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  • 451.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Noroozi, Sayeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A modularised typology for flow design based on decoupling points - a holistic view on process industries and discrete manufacturing industries2016Ingår i: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 27, nr 16, s. 1344-1355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of production activities covers a wide range of decisions. In this paper, a modularised approach is suggested that, through configuration, generates a case-specific flow design. The approach is based on identification of decision categories that are generic and fundamental in the flow design, covering both discrete manufacturing industries and process industries. Each decision category identifies a unique property of the flow which changes at a particular point: this is termed a decoupling point. A three-dimensional modularised typology is developed by combining three different decision categories. Cases from the steel industry and the tooling industry are used to illustrate how the typology can be applied. The modularised approach provides a typology for the application of both qualitative and quantitative methods for flow management, including planning, control and performance management.

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  • 452.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Yang, Biao
    University of Sussex, England.
    Yang, Ying
    Newcastle University, England.
    Williams, Sharon J.
    Swansea University, Wales.
    Decoupling thinking in service operations: a case in healthcare delivery system design2017Ingår i: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. 387-397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of decoupling thinking has been well established in the manufacturing operations and supply chain management literature. This paper explores how this decoupling thinking can be applied in service operations and in particular in health care. It first reviews the relevant literature on decoupling fundamentals, the front- and back-office distinction, and new emerging decoupling thinking in service operations. Subsequently, a flow-based framework including content and process is developed for decoupling thinking in service operations. The framework provides an integrated perspective on customer contact, flow driver and flow differentiation (level of customisation). The framework hence, through flow differentiation, introduces the concept of standardisation versus customisation in a service context. This is followed by a health care case example to illustrate how the framework can be applied. The managerial implications are primarily in terms of a modularised approach to system design and management. The framework offers potential for benchmarking with other service systems as well as with manufacturing systems based on the shared foundation in decoupling thinking. Finally, suggestions are provided for further research opportunities derived from this research.

  • 453.
    Wilkman, Gill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Strömberg, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Tillgänglighet inom hälso- och sjukvården: Planering och effektivisering av ortopedmottagningen vid Höglandssjukhuset2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ortopedkliniken vid Höglandssjukhuset behandlar samtliga extremitets-, rygg- och skallskadefall inom Höglandets sjukvårdsområde. Verksamheten är uppdelad i fyra huvudsakliga enheter; akutmottagning, mottagning, vårdavdelning och operation där läkarna fördelar sin tid mellan de fyra. Under de senaste åren har kliniken haft problem med försämrad tillgänglighet. Detta innebär i sin tur växande vårdköer, till såväl mottagning som operation, samt oförmåga att upprätthålla vårdgarantins mål på specialistvård inom 90 dagar. Syftet med denna rapport är med anledning av ovanstående att ge rekommendationer kring hur ortopedkliniken vid Höglandssjukhuset kan effektivisera utnyttjandet av resurser för att öka tillgängligheten för sina patienter.

    För att besvara nyss nämnda syfte görs en uppgiftsprecisering vilket inkluderar en nedbrytning till konkreta undersökningsområden och frågeställningar. Denna grundar sig dels i en förstudie där ortopedkliniken kartläggs för att få en första inblick i verksamheten och de problem som råder. Dels en referensram där logistiska teorier om bland annat processer och olika former av förbättringsfilosofier behandlas. Flertalet av teorierna är hämtade från den industriella världen och därefter tillämpade på hälso- och sjukvården och de speciella förutsättningar som råder inom området. Förstudien och referensramen leder tillsammans fram till den syntetisering som ger följande fyra undersökningsområden: behov, processer, resursplanering och patientplanering.

    Med utgångspunkt i den information som samlats in och analyserats för respektive undersökningsområde har ett antal problem med tillhörande lösningar presenterats och redogjorts för. Utifrån detta har nedanstående slutsatser kunnat dras:

    Ortopedkliniken bör utveckla riktlinjer kring vilka patienter som bör kallas till återbesök för att på så sätt undvika onödiga återbesök. Detta leder i sin tur till ett minskat antal återbesök vilket ger mer utrymme till nybesök och därmed förbättrad tillgänglighet. I samband med detta konstateras att ett ökat ansvar bör läggas på patienten gällande dennas läkeprocess genom att bland annat uppmana patienten att höra av sig vid behov. Ytterligare ett sätt att involvera patienten är att öka delaktigheten i bokningsprocessen genom användning av ett Internetbaserat system där önskemål angående tid kan lämnas. Detta skulle troligtvis resultera i ett minskat antal ombokningar och ett förenklat arbete för klinikens tidsbokning. Förslagsvis datoriseras även bokningen av telefontiderna då detta skulle ge personalen, inklusive läkare och mottagningssköterskor, en bättre överblick samt underlätta tidsbokningens arbete med dessa. Ännu en åtgärd för att förbättra användandet av telefontider är att schemalägga specifika tider för läkarna att hantera dessa, något som bör resultera i bättre kontinuitet.

    Planeringen på kliniken kan i stort sett delas upp i två delar: resurs- respektive patientplanering. Dessa två bör sammanstråla för att uppnå bästa möjliga resultat. Ett steg i att förbättra resursplaneringen, vilket huvudsakligen innebär schemaläggning av läkare, är att i större utsträckning mäta och analysera de efterfrågemönster som kan utrönas ur klinikens behov. Detta möjliggör en mer preventiv planering där schemaläggningen tar hänsyn till exempelvis den behovstopp som återkommer i oktober varje år. Detta tros dessutom kunna skapa en bättre balans mellan återbesök och nybesök vilket i sin tur kan minska antalet återbesök till jourläkare. Övriga lösningsförslag till ortopedklinikens balansproblem inkluderar en standardisering av besökslängderna, mottagningspass med endast en besökstyp och en form av drop-in mottagning som ökar möjligheten för samarbete mellan läkarna på mottagningen. För att underlätta tidsbokningens arbete och därmed även patientplaneringen föreslås dessutom att remissutseendet förändras för att även inkludera uppgifter om mobiltelefonnummer, e-postadress samt villighet att komma med kort varsel.

    Vid en eventuell implementering av ovanstående lösningar är det viktigt att ortopedkliniken har i åtanke att förbättringsarbete tar tid. Det är dock viktigt att man tar sig tid och faktiskt genomför förändringarna då det dels kan spara tid i framtiden och dels är en förutsättning för att kliniken ska kunna leva upp till såväl efterfrågeökningar och som förhöjda krav. Det föreslås således att ortopedkliniken använder sig av nedanstående rekommendationer för att förbättra den nuvarande situationen och skapa möjligheter inför framtiden. De rekommendationer som getts ortopedkliniken i syfte att dem ska uppnå bättre tillgänglighet är följande:

    1. Utveckla riktlinjer som stöd för när en patient bör kallas till återbesök

    2. Kartlägg behoven i större utsträckning, framför allt när det kommer till de korta återbesöken, och ta hänsyn till behoven och deras fördelning i resursplaneringen

    3. Datorisera bokningen av telefontiderna samt ge dem en designerad tid i läkarschemat

    4. Ändra remissutseendet så att även mobiltelefonnummer, e-postadress samt villighet att komma med kort varsel inkluderas

    5. Inför mottagningspass med endast en typ av besök

    6. Gör patienterna mer delaktiga bokningen och ta hänsyn till deras önskemål om besöks- och telefontider

    7. Inför ett nytt system för bokningen av FP- och P-remisser som dessutom inkluderar ett kontrollsystem som varnar när vårdgarantin är på väg att överstigas

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  • 454. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Windahl, Charlotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrated Solutions in the Capital Goods Sector: Exploring innovation, service and network perspectives2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With varying degrees of success, a number of firms in the capital goods sector are experimenting with different ‘integrated solutions’ initiatives. Integrated solutions include product innovations which enable increased process control that allows the optimisation of the customers’ processes, as well as business innovations which change the firms’ business models and customer approach. It is not always easy to develop and commercialise these new offerings, especially for firms that have traditionally focused on developing and selling products. Integrated solutions challenge these firms to shift the focus from physical products, spare parts and support services to emphasis on delivery of performance optimisation and productivity.

    This thesis is a compilation of five papers and five supporting chapters that discuss and analyse the challenges with developing and commercialising integrated solutions in the capital goods sector. The research builds on case studies of firms experimenting with integrated-solution offerings. The firms produce complex, expensive industrial machinery to customers in the process and manufacturing industries. The main case is based on a five-year, in-depth longitudinal study of Alfa Laval, and more specifically of the developments within the wastewater industry. Other case studies include ITT Flygt and Atlas Copco.

    The thesis shows that the development and commercialisation of integrated solutions represent a multifaceted, iterative and complex process for the firms under study, who need to combine product, service and business innovations, create new business structures, and create new relationships with customers and possible partners. Consequently, the development of integrated solutions is not confined to or explained by one theoretical field in this thesis, but is linked to innovation, service and network perspectives.

    The thesis also shows that the three activities of innovating, organising and building relationships are dependent on changing market structures, customer demands and business cycles. Therefore it becomes important to manage the coexistence of different types of offerings, such as products, services and integrated solutions.

    Delarbeten
    1. Manufacturing firms and integrated solutions: characteristics and implications
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Manufacturing firms and integrated solutions: characteristics and implications
    2004 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 218-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    For an increasing number of firms in the capital goods industry, combinations of products and services, so called integrated solutions, are becoming part of their future growth strategies. By analysing three case studies, the article highlights the variety of such solutions and some important implications for the involved companies. The analysis suggests that companies need an extended set of competences to succeed in providing integrated solutions, amounting to a balance of technical and integration competence with market/business, consulting and partnering competences. This implies a move from product-focus to customer-centric orientation and focus on optimisation of user processes. From a research perspective the paper underlines the importance of integrating studies of product and service innovation, two fields that so far have been studied separately.

    Nyckelord
    Capital, Innovation, Manufacturing industries, Services
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14481 (URN)10.1108/14601060410549900 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-11-12 Skapad: 2008-11-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    2. Developing integrated solutions: the importance of relationships within the network
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Developing integrated solutions: the importance of relationships within the network
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, Vol. 35, nr 7, s. 806-818Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Firms that have traditionally focused on selling products, spare parts and services face difficulties with increasing competition and declining margins. They are therefore turning to new strategies where products and services are integrated into so-called integrated solutions. Research on the challenges this presents is sparse, but there is evidence that internal factors as well as external relationships play an important role. In this paper we investigate the relationships within the business network in order to uncover some of the complex issues related to integrated solutions, including how and to what extent these relationships facilitate or impede the development of integrated solutions. Two case studies of one more and one less successful initiative within the same firm are used to illustrate challenges and possible success factors for the development of integrated solutions in the capital goods industry.

    The paper identifies the following six factors as important when developing integrated solutions: the strength of the relationships between the different actors involved, the firm's position in the network, the firm's network horizon, the solution's impact on existing internal activities, the solution's impact on customers' core processes, and external determinants. It shows that inter- and intra-firm relationships can both enable and obstruct the development of integrated solutions. For the firms involved in the development of integrated solutions, it becomes crucial to manage this duality.

    Nyckelord
    Integrated solutions; Relationships; Network theory; Capital goods
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14482 (URN)10.1016/j.indmarman.2006.05.010 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-05-21 Skapad: 2007-05-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-03-04
    3. Suppliers in the privatised UK wastewater market and their possible moves towards integrated solutions
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Suppliers in the privatised UK wastewater market and their possible moves towards integrated solutions
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 559-572Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of companies in the capital goods industry are turning towards new strategies where the focus is to add value for customers by providing integrated solutions (combining products and services), instead of selling components, spare parts and support services. These new strategies represent moves in the value chain and create a need for new business models as well as new competencies.

    In this paper, the fairly new concept of integrated solutions is explored in the context of a privatised industry. The findings are based on empirical case studies carried out at two companies supplying products and services to the UK wastewater industry. In the UK, both water companies and their suppliers are influenced by economic and environmental regulations, an increased focus on cost, and outsourcing. On one hand, the two manufacturers have increased their competence with respect to system integration and operational services – competencies for supplying integrated solutions. On the other hand, a fragmented and vertically structured market with a multitude of different actors increases the distance between the water companies and the manufacturers. In addition, the division of the industry into a capital and operational side complicates the coordination between new sales and services.

    Nyckelord
    Capital goods; Integrated solutions; Privatisation; Services; Solutions; Wastewater
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14483 (URN)10.2166/wp.2006.056 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-05-21 Skapad: 2007-05-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2013-10-23
    4. Managing technology-driven business innovations: the case of Alfa Laval and Octopus (IMIE Research Report 2007:1)
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Managing technology-driven business innovations: the case of Alfa Laval and Octopus (IMIE Research Report 2007:1)
    (Engelska)Manuskript (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14484 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-05-21 Skapad: 2007-05-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-01-14
    5. Managing technology-driven business innovations: the case of Alfa Laval and Octopus
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Managing technology-driven business innovations: the case of Alfa Laval and Octopus
    2007 (Engelska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Serie
    IMIE Research Report, ISSN 1403-0861 ; 1
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14485 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-05-21 Skapad: 2007-05-21
    6. Integrated solutions - the ambiguity of combining services- and goods-centred logics in the capital goods industry
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Integrated solutions - the ambiguity of combining services- and goods-centred logics in the capital goods industry
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14486 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-05-21 Skapad: 2007-05-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
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  • 455.
    Windahl, Charlotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Managing technology-driven business innovations: the case of Alfa Laval and Octopus2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 456.
    Windahl, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Pierre
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nehler, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Manufacturing firms and integrated solutions: characteristics and implications2004Ingår i: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 218-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For an increasing number of firms in the capital goods industry, combinations of products and services, so called integrated solutions, are becoming part of their future growth strategies. By analysing three case studies, the article highlights the variety of such solutions and some important implications for the involved companies. The analysis suggests that companies need an extended set of competences to succeed in providing integrated solutions, amounting to a balance of technical and integration competence with market/business, consulting and partnering competences. This implies a move from product-focus to customer-centric orientation and focus on optimisation of user processes. From a research perspective the paper underlines the importance of integrating studies of product and service innovation, two fields that so far have been studied separately.

  • 457.
    Withers, Paul J. A.
    et al.
    Bangor University, United Kingdom.
    van Dijk, Kimo C.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Schmid Neset, Tina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Nesme, Thomas
    Bordeaux University, France.
    Oenema, Oene
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Rubæk, Gitte H.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Schoumans, Oscar
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Smit, Bert
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Pellerin, Sylvain
    INRA, France.
    Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: The case of Europe2015Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 193-206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe’s dependence on P imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help deliver a more competitive, circular, and sustainable European economy. The case of Europe provides a blueprint for global P stewardship.

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  • 458.
    Zachrisson, Therese
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    The Human Factors Design of a Wearable Balance Belt2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to keep your balance is something most of us take for granted. People with inner ear problems due to an accident or surgery or other dizziness have to live with this problem on a chronic basis. A balance prosthesis, worn around the torso, giving feedback about their upright position via tactile vibrators has been shown to help these people keep their balance.

    The goal and purpose for this thesis has been to conduct research on how to improve the existing balance prosthesis and adapt it to fit the user. The research has been conducted with the focus on human factors, meaning with the users’ experience as the premier aspect.

    To be able to reach a good solution with a prototype that would be an improvement compared to the existing device, a vest, several stages have been passed. At first twelve criteria were set up to establish human factors and hedonomic requirements. To fulfill these requirements, surveys with users were conducted. An extensive phase of prototyping and material research informed the design of a final concept.

    The final concept was a prototype balance belt that contains six vibrators, called tactors, and models of the other electronic components. The belt has an elastic band as a base and then a black spandex fabric that covers all components. A Velcro band and a buckle are used to open and close the belt. Finally the belt has a beige spandex cover that can be pulled on and off. This cover makes the belt easy to keep clean because the cover can be washed.

    The prototype is made in three different sizes so it can fit most people in the US population.

    In the near future it will be important to make an evaluation of the balance belt with users. It needs to be tested if the vibrators are possible to feel and how it feels to wear the belt for a longer time. An aid to help pulling the cover onto the belt also has to be developed because putting on the cover is a bit difficult right now.

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  • 459.
    Zhang, Kai
    et al.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qu, Ting
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Dajian
    Guangdong Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Hongfei
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Yuanxin
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Peize
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China; Xian Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Guo, Hongfei
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Congdong
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, George Q.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China; Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Digital twin-based opti-state control method for a synchronized production Check toroperation system2020Ingår i: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 63, artikel-id 101892Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The intelligent manufacturing strategy and customer demand have mutually promoted each other. Also, the production mode is shifting towards customized production, and more rental resources or services are introduced to the production system, therefore, the systems are becoming more complex. Compared with traditional production systems, such systems have some new features, this work calls this type of system as a synchronized production operation system (SPOS). Under such circumstances, production systems are influenced by more frequent uncertainties, and the planning-based production decision and control approach is no longer applicable. The opti-state control (OsC) method is proposed to help SPOS keep in an optimal state when uncertainties affect the system. Besides, a digital twin-based control framework (DTCF) is designed for getting the full element information needed for decision making. Based on the comprehensive information of the production system obtained by the DTCF, the OsC method is introduced to the virtual control layer to formulate the optimal target guiding the path of the system in real time through the dynamic matching mechanism (qualitative perspective). Then multi-stage synchronized control with analysis target cascading (ATC) method is used to get the local optimal state decisions (quantitative perspective). From both qualitative and quantitative aspects to ensure the system is under an optimal target path for optimal operation procedure. At last, a case study in a large-size paint making company in China is used to validate the effectiveness of the approach.

  • 460.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Sichao
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Yang, Haidong
    Guangdong Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Li, Miao
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huisingh, Donald
    Univ Tennessee, TN USA.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    The Internet of Things enabled real-time scheduling for remanufacturing of automobile engines2018Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 185, s. 562-575Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Typical challenges that managers of remanufacturing face are composed of the lack of timely, accurate, and consistent information of remanufacturing resources. Therefore, it is difficult to implement real-time production scheduling for the shop floor. To address this problem, the authors applied the concept of the Internet of Things to the remanufacturing of automobile engines to form an Internet of Manufacturing Things environment. Under the Internet of Manufacturing Things, an identification technology for disassembled engine parts was designed, and the real-time status of the remanufacturable resources can be monitored. Based on the captured remanufacturing information, a real-time production scheduling method was developed, and a mathematical model was developed to achieve cost reduction, dynamic management of remanufacturable resources, and energy consumption decrease. To obtain an optimal solution, a Pareto-based optimization method was used. Finally, a case study was performed to analyze the effectivity of the proposed method. The results showed that the remanufacturing cost and energy consumption were reduced by 34% and 34% respectively, and the worker load rate was more balanced. These improvements can contribute to more sustainable development and greener production within the remanufacturing industry, especially for remanufacturing of automobile engines. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 461.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Ren, Shan
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huisingh, Donald
    University of Tennessee, TN USA.
    A framework for Big Data driven product lifecycle management2017Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 159, s. 229-240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization of the process of product lifecycle management is an increasingly important objective for manufacturing enterprises to improve their sustainable competitive advantage. Originally, this approach was developed to integrate the business processes of an organization and more effectively manage and utilize the data generated during lifecycle studies. With emerging technologies, product embedded information devices such as radio frequency identification tags and smart sensors are widely used to improve the efficiency of enterprises routine management on an operational level. Manufacturing enterprises need a more advanced analysis approach to develop a solution on a strategic level from using such lifecycle Big Data. However, the application of Big Data in lifecycle faces several challenges, such as the lack of reliable data and valuable knowledge that can be employed to support the optimized decision-making of product lifecycle management. In this paper, a framework for Big Data driven product lifecycle management was proposed to address these challenges. Within the proposed framework, the availability and accessibility of data and knowledge related to lifecycle can be achieved. A case study was presented to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of the proposed framework. The results showed that the proposed framework was feasible to be adopted in industry, and can provide an overall solution for optimizing the decision-making processes in different phases of the whole lifecycle. The key findings and insights from the case study were summarized as managerial implications, which can guide manufacturers to ensure improvements in energy saving and fault diagnosis related decisions in the whole lifecycle. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 462.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Jin
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Game theory based real-time multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling considering environmental impact2017Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 167, s. 665-679Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Production scheduling greatly contributes to optimising the allocation of processes, reducing resource and energy consumption, lowering production costs and alleviating environmental pollution. It is an effective way to progress towards green manufacturing. With the extensive use of the Internet of Things in the manufacturing shop floor, a huge amount of real-time data is created. A typical challenge is how to achieve the real-time data-driven optimisation for the manufacturing shop floor to improve energy efficiency and production efficiency. To address this problem, a dynamic game theory based two-layer scheduling method was developed to reduce makespan, the total workload of machines and energy consumption to achieve real-time multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling. To obtain an optimal solution, a sub-game perfect Nash equilibrium solution was designed. Then, a case study was employed to analyse the performance of the proposed method. The results showed that the makespan, the total workload of machines and energy consumption were reduced by 4.5%, 8.75%, and 9.3% respectively. These improvements can contribute to sustainable development and cleaner production of manufacturing industry. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 463.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China; Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Geng
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Qu, Ting
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Jinan University, Peoples R China; University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Zhong, Ray Y.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Analytical target cascading for optimal configuration of cloud manufacturing services2017Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 151, s. 330-343Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining with advanced technologies (e.g., cloud computing, Internet of Things, and service-oriented technology), cloud manufacturing was proposed and gained wide attention. By managing a huge amount of distributed and idle manufacturing resources to meet various manufacturing requirements, cloud manufacturing provides sustainable means for promoting cleaner production. Manufacturing service configuration plays an important role in implementing cloud manufacturing. Most research adopted central optimization methods to get optimal service configuration results. However, these all-in-one methods with an individual decision model can hardly maintain the autonomous decision rights of different service providers. Consequently, service providers may lose their flexibility to achieve private decision objectives, which is unfavorable for keeping the sustainable competitive advantages of enterprises. In this paper, a decentralized decision mechanism named analytical target cascading is introduced to solve the manufacturing service configuration problem. An analytical target cascading model for the manufacturing service configuration problem is proposed based on the hierarchical structure of cloud manufacturing system. Elements in the proposed model are formulated and solved in a loose coupling and distributed manner. The situation when alternative service providers owned autonomous decision rights to configure their respective upstream manufacturing stages is also considered. A case study is employed to verify the effectiveness of analytical target cascading in solving the manufacturing service configuration problem. It shows that analytical target cascading can not only obtain the same manufacturing service configuration results as central optimization method but also maintain the autonomous decision rights of different service providers. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 464.
    Åklint, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Övergripande kvalitets och kapabilitets granskning av produktionsprocessen – en implementering av SPS.: Overall Quality and Capability Study of the Production Process – an Implement of SPC.2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Quality was earlier only an issue for the company’s quality departments but today is the entire organization involved in quality- and improvements work. With the customers in focus, both external and internal, quality and improvement work should be integrated in the daily activities. The management shall state goals and visions together with a policy. Through participation the correct requirements for a successful work are created.

    With SPC, statistics process control, there is an opportunity to perceive variations in the process and with the correct tools make it stable. Examples of tools that can be used are the seven QC – tools and the PDCA – cycles, which are presented more detailed in the report.

    By using SPC and the information given by it, a measure of the process capability within fixed tolerances on the produced parts can be achieved.

    The analysis in this report has been made in order to verify the capability and variations in the measuring system used within a selected production sector.

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  • 465.
    Öhrn, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Sjöblom, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Underhållskoncept: tillståndsbaserat underhåll på smörj- och hydrauloljesystem2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Denna rapport beskriver vårt tio veckor långa examensarbete som är den avslutande delen i vår maskiningenjörsutbildning. Arbetet har utförts vid serviceavdelning på Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (Siemens). Siemens som ligger i Finspång tillverkar, säljer och servar ång - och gasturbinanläggningar över hela världen.

    Syftet med arbetet är att hjälpa Siemens att utveckla sina serviceprogram för två av de kringsystem som ingår i en ångturbinanläggning, dessa är smörj- och hydrauloljesystem.

    Arbetet är avgränsat till två av Siemens serviceprodukter, No Stop Check (NSC) och Säkerhetsinspektion (SI). Även vissa delar av de större revisionerna har undersökts.

    I arbetet har olika underhållsfilosofier undersökts och utvärderats. Fokus har riktats mot att undersöka möjligheter att utföra underhållsåtgärder med turbinanläggningen i drift. I och med den höga kapacitet dagens ångturbinanläggningar har blir de ekonomiska förlusterna enormt stora vid ett eventuellt produktionsbortfall.

    Under arbetets gång har många diskussioner och intervjuer ägt rum. Information har också inhämtats genom dokument, böcker och Internet. En så kallad Failure Mode and Effect Criticality Analysis (FMECA) har också legat till grund för arbetet när metoder och åtgärder för underhållet diskuterats.

    Siemens nuvarande underhåll är till stor del erfarenhets- och tidsbaserat. Vi har försökt att applicera ett mer tillståndsbaserat underhåll och därför har mycket tid ägnats åt att hitta metoder att tillståndskontrollera utrustningen med.

    Arbetet har genererat ett flertal olika rekommendationer på underhållsaktiviteter som är tillståndsbaserade och anpassade för Siemens turbinanläggningar. Tanken är att dessa förslag ska användas i det fortsatta underhållsarbetet och dessutom väcka idéer till fortsatt utveckling av tillståndsbaserat underhåll.

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  • 466.
    Ölund, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    San Pedro S.A.: Taking the first step to a safer work environment2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of improving the production, the Bolivian door manufacturer San Pedro S.A. needs to develop their level of industrial safety. Today their safety level is considered to be almost non-existing. Together with CADEFOR, San Pedro wishes for a handbook that show them how to work with industrial safety, how to implement it and were to begin.

    Much needs to be done at San Pedro and the task has been to show both them and CADEFOR which parts San Pedro need to focus on to increase the overall safety.

    It is considered important that they chose to start with the most crucial areas but the aim is that they will, during a period of time, attend to all problem areas mentioned.

    The first thing San Pedro needs to do is to form an aim for the safety work. This means setting up a policy and routines for the ongoing work.

    Secondly they should start working with improving the fire security, informing the personal about the risks they are exposed to. Further they should educate attendants in first aid, use the protection on the machines available and create a better luminosity environment.

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  • 467. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On Remanufacturing Systems: Analysing and Managing Material Flows and Remanufacturing Processes2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of remanufacturing is to retrieve a product’s inherent value when the product no longer fulfils the user’s desired needs. By taking advantage of this inherent value through different product recovery alternatives, there is a potential for both economically and environmental advantageous recovery of products.

    Remanufacturing is a complex business due to the high degree of uncertainty in the production process, mainly caused by two factors: the quantity and the quality of returned products. These factors have implications both on the external processes, e.g. coordinating input of returned products with the demand for remanufactured products, as well as the internal processes that coordinates the operations within the factory walls. This additional complexity needs to be considered when organising the remanufacturing system.

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore how remanufacturing companies can become more competitive through analysing and managing material flows and remanufacturing processes.

    The first issue discussed in this dissertation is the drivers that make companies interested in remanufacturing products in the first place. The conclusion is that the general drivers are profit, company policy and the environmental drivers. In a general sense, the profit motivation is the most prevalent business driver, but still there are situations where this motivation is secondary to policy and environmental drivers. Secondly, the need to balance the supply of returned products with the demand for remanufactured products shows that the possible remanufacturing volumes for a product are dependent on the shape of the supply and demand distributions. By using a product life cycle perspective, the supply and demand situations can be foreseen and support is given on possible strategies in these different supply and demand situations. Thirdly, how used products are gathered from customers is categorised by seven different customer relationship types. These types all have different effects on the remanufacturing system, and the characteristics of these relationships are disused in detail.

    When considering the remanufacturing process within the factory walls, a generic remanufacturing process was developed that divides the remanufacturing process into five different phases; pre-disassembly, disassembly, reprocessing, reassembly and the post-assembly phase. These different phases are separated by three different key decision points in the process that also have a major impact on the material planning of the process. For the remanufacturing material planning and production planning, the possibility to apply lean principles can be difficult. One foundation for implementing lean principles in new production is the existence of standardised processes that are stable and predictable. In the remanufacturing system, the possibilities to realise a predictable process is limited by the “normal” variations in quantity and the quality of the returned cores. Even though lean principles can be problematic to implement in the remanufacturing environment, this dissertation proposes a number of solutions that can be used to make the remanufacturing process leaner.

    Delarbeten
    1. Business drivers for remanufacturing
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Business drivers for remanufacturing
    2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of CIRP Life Cycle Engineering Seminar , 15th edition, Sidney, Australia, 2008, s. 581-586Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the aim is to explore what drives companies to get involved in the remanufacturing operations. In the previous research there have been numerous case studies that partly have addresses the issue of why a company is getting involved in remanufacturing. A main conclusion from this study is that the motives for remanufacturing a product are very case-dependent e.g. in what industry sector the company have business in and what product type being remanufactured. In this study it is found that there are mainly three general business drivers for remanufacturing. These are: profit, company policy and the environmental drivers. For remanufacturing to be successful, these drivers are crucial, although it does not propose that all of theses drivers have to be present for a successful remanufacturing system. When combining the profit, policy and environmental factors there is a great potential for a win-win-win situation, meaning that the customer gets a quality product at a lower price, the manufacturer reduces their manufacturing costs and the environment gains from a lower environmental impact.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13320 (URN)1877040673 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    15th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-05-27 Skapad: 2008-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-04-12
    2. Product life-cycle implications for remanufacturing strategies
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Product life-cycle implications for remanufacturing strategies
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 17, nr 11, s. 999-1009Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    For remanufacturing to be successful, there is a need to gain information on future market needs of remanufactured products, and match this to information on the magnitude of return flows. One of the major issues impacting remanufacturing is in the difficulty of obtaining used products (cores) that are suitable for remanufacturing. The timing and quantity of product returns is dependent on the type of product. Factors such as the mean product lifetime, rate of technical innovation, and failure rate of components all influence the return rate of products from end-of-use and end-of-life. The balance between product returns and demand for remanufactured products is a function of many variables, where the rate of technological innovation and the expected life of a product are the major influencing characteristics. The main contribution of this paper is the support that is provided in different supply and demand situations. By using a product life-cycle perspective, the supply and demand situations can be foreseen, and support given regarding possible strategies in these situations.

    Nyckelord
    Remanufacturing; Component cannibalization; Product life-cycle; Remanufacturing strategies
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13321 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.02.021 (DOI)
    Anmärkning

    Original Publication: Johan Östlin, Erik Sundin and Mats Björkman, Product Lifecycle Implications for Remanufacturing Strategies, 2009, Journal of Cleaner Production, (17), 11, 999-1009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.02.021 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/

    Tillgänglig från: 2009-06-12 Skapad: 2009-03-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-04-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Importance of Closed Loop Supply Chain Relationships for Product Remanufacturing
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Importance of Closed Loop Supply Chain Relationships for Product Remanufacturing
    2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 115, nr 2, s. 336-348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is an industrial process where used products are restored (remanufactured) to useful life. In comparison to manufacturing, remanufacturing has some general characteristics that complicate the supply chain and production system. For example, a company must collect the used products from the customers, and thus the timing and quality of the used products are usually unknown. Remanufacturing companies are dependent on customers to return used products (cores). In this paper, seven different types of closed-loop relationships for gathering cores for remanufacturing have been identified. The relationships identified are ownership-based, service-contract, direct-order, deposit-based, credit-based, buy-back and voluntary-based relationships. Building theory around these different types of relationships, several disadvantages and advantages are described in the paper. By exploring these relationships, a better understanding can be gained about the management of the closed-loop supply chain and remanufacturing.

    Nyckelord
    Product recovery, Reverse logistics, Relationship marketing
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13322 (URN)10.1016/j.ijpe.2008.02.020 (DOI)
    Anmärkning
    Original Publication: Johan Östlin, Erik Sundin and Mats Björkman, Importance of Closed Loop Supply Chain Relationships for Product Remanufacturing, 2008, International Journal of Production Economics, (115), 2, 336-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2008.02.020 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Tillgänglig från: 2009-06-14 Skapad: 2009-03-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Material and Process Complexity: Implications for Remanufacturing
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Material and Process Complexity: Implications for Remanufacturing
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of EcoDesign-05, 4th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, Tokyo, Japan, 12-14 December, 2005, s. 154-161Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a complex business. Many different factors and decisions affect the performance of a remanufacturing process. In this paper, four different remanufacturing cases are analyzed in how they manage these complexities. Based on the generic remanufacturing process, remanufacturing can be divided into the five phases of pre-disassembly, disassembly, reprocessing, reassembly and post-assembly. In each of these phases, a discussion is made regarding the specific factors and decisions that influence the order and purpose of the individual operations.

    Serie
    Nyckelord
    assembling, manufacturing processes, recycling, disassembly, generic remanufacturing process, process complexity, reassembly, reprocessing
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13323 (URN)10.1109/ECODIM.2005.1619192 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-05-27 Skapad: 2008-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-06-09
    5. Lean Remanufacturing: a Study Regarding Material Flow
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Lean Remanufacturing: a Study Regarding Material Flow
    2008 (Engelska)Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13324 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-05-27 Skapad: 2008-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-04-12
    6. Lean Production Principles in Remanufacturing: A Case Study at a Toner Cartridge Remanufacturer
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Lean Production Principles in Remanufacturing: A Case Study at a Toner Cartridge Remanufacturer
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, IEEE , 2007, s. 216-221Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Scandi-Toner AB works with remanufacturing of toner cartridges; both color cartridges and black cartridges The company Scandi-Toner and the remanufacturing industry in general do, compared to ordinary manufacturing, have some specific characteristics that might limit the possibilities to apply lean production principles, due to the high degree of uncertainty in the production process. These uncertainties are mainly caused by two factors: the quantity and quality of returned cores. Overall, these characteristics make the remanufacturing material flow harder to control. Hence the purpose of this paper is to analyze if lean productions principles for material flow can be applied in a remanufacturing environment, and especially at the Swedish remanufacturer Scandi-Toner AB. The analysis shows that lean production principles can be applied in remanufacturing environments, with some constraints. For the case company the study showed that for example the workshop layout could be improved significantly according to lean production principles. The one major conclusion that can be drawn from this analysis are that the inherent characteristics of variable processing times and uncertainty in materials recovered have the major negative impact for implementing a lean production process. Vice versa, given an accurate supply of parts for reassembly, all the appropriate principles of a lean production material flow can be implemented in the phases of reassembly and testing.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IEEE, 2007
    Serie
    IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, ISSN 1095-2020
    Nyckelord
    Lean Productlon, Value stream mapping, Rapid Plant Assesment, Remanufacturing
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13325 (URN)10.1109/ISEE.2007.369397 (DOI)000248562400042 ()1-4244-0861-X (ISBN)
    Konferens
    15th International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment (ISEE) , May 7-10, Orlando, USA
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-05-27 Skapad: 2008-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-08-23
    7. Material handling in the remanufacturing industry: a case study of a diesel engine remanufacturing process
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Material handling in the remanufacturing industry: a case study of a diesel engine remanufacturing process
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of CIRP Life Cycle Engineering Seminar, 12th edition, April 3-5, Laboratorie 3S, Grenoble France, 2005Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13326 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-05-27 Skapad: 2008-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-06-09
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    COVER01
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