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  • 501.
    Wiss, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    David, Andersson
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Prioritizing Rare Diseases: Psychological Effects Influencing Medical Decision Making2017In: Medical decision making, ISSN 0272-989X, E-ISSN 1552-681XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Measuring societal preferences for rarity has been proposed to determine whether paying pre- mium prices for orphan drugs is acceptable. Objective. To investigate societal preferences for rarity and how psychological factors affect such preferences. Method. A postal survey containing resource allocation dilemmas involving patients with a rare disease and patients with a common disease, equal in severity, was sent out to a randomly selected sample of the population in Sweden (return rate 42.3%, n = 1270). Results. Overall, we found no evidence of a general preference for prioritizing treat- ment of patients with rare disease patients over those with common diseases. When treatment costs were equal, most respondents (42.7%) were indifferent between the choice options. Preferences for prioritizing patients with common diseases over those with rare diseases were more frequently displayed (33.3% v. 23.9%). This tendency was, as expected, amplified when the rare disease was costlier to treat. The share of respondents choosing to treat patients with rare diseases increased when present- ing the patients in need of treatment in relative rather than absolute terms (proportion dominance). Surprisingly, identifiability did not increase preferences for rarity. Instead, identifying the patient with a rare disease made respondents more willing to prioritize the patients with common diseases. Respondents’ levels of education were significantly associated with choice—the lower the level of education, the more likely they were to choose the rare option. Conclusions. We find no support for the existence of a general preference for rarity when setting health care priorities. Psychological effects, especially proportion dominance, are likely to play an important role when pre- ferences for rarity are expressed.  

  • 502.
    Wyckman, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson Funke, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Är progressiva avskrivningar en förutsättning för nyproduktion?: En studie av effekterna vid en övergång till raka avskrivningar för bostadsrättsföreningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, there has been a recent debate about the reasonability of the use of progressive depreciations by housing cooperatives and if straight line depreciations is a better alternative. The Swedish Accounting Standards Board decided during the spring of 2014 that progressive depreciation is not an applicable depreciation method for buildings. In media, many have discussed the effect on the market for housing cooperative shares but it has not yet been investigated with a scientific perspective.

    Purpose: The aim of the thesis is to contribute with this scientific perspective by analyzing if progressive depreciations is a prerequisite for production of new dwellings. The thesis is also meant to look into regional differences of this matter.

    Method: To answer the two problem formulations above, a theoretical model has been developed with the basic assumption that buyers of housing cooperative shares should be indifferent to which depreciation method is applied. Rules and practices of housing cooperative depreciations have been charted in order to make the model adequate. The end result of the model shows how a transition from progressive to straight line depreciation affects the profitability of production of new dwellings. With respect to microeconomic theory and a general analysis of the housing market, a discussion has been carried out about the model assumptions and the model results.

    Conclusions: According to the used model and its assumptions, the conclusion has been made that progressive depreciations is a short term prerequisite for production of new dwellings. Although, there are circumstances that indicate that the market reaction would be milder than what the model results show. Furthermore, the effect of the depreciation method transition seems to decrease with higher market prices for the housing cooperative shares. In the long term, progressive depreciations is not a prerequisite for production of new dwellings.

  • 503.
    Wåhlén, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carnander, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Konkurrensens påverkan på skolverksamheten2015Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka hur konkurrens faktiskt har påverkat skolan. För att konkretisera detta har vi valt att undersöka konkurrensen mellan kommunala skolor och fristående skolor, och hur detta har påverkat skolans betygsättning, kostnader samt lärarna.

  • 504.
    Youssef, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Zelic, Tijana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    En mer inkluderande arbetsmarknad?: En studie kring lågkvalificerade arbeten med lägstalöner för nyanlända2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien redogör för de predikterade effekterna av införandet av lågkvalificerade arbeten med lägstalöner för nyanlända. Resultaten baserar sig på litteraturstudier i form av rapporter samt data hämtad från statistiska organisationer och myndigheter. Vidare utgår studien från nationalekonomiska teorier samt analyser på effekterna av införandet av lagstadgade minimilöner i Storbritannien och Tyskland. Den svenska arbetsmarknaden kännetecknas av ett välfungerande system med en sjunkande arbetslöshet. Trots detta förekommer grupper som tenderar att stängas ute på arbetsmarknaden på grund av en hög inträdesbarriär, en sammanpressad lönestruktur samt avsaknaden av relevant utbildning och erfarenhet. Detta har resulterat i att arbetslösheten till största del utgörs av särskilt utsatta grupper, däribland nyanlända. I samband med den sammanpressade lönestrukturen och de höga ingångslönerna är andelen lågkvalificerade arbeten i Sverige liten. Följderna blir att lågkvalificerade arbeten inte blir ekonomiskt lönsamma och därför elimineras. Det är tydligt att både för- och nackdelar med ett införande av lågkvalificerade arbeten med lägstalöner finns. Det nationalekonomiska perspektivet pekar på att lågproduktiv arbetskraft inte konkurreras ut eftersom fler arbetstillfällen och en större lönespridning skapas. Sett till andra perspektiv kan införandet medföra att den svenska minimilönen understiger EU:s gräns för relativ fattigdom, vilket skulle innebära att en del av befolkningen hade erhållit låg ekonomisk standard. Slutligen rekommenderas det, vid en övervägning av införandet av lågkvalificerade arbeten med lägstalöner, att kombinera nationalekonomisk teori med det empiriska material som finns.

  • 505.
    Youssef, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Zelic, Tijana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Information Diffusion and Safe Havens: Multi-scale Network Dynamics in the Biotech Markets2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the return connectedness between the biotechnology sector and other financial assets for 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2018, using an empirical approach from both time- and frequency-domain. The results reveal that the connectedness between the biotechnology sector and other financial assets are decreasing with time, entailing high diversification opportunities in the long-run. Our results also suggest that the spillover effect from the biotechnology sector is higher than the spillover effect to the biotechnology sector, proposing that the sector affects other financial assets to a greater extent than they affect the biotechnology sector. Concurrently, we found that the net directional connectedness is negative for the sector, which means that it does not transmit shocks to others since it is not subject to significant return or volatility shocks. This implies that the systematic risk connected to the biotechnology sector is lower than previous studies argue for. Thus, our main finding is that investments in the sector has safe haven properties, indicating that they are independent towards other sectors. By investing in the biotechnology sector, investors contribute to society and supports the R&D, leading to development of vital drugs. In light of this, we argue that investments in the sector are socially beneficial. Building on these insights, investments in the biotechnology sector are of importance when investing in a prosperous world.

  • 506.
    Yusuf, Fahmi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Sipek, Ella
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The factors behind the success of Swedish entrepreneurs: A quantitative approach of Swedish entrepreneurs, with an international comparison of the years 1800-2012.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The entrepreneur as an economic agent is highlighted as being important by several researchers, mainly through their contribution to innovation and economic development. Yet there is no universal definition of what is characterized as being an entrepreneur. The elements affecting success of entrepreneurs has previously not been outlined extensively, the aim of this study is therefore to determine the factors of entrepreneurial success in Sweden. This is made possible by adopting a statistical prosopography and reproducing the method used by Nuvolari, Toninelli & Vasta (2015). The method involves collecting qualitative information found in the Dictionary of Swedish National Biography and from a list of the most prominent entrepreneurs in Sweden, published by the newspaper Svenska Dagbladet. The qualitative information is then rewritten into quantitative data, which enables the use of factor analysis along with ordinary least square regressions. The standardized research allows for comparison of other studies involving entrepreneurs active in different countries. In addition, the model is expanded using a cluster analysis, allowing for identifying structures and patterns within the sample of entrepreneurs.

    The study concludes that entrepreneurial success appears to be a multi-dimensional phenomenon, also shown in other case studies adopting similar method. The level of innovation intensity proves to enhance success of all dimensions. While an entrepreneur’s educational level is shown to have a positive relationship with the economic success, it appeared to be negatively related to the aspect of social mobility. Moreover, involvement in politics is also shown to have a negative impact on economic success. Finally, the cluster analysis proved the existence of six different types of entrepreneurs within the sample.

  • 507.
    Zhang, Lihua
    et al.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kishida, Miki
    Setsunan University, Osaka, Japan.
    The Economic Rationale for Business Groups: A comparative study of China, Japan and Sweden2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Business groups around the world are remarkable phenomena, and many academic scholars have studied their pros and cons. However, few researchershave analyzedthe economic rationale for the existence of business groups in a systematic way. Furthermore, even fewer scholars have targeteddifferent economic rationale for business groups situated in different institutional and cultural backgrounds. Focusing on business groups from China, Japan and Sweden, this paper is trying to compare different economic rationale for having business groups in three distinctive types of economies: China represents the developing economiesemerging from the late 1980s; Japan represents the developed economiesthat industrialized after World WarII;Sweden represents the developed countrieswith a longhistory of capitalist economic system. We first propose three assumptions to explain the existence of business groups,based on both the related literature and our observation. Then, they are separately analyzed with evidence from selected business groupsin the three countries.

    Our results show that the economic rationale for business groups in the three countries differs from each other. As for China, due to the active role of government in establishing business groups, business groups are a tool in the hands of the government to help the government to regulate the economy. Business groups in Japan mainly serve to reap economies of scope,while forming close relationshipswith the government to help revitalize the economy in critical times. Swedish business groups also diversify their industry portfolio to gain from economies of scope and at the same time seek cost-effective financing. The differences described above highly reflect the different institutional and cultural backgroundsin the countries respectively. The results might help academic scholars, business managers and government officials to better understand why business groups differ in various countries, and the role they are playing to overcome different social and economic problems.

  • 508.
    Zhang, Lihua
    et al.
    Tongji University, Peoples R China.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School Econ, Sweden.
    Kishida, Miki
    Setsunan University, Japan.
    The emergence and organizational persistence of business groups in China, Japan, and Sweden2016In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 885-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of business groups has to be discussed in a systematic and comparative way. This article analyzes business groups in three countries, China, Japan, and Sweden, by providing a view as to why and how business groups solve economic problems, and how the specific national context of the group affects its substance and performance. Our first observation is that the business groups studied emerged at times of institutional instability and persisted, thanks to cooperative capitalism and an export-oriented economy. Second, our business groups have used a diversification strategy at the group level in order to share risks and reduce costs at the firm level. Third, business groups seemed to reduce problems associated with high management costs and risk when many industries were held together in a single, large enterprise. With regard to internal markets, there seemed to be national differences in intra-firm behavior and the ways in which national governments mobilized business groups to reach certain economic and social goals. The emergence and persistence of successful business groups indicate that the Anglo-Saxon model of the firm is neither the only one, nor superior.

  • 509.
    Öqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergfelt, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nudge; en knuff i rätt riktning?: Ett beteendeekonomiskt experiment om svenskars attityder till nudge2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral interventions – so-called nudge – aim to get individuals to make decisions that are beneficial for the individual as well as for the society by making subtle changes in the decision context. Policymakers worldwide use nudge as an additional policy tool. However, nudging has been criticized for its questionable ethical principles and to date the debate concerning these issues has largely proceeded without much input from the general public. When should nudges be deemed as acceptable and when are they perceived as restrictive of an individual’s freedom of choice? Should all nudges be perceived as equal or do attitudes depend on specific characteristics of the nudge-intervention?The objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges with regard to i) acceptance and ii) restrictive on an individual’s freedom of choice. In particular, the study examines attitudes towards pro-self nudges (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social nudges (i.e. focusing on social welfare) as well as nudge of three degrees of intrusiveness (categorization of level of intrusiveness on the individual’s autonomy). In addition, we explore how individual differences in worldview affect attitudes towards nudge. A general population sample in Sweden (n=677) were presented with nudge-scenarios concerning three policy contexts; energy saving, smoking and retirement, in which they responded to questions regarding attitudes. To explore preferences towards pro-self and pro-social nudge, we used a contrastive vignette technique. To test for individual differences, measures on cultural cognition were included.The result show that all nudge-scenarios have majority support (for acceptance). However, a quarter of the nudge-scenarios were perceived as restrictive of an individual’s freedom of choice. Differences regarding attitudes towards pro-self and pro-social nudge cannot be ensured statistically. For degree of intrusiveness we found that a higher degree of intrusiveness reduces the level of acceptance for the nudge-scenarios. As for restrictive on an individual’s freedom of choice, we found the remarkable result that a medium degree of intrusiveness is perceived as less intrusive than a high degree of intrusiveness. Furthermore, we found that individuals with an individualistic worldview tend to be less accepting towards nudge-scenarios.In conclusion, our results indicate that there is no general accepted formula for how a nudge should be designed. Highlighting this is a fundamental aspect both for broadening the theory of nudge as a policy tool as well as to implement efficient nudges in the future.

  • 510.
    Österman, Karl Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henriksson, Anna Isabell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Löneandelens förändring 1975-2010: Teori och empiri2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1970-talet har större delen av världen upplevt en minskande löneandelen. Vi försöker förklara utvecklingen med en enklare modell bestående av två typer av arbetskraft. Vi visar att på kort sikt påverkar arbetskraftens sammansättning löneandelens utveckling vid arbetskrafts utbudschocker.

    Empirisk studie av paneldata ger inga statistiskt signifikanta resultat vilket skulle kunna orsakas av bristfällig data och att de länder för vilka data existerar är i hög grad homogena.

891011 501 - 510 of 510
CiteExportLink to result list
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