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  • 501.
    Qian, Cheng
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China; Southern Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Wang, Zhe
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    A cloud service platform integrating additive and subtractive manufacturing with high resource efficiency2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 241, article id UNSP 118379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud manufacturing has been studied for years, yet commercial implementations are still limited. The recent advances in information technology have stimulated the free sharing of additive and subtractive manufacturing (A/SM) resources through cloud services. Currently, due to the lack of a general method to model manufacturing capabilities, as well as the absence of an open platform to integrate business and manufacturing processes, it is difficult to integrate A/SM resources within one platform efficiently and seamlessly. In this research, a service encapsulation model for A/SM resources was described using ontology modeling technique. A collaborative cloud platform integrating A/SM was designed that can provide optimal production plans considering time, cost, quality, and energy waste during manufacturing. The proposed platform and models were demonstrated by a prototype system and tested in a case study, which showed the integrated platform can increase the utilization rate of resources while reducing energy consumption. This research has provided a practical tool for virtualization, integration, and configuration of A/SM resource with high efficiency. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 502.
    Qin, Wei
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhuang, Zilong
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A two-stage ant colony algorithm for hybrid flow shop scheduling with lot sizing and calendar constraints in printed circuit board assembly2019In: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550, Vol. 138, article id UNSP 106115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates a multi-stage hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with challenging characteristics including lot sizing, calendar constraints and sequence-dependent setup times in a real-world printed circuit board (PCB) assembly shop. Besides, other characteristics such as unrelated parallel machines and stage skipping also complicate the problem. Such features make the scheduling problem very difficult to find an optimal or near optimal solution. To reduce the complexity of such a PCB scheduling problem, this study develops a hierarchical approach which decomposes the original problem into two highly coupled sub-problems including job sequencing and lot scheduling with lot sizing, and further proposes a two-stage ant colony algorithm with lot sizing to evolve best results in the makespan performance. Extensive computational experiments have been conducted to illustrate the superiority of the algorithm in terms of computational time and stability.

  • 503.
    Rahman, Md. Arafat
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis and Development of Potential Material & By-Product Synergies between Zero-Emissions Industries and Urban Waste Streams.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of integration of industries in urban setup is the current trend among researchers and engineers in the field of industrial ecology and environmental engineering. Trend of urbanization forces an increasing human demand for energy, materials, water and other resources. Urban symbiosis nowadays is closely related to the controlling of urban metabolism. Closing material loops works as an effective way for a circular economy where theoretically no waste is generated.

    In this thesis work, an investigation has been made for studying current symbiotic activities in the city of Linköping and look for any potential energy or by-product synergies from industrial activities and the urban waste streams. Some of the companies have been found to be already engaged in such type of activities, directly or indirectly. Hence, uncovering symbiotic activity is also an important task to consider while assessing the feasibility of a network of industries and urban settlement.

    Finally, it is concluded that the symbiotic activity in the city of Linköping is developing with discovering of new opportunities from waste and by-products from industries and the city area.  The municipal utility company Tekniska Verken and its subsidiary Svensk Biogas could play the role as anchor tenants and the aeronautics company SAAB, for its huge production line, has good potential to participate in exchange of physical materials.  

  • 504.
    Razin, Shair
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Future Oppourtunities and Challenges of the Sustainability of Biofuels in Sweden and in the Netherlands2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid Biofuels mainly Bioethanol and biodiesel are the main replacement for fossil fuels in the current world. But there are questions and concerns about the present biofuels production, mainly when it comes to matter of sustainability. In this thesis paper,Strategic Life Cycle Management data along with Life Cycle Analysis data has been used to analyze the sustainable biofuels condition in Sweden and the Netherlands. Data also has been collected through the interview from different stakeholders in Sweden and the Netherlands.

  • 505.
    Rehn, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influencing Industrial Symbiosis Development: A Case Study of Händelö and Northern Habour Industrial Areas2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research field of industrial ecology studies energy and material flows within and between different systems in our society while the concept of industrial ecology strives toward mimicking similar flows in natural eco-systems. Industrial ecology can be a means of achieving decoupling between economic growth and environmental impact within the industry sector. A sub-field of industrial ecology is industrial symbiosis which focuses on material, energy and water exchanges between traditionally separate actors in order to achieve economic and environmental benefits.

    Energy provider E.ON is a part of the industrial symbiosis network on Händelö outside of Norrköping. E.ON also has operations in the Northern Harbour industrial area in Malmö, and sees an opportunity for the development of industrial symbiosis in that area which has unexploited land. The aim of this thesis is to explore how a private actor can influence the industrial development of an area to facilitate the formation of industrial symbiosis connections. This is done by studying the emergence and development of industrial symbiosis in Händelö and how different actors have influenced that development, as well as the conditions for such development in the Northern Harbour.

    Industrial symbiosis in Händelö has evolved spontaneously because of profitability in each connection. This study shows that the establishment of Agroetanol’s ethanol pilot plant next to Händelöverket was an enabling event in the development of the industrial symbiosis network. The diversity of fuels used in Händelöverket, and the number of energy products that it provides suggest that it served as a so called anchor tenant in this development, attracting Agroetanol with its availability of steam produced from renewable fuels. This was one important aspect for the establishment of Agroetanol. Political instruments such as a tax exemption on Agroetanol’s plant and CO2 and energy taxes on fossil fuels have also contributed to this development.

    Conditions for industrial symbiosis in the Northern Harbour in Malmö are quite different from those in Norrköping. An important difference is that industrial symbiosis has been recognized as a tool for sustainability and might be considered when planning the unexploited land. There are however many interest in this land, especially by the port company CMP and the City of Malmö’s Real Estate Office who have invested large sums in expanding the port business. They prefer goods intensive businesses that utilize the infrastructure provided by the port and railway in the area. Malmö has also set some ambitious environmental targets to be fulfilled 2030. They create a need to transition from the partly natural gas powered energy system today to one based on renewable fuels. There are also opportunities in a gasification plant which is planned by E.ON, and an EU-funded project seeking to make use of the biofuels potentials of port sites by using industrial symbiosis.

    The conclusions of the study are that there are ways for a private actor to influence industrial symbiosis development. Some that have been identified in this work are:

    • As an anchor tenant with multiple large input and output streams, by attracting businesses to the area.
    • As an enabler of a biorefinery network with multiple end-products and by-products.
    • As a part of a coordinating entity that aims to facilitate industrial symbiosis.
  • 506.
    Ren, Shan
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, 710072, PR China.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, 710072, PR China / Research & Development Institute in Shenzhen, Northwestern Polytechnical University, PR China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Production, University of Vaasa, 65200, Vaasa, Finland.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huisingh, Donald
    Institute for a Secure and Sustainable Environment, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA.
    Almeida, Cecilia M. V. B.
    Paulista University, São Paulo, Brazil.
    A comprehensive review of big data analytics throughout product lifecycle to support sustainable smart manufacturing: A framework, challenges and future research directions2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 210, p. 1343-1365Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart manufacturing has received increased attention from academia and industry in recent years, as it provides competitive advantage for manufacturing companies making industry more efficient and sustainable. As one of the most important technologies for smart manufacturing, big data analytics can uncover hidden knowledge and other useful information like relations between lifecycle decisions and process parameters helping industrial leaders to make more-informed business decisions in complex management environments. However, according to the literature, big data analytics and smart manufacturing were individually researched in academia and industry. To provide theoretical foundations for the research community to further develop scientific insights in applying big data analytics to smart manufacturing, it is necessary to summarize the existing research progress and weakness. In this paper, through combining the key technologies of smart manufacturing and the idea of ubiquitous servitization in the whole lifecycle, the term of sustainable smart manufacturing was coined. A comprehensive overview of big data in smart manufacturing was conducted, and a conceptual framework was proposed from the perspective of product lifecycle. The proposed framework allows analyzing potential applications and key advantages, and the discussion of current challenges and future research directions provides valuable insights for academia and industry. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 507.
    Rockström, Rockström
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utveckling av ett verktyg för automatisk framtagning av konstruktionsunderlag för småskaligt vindkraftverk2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To produce design documentation for small-scale wind turbines as a common user is a time consuming process and professional help may be needed. A tool that automatically generates such documentation would result in significant time savings and since it can be used by individual persons. An internet based tool makes it possible for any user to explore the potential of building a small-scale wind turbine on the user’s own place, the only thing needed is an internet connection.

    The tool developed in this project allows the user to input the environment parameters and a desired energy output on a website and then automatically receives design documentation. The documentation contains the turbine sizing and information on how to construct the blades. The blades used in the model are cut out from a tube and earlier research at Linköping University has proved that these blades give good results. The same research also used a washing machine motor acting as generator to the turbine. Using such components do not provide the most optimal conditions, but is easy to construct. Important factors that have been kept in mind when developing the tool include: availability and ease of use. These were important since the tool will be available to a wide population of people where only basic knowledge at most should be required.

    There are many parameters that guide how a small-scale wind turbine is designed. The average wind speed and its distribution over time have the greatest importance, but also the terrain that the wind turbine will operate in. Parameters such as maximum building height and height of surrounding obstacles limit the values the design documentation can generate.

    Outputs of the tool are the required height of the wind turbine, how many blades are needed, length of blades, how the blades should be designed and whether it requires more than one wind turbine to meet the energy need. Other information supplied includes how much energy the wind turbine is able to generate (i.e. any excess) and wind speed at tower height. There is also the possibility that the tool shows an alternative design document. This alternative design is easier to construct, but requires that the user to reduce the energy need.

  • 508.
    Rondini, Alice
    et al.
    CELS – Research group on Industrial Engineering and Service Operations-Università degli studi di Bergamo, Italy.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pezzotta, Giuditta
    CELS – Research group on Industrial Engineering and Service Operations-Università degli studi di Bergamo, Italy.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    A simplified approach towards customer and provider value in PSS for small and medium-sized enterprises2018In: 10th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, IPS2 2018, 29-31 May 2018, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Mattias Lindahl, Yang Liu, Carl Dalhammar, Elsevier , 2018, p. 61-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the provision of PSS is becoming more and more common, the transition toward a servitized business model is still critical. This is particularly true for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) due to their limited internal resources and ability to define a servitization strategy. A crucial aspect during this transition is the identification of the right solutions to be implemented into the business that must render high value capture for providers and create value for customers. While a literature review showed that a large number of evaluation methods are available, these are often complex and require substantial amounts of resources in order to be carried out. This paper aims at supporting companies in taking decisions during early design phases by proposing a method that combines two existing approaches: The EVA method and the ProVa method. The combined method simplifies the existing ones while aiming at an easy implementation and application in SMEs. It is composed of two steps, the first pursuing the identification of valuable concepts from both the customer and the provider perspective; the second pursuing an individual analysis of the components available for use in the concepts selected. The application of the simplified method in a student-case of a startup company seeking to enter the distributed mobility market highlights the ease of use of the method in rendering valuable PSS concepts and in evaluating its specific components. 

  • 509.
    Roth, Liselott
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reuse of construction materials: Environmental performance and assessment methodology2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reuse is a measure for resource-saving materials and energy use, which is stressed in the concept of kretsloppsanpassning, or societal industrial ecology (SIE), as it will be termed in this thesis. Reuse is here used as a general term for any kind of reuse and divided into recirculation, upgrading and cascading, according to the degradation of the inner material structure. Reuse of construction materials in society is mainly done with the belief that any kind of reuse is environmentally beneficial. However, this assumption is seldom critically assessed.

    The aim of this thesis was to examine under which conditions reuse of construction materials in the Swedish building and transportation sectors is beneficial to the environment. In order to identify critical conditions, the environmental performance of actual building projects that to a large extent utilised reused building materials was assessed (Papers V-VI). To better understand the practice of SIE and how it was implemented, the transportation sector was studied (Paper I). In order to address the issue of assessing the environmental performance of construction material reuse, method development became an important part of this thesis. Methods and tools employed in this thesis were required to be able to simultaneously address different system boundaries and also involve simplification.

    Studying the implementation of SIE revealed the lack of a holistic approach in environmental management, though it is present in the overall objectives of the SIE concept (Paper I). This was concluded by studying the energy and material stocks and flows in a life-cycle perspective in the environmental management of the Swedish National Rail and Road administrations. The study showed that the SIE-related measures implemented were outflow oriented, while the material inflows were generally quantified. Overall, the management and use phases were addressed, while the construction and deconstruction phases were poorly considered.

    Studying environmental assessment methods showed that an important characteristic is the system boundaries, which to a large extent decide which issues could be addressed and what actually could be studied (Paper II). Environmental assessment methods applied to reuse of construction materials were organised in an assessment framework of four system levels: the material level, the local environment level, the narrow life-cycle level and the industrial system level. It was concluded that mainstream environmental assessment of construction material reuse that is performed in the process of development consent and also in research, mainly addresses the narrow scope of the material level. In order to apply a holistic approach to environmental assessments of reuse of construction materials, the system boundaries needed to be widened.

    When selecting system boundaries, methods and indicators, researchers indirectly decide on which environmental pressures we consider the most important (cf. Papers II - III). There are trade-offs between making broad or deep environmental assessments. To accomplish an environmental assessment wide in its scope requires abundant resources and is complicated to carry through. Simplifications of the complex reality are always needed. However, to counteract the risk of problem shifting, the simplified methods and indicators need to be balanced for environmental relevance and used with knowledge of what they reflect and what is left out (Paper III). One example of such method simultaneously environmentally relevant and capable to cope with wide system boundaries is the study of primary energy use in a life cycle perspective, applied to a material an energy use context (see Papers IV-VI).

    In searching for a tool to prioritise building materials in building research and environmental management of the building sector, the total amount of building materials present in the Swedish building material stock was multiplied by their embodied energy coefficients (Paper IV). This product was normalized for the building materials’ service life. The accounting resulted in an ordering of building material categories according to their energy intensity. These are, in decreasing order: wood materials, bricks and other ceramics, concrete and steel.

    After calculating energy use in a life-cycle perspective for the recirculation, upgrading and cascading of larger building reuse projects of concrete and clay bricks, it is not self-evident that reuse is beneficial for the environment (Paper V, VI). It mainly depends on the use of auxiliary materials and their embodied energy, but also the primary energy use for the reuse processes, such as transportation distance and mode between the deconstruction and construction sites. In order to improve the environmental benefits of reuse, primarily the auxiliary materials used in current reuse projects should be minimised. Otherwise, there is a risk that the energy use for these materials turns reuse into an unfavourable process for the environment. Furthermore, reuse should preferably be environmentally assessed with a wide scope before implementation. What is included in such environmental assessment is significant for the outcome and the pictured environmental performance.

    List of papers
    1. Missing the target?: Implementation of industrial ecology in the Swedish transportation sector
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Missing the target?: Implementation of industrial ecology in the Swedish transportation sector
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13588 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-04-19 Created: 2005-04-19 Last updated: 2010-01-13
    2. Environmental evaluation of reuse of by-products as road construction materials in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental evaluation of reuse of by-products as road construction materials in Sweden
    2003 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Reuse of by-products in road construction is most often environmentally evaluated from the narrow perspective of the material itself, i.e. the material level. In this article, we argue that the current mainstream environmental evaluation of reuse of by-products in road construction should use wider system boundaries. In order to illustrate the importance of system boundaries to the final result, three additional levels that complement the material level, are applied to the environmental evaluation of reuse of by-products. In total these four levels of evaluation are, firstly, the material itself, mainly studied by leaching tests, secondly, the road environment studied by substance flow analysis, furthermore, a narrow life-cycle perspective and, finally, the industrial system level that addresses the reuse of by-products in a broader sense. Methods and tools applied to different levels emphasise different environmental aspects and consequently they are appropriate for addressing different questions. However, especially for the evaluation of environmental aspects on the industrial system level, there is a need to develop the methods. To apply these four levels to the evaluation would broaden the knowledge about the environmental impacts of the reuse of by-products. We argue that current leaching tests have to be complemented by the broader system boundaries used in substance flow studies and in life-cycle assessments in order to discuss the use of resources and environmental impacts from a wider perspective.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13589 (URN)10.1016/S0956-053X(02)00052-1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-04-19 Created: 2005-04-19 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    3. Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use as a single indicator or in a set of few indicators is often used in applied research in the building, transportation and energy sectors. However, the environmental relevance of energy indicators is seldom questioned. The relation between environmental relevance and energy indicators might seem obvious. Nevertheless, how this is obvious has not been thoroughly discussed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the environmental relevance of the energy indicator and discuss implications for its use. The approach is to express environmental pressure in different environmental impact categories and determine the contribution to these from energy use. Because not all impact categories are closely linked to energy indicators, the aim and context in which it is used must be apparent.

    Keywords
    Energy indicator; Environmental pressure; Environmental assessment; Energy system; Environmental management
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14493 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.01.004 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    4. Prioritizing building materials in environmental assessment of the Swedish building sector
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prioritizing building materials in environmental assessment of the Swedish building sector
    2005 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13591 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-04-19 Created: 2005-04-19 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    5. Environmental analysis of reuse of cast-in-situ concrete in the building sector
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental analysis of reuse of cast-in-situ concrete in the building sector
    2000 (English)In: Towards Sustainability in the Built Environment, 2000, p. 234-243Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13592 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-04-19 Created: 2005-04-19 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    6. Recirculation, upgrading and cascading of building materials: What is the difference?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recirculation, upgrading and cascading of building materials: What is the difference?
    2005 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13593 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-04-19 Created: 2005-04-19 Last updated: 2019-06-13
  • 510.
    Roth, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental analysis of reuse of cast-in-situ concrete in the building sector2000In: Towards Sustainability in the Built Environment, 2000, p. 234-243Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 511.
    Roth, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental evaluation of reuse of by-products as road construction materials in Sweden2003In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reuse of by-products in road construction is most often environmentally evaluated from the narrow perspective of the material itself, i.e. the material level. In this article, we argue that the current mainstream environmental evaluation of reuse of by-products in road construction should use wider system boundaries. In order to illustrate the importance of system boundaries to the final result, three additional levels that complement the material level, are applied to the environmental evaluation of reuse of by-products. In total these four levels of evaluation are, firstly, the material itself, mainly studied by leaching tests, secondly, the road environment studied by substance flow analysis, furthermore, a narrow life-cycle perspective and, finally, the industrial system level that addresses the reuse of by-products in a broader sense. Methods and tools applied to different levels emphasise different environmental aspects and consequently they are appropriate for addressing different questions. However, especially for the evaluation of environmental aspects on the industrial system level, there is a need to develop the methods. To apply these four levels to the evaluation would broaden the knowledge about the environmental impacts of the reuse of by-products. We argue that current leaching tests have to be complemented by the broader system boundaries used in substance flow studies and in life-cycle assessments in order to discuss the use of resources and environmental impacts from a wider perspective.

  • 512.
    Roth, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prioritizing building materials in environmental assessment of the Swedish building sector2005In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 513.
    Roth, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Recirculation, upgrading and cascading of building materials: What is the difference?2005Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 514.
    Ryo, Fukushima
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Tatsunori, Hara
    The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    製品サービスシステム群の系列設計に向けた製品およびサービスの系列設計法のレビュー2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [ja]

    製造業では,より付加価値の高い提供物を生産するために,有形な製品に無形のサービスを組 み合わせたシステム(製品サービス Product/Service System : PSS)のカスタマイズ化が注目され ている.しかし,カスタマイズされた PSS 群(PSS 系列)の設計において議論されるべき点は明 らかになっていないため,文献調査を通じて,PSS のカスタマイズ化において今後研究されるべ き点を明らかにした. 具体的には,製品・サービス・PSS の系列設計に関する論文を調査し,「設計対象」と「設計 方法」の 2 つの面において比較した.各々の分野の文献を系統立てて比較するために,PSS 設計 において用いられているモデルを基準にした Concept Matrix を,製品・サービス・PSS の,それ ぞれについて作成した.文献検索の際に用いた単語や得られた結果を図 1 に示す. 調査結果から,PSS におけるモジュール設計に関する研究を推進する必要性があることを指摘 した.既に研究が開始されているサービスのモジュール設計は,サービスと類似した性質を持つ PSS のモジュール設計を行う上で参考になることが分かった.

  • 515.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A View of Service, Quality, and Value for Sustainability2009In: 12th International QMOD Conference, Verona, 2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 516.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Communication, Collaboration and Co-creation to Enhance Environmental Performance of PSS2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This position paper will present a concise, high-level review of the extant literature in Ecodesign. It willthen show future research opportunities that are brought by today’s industrial megatrends.Communication, collaboration, and co-creation are introduced as a set of potential key activities thatcould exploit the emerging opportunities for our societies to move towards environmental sustainability.

  • 517.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cutting-edge European PSS Research and its Meaning to Japanese Manufacturers2016In: Serviceology, ISSN 2188-5362, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 12-17Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 518.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eco-Co-Design - Ecodesign with Communication, Cooperation, and Co-creation: A preliminary report2015In: 9th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A huge amount of efforts in research on Ecodesign has been made in the last decades. Yet, industry faces problems that they need scientific and methodical support to solve. This paper first introduces three different cases from different industrial sectors to exemplify those problems. They concern communication of the lifecycle benefits, cooperation between different organizations such as designers and operators, and value co-creation by a provider and its customer. Then, brief review of literature in Ecodesign is presented to clearly show the lack of the needed insights. The research eventually aims to propose an innovative concept for Ecodesign to support industry to solve these problems. The concept is termed Eco-Co-Design meaning Ecodesign with Communication, Cooperation, and Co-creation. This paper is a preliminary report to propose the concept and shows immediate future works to complete this concept proposal.

  • 519.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eco-Co-design – Ecodesign with Communication, Cooperation, and Co-creation: A preliminary report2015In: Global Cleaner Production & Sustainable Consumption Conference: Accelerating the Transition to Equitable Post Fossil-Carbon Societies, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A huge amount of effort in research on Ecodesign has been made in the last decades. Yet, industry faces problems that need scientific and methodological support to solve. This paper first introduces three different cases from different industrial sectors to exemplify those problems. They concern communication of the lifecycle benefits, cooperation especially between designers and operators, and value co-creation by a provider and its customer. Next, a brief review of literature in Ecodesign is presented to clearly show the lack of the needed insights. The research will eventually propose an innovative concept for Ecodesign to support industry to solve these problems. The concept is termed Eco-Co-Design, meaning Ecodesign with Communication, Cooperation, and Co-creation. This paper is a preliminary report to propose the concept, and describes immediate future research to complete this concept proposal. 

  • 520.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Ecodesign Strategies Using Classification of Environmental Characteristics2008In: International Design Conference,2008, Zagreb: Zagreb University , 2008, p. 1351-1358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a framework for classification of environmental characteristics of offers, utilizing Kano Model and willingness to pay. The framework is connected to some design management, i.e. design itself and external-communication, strategies for companies which are also proposed in this paper. The integration of the classification and the strategies is applied to several typical environmental characteristics against Japanese markets. The results include that plant-based plastics in a chassis of a notebook-typed PC for businessmen over 50 years old cannot be recommended to be adopted within the development team. However, the company could also focus on the positive effect on its corporate branding.

  • 521.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engineering PSS (Product/Service Systems) Toward Sustainability: Review of Research2013In: Handbook of Sustainable Engineering: Vol. 1 / [ed] Joanne Kauffman and Kun-Mo Lee, Springer Netherlands, 2013, 1, p. 597-613Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key assets based on new materials, optimized resource management, and new energy sources. Contributions reflect a focus on state-of-the art insights into employing smart materials, recycling e-waste, water utilization, solar cells, product lifecycles, transportation and reverse manufacturing. Supportive of this, underlying issues such as engineering education, consumer behaviour and the regulatory climate complete the handbook’s comprehensive treatment of the problems and most promising solutions.

  • 522.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrated Development of Technology and Business Model: A Discipline beyond Ecodesign and PSS Design toward Sustainability2010In: 2010 International Conference on Asia Pacific Business Innovation and Technology Management, Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology Management Society , 2010, p. 143-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 523.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    MISP: Method of Developing Innovative Service and Product2008In: Journal of Mitsubishi Research Institute, ISSN 1347-4812, no 49, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Services are critical in both service and manufacturing industries in our economy. However, very few methodologies support planning/design of services in a systematic manner at present. This paper aims at proposing an innovative method named MISP that allows systematic, effective, and efficient planning of services. First, the procedure of the method is explained. MISP adopts QFD (Quality Function Deployment) to obtain critical points, and utilizes extension of TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) to generate options. Then, MISP is applied to actual service planning in a German manufacturer. MISP is verified to be powerful in supporting to create effective solutions for the business by presenting the results such as generating new services for the company.

  • 524.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Product/Service-System Design and Beyond2011In: The Future of Design Methodology / [ed] Herbert Birkhofer, London: Springer-Verlag , 2011, p. 125-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book, leading experts in design methodology, most of them active in the Design Society, reflect the great progress that has been made, but also identify the challenges of future development of the topic.

    The reason that this book has been compiled was the retirement of Professor Herbert Birkhofer in 2011 after a long and distinguished career. Among other things, Prof. Birkhofer was the founding President of the Design Society and, since 2009, is a Honorary Fellow of the Society.

  • 525.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Quality Engineering for Early Stage of Environmentally Conscious Design2009In: TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 182-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper proposes application of quality engineering in the early phase of environmentally conscious design (Ecodesign). Methodology/approach - Utilizing Kano Model and willingness to pay, it presents a framework for classification of environmental characteristics of products/services (i.e. offers) in two dimensions. The framework is connected to design management, i.e. design itself and external communication, where strategies for companies are given. The integration of the classification and the strategies is applied to three environmental characteristics against Japanese markets. Findings - The classification framework was proved to be effective as it generates much richer implication than other existing methods. In addition, it works well especially for environmental characteristics. Generation of strategies was also found to work effectively. They suggested some potential of using quality-engineering oriented methods/tools to deal with customer perception in the early phase of Ecodesign. Research limitation/implication - The results imply the needs for research on further utilizing quality-engineering approach and methods in the early stage of Ecodesign. This would be effective as how customers perceive offers has been neglected in the research and practice of Ecodesign and the focus of Ecodesign has been rather in its technical aspects. This research, in a broader sense, exists in integration of marketing and design disciplines. Originality/value - This paper has brought light into the arena where customer aspects in Ecodesign are addressed and has proved some potential for quality-engineering approach and method to tackle the aspects. 

  • 526.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Quality Engineering for Early Stage of Environmentally Conscious Design2008In: International QMOD Conference,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 527.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Research Series Review for Transdisciplinarity Assessment: Validation with Sustainable Consumption and Production Research2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 19, article id 5250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of the escalating challenges for the sustainability of our societies, the need for improving the research of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) aiming to make real changes on the societies towards sustainability is evident. Transdisciplinary (TD) research is a promising way to enhance SCP research; however, insights to operationalize the concept of TD research are needed for both funders and researchers. Therefore, this article proposes an innovative way to capture and analyse a research series for transdisciplinarity assessment in qualitative and quantitative terms. This new way is termed research series review (RSR). This article adopted literature analysis and partly reflexive retrospective reasoning. In particular, citation content analysis was carried out in relation to two research series selected as the cases. The results show that RSR has advantages such as clearer traceability with cause-and-effect relationships. Furthermore, a successful SCP research series is hypothesised to form an iterative process between practical and theoretical fields as well as finding opportunities and proposing solutions.

  • 528.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tools for Lifecycle Modeling and Engineering: Necessity from Megatrends in Industry2016In: 10th MODPROD Workshop on Model-Based Product Development, 2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This talk aims at sharing with you the presenter’s understanding of a need of tools for lifecycle engineering including modeling, simulation, analysis and evaluation. This need is motivated by several evident megatrends observed in industry including growing service business in the product use phase and moving toward circular economy. This talk will show different industrial examples of lifecycle engineering as well as touch upon related theories for you to understand the need. The talk is based on the presenter’s rich experience of research on lifecycle engineering. During the talk, some discussion with the audience regarding the need is expected. 

  • 529.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What does Product/Service System mean to a manufacturer?2013In: Communications of JIMA, ISSN 0917-6241, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 73-79Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [ja]

    本稿は産業界におけるPSSの国際的な現状を説明し,製造業者にとってのPSSの意味を述べる.製造業者が真のPSS提供業者になるために備えるべき能力を述べ,以上より求められる研究トピックを述べる.まとめと今後の展望を述べる

  • 530.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What is PSS design?: Explained with two industrial cases2011In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 25, p. 403-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents results of applying a PSS (Product/Service System) design method to two cases in industry – one from manufacturing industry and another from service industry. The method is a structured and comprehensive design method that the author’s group has developed and is now called SPIPS. The method is shown effective to support designers with derive relevant improvement solutions. Then, brief discussion will be given about PSS design. The contribution will also show a stream behind SPIPS, originating from QFD (Quality Function Deployment).

  • 531.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandin, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Research on Services in the Manufacturing Industry based on a Holistic Viewpoint and Interdisciplinary Approach2011In: Functional thinking for value creation : proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems / [ed] Jürgen Hesselbach and Christoph Herrmann, Springer, 2011, p. 27-32Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper begins by consolidating industrial challenges and research issues concerning Product/Service Systems obtained through various activities by the authors. Based on this, it points out the importance of the holistic view in further research in this area so that PSS providers do not fall into local optimization. The intent of this contribution to our research community includes shedding light on interesting issues that thus far have been relatively invisible and with narrower scope.

  • 532.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birkhofer, Herbert
    Panshef, Veselin
    Dörsam, Edgar
    An effective and efficient method to design services: empirical study for services by an investment-machine manufacturer2009In: International Journal of Internet Manufacturing and Services, ISSN 1751-6048, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge in practice on how to design offerings of services and products effectively and efficiently is demanded in manufacturing industries. This article discusses some empirical results obtained from designing services at a manufacturer, who had implemented information-communication networks to their customers and adopted a structured method to design services. It demonstrates that the method worked for a real-scaled problem to generate several effective solutions with input of approximately five person-months. This is contributed largely by the technique addressing customer value through extension of quality function deployment. Simultaneously, it is pointed out that special efforts are needed to prepare the ontology used to describe the model.

  • 533.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Do We Share an Understanding of Transdisciplinarity in Environmental Sustainability Research?2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 170, p. 1399-1403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter postulated that there is a need to clarify the statement of the journal as a transdisciplinaryplatform. It first provided an understanding of transdisciplinary research based on the literature. Second,it explained why an understanding of transdisciplinarity is important, and how such an understandingwill enhance the research and practice in the topics of the entire journal. Third, taking environmentalsustainability design research as an example subject, it commented on among others six articles publishedin the journal, and showed the relevance of this issue within this example subject. Overall, thisletter is expected to contribute to enhance the quality of the research and practice in the topics of thejournal.

  • 534.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    Italian Ministry of Agriculture, Rome, Italy.
    Creating Strategy with Demand-side Approach in Early Stages of Ecodesign2013In: International Journal of Environmentally Intelligent Design & Manufacturing, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, in spite of its increasing diffusion in the industrial world, Ecodesign seems to be not successful from a marketing perspective, i.e. development of successful products. The main reason of this situation can be found in the inability of most companies to persuade customers by appealing to understanding the higher value of their eco-products, which is a critical missing factor that has impeded the success of Ecodesign in the marketplace. With the aim of finding a solution to this problem a detailed study of theories and practices of current Ecodesign was carried out, which brought to light the lack of a well-structured marketing strategy integrated within traditional Ecodesign activities. Following a bottom-up approach, i.e. analyzing several successful case studies, the key factors for the development of competitive eco-products were captured and investigated with the goal of building up a general framework for their introduction into the design process. The output of the study consisted in the development of a novel concept, named Ecodesign Strategy (ES), by means of which designers can take into account and structure the key elements for a successful eco-product: value, customer, system, function and component, and environmental characteristics. The favorable outcome of this approach represents an efficient solution of a new design paradigm, i.e. incorporating marketing issues into Ecodesign activities.

  • 535.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering of the University of Rome “La Sapienza,” Italy.
    Customization in Ecodesign: A Demand-Side Approach Bringing New Opportunities?2010In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 529-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 536.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Hallberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    State-of-the-art in Theory of Customised Offering Design2013Report (Other academic)
  • 537.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Hara, Tatsunori
    Dept. Precision Engineering The University of Tokyo.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Dept. System Design Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Arai, Tamio
    Dept. Precision Engineering The University of Tokyo.
    Verifying the Power of a Service CAD System to Describe Objects - A Case of Service Explorer2008In: Journal of Japan Industrial Management Association, ISSN 1342-2618, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 320-329Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 538.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service as a Means of Communicating User and Environmental Benefits in Ecodesign2010In: 11TH INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE (DESIGN 2010), VOL 1-3, The Design Society, 2010, p. 947-954Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at proposing an extended ecodesign framework by incorporating a service aspect in addition to customer, value, system, function, component, and environmental characteristics. It attempts to highlight the importance of an aspect of service: communication for customers or users. The framework is applied to a commercial toilet product that is combined with a service analysing and communicating about the product usage. It is followed by implication to design and management. Note that much insight in the paper can be applied to product design in general, not only to ecodesign.

  • 539.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kebir, Noara
    MicroEnergy International GmbH, Germany.
    Global Cleaner Production & Sustainable Consumption Conference: Accelerating the Transition to Equitable Post Fossil-Carbon Societies2015In: Product/Service Systems in Emerging Markets – Case and Implications, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service System (PSS) has been provided in industry and researched in academia for almost two decades, and a lot of insights are available in literature. Virtually all the practices and theories have been, however, discussed and developed on the context of the matured economy thus far. Specifically on the context of emerging markets, theoretical elaboration of PSS is limited. This paper is a first attempt to discuss theoretical aspects of PSS in the emerging markets. This is a highly promising research area because of the enormous opportunities on the markets and the need to shift towards sustainable and equitable societies. This paper compares relevant motivations, conditions, and characteristics for designing and implementing PSS in the matured economy versus in the emerging markets. This paper adopts literature review and case studies. It is expected to provide insights for further developing the body of scientific knowledge of PSS as well as interesting future research avenues on PSS.

  • 540.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, TobiasLuleå University of Technology, Sweden.Lindahl, MattiasLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS2 Conference 2010, Linköping, 14-15 April2010Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers in developed countries today regard services as increasingly important. Some manufacturing firms are strategically shifting from a “product seller” towards a “service provider”. As a result, their offerings have come to form a combination of physical products and services. Along with this trend, concepts such as Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²) are found in not only theoretical but also practical fields in industries. An IPS² is defined as “an integrated industrial product and service offering that delivers value in use”.

    This integrated offering and its way of development provides opportunities for companies and their customers to design more innovative solutions. IPS² has potential for better environmental performance, as well. On the other hand, this has a great impact on such companies. Delivering IPS² is not an easy task, and may force companies to change organizational structures and their mindsets.

    The CIRP IPS² Conference is organized by the CIRP IPS² Working Group. This 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference has 69 technical papers in the proceedings from 14 countries. This shows the interests of the topic within CIRP and the outside research community at large. The conference has 12 technical sessions, 2 keynote speeches and 2 industry study visits. Over 100 participants are expected to attend the conference. This IPS² conference will focus on research and practice into marketing, design, development, manufacturing, delivery, use, maintenance, and end-of-life of IPS². The topics to be addressed include manufacturing methods, development methods, service quality, information communication technologies, service networks, business models, and environmental performance.

    Reflecting the high degree of participants’ sharing backgrounds and disciplines, we will make a challenge on the way of organizing sessions in this conference. Unlike the tradition of CIRP conferences, presentations will be short with 10 minutes while long discussion across different presentations will be facilitated by session chairpersons with some 30 minutes after all the presentations in each session. We understand this has pros and cons, but in this particular case we believe this is, at least, a good attempt and hope this to produce more fruitful results.

    We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the authors for their high-quality research papers, skilled session chairpersons, companies offering industry visits, the international scientific committee members for their support in reviewing the papers and the local organising committee for their efforts in preparing this conference. We would also like to thank our sponsors; VINNOVA (The Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems), our gold sponsor Linköping municipality and our silver sponsors Servicestaden AB, Polyplank AB, SIG PM, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Management and Engineering at Linköping University and The Faste Laboratory at Luleå University of Technology for their support for the conference.

    Conference chairpersons,

    Tomohiko Sakao (Linköping University)

    Tobias Larsson (Luleå University of Technology)

  • 541.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A method to improve integrated product service offerings based on life cycle costing2015In: CIRP annals, ISSN 0007-8506, E-ISSN 1726-0604, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 33-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a few papers have reported on life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of integrated product service offerings (IPSOs), insight on how to improve IPSOs based on LCC analysis is missing. This paper presents a method and an Excel and MATLAB-based tool that support IPSO design by employing LCC analysis, both from the provider and customer perspectives. This method takes advantage of exchangeability between products and services, being enabled within IPSO design. The method has been applied to an existing IPSO and potential improvements have been identified, e.g. one cheap component causing high LCC that could be reduced significantly by redesign.

  • 542.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A value based evaluation method for Product/Service System using design information2012In: CIRP annals, ISSN 0007-8506, E-ISSN 1726-0604, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 51-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a new method for evaluating Product/Service System (PSS). It improves formulation of an evaluation step within an existing comprehensive method for designing PSS. The evaluation is achieved based on the importance of various customer value and each offering’s contribution to the value as well as the customer's budget. Its advantage is the effective utilization of design information accumulated at the earlier part of the comprehensive method, as opposed to marketing oriented methods solely for utility measurement (e.g. conjoint analysis). Application of the entire method to a real life case at an investment machine manufacturer is presented.

  • 543.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, MattiasLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Introduction to Product/Service-System Design2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing need for companies to address service design, as well as product design, in an integrated manner is becoming increasingly important across a number of industries. Product/Service System (PSS) is a promising business model that companies can use to increase their sustainability in a mature economy. Introduction to Product/Service-System Design contains a collection of practical examples demonstrating how to design a PSS in industry. These recent examples are the results of applying various theories developed in different countries and therefore accommodating diverse cultural differences from throughout Europe and Japan.

    Providing a useful overall guide to the state of the art in theory and practice, each chapter covers the cutting edge of a different methodology or practice. As any PSS design should, in principle, address the offering, the customer or user, and the provider, the book is arranged according to these three dimensions, providing detailed information on how to incorporate such themes into a working design. The book’s focus on design is also evident in the discussion of how to anticipate and utilise the various dynamics within each dimension.

    Introduction to Product/Service-System Design will help improve working processes and inspire creative thinking for the wide range of people involved in designing a PSS: designers, marketing professionals, sales staff, production engineers, and service engineers. It can also serve as a reference book for university students on advanced courses related to mechanical design, industrial marketing or economics, and production engineering.

  • 544.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    PCP (Provider – Customer – Product) Triangle: How Can Manufacturing Intelligence be Maintained?2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, p. 362-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited insight is available regarding the benefits of an Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) as a possibility to encapsulate a technology. This paper applies a framework termed the PCP (Provider – Customer – Product) Triangle to two cases. The PCP Triangle aims to identify benefits (including technology encapsulation) and risks of IPSOs in a systematic manner. In one case, a technology is the core of the offering and IPSO is an alternative as a business model. The other case concerns biogas production, where know-how to control the production is one of the key assets of the provider to add value. By doing so, it validates the PCP Triangle further with cases and explains how it can be used. The results show that the PCP Triangle is a simple but effective tool to describe and visualize the flow of information around the product by discussing strategies for keeping the firm’s intelligence in manufacturing. The paper also discusses the IPSO’s contribution to environmental performance. 

  • 545.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Method to Support Setting up Contracts for Integrated Product Service Offerings2009In: 20th International Conference on Production Research (ICPR-20), 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 546.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Addressing Uncertainty as a Key for Successful Integrated Product and Service Offerings: Literature Review and Company Interview2008In: Swedish Production Symposium,2008, 2008, p. 253-260Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Services are getting increasingly important in the manufacturing industries today. As a result, it has become common for companies to provide a combination of services and products as an integrated offering. This paper focuses on such business models and development processes. It explores the current status and needs of industries on those issues. Through reviewing 12 journal articles tackling these issues and complementary academic contributions, it was found that uncertainty is a critical concept to be addressed properly. Based on this result, nine Swedish companies interested in such business were interviewed on this issue. The matured providers raised convincing customers as their major challenges while others consider understanding the internal meaning of IPSO business is their current challenge. In addition, there is a wish to have a quantitative tool for companies to utilize upon developing such offerings.

  • 547.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmentally-conscious design methods for manufacturing firms with servicification2009In: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 26-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Servicification is a key toward environmental conscious business in the manufacturing industry After looking at the business and economic implications of Integrated Product and Service Offerings, it suggest specifications for methods beneficial for such a manufacturing company. The paper is based on the empirical case studies of 120 Swedish manufacturing firms of different sizes. It is expected to encourage discussion on this crucial theme in mature economies such as those of Europe and Japan. 

  • 548.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Rolf
    Maxiom AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Thörnblad, Gabriel
    Maxiom AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    A Method for Lifecycle Design of Product/Service Systems Using PLM Software2017In: Product Lifecycle Management and the Industry of the Future / [ed] Ríos, José; Bernard, Alain; Bouras, Abdelaziz; Foufou, Sebti, Springer, 2017, p. 710-718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental sustainability and resource scarcities are urgent issues, and innovative ways of providing products and services are needed. In light of a circular economy, manufacturers have yet to learn and implement innovative ways of design covering the entire product lifecycle and incorporating sustainability and resource issues based on system perspectives. This paper aims at proposing an innovative and practical method to support manufacturers in the design of a product/service system (PSS) for resource efficiency and sustainability. The intention is that the method be implemented as an add-on feature for commercial PLM (product lifecycle management) software, with a lifecycle focus, including calculation of lifecycle cost (LCC).

  • 549.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Neramballi, Abhijna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enhancing PSS design through big data, IoT and bigdata analytics2019In: Proceedings of the Spring Servitization Conference: Delivering Services Growth in the Digital Era / [ed] Bigdeli, A., Kowalkowski, C., Kindström, D., Baines, T., United Kingdom, 2019, p. 197-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: PSS (Product/Service System) is a specific type of offering in servitization and requires a special way of designing to exploit its full potential. Today, thanks to increasing interest in big data, IoT (Internet of Things) and big data analytics (BDA), we are seeing an enormous opportunity to further advance the practice of PSS design and delivery. Now, questions arise as to how these technologies could improve PSS design and delivery: does such a PSS design process already exist that can accommodate various types of incoming big data through IoT? Is there a need to amend existing PSS design processes to exploit the obtained data? At present, no clear answer to these questions can be found in the literature. This conference paper aims to pave the way forward for research in PSS design and show opportunities to improve design and operational practices using big data, IoT and BDA.

    Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method adopted is a literature review and analysis. First, PSS design methods and procedures are reviewed in a systematic manner and consolidated as a general PSS design procedure. Second, opportunities for using big data, IoT and BDA to improve PSS design and delivery are identified in the general description. Third, issues for further research and development are presented.

    Findings: The review clarifies what, in essence, the literature scientifically informs us about PSS design methods. The common denominator for PSS design methods could be composed of ten steps. Eight out of the ten steps were found to be relevant with use of big data, IoT and BDA. The relevance was also described as pros and cons in terms of quality, cost, and time (delivery).

    Originality/Value: First, the paper is one of the earliest high-level reviews of PSS design from the viewpoint of big data, IoT and BDA. Second, it gives a perspective of various possible relations between PSS design and big data, IoT and BDA. Third, the paper presents further scientific and practical research opportunities in this area, building upon insights available in the state of the art of PSS design.

  • 550.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McAloone, Tim C.
    Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Product with Service, Technology with Business Model: Expanding Engineering Design2011In: DS 68-4: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED11), Vol. 4 / [ed] Culley, S.J.; Hicks, B.J.; McAloone, T.C.; Howard, T.J. & Lindemann, U., Glasgow, UK: The Design Society, 2011, p. 449-460Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking back over the last decade, the importance of an expanded understanding of engineering design has been shared within the engineering design community. Presented concepts and methods to support such expansion include Functional Product Development, Service Engineering, and Product/Service-Systems (PSS) design. This paper first explains PSS design as an expansion of engineering design, away from merely the physical product. Secondly, it gives a review of PSS research and a projection of future research issues, also ranging out into untraditional fields of research. Finally, it presents a new promising concept beyond PSS design; via an integrated development of technology and business model. This can be of particular interest for further research, especially due to its high freedom for designers and thus high potential for innovation.

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