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  • 51.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring and exploiting inventors at Westco: a case of ambidexterity in R&D2010In: International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, ISSN 1740-2891, E-ISSN 1740-2905, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 254-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving both exploration and exploitation at the same time has become an increasingly important success factor for both firms and units within firms. Based on a single case study, this paper addresses how R&D units, traditionally regarded as responsible for firms’ explorative activities, work to also increase exploitation in R&D. The results suggest that in a project intensive context such as R&D, the role of project management becomes more important to achieve ambidexterity. It is, however, not an easy task for project managers to take on, and the Westco case provides illustrative examples of both pitfalls and structures designed to help the managers.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Role of Patent Engineer - Inventor Interaction for Research and Development Creativity2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patents as a strategic tool has been much in focus lately, both in research and in the corporate world. Considering this, there has been surprisingly little interest paid to the process in which patents are generated within firms. Based on interviews with patent engineers and inventors who have been involved in interaction with each other in patenting processes, plus their patent managers, this study describe and discuss the patent drafting process as one (partly) driven by interaction. The patent drafting process is described as a process of asymmetrical collaboration delivering two distinct, but related outcomes – a refined invention and a patent application that most likely is better than it would have been otherwise. These outcomes are not cases of collective creativity as patent engineers do not invent and inventors do not (normally) define patent claims. This does not diminish the importance of the collaboration. Three roles - “opportunity recognizer”,“konstruktiver opponent”, and “enabling bureaucrat” – are identified and used to frame the patent engineers’ work and contributions to creativity.

  • 53.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    Värdet av konstruktiva opponenter: om uppfinnare och patentingenjörer i kreativ samverkan2015In: Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Hans Andersson, Christian Berggren, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2015, p. 51-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nehler, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strategi och styrning2012In: Styrning: med projekt och kunskap i fokus / [ed] Jonas Söderlund och Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 39-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Design as change - from teleology to guided evolution?2014In: Proceedings of the 19th DMI: AcademicDesign Management Conference / [ed] Erik Bohemia, Alison Rieple, Jeanne Liedtka, Rachel Cooper, Boston, USA: Design Management Institute , 2014, p. 1948-1971Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design is connected to change. Whether we start from Herbert Simons often cited ’the transformation of existing conditions into preferred ones’ (1996, p.111), or design as linked to innovation, design is a future oriented, change inducing activity. But how is design thinking (in a wide sense) different from traditional managerial thinking in terms of change? This paper explores and identifies change perspectives in design literature, very selectively represented by ‘classic views’, design thinking, and C-K theory. By using Van de Ven and Poole’s (1995) four ‘basic types of process theories that explain how and why change unfolds’; Life Cycle, Dialectics, Teleology, and Evolution, and Pettigrew’s (1987) distinction between process and content of change, we find that design processes are commonly described as similar to an evolutionary process with gradual development (divergence), combined with some characteristics of teleology (convergence), that together constitute the motor(s) of the process. By using Heskett’s (2002) distinction between ‘utility’ and ‘significance’ it is possible to further dissect design processes. Processes aiming for ‘utility’ eventually must converge into a solution, but is it necessarily the same for processes by which ‘significance’ is designed, created and maintained? Further, the uncontrollability and emergence aspects of evolutionary processes are interesting challenges from a managerial viewpoint. A generative way to frame design processes may be to see them as guided evolutionary processes (Lovas and Ghoshal, 2000). ‘Guided’ maintains manageability, while ‘evolutionary’ provides essential variety.

  • 56.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Design as Change - From Teleology to Guided Evolution?2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design is connected to change. Whether we start from Herbert Simon’s often cited “the transformation of existing conditions into preferred ones” (1996 p.111) or design as linked to innovation (Brown 2008, Verganti 2006) or even Heskett’s (2002) ‘betterment of the human condition’, design is a future oriented (Buchanan 2001), change inducing activity. But how is design thinking (in a wide sense) different from traditional managerial thinking in terms of the concept of change? What of the process(es) by which the existing conditions are transformed into the preferred ones, i.e. how may the change process be conceptualized in design? How does the general concern of change in the design community relate to the advances in strategic and organizational change theories? Our aim is to begin an exploration of how design may be conceptualized in relation to change.

    We do this by using two out of Pettigrew’s (1987) three related aspects of change: ‘process’, how something changes, and ‘content’, i.e. what is changed, to frame design as change (the third is ‘context’, the why of change). We make an attempt to explore and identify change perspectives, explicit or implicit, in design by using Van de Ven and Poole’s (1995) synthetic model of four “basic types of process theories” (p. 511): teleology, evolution, life cycle, and dialectic, all driven by different generative mechanisms or ‘motors of change’. Van de Ven & Poole’s ideal process types do though not handle the content aspect. To capture design content, we therefore use Heskett’s (2002) division of the designed artifacts’ function into two concepts, ‘utility’ and ‘significance’.

    Design processes are normally described as either of a teleological kind, i.e. driven by a goal set at the beginning of the process, or as similar to an evolutionary process. Some elements of the evolutionary model are frequent in descriptions of design processes, e.g. iterativity, prototyping and gradual development. However, the uncontrollability and slowness of evolution are less salient. A better way to frame design processes as evolutionary may therefore be to see them as guided (Lovas and Ghoshal 2000), i.e. driven not only by random mutation and competition but also by intent.

    By using Heskett’s distinction between utility and significance it is possible to further dissect the design process/design processes. Processes aiming for ‘utility’ eventually must converge into a solution, but is it necessarily the same when it regards the process by which ‘significance’ is designed, created and maintained? By analytically separating (c.f. Archer 1995) the by definition integrative design process, we argue that discussing design as process and content expands previous views of design as change.

  • 57.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Knowledge integration of and by industrial design2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Jan Carlzon, the Scandinavian airline SAS’ CEO during the successful eighties, tells a little story in his recently written comment to the 2008 Swedish re-issue of his 1985 book “Moments of Truth” [Swedish title: “Riv pyramiderna!” (2008)]. Carlzon describes how NOKIA’s CEO in the early 2000’s had told him that they worked like dogs to fill their mobile phones with values people were willing to pay for in order to keep the margins required. A short time later the telecom company Ericsson had its annual shareholder meeting and during the meeting a young girl asked: “Why does not Ericsson make phones that people want?” The chairman ignored the question – according to Carlzon the only relevant question asked – and instead he talked about lowering costs.

    Was there something that Ericsson had not understood at the time? Their phones’ technical functionality was good so why did not people want them? Roughly ten years later we would like to, somewhat simplified, say that Ericsson had not quite understood the need for beauty in their sophisticated high-tech products. They managed to integrate everything apart from a sense of beauty, i.e. the aesthetic and symbolic aspect that made the young girl and others prefer other brands. Even if Ericson had been aware, had they able to integrate beauty and knowledge about “beauty aspects” in their products? No doubt had Ericsson been able to integrate a number of more or less related, complementary technological knowledge bases, but can knowledge about aesthetic and symbolic aspects, what we call “beauty”, be dealt with in the same way?

    The contemporary need for depth of knowledge leads to increasing specialization and subsequently companies’ need for increasingly sophisticated means for integration of knowledge has increased. This is reflected in the field of knowledge integration (KI) which empirically has explored integration of knowledge bases from a rather technical, rationalistic perspective, and outputs of KI processes have in earlier research been framed in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and innovation (Tell, 2011). This is a limitation it shares with strategic management research (Dalpiaz et al 2010). However, we argue that the complexity in today’s products and services may extend beyond what the KI field have hitherto acknowledged.

    A future development of the KI field could be to explore the user perspective on, and role in, the value creation and appropriation system, and to include the aesthetic and symbolic nature of products and services. This paper aims to contribute to the KI field, by exploring some consequences of extending the scope of knowledge integration to include integration of and by Industrial design.

    Industrial design is a practice and a field of knowledge that spans the divide between rationalistic problem-solving and the seeming irrationality of the aesthetic and the socio-cultural (Verganti 2003). Industrial design is interesting in this context both for its content, i.e. as a field of knowledge to be integrated, and because of its process view that may be seen as an approach on how to integrate. This paper thus aims to discuss integration of and by design in order to broaden the dominating technological empirical scope of KI. We will relate integration of and by design to previous understandings of KI as a way to explore the hierarchy of capabilities (Grant 1996a).

    The coming section gives a very brief introduction to KI and its relative neglect of the increasingly important knowledge about what makes people want and desire things apart from their technical functionality or use value. Then follows a section on Design and especially Industrial design where we use Grant’s (1996a) characteristics of KI to discuss how industrial design can contribute to competitive advantage from a KI view. The following section “Integration of and by design” somewhat artificially separates the content of industrial design as a field of knowledge from the view that industrial design may be a leading function pushing the envelope of technological knowledge, and thus a way of integration knowledge(s). Finally there is a discussion summarizing our arguments and findings and proposing how to go on.

  • 58.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose? Design, knowledge, diversity2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Andersson, Hilda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strömgren, Josefine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Revisionskvalitet på Stockholmsbörsen: En studie om hur styrelsens sammansättning påverkar revisionskvaliteten hos bolag noterade på Stockholmsbörsen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The board of directors is considered being an important part of corporate governance. One purpose of the board is to monitor the managers. When there is a separation between managing and ownership of a company, agency costs occure. This happens when companies are listed. The auditors purpose is to reduce the agency costs. Because of this, it is relevant to study how board characteristics affect audit quality.

    Purpose: This paper aims to explain how board characteristics affect audit quality.

    Method: This study is based on a deductive approach. Theories used in this study are agency theory, Corporate Governance Strategy and stewardship theory. A quantitative study of annual reports and databases have been done. The empirical datasets are collected from the years 2016 and 2017.

    Conclusion: The results from this study show that board characteristics affect audit quality at companies listed at Nasdaq Stockholm.

  • 60.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Contrasting as a research strategy for highlighting polyphonic sensemaking in stories of organizational life2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field work is a phenomenal but unpredictable source of material for those of us interested in stories of organizing and sensemaking about organizational life. When entering the field we meet people engaged in work and in organizations, who are often keen to tell us what’s going on. These meetings can be both stunning and overwhelming. Where do I start to listen, and where should I stop? The stories of the organization never stop, as new and reoccurring activities needs to be made sense of in the discussions with other organizational actors (Boje, 1991). By relating ongoing events to stories, life in the organization is made meaningful (Czarniawska, 1999). Not all stories of day-to-day life are told with a clear beginning, plot and end, though. The fieldworker interested in narrating the organization becomes a collector of fragmented story parts, and needs to reassemble these parts into a comprehensive whole that can make sense to a reader. The stories possible to tell often become numerous, especially with a longitudinal field study approach. Then how do we choose which stories to tell and how to tell them? One approach is to reassemble several stories told by different actors but relating to the same issue and contrast them against each other. In this paper, experiences of using contrasting as a research strategy for story construction and analysis within one single case study are highlighted and discussed from a sensemaking approach to organizing. The paper illustrates how contrasting can be a used both as a means of embracing polyphony and for avoiding the pitfall of drawing too much attention to consensus building and shedding too little light on conflict, a critique voiced against sensemaking research (Skålén, 2002). Up until now, only a modest amount of empirical research has been done on sensemaking and this is an important research agenda (Weick et al., 2005). This paper contributes to problematizing how empirical research can contribute to the understanding of sensemaking in organizations.

  • 61.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Deconstructing the Motives of Constructing an Intermediary between Public Services and Private Entrepreneurs2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermediary organisations constructed as a link between public service providers and business entrepreneurs is a phenomena which we know very little of. Given the difficulty of relating concrete effects to investments made in business support ventures, we need to know more about the specific arguments behind this organisational construction. When deconstructing the arguments behind one particular venture, several lines of reasoning unfold, revealing motives founded on miscellaneous legitimating elements. The analysis reveals a situation where striving for legitimacy is sometimes more important than actual results and where the private entrepreneur is both the target and the role model.

  • 62.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Hybrid aspects in a public collaboration project - A sensemaking approach to understanding hybridization2008In: Latin American European Meeting on Organization Studies Colloquium,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrids are often thought of as mixtures of organizational models. This paper explores a case that shows how hybridization can occur along several dimensions and discusses how people handle and make sense of hybridity in several aspects. The case of -C to C- is interpreted in terms of an organizational process embedded in a hybrid setting characterized by hybridity in terms of strategic alliances, project organizing in a bureaucratic organizations, and company ideals in public settings. All these characteristics have in common that they imply hybridization between supposed opposites (c.f. Courpasson & Clegg, 2006). The paper displays how a sensemaking approach can be used to further the understanding of hybridization, through directing attention to how people handle uncertainty and ambiguousness in hybrid situations. The paper also point to aspects of hybridity not often discussed in the literature on hybrids; such as hierarchical power relations.   

  • 63.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Interprenörskap - Ett FöretagsNära entreprenörskap i det offentligas regi2008In: Perspektiv på förnyelse och entreprenörskap i offentlig verksamhet, Örebro: Forum för Småföretagsforskning , 2008, 1, p. 107-121Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet diskuteras samverkanssatsningen FöretagsNära som ett exempel på förnyelse av verksamhet i offentlig sektor på tre olika sätt. Frågan jag ställer är om dessa tre aspekter går att förstå med hjälp av entreprenörskapsteori. Det finner jag att de gör. För det första är satsningen förnyande genom sättet att organisera verksamheten på. Detta kan förstås som en form av organisatoriskt entreprenörskap. För det andra innebär satsningen också förnyelse i och med att det handlar om en satsning på en tidigare förbisedd målgrupp för kommunens verksamhet. Detta kan förstås som en form av samhällsentreprenörskap. För det tredje är verksamheten nydanande genom att dess huvudsakliga syfte är att koppla ihop företag med andra företag och även med samhällsorganisationer som kan stötta dem i utveckling och tillväxt. Fokus på den här aspekten av entreprenörskap har inte en framskjuten position inom entreprenörskapslitteraturen. Jag föreslår därför begreppet interprenörskap för att förtydliga och förstå de här aspekterna.  

  • 64.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    När strävan efter samsyn blir en kamp: Meningsskapande och meningsgivande i mångtydiga sammanhang2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When people and groups with different backgrounds and experience are brought together to cooperate, a prerequisite for coordinated action is often a shared per-spective, i.e. that they have a mutual understanding with regard to the aims of their work. However, previous research has not been able to conclude empirically whether a shared perspective is essential for bringing about joint action or not. This dissertation is the result of a study inquiring into the connection between co-incident meaning and coordinated action in situations characterised by heteroge-neity and equivocality. How does coordinated action originate in such circum-stances? The empirical case of the study is “FöretagsNära” (“Close to Companies” in English), a collaboration project between the municipality of Norrköping and the local branch of the state employment agency. The purpose of the venture is to coordinate the efforts of measures aimed at trade and industry development with labour market measures, in order to contribute to a decrease of the unemployment rate in the city of Norrköping. Based on a longitudinal field study, a narrative of clashing meanings, and a striving for mutual perspectives unfolds. The longitudi-nal approach supports an understanding of how joint action unfolds and the com-plexity involved in developing a shared perspective. The description of Företags-Nära shows that the creation of meaning in the process takes on different expressions, and a battle of meaning arises about the matter of the purpose of FöretagsNära. The connection between a shared perspective and joint action is more complex than previous research has suggested. There is no unequivocal connection between coincident meaning and coordinated action. The results of the thesis are of both theoretical relevance and practical importance.

  • 65.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Organisering för samordning och samsyn: En studie av Kindas kärntrupp för rehabiliteringssamverkan kring äldre2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samverkan blir allt vanligare som organisatorisk lösning på situationer där ansvarsområden är vaga eller skär över organisationsgränser. Inom området vård och omsorg om äldre korsar ansvaret gränser både avseende huvudmän och yrkesgrupper och satsningar på samverkan är därför frekvent förekommande. Särskilda satsningar på samverkan inom just rehabiliteringsområdet har också främjats av statliga stimulansmedel riktade mot vården och omsorgen om äldre.

    Föreliggande studie belyser hur kärntruppen, en grupp bestående av representanter för olika yrkesgrupper och huvudmän med ansvar för olika uppdrag i rehabiliteringen av äldre i Kinda kommit att samverka i syfte att skapa bättre samordning och samsyn kring brukaren.

    Materialet som studien bygger på består av fem års kontinuerliga mötesanteckningar, personliga intervjuer, en fokusgruppsintervju, ett års kontinuerligt nedskrivna mötesdagböcker samt övrig dokumentation om verksamheten.

    Studien visar hur samverkan kan utvecklas och samsyn frammanas i viktiga frågor genom att rätt personer involveras, personligt engagemang skapas och tid ges till diskussion om frågor som lyfts upp och bearbetas efter hand. Sett ur ett meningsskapandeperspektiv framträder betydelsen av gemensamma aktiviteter vid olika mötesarenor för den samsyn som åstadkoms. Brukaren, eller ”Kalle”, blir det objekt som företrädare för samtliga inblandade organisationer och yrkesgrupper kan samlas kring. Genom mötet dem emellan framträder kärntruppen som en organisation som fungerar som en länk mellan olika världar likväl som en brobyggare för att inkludera även andra i ett alternativt synsätt på brukaren.

  • 66.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Private sector norms in a public sector project: Picturing diverging images of project organising2007In: European Academy of Management,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research suggests that public and private organisations have different reasons for organising in projects, and taking contextual factors into consideration is important in understanding project organising and management. This paper concerns how people involved in organising a project experience divergences in project organising norms and how those differences affects the organising process. The paper is based on a case study of a public sector project where four persons from the private sector have been recruited to a municipal project. From their perspective, I tell a story of how private sector project norms clash with public sector ways of organising. 

  • 67.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engstrand, Åsa-Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A discursive approach to sensemaking at work2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Anders W
    Ekonomihögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Small business promotion and intermediating as societal entrepreneurship2012In: Societal Entrepreneurship: Positioning, Penetrating, Promoting / [ed] Karin Berglund, Bengt Johannisson, Birgitta Schwartz, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, 1, p. 117-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most social ventures cross the boundaries between the private, the public and the non-profit/voluntary sectors, and this broad involvement of actors and intertwining of sectors makes the label 'societal' entrepreneurship more appropriate. Stating the importance of both the local and the broader societal context, the book reports close-up studies from a variety of social ventures. Generic themes include positioning societal entrepreneurship against other images of collective entrepreneurship, critically penetrating its assumptions and practices and proposing ways of promoting societal entrepreneurship more widely.

  • 69.
    Andersson, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ek Tedefors, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Digitalisering och affärsrelationer: Hur påverkas företags affärsrelationer i samband med ökad digitalisering?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Digitalization means a major change in society and will affect how companies conduct business. Companies will need to keep up with the digital evolution as the conditions will change. Digitalization will also lead to a change in companies’ business relationships as new possibilities for interaction between companies occurs.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to study how digitalization with regard to integrated enterprise systems, e-commerce and new channels of communication affects companies’ business relationships concerning the aspects of trust, power and communication.

    Methodology: This thesis has a qualitative research method with a hermeneutical perspective. It is a multiple case study with semi-structured interviews with five companies as empirical basis.

    Conclusion: This study concludes that business relationships is affected both positively and negatively by the digitalization. The level of digitalization within the companies in the study have not reached the level of digitalization in the literature. Therefore it is difficult for the companies to describe the change in a concrete way.

  • 70.
    Andersson, Linn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Ottosson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Svensson, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Att utvärdera framtidens guldkorn: En studie om svenska Venture Capital-bolags investeringskriterier2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background   There is a strong desire to grow among small Swedish enterprises, but lack of capital is a limiting factor to many entrepreneurs and small enterprises. The high level of risk reduces the possibilities of receiving financing through bank loan or similar, which makes Venture Capital the only financing alternative for some high growth-ventures in early stages.

    Aim                 The aim of this study is to provide understanding for the investment criteria used by Swedish Venture Capital firms during their evaluation of investment propositions, and to compare these with factors that entrepreneurs perceive as influential to the development of a company.

    Methodology The approach of this study is qualitative, and the presented findings are conducted from 20 interviews and written questionnaires. The respondents consist of venture capitalists and entrepreneurs who have received Venture Capital financing.

    Result            The criteria that are of central importance to Venture Capital firms’     when evaluating investment propositions are the entrepreneurial team, the market potential and the product offer. Among these criteria both entrepreneurs and venture capitalists perceive the entrepreneurial team as the criterion with the largest impact on the development of a company. The importance of the entrepreneurial team is explained by the fact that the conditions for the company’s further development are under continuous change, which necessitates the entrepreneurial team’s ability to handle this dynamic process and adapt the company’s development to unexpected changes.         

  • 71.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Norrgård, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Framvagnen, en berättelse om företaget: Läsbarhetens betydelse för berättande information2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Problem: Today, companies devote significant space in their annual reports to narrative information, which provide investors with a complete picture of the company and its operations. The narrative information enhances the documents’ decision usefulness. Investors consider the contextual information valuable even though it is lacking timeliness and objectivity. One problem with the narrative information is that companies can present their achievements and prospect in a favourable way. Because the-state-of-the-company report consists of narrative information and is a significant part of the annual report it is of importance to explore. The readability of the narrative information has been shown to influence non-professional investors’ investment decision, therefore it is of interest to explore how the readability of the-state-of-the-company report influences the investment decision.

    Aim: The aim is to understand how the-state-of-the-company report is used as a communication channel and to explain how the interaction between the readability of the state-of-the-company report and the level of financial news, positive or negative, influence investors’ decisions.

    Method: The study is based on both a qualitative and a quantitative method. We conducted semi-structured interviews to understand how the-state-of-the-company report is used as communication channel. Interviews were conducted with a project manager for the annual report and two users of the state-of-the-company report. The purpose with the interviews were to get their view of the relationship between the state-of-the-company report and the financial reporting part of the annual report, as well as the importance of the readability of and reliance on the state-of-the-company report. We have conducted an experiment on third grade business students at Linköping University to explain how the interaction between the readability of the state-of-the-company report and the level of financial news, positive or negative, influence non-professional investors’ investment decisions.

    Conclusion: We found that the state-of-the-company report is used to communicate a story about the company, but also to contextualize the numbers, which gives the investor a sense of why they should invest in the company. A higher readability of the-state-of-the-company report enhances the communication between the company and its investors, since all investors can comprehend the information at the same time as it subconsciously increases their reliance on the information. The experiment indicated that the readability, in combination with the level of financial news (positive or negative), has some influence on non-professional investors’ likelihood to invest and their reliance on the information. A state-of-the-company report with a higher readability consisting positive financial new should increase non-professional investors’ likelihood to invest. When the state-of-the-company report has higher readability, non-professional investors have a greater reliance on the positive financial news. If the state-of-the-company report instead has lower readability, non-professional investors have a greater reliance on the negative financial news. The readability has not the same influence on professional investors because they have a more critical perspective on the state-of-the-company report.

  • 72.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Klinthäll, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ‘Growth with equity’ and regional development: distributional consequences of agglomeration in Taiwan2015In: Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, ISSN 1354-7860, E-ISSN 1469-9648, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 271-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates long-term distributional effects of regional agglomeration. We analyse changes in relative incomes for different educational and occupational categories in Taiwan from 1976 to 2006, a period during which the country underwent fundamental structural change from labour-intensive to knowledge-intensive industry and increasing globalisation of the economy. Long-term patterns derived from repeated estimations of cross-sectional micro-level data from 31 consecutive annual household surveys show that less-educated groups are not systematic losers of the transformation as positive externalities of agglomeration are both significant and widespread in the leading region. The famous pattern of ‘growth with equity’ in Taiwan has, however, become a regional rather than a national feature.

  • 73.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Klinthäll, Martin
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    The Opening of the North-South Divide: Cumulative causation, household income disparity and the regional bonus in Taiwan 1976-20052012In: Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, ISSN 0954-349X, E-ISSN 1873-6017, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 170-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades regional income divergence seems to have reappeared in both developed and developing countries. In Taiwan–a renowned case of growth with equity–regional per capita income was converging until the early 1990s after which it began to diverge. With the help of modeled annual household survey data from 1976 to 2005 we indicate the magnitude of a regional bonus and discuss reasons behind the re-opening of the North-South income divide in Taiwan. Our analysis suggests that this process is a consequence of cumulative causation connected to the advent of the rise of ICT industry in conjunction with changes in Taiwan's political economy which provided relatively more advantageous economic opportunities for the industrial structure of the leading region.

  • 74.
    Andersson, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björnson, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valfrihetens baksida - Hur styrs kvasimarknader?: En studie av Stockholm stads gymnasie- och hemtjänstmarknad2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the past 20 years, the Swedish public sector has been characterized by competition through the increasing privatization of public welfare. It creates a new market situation where private and public sector are to co-operate under governmental coordination and monitoring. Stockholm city upper secondary school and home care market are two examples of quasimarkets where the state stands as a financier of the welfare service while it is carried out by both private and public actors. Previous research illustrates the problems that arise when the state changes from being a primary producer to a supervisory role. As the state's role changes it requires clear rules and structures in order to coordinate and control the quasimarkets.

    Objective: The study aims to describe and understand how quasimarkets are governed, in regard to percieved business requirements and monitoring.

    Design: The study is a qualitative case study with a hermeneutic perspective. The empirical data has been collected through semi-structured interviews on how policy makers and market actors are experiencing the upper secondary school and home care market.

    Conclusion: The study notes that the home care market, which is governed by clear agreements and contracts, provides greater transparency between policy makers and market actors. Thus creating better conditions for the usage of management control for the city of Stockholm. In the upper secondary market it is difficult for the city of Stockholm to affect the operations of private schools since they are governed by the Swedish School Inspectorate. The basis for the functionality and efficiency of quasimarkets relies on the confidence and trust that exists between policy makers, market actors and customers.

    Keywords: New Public Management, Public Governance, Quasimarket, Interorganizational Relations, Management Control, Transaction Cost Economics.

  • 75.
    Andersson, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Svartström, Caroline
    K2-regelverket: en förenkling?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: De svenska redovisningsreglerna för mindre företag har länge varit komplexa och svåra att överblicka. Bokföringsnämnden släppte 2008 ett regelverk för mindre aktiebolag, K2-regelverket. Reglerna i K2 är förenklade från tidigare regler och de finns nu samlade i ett enda dokument. K2-regelverket har varit omdebatterat, bland annat har det diskuterats kring K2:s inskränkning mot ÅRL och huruvida det verkligen leder till förenkling för företagen.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att utifrån en beskrivning av K2-regelverket och experters utlåtande avgöra om den förenkling som är ett huvudsyfte med K2 kan anses ha uppnåtts.

    Genomförande: Med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer, artiklar och en granskning av K2-regelverket har vi beskrivit de största förändringarna kring förenkling hos de mindre aktiebolagen.

    Slutsats: K2 innebär inte en förenkling för alla företag. Vissa företag kommer i framtiden bli tvingade att tillämpa K3 av olika anledningar. Hos de företag som faktiskt har möjlighet att tillämpa K2 är de största förenklingarna att reglerna är samlade på ett och samma ställe, att det inte tillåter några avvikelser och att valmöjligheterna är begränsade. K2 kan ge intressenterna en sämre redovisning men det är priset företagen får betala för att uppnå förenkling.

  • 76.
    Andersson, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eklund, Jennie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Negative Storytelling as a Crisis Management Tool2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Storytelling is an uprising tool in the marketing context. Due to its ability to evoke emotions and illustrate concepts, storytelling can make information be perceived more valuable, memorable and believable. Storytelling, as it is used in companies today, is often of positive character. However, we believe that in some cases it should be possible to use stories of negative character in order to put a current negative event in perspective. In a business context, a problem that all companies will face is different levels of crises. Therefore, we suggest that negative storytelling can be used as a tool in crisis management to ease some of the negative consequences that crises bring with them.

    Purpose: This study aims to determine which effects negative storytelling has on customer trust and loyalty in crisis situations. In previous research, it has been found that storytelling has an ability to explain information in a way that is relatable for many people. Furthermore, storytelling with negative events (negative storytelling) has been proven to be effective within organisations in times of crisis. This study will broaden the view of negative storytelling found in previous research and possibly expand the field of usage to a customer context.

    Research questions: What kind of impact does negative storytelling have on customer trust and customer loyalty? How can severity and customer closeness of the crisis and the negative storytelling influence the relations between negative storytelling, customer trust and customer loyalty?

    Research method and execution: The study is of a quantitative nature and an experiment was carried out with surveys. The surveys consisted of five fictive vignettes, in which negative storytelling was used in the crisis responses of the companies. The results of the surveys have then been analysed and conclusions have been drawn.

    Conclusion: Negative storytelling is an effective crisis management tool, however, not under all circumstances. If the crisis response (negative storytelling) is perceived less severe than the crisis itself, negative storytelling will have a positive effect on customer trust and loyalty. Moreover, the study finds that if the severity of the crisis and the crisis response is on the same level, no positive effect is observed. Consequently, negative storytelling is not an effective tool under such conditions.

    Contribution of the study: This study finds that negative storytelling can be used as a crisis management tool, which is a contribution to the fields of crisis management and marketing. However, the most important contribution is the tool for companies in crises.

  • 77.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berglund, KarinFöretagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.Gunnarsson, EwaLuleå University of Technology .Sundin, ElisabethLinköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Promoting innovation: policies, practices and procedures2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This anthology uses a gender perspective to analyse constraining structures in innovation systems. Focusing on mainstream policies as well as regional and organizational practices, it presents procedures, methods and methodologies to develop genderaware, innovative organisations.

    Fostering innovation requires ability to question what is taken for granted and perceived as the natural order. Challenging this order often requires a critical mind where a gender perspective can be useful. The experience of integrating a gender perspective can be likened to turning a kaleidoscope; the resulting shift in perspective causes new images and highlights new opportunities.

    This anthology is the result of more than ten years’ research and development work funded by VINNOVA and aimed at establishing a research field in gender and innovation. Ten years ago, there were few researchers and limited research focusing on this area. Today, the picture is different and this anthology presents the analyses of 31 researchers on how gender is a constraining structure within innovation systems. There is little doubt that integrating a gender perspective helps promoting innovation.

  • 78.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karjalainen, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Regeringens reglering av hållbarhetsredovisning: En tvärsnittsstudie av hur fyra företag inom energibranschen kan påverkas2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden the state-owned companies are as of January 1st 2008 directly bounded to establish a sustainability report. There is no equivalent legislation available for the non-regulated companies, they may however voluntarily choose to present sustainability information. Institutional theory argues that organizations within an institution resemble each other as a result of the society’s social pressure. The Government’s guidelines regarding a mandatory sustainability report for state-owned companies could result in an indirect regulation of the non-regulated companies. The companies featured in this study is the state-owned company Vattenfall AB and the three non-regulated companies E.ON Sverige AB, Tekniska Verken i Linköping AB and Mälarenergi AB.

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine whether there is a possibility that the four chosen companies can have been affected by the Government’s guidelines. The purpose is also to highlight possible situations where the guidelines indirect could affect the non-regulated companies.Method: This essay is a qualitative cross-sectional study of the four companies. A literature review of the companies’ sustainability reports and qualitative semi-structured interviews has been conducted.

    Results: Vattenfall has through a coercive isomorphism become directly regulated, because they have chosen to acquiescence to the Governments guidelines. The study’s empirical data indicates two possible situations where the guidelines could indirect affect the non-regulated companies; (1) through increased media attention of the publication of the Guidelines and (2) through impact through benchmarking.

  • 79.
    Andersson, Timmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson Thorell, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Den självupplevda anställningsbarheten inom en gränslös karriär: En kvalitativ studie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Theories regarding the boundaryless career emerged to explain career paths that are not linear or confined to a single organisation throughout an individual’s career. The big difference within this new theory is that the individual takes responsibility for their career development instead of the organisation. The central term within these theories is employability, which describes the potential ability an individual has to change their career path.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate how the individuals within a boundaryless career perceive their employability. Since most of the research within this area is conducted from an organisational point of view, there is a lack of research from an individual’s perspective and our aim is to increase understanding in this area.

    Method: We used a qualitative research approach in the study to capture the respondent’s subjective opinions about employability through the use of interviews. In total four interviews were conducted with individuals who fall within the definition of a boundaryless career, by use of a convenience sample.

    Conclusion: The respondent’s view two dimensions that affect employability and these are career identity and human capital. The ability to secure employment can be divided into two processes; opportunity creation and opportunity realisation. Respondent’s regard human capital and career identity as important for both opportunity and realisation processes, but view social capital as only affecting opportunity creation with no effect on realisation. We have concluded that the term employability has shortcomings compared to its theoretical basis. The term should include the process of opportunity creation as well as the ability to keep your current employment status.

  • 80.
    Andersson, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Paqarizi, Ilir
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Safety motivation system: A qualitative study regarding what creates safety motivation in a company that operates in a hazardous business2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate the creation of safety motivation through a safety motivation system applied in a hazardous business. This system forms upon six factors and two underlying, but equally important aspects that combined create safety motivation. The research was conducted on SSAB, a steel manufacturing company with high safety concerns on all levels within the organization. Despite a great safety focus, SSAB shows a dissatisfying safety performance in relation to the competitors.

    Safety motivation is created on both an organizational and an individual level. The problem lies in how the organization, through the managers, provides safety motivation for employees at all levels in order to attain the organization's safety goals. The employees must be encouraged by the organization to participate in the safety work and comply with the safety goals, standards and procedures due to the positive effects safety participation and safety compliance has on safety motivation. Employees are the organization’s last barrier against risks and accidents and their behavior is critical for avoiding personal harm and material damage.

    In accordance to our safety motivation system of what creates safety motivation, all of the overlying individual and organizational factors that create safety motivation will affect the aspects of safety participation and safety compliance. If one or both of these aspects are low, the safety motivation will be poor. These two aspects combined create a synergy effect that increases safety motivation. Safety participation can to some extent be controlled by rules and regulation but never safety compliance; which was demonstrated at our case company SSAB.

  • 81.
    Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Paqarizi, Donat
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Värdering, en diskutabel sanning: IAS 41:s påverkan på svenska skogskoncerner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 2005 har börsnoterade bolag inom EU upprättat koncernredovisning enligt IFRS. IAS 41 är ett kapitel i standarden vilket reglerar principer kring hur jord- och skogsbruk ska redovisas. När IAS 41 blev aktuellt för de svenska skogskoncernerna framfördes kritik från de berörda bolagen. Standardens lämplighet för svensk skogsbruk ifrågasattes starkt. En betydande variabel i värderingen som särskiljer den nordiska skogen från övriga världen är den långa produktionscykeln på hundra år. Dessutom ämnas de svenska koncernernas skogsinnehav att förvaltas, varför en aktiv marknad inte finns. Dessa två argument utgjorde centrala punkter i kritiken som framfördes till IFRS. Idag har tio år passerat sedan kravet infördes.

     

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att jämföra hur svenska skogskoncerner redovisar och beräknar verkligt värde på biologiska tillgångar enligt IAS 41. Vidare ämnar studien undersöka om, och i sådana fall hur, attityden till IAS 41 har förändrats sedan införandet. Studien har en kvalitativ forskningsstrategi med en induktiv forskningsansats. Dokumentstudier har utförts på fyra svenska skogskoncerners årsredovisningar från 2014. En representant från Bergvik Skog samt Sveaskog har även medverkat i kvalitativa intervjuer.

     

    Slutsatsen studien kom fram till är att samtliga skogskoncerner i studien värderar skogsinnehav med diskonterade kassaflöden enligt IFRS 13. Tre grundläggande komponenter används i respektive skogskoncerners värderingsmodeller. Komponenterna består av; historiska priser och kostnader, framtida pris- och kostnadsutveckling samt diskonteringsränta. Antaganden kring komponenterna varierar i respektive skogskoncern. Attityden till IAS 41 har förändrats i positiv bemärkelse sedan 2005. De berörda bolagen har anpassat sig till IAS 41.

  • 82.
    Anderstedt, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En universallösning för reducering av matsvinn?: En studie om möjligheten att minska de kommunala skolkökens matsvinn med hjälp av styrningsverktyget lean2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A need to find strategies to reduce the negative environmental impact from food waste has been identified within the Swedish public sector. The daily plate waste in municipal school kitchen cost society millions and additional food waste occur during cooking. Profits are expected to be made through improved resource utilization within school kitchens. Due to the fact that the management tool lean previously has been applied in a number of different contexts, though with various results, it is interesting to study whether lean is possible and meaningful to implement in municipal school kitchens in order to reduce food waste.

    Purpose: The study aims to contribute to the understanding of factors affecting the generation of food waste in municipal school kitchens and therefore investigate the possibility of a more efficient use of resources by implementation of the management tool lean.

    Research Method: The study rest on a hermeneutic perspective and have an abductive approach. For data collection, a qualitative multiple case study on three different schools in different municipalities has been conducted. Nine semi-structured interviews have been supplemented with observations and document studies, in order to achieve a holistic understanding for the context.

    Conclusion: The study concludes that lean as a management tool has potential to reduce food waste. However, it has been found that the strategic level of lean can not easily be implemented in school kitchens. Factors like time constraints, a diffuse customer definition and laws and regulations primarily limit the strategic levels applicability. Regarding lean on an operational level, potential to reduce food waste by implementation of selected lean tools has been identified, despite the lack of applicability of the strategic level.

  • 83.
    Andreassen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nohlgren, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Myten om den effektiva marknaden?: Empirisk studie av ”Dogs of the Dow”-strategin och investeringar i stabila utdelningsbolag på Stockholmsbörsen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Investors have been trying to beat the market for as long as capital markets have existed. An investment strategy used to outperform the market is “Dogs of the Dow”. The investment strategy is based on investing in the companies with the highest dividend yield. Economic theories argue that investments in companies with stable dividend payouts are able to create risk-adjusted excess returns. There are contradictory evidence from different markets whether it is possible to earn risk-adjusted excess return through high-yield investments.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to investigate whether it is possible to earn higher risk- adjusted returns than the SIX Return Index (.SIXRX) through investing in the highest dividend yield companies on the Stockholm Stock Exchange. The study aims to investigate whether the “Dogs of the Dow” strategy and an investment strategy in companies with stable dividend payouts can generate risk-adjusted excess return compared to the SIX Return Index.

    COMPLETION: There are two portfolio strategies, one of which is based on ”Dogs of the Dow” and the other is based on investments in companies with stable dividend payouts. The quantitative study collects data from reputable databases. The portfolios contain ten companies that are rebalanced each year and the returns are adjusted for risk and transaction costs.

    CONCLUSION: The study presents no evidence that it is possible to earn risk-adjusted excess return with the “Dogs of the Dow” strategy on the Stockholm Stock Exchange. However, the study shows that investments in companies with stable dividend payouts can earn risk-adjusted excess return on the Stockholm Stock Exchange but without statistical significance.

  • 84.
    Andreasson, Henric Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Sjöberg, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Corporate rebranding inom dynamiska marknader: En komparativ studie i telekombranschen2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Corporate Rebranding is relatively new phenomenon where a firm decides to redefine their brand due to changes within the company or the environment. But the amount of literature on the subject is lacking, and so far no one has studied the potential connection to a high-velocity environment.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to create an understanding of how Corporate Rebranding interacts with a high-velocity market by using the telecommunications industry.

    Methodology: The study was a hermeneutic endeavour with a deductive approach in linking theory and empirical evidence. In addition, a comparative case study using qualitative methods was performed.

    Theory: This chapter consists of theories on dynamic markets as well as glocalization, localization and globalization. This is followed by a definition of branding and finally Corporate Rebranding.

    Conclusion: The high-velocity market has been the root of numerous cases of rebranding and we have identified three different strategies for handling the adaptation to a new global brand. Finally, the role of the brand within the market has taken on a more dynamic role, where the purpose is to create a brand better suited for the changes in the internal as well as the external environment.

  • 85.
    Andreeva, Radostina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Glaa, Besma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public Intermediaries as KeyFacilitators of Diffusion: The Case of Renewable Energy in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diusion of renewable energy technologies(RETs) is an important challengeof the current century. Much of the existing research has put a focus on understandingthe diusion of RETs through the perspective of systems of innovation. However, two recent studies highlight the importance of the actors in the process- those who adopt the RETs. With the current study we continue thisactor perspective by focusing on the adoption process as the driver of the massdiusion. We bring together the two streams of diusion of innovation and innovationintermediaries in a thesis that aims to show how comprehending thesingle adoption process and providing support to the adopters at every singlephase of it can facilitate diusion.

    Our focus is fully on public intermediaries. We show that public innovationintermediaries known in research for their support for the innovation systemhave an unexplored facet i.e. that of supporters at the adopter level. The thesiscontributes to previous literature showing that public intermediaries are thesupporters of adopters of RETs at the very beginning of the process which wascurrently unexplored. Moreover, we demonstrate that public intermediaries arepresent in the later phases of the adoption process as well being their impartialitya main advantage in comparison to private intermediaries. The study revealstwo key roles of public intermediaries in the pre-adoption phase of the processand four roles in the implementation phase.

    To complete the research we use qualitative methods and particularly groundedtheory methodology for data collection and analysis. Data is collected throughface-to-face long interviews with six public and/or non-prot intermediaries locatedin the Swedish county, Ostergotland. The study brings about the recognitionof public intermediaries as direct supporters of adopters of RETs in practice,oers ways of rethinking the existing policies in order to speed up diusion ofRETs and expands the arena for further research with focus on the interactionbetween intermediaries and adopters.

  • 86.
    Anouar, Soldi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dze Chi, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strategic Alliances: Performance Measurementin the Financial Service IndustryCase study: The Beneficial Life Insurance S.A. and MicrofinanceInstitutions in Cameroon2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Strategic Alliances: Performance Measurement in the Financial Service IndustrySubtitle: Case study: The Beneficial Life Insurance S.A. and Microfinance Institutionsin CameroonAuthors: Chi Jonathan Dze & Anouar SoldiSupervisor: David GilbertBackground: Due to the globalization, companies choose different strategies in order tosurvive. Some run towards the vertical integration in order to control the wholeproduction process, others outsource in order to reduce the productions costs, others gofor strategic alliances aiming to strengthen their market positions by bringing the lackedresources and competencies.Aims: To find a defined combination and set of factors that lead to the success of thiskind of partnerships, and to cover the lack of inexistence of one vision of measuring thesuccess of strategic alliances, especially in the service industry.Definition: We find in Varadarajan and Cunningham (1995) that strategic alliances aredefined as "the pooling of specific resources and skills by the cooperating organizationsin order to achieve common goals, as well as goals specific to the individual partners".Completion and Results: The success factors of strategic alliances in general aredifficult to be concretely measured. Still, we managed to find a model that can be usedby these companies as a guideline for the evaluation.Search terms: Strategic alliances, collaboration, success measurement, success factors,service industry

  • 87.
    Antolín Andérez, Patricia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Das, Senjuti
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thrown in a Spirit of Design: Internationalisation Influencing the Business Model2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND. The relaxation of the global conditions, mainly but not reduced to the introduction of the Internet, and the demanding competitive pressures have triggered the expansionary phenomenon of startups that seek to compete internationally right after its birth. This urge for a mechanism to facilitate the internationalisation process, namely the business model. In this regard, there is a need to elaborate on the field of the business model in combination to the internationalization literature, which has tended to develop in isolation.

    PURPOSE. The purpose of this master thesis is to expand the knowledge about the process of designing the business model of a new international venture and how the drivers of internationalisation affect this process.

    METHODOLOGY. The research problem was identified by exploring two major streams of theory, the business model and the internationalisation, which were developed jointly in a visual representation. In the next step, from two Sweden-based international new ventures, named Againity AB and MIMSI Materials AB, empirical information was collected from diverse stakeholders. The technique was qualitative research method, which was scrutinized following a process model approach. Finally, a model proposition was constructed by analysing the realities of the practical and theoretical phenomenon to serve the purpose of enhancing knowledge.

    RESULT. The BMD process is composed by three stages, namely initiating, generating and refining, of iterative and interdependent nature. Each driver of internationalization, when scrutinized using the empirical realities of the INVs, tends to have different influential roles at different stages of the business model. This is integrated into a conceptual model of the key internationalization drivers and BMD stages, which reflects the strategic fit from which new ventures benefit. 

  • 88.
    Antonsson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chefers arbete i äldreomsorgen – att hantera den svårhanterliga omvärlden: Relationen mellan arbete och organisering2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the thesis managers’ work is described and analysed by combining individual perspectives with organisational and societal perspectives, which gives both theoretical and practical implications.

    The frame of reference is constituted of theories on managers’ work and the Scandinavian version of new institutional theory.

    Several methods are combined to grasp the complexity in mangers’ work; shadowing, interviews, observations and document studies.

    The research questions are answered through a combination of theories  developed for different levels of analysis; individual, organisational and societal. The empirical materials are used to give a contribution to further research on managers’ work with an empirical base.

    The importance to relate managers’ work to the context that surrounds them is emphasised. Managers’ work in eldercare has specific characteristics, but also common features with managers’ work in other sectors and at other hierarchical levels in organisations. In the empirical material several organisational characteristics that affect managers’ work have been identified. The descriptions of managers’ work also contribute to a praxis theory of management. New institutional theory is applied in order to describe how managers meet diverse expectations and demands in organisations. When these do not match, the managers need to handle organisational hypocrisy.

  • 89.
    Antonsson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    En kartläggning av ett halvt sekels jämställdhetsinsatser i Sverige2005Report (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Antonsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Fogelberg Eriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning in Working Life and Educational Settings.
    Gendering of public sector organizations - paradoxical processes of stability and change2009In: Nya perspektiv på kön och arbete,2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Antonsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Göranson, Ulla
    VINNOVA.
    Vad hände sen? Långsiktiga effekter av jämställdhetssatsningar under 1980- och 90-talen2006Report (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Antonsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Boström, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alea iacta est – Tärningen är kastad: En studie om vad som förklarar mindre aktiebolags val mellan regelverken K2 och K3.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: 97 percent of all Swedish companies have faced the choice between the regulations K2 and K3. The new regulations, which apply to smaller companies, shall be applied in all financial statements after January 1, 2014. Previous studies in accounting choices show that companies are not always rational but completely different factors affects their choices, therefore arose the interest to investigate what has influenced companies in their choice between K2 and K3.

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to explain what has affected smaller companies in their choice between K2 and K3. The study further intends to create understanding on how these factors have affected smaller companies’ choices.

    Method: The study is based on a deductive approach, where Positive Accounting Theory and Institutional Theory are used to explain the choice between K2 and K3. The study starts with a quantitative database collection and telephone questionnaires, which is complemented by qualitative interviews.

    Conclusion: The study shows that variables such as Industry, Group affiliation and Auditing firm may explain smaller companies’ choice between K2 and K3. The study also shows that the companies’ awareness of what rules they follow is very low. To explain accounting choices this study needed arguments from both Positive Accounting Theory and Institutional Theory.

  • 93.
    Antonsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sigfridsson, Isac
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Frivillighet under tvång?: Är ESMA:s riktlinjer om presentationen av alternativa prestationsmått befogade?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Volunteerism whilst under Regulation? – Are ESMA’s Guidelines Regarding the Presentation of Alternative Performance Measures Justified?

    Background: On the third of July 2016 ESMA’s guidelines regarding the presentation of Alternative Performance Measures (APM) will enter into force. Current regulation has been regarded as deficient and companies have had the opportunity to present APM subjectively to the detriment of users.

    Thesis problem: Are ESMA’s guidelines regarding the presentation of APM justified considering current regulations?

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to examine whether current opportunities to present APM are in need of new regulation.

    Results: It is the opinion of the authors that ESMA’s guidelines are justified and necessary in order to handle the current problems of companies’ possibility to present APM.

    Contribution: The thesis confirms that the presentation of APM is in need of further regulation.

  • 94.
    Anyor, Pule
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aktieanalytikers förmåga att prognostisera aktiekurser: Påverkansfaktorer för träffsäkerheten2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: On a daily basis, the business press publishes stock recommendations and earnings estimates that stock analysts’ produce. These recommendations can be viewed as an integral part of both private and institutional investors’ investment decisions. Stock analysts’ ability to predict stock prices is an unexplored area with only a few studies on the variable target price. Previous studies focus on evaluating the accuracy of the forecasts but few of them contribute to the understanding of which factors influence the size of the forecast errors.

    Aim: The aim of the thesis is to analyze stock analysts’ ability to predict future stock prices.

    Completion: A deductive approach is used which allows the formulation of research questions and the identification of possible influencing factors on accuracy to be derived from previous studies. The accuracy is analyzed using regression analysis, where the absolute forecast error is the dependent variable while the formulated influencing factors are used as explanatory variables. Furthermore an analysis of the relative forecast errors is conducted to examine whether overoptimism influences the forecasts. This is carried out by examining the distribution of the relative forecast errors using T-tests.

    Results: Stock analysts’ price targets are influenced by several of the examined factors. A company’s size and its beta value exhibit the strongest influence on target price accuracy. The variables display a positive relationship with the accuracy of the forecasts. The results indicate that stock analysts’ do not act completely rational and that psychological biases may affect the target prices. Buy recommendations are influenced by an overoptimism whereas sell recommendations show an exaggerated pessimism.

  • 95.
    Appelgren, Linn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Paradox mellan Lean och motivation?: En medarbetarfokuserad undersökning om den upplevda motivationen i en kontext med Lean2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background In modern research, it is essential that companies consider employees’ motivation so that they benefit from the applied practices. A working method that has become increasingly common is the concept Lean, which has its origin in the Japanese automotive industry. Today, Lean has evolved into a universal concept that is applied in many industries worldwide. Although the concept involves numerous positive aspects it has endured strong criticism when it comes to the human aspects and researchers have raised the question if Lean is "Mean". Criticism is derived primarily to employees’ working conditions in terms of stress and lack, variation, autonomy, health and wellbeing. However, few empirical studies have been carried out that examines the impact that Lean has on employees’ experienced motivation.

    Aim The aim is to increase the understanding of employees’ experienced motivation in companies that practice Lean. Further on the study has the intention to investigate if there is a paradox between Lean and what motivates employees on work.

    Methodology The study has been conducted through a qualitative method by interviews and to be able to do a deeper examination and analyze how our phenomenon, motivation, is experienced in a Lean context we applied small-N-studies. Our strategy has been iterative, combining both a deductive and inductive approach, where the study has varied between theories and empirical observations until the final result.

    Conclusions We have identified that there is no paradox between Lean and motivation since the majority of employees’ experienced that they are motivated even though the company practice Lean. Nevertheless the study shows that there are both supportive and counteractive factors when it comes to the employees’ experienced working conditions. The counteractive factors consists foremost of high performance standards, goal steering and standardizations, and have in some cases a negative influence on the working conditions. Furthermore the experienced motivation is more positive overall when the companies use a softer form of Lean where all the members’ interests are taken into account.

  • 96.
    Appelkvist, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Det självklara företagandet?: Kvinnors företagande i veterinärprofessionen2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Veterinärsektorn har under de två senaste åren fångat riskkapitalbolagens uppmärksamhet som en sektor som är både växande och lönsam. Lönsamheten är kopplad till bland annat den förändrade djurhållningen i Sverige; med en minskning av lantbruksdjur och ökning av sällskapsdjur i kombination med att djurägarna är beredda att lägga allt mer pengar på sina djurs välbefinnande. Den svenska veterinärprofessionen har även feminiserats numeriskt parallellt med djurhållningens förändring. I en tid då företagande och särskilt kvinnors företagande ses som en viktig resurs för,  och grund till, den svenska välfärden blir det relevant att problematisera förutsättningarna för kvinnors företagande i veterinärprofessionen.

    Föreliggande studie har varit explorativ och insamling av information och empiri har skett i tre steg. Det första steget, som benämns som kontext- och litteraturstudie syftade till att samla in information om den svenska veterinärsektorn i stort. I detta steg gjordes även en genomgång av relevant forskningslitteratur, något som gjorts löpande under studiens gång. I det andra steget gjordes en kartläggning av veterinärsektorn i Östergötlands län och i det tredje steget genomfördes en intervjustudien med samtliga kvinnor tillika företagande veterinärer i Östergötland (totalt 10). Teoretiska utgångspunkter tas i entreprenörskaps- och småföretagsforskning i kombination med professions- och genusforskning. Teori om Push och Pull för företagsstart sätts i samband med professionskaraktäristika utifrån ett perspektiv av könssegregering och könskodning.

    Resultatet visar att företagandet i den svenska veterinärprofessionen kan ses som självklart. Detta då rörelsen in och ut ur företagande ses som oproblematiskt. Analysen av hinder och möjligheter för företagandet emanerar i tre dilemman där kund ställs mot patient, kollega mot konkurrent och etik mot lönsamhet. Bidrag görs till teorin om Push och Pull men även professionsteori där uppdelningen av professioner i olika professionstyper problematiseras. Studien indikerar även en förändring i genussystemet och har därmed implikationer för alla tre teoretiska områden.

  • 97.
    Arcidiacono, Fabio
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Franssen, Rico
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Balancing enablers and constraints within organisational routines: A case-study of in-store goods flow at two IKEA stores in Europe2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the importance of routine execution within firm replication, exploring the balance between organisational routine development in terms of variations and routine constraints of this variation, with the goal of allowing for improvements without deviating too far from the original routine that makes it a success.

    Aim: Shed light onto how routine variations are managed in the face of the two extremes; no routine development at all and too much routine development.

    Methodology: This qualitative case study was conducted within two IKEA stores, the iconic furniture retailer from Älmhult, Sweden. The in-store goods flow process was the platform for the study. The study involved participant observation, as well as 13 (semi-structured) interviews with IKEA co-workers on operational and managerial level to identify mechanism for balancing drift in organisational routines.

    Findings: This study has developed a conceptual model visualizing a hierarchy of mechanisms composed by artifacts, embededdness and identity that IKEA stores use to curb drift in organisational routines.

  • 98.
    Argento, Daniela
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Broberg, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gyllengahm, Niclas
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Mårtensson, Ola
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    The relationship between time budget pressure and audit quality2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Argento, Daniela
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Broberg, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gyllengahm, Niclas
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Mårtensson, Ola
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    The relationship between time budget pressure and audit quality2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Arne, F.
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Lundh, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Accounting development in the Nordic countries: A comparative study2009In: Journal for Global Business Advancement, ISSN 1746-966X, Vol. 2, no 1-2, p. 4-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the Nordic countries as a case in order to develop theoretical and practical understanding of global accounting differences. Nordic countries are often viewed as a common group for accounting purposes due to cultural similarities and a high degree of economic integration. Actual accounting practice, however, varies substantially among the Nordic countries, both theoretically and in practice. This study examines social and institutional factors using the analytical methods of similarities and indirect method of differences developed by the classic economics writer John Stuart Mill. The results indicate that certain institutional factors are strong forces influencing the accounting practices of the Nordic countries. Notably, the influence of key scholars perpetuated German influence on accounting practice long after the end of World War II when other German influence on society declined markedly. This influence has now been replaced by that of the EU and the IASB.

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