The task involved spontaneous imitation of a set of manual gestures. Participants performed the task at two occasions, separated by 35 weeks. Tests of nonverbal intelligence, visual working memory, phonological awareness, word reading and reading comprehension were also administered. We investigated the precision of the imitative acts across groups and time, as well as relationships between imitative precision and cognitive and language skills in both groups. Results: A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that deaf signers imitate manual gestures with greater precision than hearing non-signing children. Further, improvement in imitative precision over time was greater for deaf than for hearing participants. Correlational patterns indicated that imitative precision was positively associated with language skills in both groups. Specifically, for deaf children, word reading skills at both assessment points and performance on a sign similarity judgment task at the second assessment were correlated positively with imitative precision. For the hearing participants, positive connections to word reading skills and performance on a rhyme task were observed at the second assessment point. In both groups, a significant connection between imitative precision and reading comprehension was observed at the second assessment point. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that sign language experience enhances the ability to imitate manual gestures longitudinally. They also show that imitation ability is linked to language skills in the non-manual, speech-related domain. We propose that the precision of imitative acts reflects the quality of linguistic and motor representations and the ability to employ them in language processing.

  • 478.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sign language phonological awareness supports word reading in deaf beginning readers2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spoken language phonological awareness (PA) supports word reading development in hearing children; however, deaf children, who have non-functional levels of hearing and a signed language as their first language, seem to utilize their first language skills to learn to read. We developed a new phonological decision task that can be used to assess PA in both spoken and signed languages, and investigated how these skills were related to word reading in deaf beginning readers (Study 1). We also investigated the validity of our new task in hearing beginning readers (Study 2). Thirteen deaf beginning readers with a mean age of 10 years (SD=2.3) participated in Study 1; in Study 2, 36 normal hearing children with a mean age of 7.5 years (SD=0.3) took part. Groups were well matched on word reading, non-verbal intelligence, and gender distribution. The deaf children performed the new phonological decision task both as a sign similarity task and as a rhyme task; hearing children only performed a rhyme task. Participants also performed motor speed, cognitive speed, working memory, word decoding and lexical decision tasks; in addition, hearing children completed an established test of PA. Correlational analyses across studies indicated that the new task is a valid measure of PA, and that first language PA supports word reading, even when surface forms of first and reading language are completely different. Sign language PA may support word-to-sign mapping or some aspect of orthographic analysis; however, future studies should investigate what the exact function of this skill is.

  • 479.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    The effects of computerized sign language based literacy training in Deaf beginning readers2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 480.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, nr 854Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is related to reading comprehension in hearing children. In the present study, we investigated progression in ToM in Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children who were learning to read, as well as its assocation with reading comprehension. Thirteen children at Swedish state primary schools for DHH children performed a Swedish Sign Language (SSL) version of the Wellman and Liu (2004) ToM scale, along with tests of reading comprehension, SSL comprehension, and working memory. Results indicated that ToM progression did not differ from that reported in previous studies, although ToM development was delayed despite age-appropriate sign language skills. Correlation analysis revealed that ToM was associated with reading comprehension and working memory, but not sign language comprehension. We propose that some factor not investigated in the present study, possibly represented by inference making constrained by working memory capacity, supports both ToM and reading comprehension and may thus explain the results observed in the present study.

  • 481.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Designing for Resourcefulness in Service: Some Assumptions and Consequences2012Inngår i: Service Design with Theory: Discussions on Change, Value and Methods / [ed] Satu Miettinen, Anu Valtonen, Lapland University Press , 2012, s. 151-172Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on design for service has mainly concerned itself with understanding the design process. In this research paper focus will be shifted towards service performances, based on a suggested model that can work as an aid to distinguish between different stages in the service development life-cycle and in co-creation of value. In a service performance, participants will enter with resources, competence and attitudes.

    What if we view every person in the performance of a service as resourceful? What are the assumptions? How does it fit with figures of thought in service and design research? Which consequences does it bring? The analysis will be based on situated cognition and socio-cultural theories. In contrast to activity theory, theories that highlight emergent activities and participation will be used. It is shown that, design research on service research can find a good foundation in theoretical concepts such as activity theory, zone of proximal development and legitimate peripheral participation, to direct future development of the area.

  • 482.
    Holmlund, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Lindegaard, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    UNG: Allians i vägledd iKBT för ungdomar med depression och samsjuklighet: - En prediktionsstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för UNG-projektet avsåg föreliggande studie undersöka alliansens betydelse i vägledd iKBT för ungdomar mellan 15-19 år med depression och samsjuklighet. Vidare ämnade studien undersöka alliansens utveckling under behandlingens gång. Totalt inkluderades 70 deltagare till projektet, där aktuell studie använde data från de 35 deltagare som randomiserats till behandlingsgrupp. Det prediktiva värdet hos allians, mätt med Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S), beräknades utifrån partiell korrelationsanalys. Utfallsmåttet utgjordes av förändringsvärden i Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) mellan för- och eftermätning. I syfte att undersöka alliansens utveckling genomfördes envägs variationsanalys (ANOVA) med upprepad mätning. Resultatet gav inga indikationer på att deltagarskattad allians predicerar behandlingsutfall, varken före eller tidigt i behandling. Inte heller tidig behandlarskattad allians tycks predicera utfall. Vidare visade resultatet att deltagarnas alliansskattning förändrades i positiv riktning över tid, där det förelåg en signifikant skillnad mellan för- och eftermätning. Studiens resultat tyder således på att allians är möjligt att uppnå i iKBT för ungdomar i samma utsträckning som i sedvanlig behandling, men att den inte tycks ha samma betydelse för utfall. Vidare forskning på allians och andra potentiella prediktorer är nödvändig för att ytterligare effektivisera, vidareutveckla och förbättra internetbehandling för målgruppen.

  • 483.
    Holmquist, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    "En psykolog till alla!": En diskursanalytisk studie av den svenska psykologprofessionen 1990-20102012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Fastän psykologer och psykologins ställning i samhället ofta sägs ha förändrats så finns det väldigt lite forskning gjord på yrket. Särskilt saknas det studier som inriktar sig på att undersöka omdaningar i den svenska psykologprofessionen över tid. Syftet med uppsatsen är att granska, beskriva och analysera den svenska psykologprofessionen mellan åren 1990 och 2010. Studien empiriska material utgörs av de nummer av Psykologtidningen, vilket är Svenska Psykologförbundets officiella tidning, som utgivits under dessa år. Dessa har analyserats med hjälp av en diskursanalytisk ansats som utgår från de metoder och teorier som den franska historikern och filosofen Michel Foucault utarbetade. Som analysredskap har även Foucaults begrepp styrningsmentalitet (eng.governmentality) använts för att kunna positionera fynden i ett större historiskt perspektiv.  

    Resultatet visar på att diskursen om psykologprofessionen har genomgått ett antal förändringar sedan början av nittiotalet. Den dominanta ställning som psykoterapeutpositionen haft sedan 1980-talet har börjat luckras upp och i dess ställe har nya yrkesuppgifter såsom testning, handledning och chefskap vuxit fram med konsekvensen att yrket blivit mer heterogent. Det har även skett en förskjutning i fokus från vikten av att inrikta sig på att behandla psykisk ohälsa till att främja hälsa, vilket medfört att man börjat röra sig bort från de psykiatriska verksamheterna. Istället framhävs vikten av att arbeta inom förebyggande verksamheter såsom vårdcentraler, skolor och företagshälsor.  Utöver detta har yrket omformulerat sitt förhållande till det omgivande samhället. Sedan mitten på 1990-talet så har det börjat ses allt mindre självklart att psykologer skall arbeta inom den offentliga sektorn. Psykologkåren har även försökt anpassa yrkesrollen till att bli mer gångbar i media. Dessutom har man börjat uttrycka psykologins förtjänster i mer ekonomiska termer, i syfte att konkret kunna visa på ens nytta för samhället. Slutligen har synen på yrkets kunskapsgrund skiftat då psykoanalysen tappat i inflytande. Istället har en mängd andra teorier och modeller brett ut sig med implikationer för yrkets vetenskapsfilosofiska antaganden. Samtidigt har det skett en mer praktisk och politisk kodifiering av vilka former av kunskap som ses som trovärdiga, i och med etablerandet av en specialistordning samt den omskakande debatten om evidensbasering. Dessa händelser har påverkat vilken forskning som ses som tillförlitlig för psykologens arbetsutövning.  

    Förändringarna gällande diskursen kring psykologyrket kan förstås i ljuset av en förskjutning i den dominerande styrningsmentaliteten i det svenska samhället, från en välfärdbaserad till en neoliberal styrningsform. Detta har medfört att psykologprofessionen har haft nya samhälleliga krav och behov att förhålla sig till, mot vilka man har artikulerat sin samtida yrkesutövning.

  • 484.
    Holmqvist, Hannah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Nordlinder, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Vårdpersonals beskrivningar av transsexuella patienter2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka hur vårdpersonalen på en vårdavdelning beskriver transsexuella patienter och mötet med dessa. Sammantaget har tolv personer från olika yrkesgrupper på Hand- och Plastikkirurgiska avdelningen (HPK) på Universitetssjukhuset i Linköping intervjuats. På HPK utförs könsbytesoperationer, och inom psykiatrin på samma sjukhus görs utredningar, som ligger till grund för könsbytet. Intervjuerna har analyserats med hjälp av diskursanalys. Utifrån informanternas beskrivningar framkom en mångfacetterad bild av transsexuella patienter, som i vissa stycken visade sig vara både paradoxal och komplex. Resultaten har tolkats som att de transsexuella patienterna utmanar vårdpersonalens syn på patienter utifrån det faktum att de både är annorlunda än andra patienter, och inte. Det finns en tvekan i att beskriva dem som sjuka, men samtidigt upplevs dessa patienter vara i stort behov av vård. Vidare beskrivs det specifika för patientgruppen i termer av att dessa patienter är pålästa och fokuserade. Dessutom uppfattas det inte sällan av vårdpersonalen som mycket speciellt och positivt att vara med i en process som ofta innebär en mycket stor livsomställning för patienten. Mötet mellan den transsexuella patienten och vårdpersonalen beskrivs också på en övergripande diskursiv nivå. Resultaten kan användas för att öka förståelsen för och begripliggöra mötet mellan de transsexuella patienterna och sjukvården.

  • 485.
    Holmqvist Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Stern, Helene
    Psykologhalsan, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Emotion regulation group skills training for adolescents and parents: A pilot study of an add-on treatment in a clinical setting2019Inngår i: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-1045, E-ISSN 1461-7021, artikkel-id UNSP 1359104519869782Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Difficulties with emotion regulation have been identified as an underlying mechanism in mental health. This pilot study aimed at examining whether group skills training in emotion regulation for adolescents and parents as an add-on intervention was feasible in an outpatient child and adolescent psychiatric clinic. We also investigated if the treatment increased knowledge and awareness of emotions and their functions, increased emotion regulation skills and decreased self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. Six skills training groups were piloted with a total of 20 adolescents and 21 adults. The treatment consisted of five sessions dealing with psychoeducation about emotions and emotion regulation skills training. Paired-samples t test was used to compare differences between before-and-after measures for adolescents and parents separately. The primary outcome measure, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, showed significant improvement after treatment for both adolescents and parents. For adolescents, measures of alexithymia were significantly reduced. Also, emotional awareness was significantly increased. Measures of depression and anxiety did not change. In conclusion, group skills training as an add-on treatment can be feasible and effective but further studies are needed.

  • 486.
    Holmqvist Larsson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rupture and Repair in the Working Alliance: Relation to Psychotherapy Outcome and Within-Session Interaction2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ruptures and repairs are processes related to shifts in the collaborative relationship Cthe working allianceJ between patient and therapist in psychotherapy. Ta study ruptures and repairs is one way ta disentangle mechanisms that might underlie the association between the working alliance and psychotherapy outcome. The overarching aim af this thesis was ta analyze the clinical relevance af the rupture and repair concepts at different process levels. The same three alliance patterns were investigated in the three empirical studies: the rupture pattern, the repair pattern, and the no-rupture/stable pattern. The analyses af the alliance patterns moved fromwhole treatments ta session segments. In Study I ruptures were found ta be associated with worse outcomes than treatments without ruptures. Repairs were, in longer therapies, shown ta be related ta better outcomes than norupture treatments. In Study Il it was found that the three alliance patterns could be discerned within sessions. Ruptures and repairs within sessions were found ta be associated with patient-ratings af the working alliance. In Study 111 the alliance patterns were found ta be related ta different  interaction patterns within sessions. In these analyses, importont patient contributions ta repairs af ruptures were found.

    Delarbeid
    1. Alliance ruptures and repairs in psychotherapy in primary care
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Alliance ruptures and repairs in psychotherapy in primary care
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 123-136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The association between alliance level and outcome in psychotherapy has been extensively studied. One way to expand this knowledge is to study alliance patterns. The main aims of this study were to examine how frequent alliance patterns with ruptures or rupture-repair episodes were in a naturalistic sample of psychotherapies in primary care, and if three alliance patterns (a Rupture pattern, a Repair pattern, and a No Rupture pattern) were differentially associated with treatment outcome.

    METHOD: The psychotherapies (N = 605) included a wide range of different treatment orientations and patient diagnoses. Alliance patterns were studied at session-to-session level, using patient-rated alliance scores. Outcome data were analyzed using longitudinal multilevel modeling with a slopes-as-outcomes model.

    RESULTS: The Repair pattern accounted for 14.7% (n = 89) of the treatments, 10.7% (n = 65) exhibited a Rupture pattern, and 74.5% (n = 451) contained no ruptures. The Rupture pattern was associated with inferior treatment outcomes. The Repair pattern was, in longer treatments, associated with better outcomes than the No Rupture pattern.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results support theory about the importance of ruptures in the therapeutic alliance and suggest that identification of alliance ruptures is important in alliance-outcome research, for feedback purposes in clinical practice, and in training of therapists.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Routledge, 2018
    Emneord
    alliance, alliance patterns, alliance ruptures, longitudinal multilevel modeling, naturalistic process and outcome research
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143855 (URN)10.1080/10503307.2016.1174345 (DOI)000418942800011 ()27139816 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84965032354 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-12-21 Laget: 2017-12-21 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-27bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. The Alliance and Rupture Observation Scale (AROS): Development and validation of an alliance and rupture measure for repeated observations within psychotherapy sessions
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Alliance and Rupture Observation Scale (AROS): Development and validation of an alliance and rupture measure for repeated observations within psychotherapy sessions
    Vise andre…
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0021-9762, E-ISSN 1097-4679, Vol. 75, nr 3, s. 404-417Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a new observer-rated instrument, the Alliance and Rupture Observation Scale (AROS). It was designed for repeated measurements of the alliance within sessions and to detect alliance ruptures.

    Method: Videotaped therapy sessions with depressed adults were analyzed. Reliability was mainly assessed as inter-rater reliability. Convergent, predictive, and discriminant validity of the AROS was assessed by comparing the instrument with both observer-rated and patient-rated measures.

    Results: The AROS exhibited excellent inter-rater reliability. Alliance levels measured with the AROS predicted patients’ ratings of the alliance in the same session and were highly correlated with another observer-rated alliance measure. Alliance patterns (rupture; repair; and no-rupture) based on AROS scores were significantly correlated with patients’ ratings of the alliance.

    Conclusions: Preliminary support for convergent and predictive validity was found. It is yet to be determined whether AROS scores are related to psychotherapy outcomes.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    John Wiley & Sons, 2019
    Emneord
    alliance ruptures and repairs, measurement, observer-based alliance measure, psychotherapy process, test development, therapeutic alliance, therapeutic relationship
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154932 (URN)10.1002/jclp.22704 (DOI)000459626300006 ()30431649 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056660476 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-03-06 Laget: 2019-03-06 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-27bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 487.
    Holmqvist Larsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Björkman, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Alliance and Rupture Observation Scale (AROS): Development and validation of an alliance and rupture measure for repeated observations within psychotherapy sessions2019Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0021-9762, E-ISSN 1097-4679, Vol. 75, nr 3, s. 404-417Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a new observer-rated instrument, the Alliance and Rupture Observation Scale (AROS). It was designed for repeated measurements of the alliance within sessions and to detect alliance ruptures.

    Method: Videotaped therapy sessions with depressed adults were analyzed. Reliability was mainly assessed as inter-rater reliability. Convergent, predictive, and discriminant validity of the AROS was assessed by comparing the instrument with both observer-rated and patient-rated measures.

    Results: The AROS exhibited excellent inter-rater reliability. Alliance levels measured with the AROS predicted patients’ ratings of the alliance in the same session and were highly correlated with another observer-rated alliance measure. Alliance patterns (rupture; repair; and no-rupture) based on AROS scores were significantly correlated with patients’ ratings of the alliance.

    Conclusions: Preliminary support for convergent and predictive validity was found. It is yet to be determined whether AROS scores are related to psychotherapy outcomes.

  • 488.
    Holmqvist Larsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Center for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Alliance ruptures and repairs in psychotherapy in primary care2018Inngår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 123-136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The association between alliance level and outcome in psychotherapy has been extensively studied. One way to expand this knowledge is to study alliance patterns. The main aims of this study were to examine how frequent alliance patterns with ruptures or rupture-repair episodes were in a naturalistic sample of psychotherapies in primary care, and if three alliance patterns (a Rupture pattern, a Repair pattern, and a No Rupture pattern) were differentially associated with treatment outcome.

    METHOD: The psychotherapies (N = 605) included a wide range of different treatment orientations and patient diagnoses. Alliance patterns were studied at session-to-session level, using patient-rated alliance scores. Outcome data were analyzed using longitudinal multilevel modeling with a slopes-as-outcomes model.

    RESULTS: The Repair pattern accounted for 14.7% (n = 89) of the treatments, 10.7% (n = 65) exhibited a Rupture pattern, and 74.5% (n = 451) contained no ruptures. The Rupture pattern was associated with inferior treatment outcomes. The Repair pattern was, in longer treatments, associated with better outcomes than the No Rupture pattern.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results support theory about the importance of ruptures in the therapeutic alliance and suggest that identification of alliance ruptures is important in alliance-outcome research, for feedback purposes in clinical practice, and in training of therapists.

  • 489.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Philips, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mellor-Clark, John
    CORE Informat Management Syst, England.
    Client and therapist agreement about the clients problemsAssociations with treatment alliance and outcome2016Inngår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 399-409Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A shared understanding of the patients symptoms and problems is seen by most theories as a crucial aspect of the collaboration in therapy, presumably influencing alliance and outcome. The empirical ground for this argument is not solid, however. Several studies have found weak associations between a common view of the patients problems and outcome. The purpose of the present study was to analyze whether agreement in the understanding of the patients depression and anxiety problems was important for alliance and outcome. Method: The study used data from a practice-based study using the CORE system with 846 patients who received psychological treatment in primary care. Results: The analyses indicated that although patients who were assessed by their therapists as having depression and anxiety problems scored higher on these subscales than other patients, about half of the patients reported such problems when the therapists did not, and vice versa. Agreement was not associated with better alliance or outcome. Conclusions: Productive collaboration in psychotherapy may be based on other factors than agreement about symptoms.

  • 490.
    Holmström, Julia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Intuitioner och Intuitivt Beslutsfattande i Prehospital Akutsjukvård: Ambulanspersonalens Syn på Intuition i Kritiska Lägen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 poäng / 18 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I ambulansyrket hamnar sjukvårdspersonalen i situationer där de möter kritiska patienter. Då är det är viktigt att de fattar snabba beslut. Den här studien har undersökt i hur stor utsträckning ambulanspersonal får intuitiva känslor och fattar intuitiva beslut i kritiska lägen. Studien har också undersökt i vilken utsträckning ambulanspersonal förlitar sig på magkänslan samt hur stor vikt intuition har för yrkeskompetensen.

    Nio semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes utifrån Critical Decision Method (Klein et al., 1999), en metod grundad i teori kring naturalistiskt beslutsfattande. Resultatet visade att ambulanspersonal fattar intuitiva beslut vid varje patientmöte där patienten är i ett kritiskt tillstånd. Den vanligast förekommande intuitionen var av perceptuellt slag, en så kallad ”klinisk blick”. Slutsatsen visade att intuition är av stor vikt för ambulanspersonalens yrkeskompetens och att ambulanspersonalen ofta förlitar sig på magkänslan, framför allt vid beslut som rör huruvida de bör undersöka och behandla patient på plats eller köra patienten direkt till sjukhus.

  • 491.
    Hong, Jun Sung
    et al.
    Wayne State Univ, MI 48202 USA; Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    Kim, Dong Ha
    Chungwoon Univ, South Korea.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Kang, Jun Hyeok
    Sogang Univ, South Korea.
    Morgan, Julie Toth
    Wayne State Univ, MI 48202 USA.
    Correlates of direct and indirect forms of cyberbullying victimization involving South Korean adolescents: An ecological perspective2018Inngår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 87, s. 327-336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to explore the correlates of indirect and direct forms of cyberbullying victimization across individual, microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem contexts in a nationally representative sample of South Korean youth. Data were derived from the Korean Children and Youth Rights Study, and the total sample was 10,453 adolescents. The hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted separately for both direct and indirect cyberbullying victimization. At the individual level, no variables were found to be associated with indirect cyberbullying victimization, but male sex and depression were positively related to direct cyberbullying victimization. At the microsystem level, parental neglect was related to indirect cyberbullying victimization, while parental abuse, parental neglect, and family dysfunction were associated with direct cyberbullying victimization. Poor peer relations was significant for both indirect and direct cyberbullying victimization, and teacher abuse and school victimization were associated with victims of both types of cyberbullying. Perceived neighborhood safety had negative association with indirect and direct cyberbullying victimization. At the mesosystem level, higher levels of parental abuse and poor peer relations was related to higher risk of indirect cyberbullying victimization. Also, higher levels of family dysfunction and poor peer relations were associated with higher risk of indirect cyberbullying victimization. An assessment of the risk factors for cyberbullying victimization across multiple domains is the first necessary steps towards the development of effective intervention strategies.

  • 492.
    Horne, Judith
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Department of Psychology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Doing ‘being on the edge’: Managing the dilemma of being authentically suicidal in an online forum2009Inngår i: Sociology of Health and Illness, ISSN 0141-9889, E-ISSN 1467-9566, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 170-184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Those who attempt suicide have often been described as ‘crying for help’, and there are implications if such cries are not taken seriously. This paper examines how users of an Internet forum for ‘suicidal thoughts’ work up their authenticity in their opening posts, and how these are responded to by fellow forum users. Data were taken from two Internet forums on suicide over a period of one month and were analysed using discursive psychology. The analysis demonstrates that participants display their authenticity through four practices: narrative formatting, going ‘beyond’ depression, displaying rationality and not explicitly asking for help. Furthermore, both initial and subsequent posts worked up identities as being psychologically ‘on the edge’ of life and death. The analysis suggests that the forum in part works as a site for suicidal identities to be tested out, authenticated and validated by individuals. We conclude with some suggestions for the supportive work of suicide ‘postvention’.

  • 493.
    Horton-Salway, Mary
    et al.
    Open University, UK.
    Montague, Jane
    University of Derby, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Seymour-Smith, Sarah
    Nottingham Trent University, UK.
    Mapping the components of the telephone conference: An analysis of tutorial talk at a distance learning institution2008Inngår i: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 737-758Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article maps the components of telephone tutorial conferences (TTCs) used for distance learning in higher education. Using conversation analysis we identified four common sequences of TTCs as `calling in'; `agenda-setting'; `tutorial proper'; and `closing down'. Patterns of student participation look similar to those in face-to-face tutorials and the degree of interaction during `calling-in' and agenda setting does not foretell student participation in the `tutorial proper'. Student participation was related to differences in `communicative formats' adopted by tutors and students for different purposes. These findings have helped us reflect on our communicative practices as university teachers and indicate that TTCs are functionally comparable with face-to-face tutorials in higher education settings.

  • 494.
    Hufstetler, Schell
    et al.
    Georgia State University.
    Henrich, Christopher
    Georgia State University.
    Meyers, Joel
    Georgia State University.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Varjas, Kristen
    Georgia State University.
    Confirmatory factor analysis of Thornberg and Jungert's Moral Disengagement in Bullying Scale2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 495.
    Hufstetler, Schell
    et al.
    Georgia State University.
    Henrich, Christopher
    Georgia State University.
    Meyers, Joel
    Georgia State University.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Varjas, Kristen
    Georgia State University.
    Predicting future bullying and bystander behavior using moral disengagement2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 496.
    Hurtig, Alexander
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    The Best Balance: An Investigation of Expressions Describing Taste Experiences2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Taste, or gustation, has long been considered a primitive, and even non-rational, perceptual sense. Taste, as a subject of academic research, has been given very little attention; especially, when contrasted to other human perceptual senses. The knowledge of how people express and discuss their perceptions and sensations of tastes, and, specifically, the descriptions of tastes of chocolate, is very limited.

    Furthermore, the terminological inconsistency in the vocabulary of chocolate tasting, with the risk of misunderstanding or miscommunication, suggests that a basic method for representing tastes is needed.

    This thesis presents a study of how people actually express the perception or sensation of tasting, and specifically when tasting chocolate. This study also explores the possibility of crafting a method for use when describing the tastes of chocolate.

    The study was carried out by holding two tasting workshops. The first one was concerned with recording conversations about tasting chocolate. Participants were asked to taste different kinds of chocolates and, freely, discuss what they perceived and sensed. In the second workshop the participants were asked to describe the tastes of chocolate using predetermined vocabulary and formatted questionnaires.

    The results of this study are linguistic semantic analyses of the different words that were used, and also a proposal for a prototypical method to use when tasting chocolate.

  • 497.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). University of Gavle, Sweden; University of Dalama, Sweden.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Pekkola, Elina P.
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Avdelningen för kognition, utveckling och handikapp, CDD. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Childrens Recall of Words Spoken in Their First and Second Language: Effects of Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Reverberation Time2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception runs smoothly and automatically when there is silence in the background, but when the speech signal is degraded by background noise or by reverberation, effortful cognitive processing is needed to compensate for the signal distortion. Previous research has typically investigated the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reverberation time in isolation, whilst few have looked at their interaction. In this study, we probed how reverberation time and SNR influence recall of words presented in participants first- (L1) and second-language (L2). A total of 72 children (10 years old) participated in this study. The to-be-recalled wordlists were played back with two different reverberation times (0.3 and 1.2 s) crossed with two different SNRs (+3 dBA and +12 dBA). Children recalled fewer words when the spoken words were presented in L2 in comparison with recall of spoken words presented in L1. Words that were presented with a high SNR (+12 dBA) improved recall compared to a low SNR (+3 dBA). Reverberation time interacted with SNR to the effect that at +12 dB the shorter reverberation time improved recall, but at +3 dB it impaired recall. The effects of the physical sound variables (SNR and reverberation time) did not interact with language.

  • 498.
    Huyck, Julia, J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Department of Psychology and Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University.
    Rapid perceptual learning of noise-vocoded speech requires attention2012Inngår i: Journal of the Acoustical society of America - Express Letters, Vol. 131, nr 3, s. 236-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are able to adapt to unfamiliar forms of speech (such as accented, time-compressed, or noise-vocoded speech) quite rapidly. Can such perceptual learning occur when attention is directed away from the speech signal? Here, participants were simultaneously exposed to noise-vocoded sentences, auditory distractors, and visual distractors. One group attended to the speech, listening to each sentence and reporting what they heard. Two other groups attended to either the auditory or visual distractors, performing a target-detection task. Only the attend-speech group benefited from the exposure when subsequently reporting noise-vocoded sentences. Thus, attention to noise-vocoded speech appears necessary for learning.

  • 499.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, NISAL - Nationella institutet för forskning om äldre och åldrande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bakom ansiktet2011Inngår i: Diagnos & identitet / [ed] Georg Drakos, Lars-Christer Hydén och Forsberg, Jonas, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2011, 1, s. 184-205Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 500.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bodies, embodiment and stories2013Inngår i: Doing Narrative Research / [ed] Molly Andrews, Corinne Squire, Maria Tamboukou, London: Sage Publications, 2013, 2, s. 126-141Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Written by an international team of experts in the field, the second edition of this popular text considers both the theoretical underpinnings and practical applications of narrative research. The authors take the reader from initial decisions about forms of narrative research, through more complex issues of reflexivity, interpretation and the research context. Existing chapters have been updated to reflect changes in the literature and new chapters from eminent narrative scholars in Europe, Australia and the United States have been added on a variety of topics including narratives and embodiment, visual narratives, narratives and storyworlds, new media narratives and Deleuzian perspectives in narrative research. 

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