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  • 51.
    Elm, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Heedman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Prosodisk förmåga och fonologiskt arbetsminne hos svenska förskolebarn med cochleaimplantat2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cochlear Implant (CI) is a hearing device that can enable deaf children or children with severe hearing impairment to hear and to develop spoken language. Research has shown that Swedish school aged children with CI have poor prosodic abilities to some extent, as well as poor phonological working memory. However, there are large individual differences.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate prosodic abilities and phonological working memory in Swedish preschool children with CI. Moreover, the relation between prosodic abilities and phonological working memory was examined. Six preschool children with CI participated in the study. The control group consisted of 18 children with normal hearing, out of which six children were matched for age, sex and regional dialect to the children with CI.

    In the present study the children with CI as a group demonstrated significantly lower results compared to the children with normal hearing on tests concerning prosodic production abilities at word, phrase and discourse level and tests concerning phonological working memory. No significant differences emerged regarding receptive prosodic abilities. In comparison to Swedish school aged children with CI it was shown that both younger and older children with CI have difficulties at all prosodic levels. Furthermore, the comparisons indicate that receptive prosodic skills develop during preschool and school years. Results also indicate a connection between prosodic abilities and phonological working memory.

    The children with CI in the present study is a heterogeneous group and a few children demonstrated equivalent results as their matched controls on some parts of the tests, which show that CI provides a good foundation for developing prosodic abilities and spoken communication.

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  • 52.
    Emanuelsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Håkansson, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Barn med språkstörning interagerar: -en samtalsanalytisk studie av samtal mellan barn och barn samt barn och logoped2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the interaction of children with language impairment (LI). The present essay is a conversation analytic study of child-child and child-therapist dyads. The aim was to explore in what ways children with LI reach common understanding. Another purpose was to investigate if there are differences in interaction between dyads with children with LI and dyads with children with LI and speech language therapist. Seven children, three girls and four boys, with LI participated in the study. All the children are enrolled at a language unit. The dialogues were recorded, transcribed and analysed. The results revealed no differences in the children’s length of utterance between the child-child dyads and the child-SLT dyads. Another important finding was that it became more of a course of event in the play between child and SLT in contrast to the child-child dyads, where the communication more concerned one or a couple of objects. In general, the children managed to initiate, respond, give feedback, negotiate and make requests of clarification and repair utterances in conversation with each other. One important conclusion is that conversation analysis could be used in identification of strengths and weaknesses in children’s communication. The knowledge from the analyses ought to be applicable in intervention with children with LI.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 53. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Enflo, Laura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Collision Threshold Pressure: A novel measure of voice function Effects of vocal warm-up, vocal loading and resonance tube phonation in water2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The phonation threshold pressure (PTP), i.e., the smallest amount of subglottal pressure needed to initiate and sustain vocal fold oscillation, is frequently difficult to measure due to the difficulty for some subjects to produce extremely soft phonation. In addition, PTP values are often quite scattered. Hence, the collision threshold pressure (CTP), i.e., the smallest amount of subglottal pressure needed for vocal fold collision, was explored as a possible complement or alternative to PTP. Effects on CTP and PTP of vocal warm-up (Paper 1), resonance tube phonation with the tube end in water (Paper 2), and vocal loading (Paper 3) were investigated. With the aim to accelerate the CTP measurement process, comparisons were made between CTP values derived manually and those derived by several automatic or semi-automatic parameters (Paper 4).

    Subjects were recorded at various F0 while phonating /pa:/-sequences, starting at medium loudness and continuing until phonation ceased. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure signals during the /p/ occlusion. Vocal fold contact was determined manually from the amplitude of the electroglottographic (EGG) signal (Papers 1 and 3) or its first derivative (dEGG) (Papers 2 and 4).

    Recordings were made before and after exercise: (Paper 1) Vocal warm-up was carried out in the 13 singers’ own habitual way. (Paper 2) Twelve mezzo-sopranos phonated on /u:/ at various pitches for two minutes before post-recording, and 15 seconds before each additional F0, into a glass tube (l=27 cm, id=9 mm) at a water depth of 1-2 cm.

    (Paper 3) Five trained singers and five untrained subjects repeated the vowel sequence /a,e,i,o,u/ at a Sound Pressure Level of at least 80 dB at 0.3 m for 20 minutes.

    Statistically significant results: (Paper 1) CTP and PTP decreased after warm-up in the five female voices. CTP was found to be higher than PTP (about 4 H2O). Also, CTP had a lower coefficient of variation, suggesting that CTP is a more reliable measure than PTP. (Paper 2) CTP increased on average six percent after resonance tube phonation in water.

    (Paper 3) CTP and PTP increased after the vocal loading in the untrained voices, with an average after-to-before ratio of 1.26 for CTP and 1.33 for PTP.

    (Paper 4) Automatically derived CTP values showed high correlation with those obtained manually, from EGG spectrum slope, and from the visual displays of dEGG and of dEGG wavegram.

    List of papers
    1. Vocal fold collision threshold pressure: An alternative to phonation threshold pressure?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vocal fold collision threshold pressure: An alternative to phonation threshold pressure?
    2009 (English)In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 210-217Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Phonation threshold pressure (PTP), frequently used for characterizing vocal fold properties, is often difficult to measure. This investigation analyses the lowest pressure initiating vocal fold collision (CTP). Microphone, electroglottograph (EGG), and oral pressure signals were recorded, before and after vocal warm-up, in 15 amateur singers, repeating the syllable /pa:/ at several fundamental frequencies with gradually decreasing vocal loudness. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the p-occlusion, using the audio and the EGG amplitudes as criteria for PTP and CTP. The coefficient of variation was mostly lower for CTP than for PTP. Both CTP and PTP tended to be higher before than after the warm-up. The results support the conclusion that CTP is a promising parameter in investigations of vocal fold characteristics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Informa Healthcare, 2009
    Keywords
    Electroglottography, fundamental frequency, phonation threshold, singing, vocal fold contact, vocal warm-up
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87905 (URN)10.3109/14015430903382789 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-01-28 Created: 2013-01-28 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. Effects on vocal fold collision and phonation threshold pressure of resonance tube phonation with tube end in water
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects on vocal fold collision and phonation threshold pressure of resonance tube phonation with tube end in water
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 56, p. 1530-1538Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Resonance tube phonation in water (RTPW) or in air is a voice therapy method successfully used for treatment of several voice pathologies. Its effect on the voice has not been thoroughly studied. This investigation analyzes the effects of RTPW on collision and phonation threshold pressures (CTP and PTP), the lowest subglottal pressure needed for vocal fold collision and phonation, respectively.

    Method: Twelve mezzo-sopranos phonated into a glass tube, the end of which was placed under the water surface in a jar. Subglottal pressure, electroglottography and audio signals were recorded before and after exercise. Also, the perceptual effects were assessed in a listening test with an expert panel which also rated the subjects’ singing experience.

    Results: Resonance tube phonation significantly increased CTP, and also tended to improve perceived voice quality. The latter effect was mostly greater in singers who did not practice singing daily. In addition, a more pronounced perceptual effect was found in singers rated as being less experienced.

    Conclusion: Resonance tube phonation significantly raised CTP and tended to improve perceptual ratings of voice quality. The effect on PTP failed to reach significance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2013
    Keywords
    Collision threshold pressure, phonation threshold pressure, semi-occluded vocal tract, EGG, voice therapy, voice training
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87906 (URN)10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0040) (DOI)000328267300016 ()
    Available from: 2013-01-28 Created: 2013-01-28 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Collision and phonation threshold pressures before and after loud, prolonged vocalization in trained and untrained voices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collision and phonation threshold pressures before and after loud, prolonged vocalization in trained and untrained voices
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 527-530Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The phonation threshold pressure (PTP) is defined as the lowest subglottal pressure needed for obtaining and sustaining vocal fold oscillation. It has been found to increase during vocal fatigue. In the present study, PTP is measured together with the threshold pressure needed for vocal fold collision; henceforth, the collision threshold pressure (CTP). PTP and CTP are compared before and after loud, prolonged vocalization in singer and nonsinger voices. Ten subjects repeated the vowel sequence /a, e, i, o, u/ at a Sound Pressure Level of at least 80 dB at 0.3 m for 20 minutes. Audio and electroglottography signals were recorded before and after this exercise. At the same time, oral pressure was registered while the subjects produced a diminuendo repeating the syllable /pa:/, thus acquiring an approximate of the subglottal pressure. CTP and PTP increased significantly after the vocal loading in the nonsinger subjects. On the other hand, singers reported no substantial effect of the exercise, and most singers had a mean after-to-before ratio close to 1 for both CTP and PTP.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Collision threshold pressure, phonation threshold pressure, electroglottography, vocal fatigue, vocal loading, prolonged vocalization, singing training, vocal training
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91359 (URN)10.1016/j.jvoice.2013.03.008 (DOI)000324249700001 ()
    Available from: 2013-04-23 Created: 2013-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Comparing vocal fold contact criteria derived from audio and electroglottographic signals
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing vocal fold contact criteria derived from audio and electroglottographic signals
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 381-388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Collision threshold pressure (CTP), i.e., the lowest subglottal pressure producing vocal fold contact during phonation, is a parameter likely to reflect relevant vocal fold properties. The amplitude of an electroglottographic (EGG) signal or the amplitude of its first derivative (dEGG) has been used as the criterion of such contact. Manual measurement of CTP is time-consuming, making the development of a simpler, alternative method desirable. In this investigation we compare CTP values automatically derived from the dEGG signal to values measured manually, and to values derived from a set of alternative parameters, some obtained from audio and some from EGG signals. One of the parameters was the novel EGG wavegram, which visualizes sequences of EGG or dEGG cycles, normalized with respect to period and amplitude. Raters with and without previous acquaintance with EGG analysis marked the disappearance of vocal fold contact in dEGG and in wavegram displays of /pa:/-sequences produced with continuously decreasing vocal loudness by seven singer subjects. Vocal fold contact was equally accurately identified in displays of dEGG amplitude as of wavegram. Automatically derived CTP values showed high correlation with those measured manually, and with those derived from the ratings of the visual displays. Seven other parameters were tested as criteria of such contact. Mainly due to noise in the EGG signal, most of them yielded CTP values differing considerably from those derived from the manual and the automatic methods, while the EGG spectrum slope showed a high correlation. The possibility of measuring CTP automatically seems promising for future investigations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Collision threshold pressure, vocal fold contact, wavegram, alpha, signal-to-noise ratio, EGG derivative, EGG spectrum slope, relative contact rise time, normalized amplitude quotient, relative dEGG amplitude
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91364 (URN)10.1016/j.jvoice.2015.05.015 (DOI)000379526100001 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies:This research has been partially supported by the European Social Fund Project CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0004 "POST-UP" (C.T.H.).

    Vid tiden för disputation förelåg publikationen som manuskript

    Available from: 2013-04-23 Created: 2013-04-23 Last updated: 2017-05-02Bibliographically approved
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    Collision Threshold Pressure: A novel measure of voice function Effects of vocal warm-up, vocal loading and resonance tube phonation in water
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  • 54.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Department of Speech, Music and Hearing, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Collision and phonation threshold pressures before and after loud, prolonged vocalization in trained and untrained voices2013In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 527-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phonation threshold pressure (PTP) is defined as the lowest subglottal pressure needed for obtaining and sustaining vocal fold oscillation. It has been found to increase during vocal fatigue. In the present study, PTP is measured together with the threshold pressure needed for vocal fold collision; henceforth, the collision threshold pressure (CTP). PTP and CTP are compared before and after loud, prolonged vocalization in singer and nonsinger voices. Ten subjects repeated the vowel sequence /a, e, i, o, u/ at a Sound Pressure Level of at least 80 dB at 0.3 m for 20 minutes. Audio and electroglottography signals were recorded before and after this exercise. At the same time, oral pressure was registered while the subjects produced a diminuendo repeating the syllable /pa:/, thus acquiring an approximate of the subglottal pressure. CTP and PTP increased significantly after the vocal loading in the nonsinger subjects. On the other hand, singers reported no substantial effect of the exercise, and most singers had a mean after-to-before ratio close to 1 for both CTP and PTP.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 55.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effects of vocal warm-up, vocal loading, and tube phonation on phonation and collision threshold pressures2012In: The Voice Foundation's 41st annual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice / [ed] Robert Sathaloff, Philadelphia: The Voice Foundation , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Collision threshold pressure (CTP) is defined as the lowest subglottal pressure producing vocal fold collision. It has been measured in three studies, to analyze the effects of (1) vocal warm-up, (2) vocal loading and (3) the voice therapy method resonance tube phonation, which implies phonation into a tube, the end of which is placed a few cm under water. Also, phonation threshold pressure (PTP) was determined. This threshold pressure, however, although more commonly used, is often difficult to measure; the coefficient of variation has been found mostly to be higher for PTP than for CTP.

                          Before and after data for CTP and PTP were determined from audio, electroglottographic (EGG) and pressure signals. Subjects repeated the syllable /pa:/ with gradually decreasing vocal loudness at several fundamental frequencies. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the p-occlusion. CTP was determined using EGG or dEGG spike amplitude as criteria of vocal fold collision, while vocal fold vibration for PTP measurement was determined from the audio signal.

    The first investigation, with 15 amateur singers, suggested that vocal warm-up tended to lower both CTP and PTP. The effect of vocal loading, studied in seven subjects two of whom had trained voices, was that CTP and PTP rose, especially in the untrained voices. Resonance tube phonation exercise (tube length 27 cm, Æ 8 mm) caused an increase of CTP and PTP in 12 mezzo-soprano voices, with different levels of voice training. The effect on both CTP and PTP was greater in less trained singers, and was perceived as an improvement in a pair-wise comparison listening test with seven voice experts.

    The three studies support the conclusion that CTP can be used as a valuable complement to or replacement of PTP.

  • 56.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Romedahl, Camilla
    ABC Logopedtjänst, Stockhom .
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Effects of Tube Phonation on Collision and Phonation Threshold Pressures in Mezzo-soprano Voices2011In: Pan European Voice Conference (PEVOC9) / [ed] Antoine Giovanni & Nathalie Henrich,, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tube phonation is a voice therapy method widely used in Scandinavia and Germany. Invented by Sovijärvi (1965 & 1969) in the sixties, it is now used to treat several kinds of voice pathologies but also to solve passaggio and speech problems among singers. The subject phonates into a 26-28 cm long tube, typically made of glass, with the other end placed a few cm under water in a bowl. The resulting bubbling causes a modulation of intraoral pressure. Tube phonation is supposed to contribute to the development of appropriate combinations of air flow and subglottal pressure needed for a healthy voice control and/or vocal skill.

     The present study is part of a project aiming at exploring the potentials of the collision threshold pressure (CTP) (Enflo and Sundberg, 2009; Enflo et al., 2009), defined as the lowest subglottal pressure needed for vocal fold collision. This pressure may be a valuable complement to the commonly used phonation threshold pressure (PTP), defined as the lowest subglottal pressure needed to obtain and sustain vocal fold vibration. In the present investigation we analysed the effects of tube phonation on these threshold pressures. Twelve mezzo-sopranos with differing levels of singing training participated in the experiment, six highly advanced classically trained singers with daily  singing practise, and six modestly experienced choir singers without daily  singing practise. Subglottal pressure, EGG and audio were recorded before and after a tube phonation exercise. The tube phonation induced intraoral pressure modulation amplitude of about five cm H2O. Perceptual effects of the tube phonation in these subjects was assessed by a listening test. On average across singers CTP tended to rise, particularly in the less well trained singers. The listening test indicated that tube phonation was associated with a clearly audible improvement of voice function, at least in the less well-trained singers.

  • 57.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Romedahl, Camilla
    Speech-Language Pathologist, Stockholm, Sweden.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Effects on vocal fold collision and phonation threshold pressure of resonance tube phonation with tube end in water2013In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 56, p. 1530-1538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Resonance tube phonation in water (RTPW) or in air is a voice therapy method successfully used for treatment of several voice pathologies. Its effect on the voice has not been thoroughly studied. This investigation analyzes the effects of RTPW on collision and phonation threshold pressures (CTP and PTP), the lowest subglottal pressure needed for vocal fold collision and phonation, respectively.

    Method: Twelve mezzo-sopranos phonated into a glass tube, the end of which was placed under the water surface in a jar. Subglottal pressure, electroglottography and audio signals were recorded before and after exercise. Also, the perceptual effects were assessed in a listening test with an expert panel which also rated the subjects’ singing experience.

    Results: Resonance tube phonation significantly increased CTP, and also tended to improve perceived voice quality. The latter effect was mostly greater in singers who did not practice singing daily. In addition, a more pronounced perceptual effect was found in singers rated as being less experienced.

    Conclusion: Resonance tube phonation significantly raised CTP and tended to improve perceptual ratings of voice quality. The effect on PTP failed to reach significance.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Fulltext
  • 58.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Child behavior and quality of life before and after tonsillotomy versus tonsillectomy2009In: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 73, no 9, p. 1254-1262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Compare two techniques for pediatric tonsil surgery with respect to postoperative pain and morbidity and changes in sleep behavior, health related quality of life (HRQL) and benefits due to surgery. Methods: 67 children (4.5-5.5 years) with tonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep-disordered breathing with or without recurrent tonsillitis were randomized to either regular tonsillectomy (TE) (n = 32) or intracapsular tonsillectomy/tonsillotomy (TT) (n = 35) with Radiofrequency surgical technique (ellman Int.). Before TT/TE, the parents completed a validated Quality of Life survey of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, the OSA-18 (Obstructive Sleep Apnea-18) and a standardized assessment of their childrens behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Six months after surgery, the parents repeated these measurements, and assessed the health related benefits of the surgery using the Glasgow Childrens Benefit Inventory (GCBI). Results: In the TT group, the children recorded less pain from the first day after surgery onwards, used fewer doses of painkillers and were pain-free 3 days earlier than the children in the TE group. Six months after surgery, there were no significant difference between TT and TE with regard to snoring and ENT-infections. The differences in the total scores and in all the individual domains between the initial OSA-18 and post-surgery scores were all significant (P andlt; 0.0001). The improvement in the total problem score measured with CBCL was also significant (P andlt; 0.01) and there was no difference between the TT and TE children. The improvements in all subscores of the GCBI indicated a significant health benefit of both TT and TE. Conclusions: TT with RF-surgery causes less pain and postoperative morbidity than regular TE and has an equal effect on snoring and recurrent infections. Pre-school children with tonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep-disordered breathing all show an impact on HRQL and behavior before surgery and improve dramatically just as much after TT as after TE. Therefore TT would be considered for treatment of small children.

  • 59.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    LundeborgHammarström, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Graf, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery .
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Child behavior and quality of life before and after tonsillotomy versus tonsillectomy2008In: International conference in pediatric otorhinolaryngology,2008, 2008, p. 40-40Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The objective of the present investigation was to compare two techniques for pediatric tonsil surgery with respect to postoperative pain and morbidity and changes in sleep behavior, health related quality of life (HRQL) and benefit due to surgery. Methods: 67 children (4,5-5,5 years) with tonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep related distress with or without recurrent tonsillitis were randomized to either regular tonsillectomy (TE)(n=32) or intracapsular tonsillectomy/tonsillotomy (TT) (n=35) with Radiofrequency surgical technique (Ellman Int) Before TT/TE, the parents completed a validated Quality of Life survey of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, the OSA18 (Obstructive Sleep Apnea-18) and a standardized assessment of their children-s behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Six months after surgery, the parents repeated these measurements, and assessed the health related benefits of the surgery using the Glasgow Children´s Benefit Inventory (GCBI). Results: In the TT group, the children recorded less pain from the first day after surgery onwards, used fewer doses of painkillers and were pain-free 3 days earlier than the children in the TE group. Six months after surgery, there was no significant difference between TT and TE with regard to snoring and ENT-infections. The differences were all significant in the total scores and in all the individual domains between the initial OSA-18 and post-surgery scores (p<0.0001). The improvement in the total problem score measured with CBCL was also significant (p<0.01) and there were no differences between the TT and TE children. The improvements in all sub scores of the GCBI indicated a significant health benefit of both TT and TE. Conclusions: TT with RF-surgery is a safe method, which causes less pain and postoperative morbidity than regular TE and has a similar effect on snoring and recurrent infections. Young children with tonsillar hypertrophy and different degrees of obstructive sleep related distress all show an impact on HRQL and behavior. All improve dramatically after a tonsillar operation-improving just as much after TT as after TE. Based on these results, TT should be the first choice for treatment of these small children. Support: Financial support from the Research Council of South East Sweden (FORSS).

  • 60.
    Eriksson, Arlene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Hejdström, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Förekomst av tal-, språk- och sväljsvårigheter på geriatrisk avdelning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Changes occur during the normal ageing process that can interfere with speech-, language- and swallowing functions. An increased occurrence of diseases increases the frailty in the ageing individual and may cause disordered speech, language and/or swallowing, in which case the health related quality of life may be negatively affected. The geriatric population is characterized by functional impairment and chronic diseases. This therefore poses special demands on specialist care and rehabilitation of these patients.

    The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of speech, language and swallowing disorders in geriatric wards in two cities in the southern part ofSwedenusing screening. The orofacial influence on these functions and health related quality of life were also examined. In total 42 patients participated, from geriatric wards with general, stroke rehabilitation and orthopedic specialty. The instruments used for screening of orofacial functions was the Nordic Orofacial Test – Screening (NOT-S) and perceptual parameters for screening of speech based on speech parts from NOT-S and speech production from Neurolingvistisk Afasi-undersökning (A-ning). Parts of A-ning were also used for screening of language. Standardised Swallowing Assessment (SSA) was used for clinical examination of swallowing. The Short Form – 12 Health Survey (SF-12) was used to estimate the health related quality of life.

    Results showed that 33 % (14 of 42) had difficulties with speech, 40 % (16 of 40) and 37 % (15 of 41) showed difficulties with language and swallowing respectively. Of the participants, 64 % had difficulties with one or more of the examined functions. Occurrence of these difficulties associated significantly with impaired orofacial function. Language difficulties were associated with decreased mental health status and orofacial dysfunction with decreased physical health status, measured with the SF-12.

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    Eriksson, Arlene & Hejdström, Annie
  • 61.
    Eriksson, Arlene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Oscarsson, Anna-Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Beteende hos barn på språkskola: Jämförelser med normdata från barn med typisk språkutveckling2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Grav språkstörning hos barn kan orsaka beteendeproblem. För barn med primärt grava språksvårigheter finns specialskola att tillgå, så kallad språkskola. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att mäta beteende hos barn på språkskola med hjälp av föräldraenkäten Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL, samt Child Health Questionnaire, CHQ, för att utesluta hälsopåverkan på svarsresultaten.

    En specifik språkskola valdes ut och målsmännen till barnen kontaktades. Elva av dessa godkände deltagande i studien. Barnen var i åldrarna 6:11 till 15:5 år. Svaren från enkäterna sammanställdes, analyserades och jämfördes med normaldata. Problemområden och dess underkategorier som redovisades var inåtagerande och utåtagerande beteende samt en blandad kategori innehållande bland annat social problematik.  Resultatet redovisades deskriptivt.

    Resultatet i föreliggande studie visade att fem barn av elva överskred normvärdet av totalpoängen i CBCL. Vissa av barnen föreföll ha social problematik samt uppmärksamhetssvårigheter. Ingen generell beteendemässig problematik kunde dock påvisas.

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  • 62.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rex, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    En fokusgruppstudie om Utbildning i svenska för invandrare (SFI): SFI-lärares syn på utbildningen och relaterade språkliga områden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Utbildning i svenska för invandrare (SFI) ryms flera logopediskt intressanta områden. För att få en större inblick i SFI gjordes därför denna kvalitativa studie över lärares syn på undervisning inom SFI med hjälp av två fokusgruppintervjuer och grundad teori som forskningsansats. Denna studie har som huvudsyfte att spegla hur SFI-lärare ser på såväl sin egen undervisning som undervisning inom detta område i stort. Vidare frågar sig författarna hur lärare ser på de språkliga områdena: fonologi, grammatik, lexikon, pragmatik samt läs- och skrivförmåga. Uppsatsen genomsyras av tre huvudteman;

    samhälle, SFI-undervisning och individ, som uppstått under pågående studie. En fördjupad modell har dessutom gjorts över temat SFI-undervisning.. Det framkommer att SFI-undervisning är ett komplext område som både påverkar och påverkas av såväl individ som samhälle. Sammanfattningsvis framkommer att varje tema var för sig genomsyras av en central del; resurser, tid respektive individualisering. Samhället styr vilka resurser som finns att tillgå och hur SFI i stora drag organiseras. På SFI påverkar tidsaspekten till vilken grad undervisningen kan individualiseras för den enskilda eleven. Två områden som särskilt utmärker sig i intervjusamtal kring behov av resurser är uttalsvårigheter samt läs- och skrivsvårigheter och dyslexi.

    Slutligen beskrivs att det vore av intresse att utreda vilka personresurser som redan finns och vad de i nuläget arbetar med samt effekten av detta. Författarna föreslår därmed att vidare studier görs för att utröna om individualisering av undervisning kan underlättas med hjälp av ökade resurser eller samarbeten och i så fall hur dessa bör vara utformade. Vid en sådan studie skulle också frågan om logopeder är en yrkeskategori som skulle kunna komplettera eller utgöra en hjälp för SFI, kunna besvaras.

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    SFI - En fokusgruppstudie
  • 63.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rex, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vad kommer en treåring ihåg?: En studie om svenska barns arbetsminne och fonologi2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are few studies regarding phonological skills related to working memory in young children. There is also a lack of tests of working memory for children in the younger ages. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine the relationship between visual working memory, phonological working memory and the ability to manage phonological representations, in three-year-olds. This was done by collecting comparison data of threeyear- old children’s results on the newly developed tablet-test ”KUBEN” (Cognitive development in young children), which measures the abilities visual and phonological working memory and phonological discrimination. In addition test for phonological production, also tested with tablet, and nonword repetition were used. A total of 91 Swedish three-year-old children with typical development participated in the study.

    For especially visual working memory, there was a lack of material with which to compare, but the result showed that children performed as expected regarding all tested abilities. The abilities improved with increasing age. On the contrary, neither gender nor experience of using tablets, affected the results of the children’s performance. The result of this study further describes relations between the tested abilities. There were correlations between all the abilities in this study that measures phonological representations (phonological discrimination, nonword repetition and phonological production). However, these phonological abilities did not correlate with the test of phonological working memory, which is a less expected finding. A possible explanation may be that it is difficult to test phonological working memory separately in children as young as three years old. Neither was there a correlation between tests of phonological and visual working memory, which indicates that two different abilities of working memory were tested. This confirms the faction within research arguing that visual and phonological working memory are separated abilities, already in young children.

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    Vad kommer en treåring ihåg? En studie om svenska barns arbetsminne och fonologi
  • 64.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallqvist, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Verbbenämning hos svenska barn i åldern 3;6 till 5;5 år: En studie av prestation på Action Naming Test2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Verb naming comprises the ability to name an activity illustrated in a picture. Previous studies have shown that pre-school children have more difficulties in the naming of verbs than in naming of nouns (Gentner, 1982; Kauschke, Lee & Pae, 2007). This is explained as being partly due to the greater linguistical complexity of verbs compared to nouns (Gentner & Boroditsky, 2001) and that verbs are more difficult to illustrate (Masterson, Druks & Gallienne, 2008). Picture naming tests are frequently used in order to investigate naming ability but today a verb naming test is not available for Swedish children. The present study aimed to investigate naming ability of verbs in Swedish children, and to evaluate if the Swedish translation of the Action Naming Test (ANT) is applicable on children. In addition, all participants were tested with both ANT and the Boston Naming Test (BNT) in order to evaluate the participating children’s naming ability of verbs and nouns in order to make a comparison between the two of them.

    In the present study 116 children aged 3;6 to 5;5 years divided into four age groups participated. The results on the ANT showed continuously higher scores with increasing age. The error analysis showed that the most frequently occurring error categories were either semantically related (words within the same or superordinate category) or perceptually related (misinterpretation of the picture). When comparing the results between the ANT and the BNT higher scores were shown on the ANT in all age groups. This could imply that the participating children are beyond the age when nouns are easier to name than verbs, or that unlike previous studies, verbs are easier to learn. More likely, the test results are not comparable with each other. With some adjustments, the ANT is considered applicable for Swedish pre-school children.

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  • 65.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Moritz, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Att förklara läsförståelse hos förstaklassare: En studie om vilka kognitiva förmågor som förklarar läsförståelse hos barn i årskurs ett2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Phonological awareness, decoding skills, letter knowledge and working memory capacity predict early reading skills. The aim of the present study was to examine how these different basic cognitive abilities together can explain reading comprehension in children during first year of school. Reading comprehension, decoding, phonological awareness, letter knowledge and working memory were studied in 36 children in first grade with normal hearing and had Swedish as their native language. The results show that decoding and phonological awareness together explain 62 % of the variance in reading comprehension among the participants. The conclusion from the present study is that decoding and phonological awareness predict reading comprehension during first grade.

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    Att förklara läsförståelse hos förstaklassare
  • 66.
    Falk, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Sundberg, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Språklig kompetens hos en- och tvåspråkiga barn: En jämförelse mellan föräldrars och logopedstudenters bedömning av barn i 2 ½-årsåldern2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier inom området tvåspråkighet har visat på olika resultat beträffande om och i vilken grad tvåspråkigheten påverkar språkutvecklingen. Vissa studier tyder på att det inte föreligger någon skillnad i den fonologiska utvecklingen mellan enspråkiga och tvåspråkiga barn, medan andra pekar på motsatsen och menar att skillnader faktiskt finns.

    I föreliggande studie ingick två grupper om sex barn i 2 ½- årsåldern. Den ena gruppen bestod av enspråkiga barn med svenska som modersmål och den andra av tvåspråkiga barn vars föräldrar hade arabiska som modersmål. Barnens språk skattades av föräldrarna enligt bedömningsformuläret REEL-2 och logopedstudenter bedömde barnens språk med hjälp av ett fonologiskt screeningsmaterial.

    Studiens resultat visade tendenser på att vissa skillnader fanns mellan de två grupperna. De tvåspråkiga barnen använde generellt fler olika slags förenklingsprocesser samt hade högre förekomst av förenklingsprocesser än de enspråkiga barnen. Det genomsnittliga andelen korrekt producerade konsonanter (Percentage of Consonants Correct, PCC) var högre hos de enspråkiga barnen än hos de tvåspråkiga barnen. Föräldrarna till barnen i båda grupperna tenderade att skatta barnens förmåga högre än vad logopedstudenternas bedömning visade

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  • 67.
    Falk, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Åhsberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Lyssnarbedömning av barns och vuxna kvinnors röster i instruerat tal respektive spontantal2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Perceptuella röstanalyser är en viktig del i logopedens arbete med röstpatienter. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att med hjälp av lyssnarbedömningar undersöka skillnader i röstkvalitet mellan spontantal och instruerat tal hos femåriga barn och vuxna kvinnor. Även inter- och intrabedömarreliabilitet undersöktes för fyra logopeder vilka utgjorde bedömningsgruppen. Resultatet visade signifikanta skillnader i röstkvalitet mellan spontantal och instruerat tal för kvinnorna gällande parametrarna heshet, hyperfunktion och skrovel. Hos barnen kunde starka tendenser till skillnad mellan spontantal och instruerat tal ses för parametrarna hyperfunktion och röstläge. Interbedömarreliabiliteten var högst vid bedömning av heshet hos barn och tendensen var att interbedömarreliabiliteten överlag var högre vid bedömning av barnrösterna än vid bedömning av kvinnorösterna. Värdena för intrabedömarreliabilitet visade starka tendenser till att vara högre vid bedömning av kvinnornas röster jämfört med barnens röster.

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  • 68.
    Fandén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    McTaggart, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Hellstadius, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Prosodisk förmåga hos svenska grundskolebarn med cochleaimplantat2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prosody can be characterized as the rhythm and the melody of speech. Prosodic features convey emotions, thoughts and geographic origins of each individual. Spoken language without prosody would be monotonous, without variations in loudness and rate. Children with cochlear implants perceive speech in a different way than children with normal hearing. Consequently the speech produced by a child with cochlear implants may sound different.

    The purpose of this study was to examine prosodic skills in Swedish children with cochlear implants and to compare them with the prosodic skills in Swedish children with normal hearing. The purpose of the study was also to examine differences between these two groups and to characterize those differences.

    Eight children with cochlear implants and eight controls matched to age, sex and regional accent were included in the study. The children’s production and perception of prosody was tested.

    The results show that there are differences in prosodic skills between the children with cochlear implants and their matched controls at word, phrase and discourse levels. The differences were significant in production but not in perception. Observed differences in the speech of the children with cochlear implants included omission of unstressed syllables and function words, difficulties producing contrast of tonal word accents and pro-longed maintenance of phonological processes.

    The study contributes to the knowledge about prosodic and linguistic skills in Swedish children with cochlear implants.

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  • 69.
    Forsberg Larsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lilja, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Förståelighet hos ett barn med språkstörning: En jämförelse mellan barns och vuxnas lyssnarbedömningar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The definition of intelligibility is how well listeners understand what speakers intend to say (Hartelius & Lohmander, 2008). Children with language impairment often have a reduced intelligibility (Nettelbladt, 2007). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is any difference between peers and adults in the understanding of an unintelligible child. 21 non-familiar listeners, ten adults (22-67 years) and eleven preschool children (4;1-5;6 years), carried out intelligibility assessments in terms of word recognition. The material consisted of 23 words uttered by a boy (4;9 years) diagnosed with language impairment, with both expressive and receptive difficulties. The material was derived from spontaneous speech and picture naming from the test "OrdRacet" (Eklund, 1996). The adult listeners were asked to rate their degree of confidence in judgement, on a five point scale. The children recognized at average 2.0±0.9 (8.7%) words correct and the adults 3.7±1.2 (16 %) words correct. This difference was statistically significant, p=.004. The adults’ listenerassessment of how sure they were in their word recognition gave a mean value of 2.5±0.9. The results indicated that children with language impairment may have great difficulties making themselves understood especially among peers. It is therefore important that intervention targets the intelligibility of their speech.

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  • 70.
    Forsberg Larsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lilja, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Verbbenämning hos vuxna med afasi: Bedömt med Action Naming Test2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to name verbs and nouns can differ in healthy adults (Strauss Hough, 2007) and in people with aphasia (Mätzig, Druks, Masterson & Vigliocco, 2009). In individuals with aphasia, differences in ability to name nouns and verbs have been related to location of brain damage (Damasio & Tranel, 1993). Confrontation naming tests are frequently used in aphasia assessments to evaluate the ability to retrieve words (Herbert, Hickin, Howard, Osborne & Best, 2008).

    Action Naming Test (ANT) is a verb naming test that has been standardized in Swedish (Lindahl & Oskarsson, 2011; Stenberg & Wik, 2013), but no studies have been done on verb naming with ANT in Swedish individuals with aphasia, which is the aim of the present study. Some of the words in the Swedish standardization were problematic and consequently a re-analysis of the data was conducted by Stenberg and Wik (2013). The results of the ANT in the present study were compared with collected standardized data before and after the re-analysis. To investigate whether there were differences in the ability to name verbs and nouns, participants were also assessed with the Boston Naming Test (BNT). Participants were also asked to answer the health survey Short Form-36 (SF‑36), to investigate possible links between health and verb naming ability. The study enrolled 19 subjects (41–83 years, median age 68 years) with chronic aphasia and expressive difficulties.

    Participants performed significantly better in verb naming (ANT) than noun naming (BNT), both before (p=.007) and after (p<.001) the problematic words were excluded. The sample performed below norm levels on ANT, both before and after the exclusion, but the majority achieved a higher test result after the re-analysis. No significant differences were found in verb naming ability related to sex, age, educational level or location of brain damage. ANT can be used to assess naming ability in people with aphasia. However, when compared with standardized data, values ​​developed after the re-analysis should be used since the participants of this study performed significantly better after exclusion. The participants showed a significantly better performance on ANT than BNT, which supports the view that verb naming tests are of value.

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  • 71.
    Franzén, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijkmark, Hannes
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Vad kännetecknar en bra röst?: En studie om röster i kommersiella sammanhang2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What makes a good voice? The present study seeks to determine whether there is something in the acoustic speech signal that may tell us something about how the listener perceives the speaker. In a commercial context, the way in which the message is constructed is important so the listener receives the message in the way the producer of the commercial intended. In this process the voice is an important tool.

    In the present study audio recordings were made of two professional and two non-professional voice users, one man and one woman in each group, reading a standard text. The recordings were analyzed acoustically and evaluated by a group of listeners. The results were summarized and compared. In addition, an interview was conducted with two professional speakers.

    Results of the analysis show that women's and men's voices differ in which acoustic parameters affect the listener's perception of the voice. A low mean F0 among men co-occured with the estimation of an interesting and trustful voice by the group of listeners. Among women, a high standard deviation of F0 was the parameter that co-occured with an estimate of an interesting and trustful voice. Due to the limited sample size, no general conclusions could be made.

    The answers from the interview indicated that there is no such thing as an infallible voice that can be hired for any assignment, but that different types of voices are suitable for different contexts.

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  • 72.
    Frederiksen, Fanny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Göransson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    "hund, hund arm, hund arm boll": En studie om användningen av fonologisk minnesstrategi kopplat till ordproduktionshastighet hos ungdomar med utvecklingsstörning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has found that children with typical development begin with a visual memory strategy and then develop a phonological strategy. Whether this development takes place in individuals with intellectual disabilities is unclear. Most researchers agree that they seem to have a deficiency in the phonological loop. Researchers disagree whether the deficiency is caused by a structural deviation or a developmental delay. What is also unclear is where a possible structural deviation would be located. The purpose of this study was to investigate if adolescents with intellectual disabilities use a phonological memory strategy, controlled by the phonological loop, at a visually presented memory span test. Word length effect, span level on pictures, speech rate and the correlation between the latter two was investigated. The results were compared to a control group, matched for mental age. None of the groups showed any word length effect at their working memory capacity level but the control group showed a word length effect at capacity level plus one unit. Both of the groups showed a positive correlation between speech rate and span. It can be discussed whether speech rate or naming speed is tested. Owing to that it is difficult to draw any conclusions from the results. Regardless of what we have tested the results could indicate that the adolescents with intellectual disability use a different memory strategy than the children with typical development. One possible conclusion is that the adolescents with intellectual disability apply a phonological memory strategy but speculations about the use of long-term memory and a visual strategy are also discussed. One explanation could be that adolescents with intellectual disability have a structural deficiency in the phonological loop.

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  • 73.
    Frejd, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Magnusson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Läsförmåga hos barn med Cochleaimplantat: Relaterat till kognitiva och språkliga förmågor2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A cochlear implant (CI) is a technical hearing device used by individuals with severe to profound hearing impairment. CI can provide children with congenital hearing impairment the abilities to hear and develop speech and language outcome. CI does not replace normal hearing and there are great individual variations in language and verbal skills in persons with CI. The aim of this study was to examine the cognitive and linguistic abilities in children with CI with focus on reading ability. In the present study 57 children between the ages of 7;3-10;4 participated.  Seven of the children had CI. SIPS (Sound Information Processing System), Phonological Output, TOWRE, Orthographic Choices, Orthographic Learning , Woodcock and Block Design Test from WISC III were selected to answer the question at issue. The results were analyzed both at a group and at an individual level and were compared with results from a group with normal hearing children. Children with CI performed as a group at the level of normal hearing children on the majority of the tests. The children with CI had lower performance levels than the normal hearing children in tasks of phonological skills but they generally had a decoding ability within the normal range for hearing children. Children with CI in grade 3 also demonstrated a reading comprehension within the normal range for hearing children whereas children with CI in grade 1-2 had lower performance level than normal hearing children. The results of the present study indicate that late implantation; neither speech perception nor means of communication have to result in poorer reading ability.

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  • 74.
    Frisell, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Konstruktion och utprövning av datorbaserat test för intonation och rytm: Icke-språklig Testning Av Prosodi - ITAP2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Generally prosody is described as the rhythmic, dynamic and melodic features of language. Prosody is further often described as suprasegmental, since its properties go beyond vowels and consonants, which are segmental characteristics of language. A relationship between prosody and music has been noticed and described for several decades. At present, there are several studies proving relationship between prosodic and musical abilities.

     

    The aim of the present study was to construct a test for prosodic non-linguistic perception and production regarding intonation and rhythm. The test was tried out on 16 children with typical language development aged 4;6-7;6 years.

     

    Before testing of ITAP each participant were asked about musical experience. For formal assurance that the participants had typical language development a pretesting was performed.

     

    The results demonstrate an even range and therefore the complexity of ITAP seems to be on a representative level. Furthermore, ITAP is viable and the design is advantageous. The results of the present study suggest that both phonological working memory and grammatical ability are related to the aspects of intonation tested in ITAP.

     

    The study contributes to the knowledge about possible relations between prosodic and musical abilities, and it provides guidance on what children with typical language development are expected to achieve on ITAP.

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  • 75.
    Gauffin, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Ulrici, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cognitive problems in young adults with epilepsy: Language deficits correlate to brain activation and self-esteemManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People with epilepsy often display cognitive decline. Language function in epilepsy has been most thoroughly studied in temporal lobe epilepsy, but the impact of language deficits in epilepsy is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of epilepsy on language function with functional magnetic resonance imaging of brain activation, with behavioral methods and to relate language performance to demographic data, self-esteem and Quality of life. We specifically aimed to investigate if variation in epilepsy origin would relate to differences in language performance and if these differences could be associated with specific language activation patterns in the brain. We recruited people with epilepsy (29 in total), with focal onset seizures in either the left or right hemispheres or with generalized epilepsy; and 27 matching healthy controls. The participants’ language skills were measured with a phonemic word fluency test and a broader test measuring higher language functions. Functional magnetic resonance images of the brain were obtained during a word fluency and a sentence reading paradigm. Questionnaires on self-esteem and quality of life were collected. People with epilepsy of both focal and generalized origin had impaired function in semantic and verbal fluency tasks compared to the controls. The causes of language impairment were multifactorial; the most important determinants were education and onset age of epilepsy. Impaired language function was correlated to low self-esteem for participants with focal onset seizures; however Quality of life did not seem to be affected by language impairment. The functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation demonstrated altered functional activity during language tasks for participants with epilepsy compared to healthy controls. In epilepsy with focal seizures originating in the left hemisphere we found increased bilateral  activation of supporting areas in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex and the left anterior ventral insula, indicating a compensational functional reorganization. In generalized epilepsy, the functional language network showed an imbalance expressed as an inadequate  suppression of activation in the left anterior temporal lobe during semantic processing. Our study shows not only that reduced language functioning is present in people with epilepsy other than in the temporal lobe, but also that frequency of convulsive seizures correlates to language impairment. For patients with focalized seizures, low self esteem correlated also to language impairment. Our results highlight the importance of addressing the negative consequences of language decline in people with epilepsy of both focal and generalized origin.

  • 76.
    Gauffin, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Ulrici, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Impaired language function in generalized epilepsy: Inadequate suppression of the default mode network2013In: Epilepsy & Behavior, ISSN 1525-5050, E-ISSN 1525-5069, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to study the effect of a potential default mode network (DMN) dysfunction on language performance in epilepsy. Language dysfunction in focal epilepsy has previously been connected to brain damage in language-associated cortical areas. In this work, we studied generalized epilepsy (GE) without focal brain damage to see if the language function was impaired. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if the DMN was involved. Eleven persons with GE and 28 healthy controls were examined with fMRI during a sentence-reading task. We demonstrated impaired language function, reduced suppression of DMN, and, specifically, an inadequate suppression of activation in the left anterior temporal lobe and the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as an aberrant activation in the right hippocampal formation. Our results highlight the presence of language decline in people with epilepsy of not only focal but also generalized origin.

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  • 77.
    Gerdin, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Hadvall, Emmy
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Imitation som intervention: En behandlingsstudie om hur Intensiv Imitation påverkar samspel och kommunikation hos en flicka med Rett syndrom2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rett syndrome is a congenital neurological syndrome, which in the classic phenotype only affects girls. The symptoms include lack of speech, stereotypic movements of hands, dyspraxia and mental retardation, and these symptoms lead to communicative impairments. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the intervention method Intensive Imitation affected interaction/communication and initiative in a girl with Rett syndrome. The design of the study was a Single Subject Experimental Design with a three-week long intervention period where the girl participated daily in 30- minute sessions of Intensive Imitation together with the test conductor. Interaction, communication and initiatives were observed and analyzed before (Baseline A), during and after (Baseline B) the intervention period. The results showed that the girl’s total amount of communicative contributions increased between Baseline A and Baseline B, especially regarding the amount of produced vocalizations. However, there were some variations in the amount of contributions during the entire period. The girl increased her eye gazing towards her communicative partner, especially during the intervention sessions. There were no increase in the amount of communicative initiatives between Baseline A and Baseline B. However, the amount of initiatives increased between the first and the last observation. Intensive Imitation had a positive effect on eye gazing, vocalizations and communicative contributions, but this study cannot show any stable improvement regarding the girl’s communication and interaction.

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    Imitation som intervention
  • 78.
    Glad, Bergrós
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Kumlin, Karoline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Jämförelse mellan föräldrars, förskolepersonals och logopedstudenters bedömningar av små barns tal och språk2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parents’ knowledge about their children’s language is valuable to consider, particularly when formal tests can be difficult to administer with young children. The aim of this study was to examine similarities and differences between parents and preschool teacher’s reports on a questionnaire concerning children’s linguistic development and direct assessment by speech language pathology students. In the study 20 children aged 2 ½ - 3 years, 20 parents and 14 preschool teachers participated. The parents and preschool teachers answered 18 questions from the questionnaire Receptive Expressive Emergent Language Test - 2 (REEL-2) and the children were tested on items based on these questions.

    The results showed that the interjudge agreement between the groups was high. Some tendencies emerged when the material was analyzed with reference to language domains and individual questions. In conclusion, parents and preschool teachers seemed to be able to give similar information about the children’s linguistic abilities as provided by the direct assessment. The results also indicate that it is important to obtain information about a child’s language from different sources and that parental reports might be beneficial in the collaboration between speech language pathologists, parents and preschool teachers. Increased use of parental reports can facilitate the cooperation between these groups.

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  • 79.
    Graf, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery .
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    LundeborgHammarström, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Tonsillotomi på förskolebarn-räcker det?2008In: The Annual General Meeting for the Swedish Society for Medicine,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

     Under förskoleålder sker en fysiologisk ökning av den sk Waldeyerska ringen med tillväxt av tonsiller och adenoid som del i utvecklingen av barnets immunförsvar Många barn kan under denna tid debutera med obstruktionsbesvär(snarkning och sömnapné). Traditionellt har tonsillerna och adenoiden genom tonsillektomi och abrasio helt avlägsnats för att komma till rätta med dessa symptom, kirurgi förenad med hög postoperativ smärtnivå. På senare tid har tonsillotomi, dvs partiellt borttagande av tonsillerna, återinförts som en något mer skonsam operationsmetod. Immunsystemetpåverkas möjligtvis inte heller i lika stor omfattning. Frågan är om detta ingrepp är tillfyllest på barn som är i den ålder då tonsillerna fortfarande växer? Syftet med föreliggande studie var att jämföra tonsillotomi med radiofrekvenskirurgi med fullständig tonsillektomi på förskolebarn vad beträffar postoperativ morbiditet och långtidseffekt på snarkning och infektionsnbenägenhet upp till två år efter operation med tonsillektomi. 67 förskolebarn(4-5 år)med symtomgivade tonsillhypertrofi randomiserades till reguljär tonsillektomi(TE) eller tonsillotomi(TT) med radiofrekvensteknik. I de flesta fall utfördes samtidigt abrasio. 6 månader efter operationen svarade alla på frågeformulär och 2 år efter operationen bedömdes de åter av ÖNH-läkare. Snarkningen före, direkt efter operationen och vid tiden för läkarbesöket utvärderades då med VAS TT barnen registrerade lägre smärta från första dagen efter operation och var helt smärtfria 3 dagar tidigare än TE-barnen. Sex månader efter operationen förelåg ingen skillnad på grupperna vad gäller snarkning och infektionsbenägehet. Efter två år hade två av de 34 TT-barnen och ett av de 33 TE-barnen blivit re-opererade pga recidiv av obstruktionsbesvär, TE-barnet med reabrasio. Övriga barn i båda grupperna var i stort sett besvärsfria vad gäller snarkning och ingen ökad infektionsbenägehet noterades hos något barn. VAS före/ två år efter operationen var 8,4/1,3 för TE och 8,5/1,6 för TT. Tre av TT barnen hade tonsillvävnad något utanför tonsillogen och hälften av TE barnen hade små tonsillrester i logerna. Cirka 6 % risk föreligger att ett yngre barn som opereras med tonsillotomi för obstruktionsbesvär behöver göra om operationen inom 2 år. Denna risk bör vägas mot den betydligt lägre postoperativa morbiditeten för tonsillotomi jämfört med tonsillektomi.

  • 80.
    Granberg, Elsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Karlsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Intervention vid afasi: En samtalsanalytisk studie2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka interaktion vid logopedisk intervention för personer med afasi. Interaktionen utspelade sig i en institutionell kontext där undersökningen syftade till att påvisa om interaktionen skiljer sig åt beroende på interventionens form. Bakom studien finns antagandet att afasi påverkar förmågan att kommunicera. Språkliga svårigheter, såsom ordmobiliseringsproblem samt språkförståelseproblem, kan leda till pragmatiska svårigheter, och intervention syftar ofta till att öka förmågan att använda språket i olika vardagliga aktiviteter. Metoden för analysen i studien är inspirerad av Conversation Analysis (CA) då det är en metod för att systematiskt analysera interaktion. Sex interventionssamtal mellan logopeder och personer med afasi spelades in och analyserades med hjälp av CA. Fem logopeder och sex patienter med afasi medverkade i studien. Analysen resulterade i identifikation av fyra, för syftet, relevanta fenomen: riktning i samtalet, gemensamt mål, avslut av samtalsämne samt avdramatiserande uttryck. Efter analysen kunde följande tendenser konstateras: Logopeden tar ansvaret för samtalet, men det framkom en antydan till att patienten tar mer initiativ att påverka riktningen i samtalet vid friare delar, såsom icke-uppgiftsinriktade delar av interventionen. Oftast satte logopeden målet i samtalet och tog därmed ansvar för att ett gemensamt mål skapades. I interventionssamtalen var det logopeden som oftast stod för ämnesbyten och avslut. Det framkom i analysen att patienten oftare avslutade samtalsämnet i icke-uppgiftsinriktade än i uppgiftsinriktade delar av interventionen. Avdramatiserande uttryck i samtalet användes ofta för att undvika att hota patientens ansikte, oavsett vem som avdramatiserade situationen.

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  • 81.
    Grape, Amelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandstig, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Theory of mind, språkliga förmågor och ickeverbal intelligens hos barn mellan tre och fyra års ålder: Översättning och validering av Theory of Mind Scale2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Theory of mind is an ability to ascribe other people mental states to explain their behaviors. These mental states may regard beliefs, intentions or feelings.    Theory of Mind Scale is an evaluation scale designed by Wellman and Liu (2004). The scale consists of different scale steps of theory of mind, with an increasing difficulty. The purpose of this study was to translate Theory of Mind Scale from English to Swedish and validate the scale for children from the age of 3 to 4 years. The study also aims to examine if there is any relationship between children’s theory of mind, grammatical understanding, receptive vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence.    The validation of the present study showed that the order of the scale steps in the American original version of the Theory of Mind Scale was applicable to the children in the present study, with an exeption of the last task (real-apparent emotion). An alternative to the scale would be to compare the children’s performance against a normal variation. According to the present study a child between the age of 3;0 and 3;11 years could be expected to complete 2,83 ± 2,50 tasks and a child between the age of 4;0 and 4;11 years could be expected to complete 3,71 ± 1,50 tasks.    The results indicated a stronger correlation between theory of mind and non-verbal inteligence than between theory of mind and receptive vocabulary in children between the age of 3;0 and 4;11 years. No significant correlation existed between receptive grammar and theory of mind.

    The translation and validation of Theory of Mind Scale enables qualitative clinical investigations of theory of mind deficits in children.

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  • 82.
    Gruhonjic, Amela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Stengård, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Bedömning av oralmotorik och talmotorik med VMPAC hos typiskt utvecklade barn, 4-10 år2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates speech and oral motor skills in typically developed children at different ages. The results are intended to serve as a basis for future reference in the assessment of atypical development in Swedish children. The questions addressed within the study are: 1. How does a group of typically developed, Swedish children, in the ages four to ten years, perform on three subtests in VMPAC (Focal Oromotor Control, Sequencing Maintenance Control and Connected Speech and Language Control)? and 2. Are there any differences in performance between a group of typically developed, Swedish children, and the American standardization in VMPAC and also with the children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) from the study by Björelius-Hort (2009)? Speech and oral motor abilities were assessed using subtests two, three and four in VMPAC. The participants were 23 Swedish children, aged four to ten years old, who had been age-matched based on the children with CAS from the study by Björelius-Hort (2009). Inter- and intra-rater reliability showed statistically significant results, r =. 923 and r =. 913, with p <. 001, in both cases. From the results of the study the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. that the investigated group of children in general performed over 80 % on subtests two, three and four in VMPAC independent of age, 2. that the differences between the American standardization in VMPAC and the participants in this study were almost nonexistent and 3. that children with CAS in general performed poorer than the investigated group of children in all subtests.

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  • 83.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Elinor
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Wallman, Julia
    Danderyd Hospital, Sweden.
    How Simple is the Simple View of Reading?2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 292-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Simple View of Reading, reading ability can be divided into decoding and language comprehension. In the present study, decoding and comprehension's contribution to reading ability was studied both in children with reading difficulties and in children with typical reading ability. Decoding and comprehension was further divided into sub-components, and the contribution from non-verbal ability and general processing speed was also studied. The results demonstrated that decoding made the largest contribution to reading ability for children with reading difficulties, while language comprehension contributed the most for children with typical reading ability. The contribution of non-verbal ability was not significant, and general processing speed only made a significant contribution to decoding for typical children. The two factors in the Simple View of Reading, decoding and comprehension, together explained less of the variance in reading ability for children with reading difficulties than for children with typical reading ability.

  • 84.
    Gustafsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Översättning och validering av Voice-Related Quality of Life2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A voice disorder can be said to exist when the voice does not work or sound as it normally should in a manner so that it interferes with communication. The prevalence of voice disorders is estimated to be about 6 % of the adult population. When the voice does not work as it should it may lead to emotional, social and functional difficulties for the individual and with negative effects on the quality of life. Voice- Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) is a self-reporting questionnaire which measures the effect of a voice disorder on the quality of life of an individual. The instrument is frequently used internationally, but no Swedish translation has existed. In the present study, the purpose was to translate and validate V-RQOL for a Swedish population. The method for translating the questionnaire was back translation. The translated questionnaire was given the Swedish name Röstrelaterad livskvalitet (RRL). RRL and the Swedish version of The Voice Handicap Index, Rösthandikappindex (RHI), was distributed to a group of voice patients (n = 88) and a group of non-voice patients (n = 110). The reliability of the domains and the combined items of RRL was high according to Cronbach’s alpha with alpha values ranging from 0.82 to 0.90. There was a strong relation between the self–estimated voice quality and the scores on RRL, and the RRL- questionnaire was shown to differentiate between voice patients and non-voice patients. These results indicate that the construct validity of the questionnaire is good. Pearson’s correlation analysis demonstrated a significant negative correlation between the domains and total scores of RRL and RHI. This strong relation between “the gold standard”, RHI, and RRL proved that the criterion validity of the questionnaire is good. In summary the results show that RRL has a high reliability and good validity, in addition to this, the questionnaire is short and requires minimal work. The questionnaire is therefore considered to be a reliable and valuable addition to the clinical assessment of voice disorders.           

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    Översättning och validering av Voice-Related Quality of Life
  • 85.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Läsförmågan hos barn med mild och måttlig hörselnedsättning: Hur ser sambandet med underliggande kognitiva förmågor ut?2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While reading in deaf children has been the object of a number of studies, the reading abilitiesof children with mild and moderate hearing impairment and their relation to cognitiveprocessing have not received very much attention. Predictive factors of reading ability inhearing children are well known, with phonological and working memory abilities beingnecessary prerequisites for reading development. Existing studies suggest, however, thatcertain hearing-impaired children achieve a reading level comparable to that of hearingchildren in spite of impaired phonological abilities. In the present study, reading abilities anda range of cognitive processing abilities were measured in a group of hearing-impairedchildren and compared with hearing controls in equivalent school grades. Comparisons weremade at group and school-grade level, and the cognitive profile of hearing-impaired childrenat level with controls (those being within one standard deviation) was discussed. The resultssuggest that phonological abilities are important for the hearing-impaired children, but to alesser extent than for normally hearing children. The results also point towards workingmemoryabilities (particularly correct recall of phonemes in nonword repetition) as beingimportant for the possibility to compensate for impaired phonological abilities.

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  • 86.
    Gvozdenac, Zoran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Wistrand, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Språkliga och kognitiva förmågor hos barn med läs-och skrivsvårigheter: En jämförelse med barn med cochleaimplantat2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children with Reading and Writing Difficulties and Their Language and Cognitive Abilities

    A Comparison with Children with a Cochlear Implant

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to examine the cognitive abilities that are important for reading in children with reading disabilities, children with a cochlear implantation and typically developed children. 64 children aged 10-12 years participated in the study. To answer the question at issue we used the following tests: Block Design from WISC III, PPVT III, TOWRE, SL 40 and a few chosen tests out of the SIPS battery. On tests of the lexical access children with reading disabilities performed at the same level as hearing children, while the children with a cochlear implant performed significantly lower. Test of the phonological and complex working memory showed that children with reading disabilities performed significantly higher than children with a cochlear implant, but at the same time lower than typically developed children on the test of phonological working memory. Tests of reading ability showed that children with a cochlear implant performed at the same level as typically developed children, while children with reading disabilities showed lower results. The results indicate that the children with a cochlear implant can develop an adequate reading ability in spite of their phonological difficulties. Phonological skills do not seem to be the only factor influencing reading ability of the examined groups.

     

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  • 87.
    Hammarström, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Lindkvist, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Logopeder och barn i interaktion: Samtalsanalys vid behandling av språkstörning2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech intervention for children with language impairment aims to both strengthen specific language skills and to reinforce the ability to participate in interactional contexts. Children with language impairment often have problems in interaction; therefore the contributions of the conversational partner are of great importance. Thus, the demands are high on the speech and language pathologist (SLP) for sense and cohesion in intervention. The aim of the present study was to examine how SLPs and children with language impairment interact in language intervention. An approach influenced by Conversation Analysis was used in order to identify various phenomena that occurred, and their effect on the structure of the interaction was analyzed.

    Four SLPs, two men and two women, were enrolled in the study.  They participated in intervention with two children with language impairment each, i.e. eight conversations. The analysis showed that different forms of feedback and different repair strategies had an impact on the interaction. In addition, it was shown that the interactions contained several situations related to social face work.  Both differences and similarities were found between the participants in the analyzed material. Different interactional patterns of the SLPs appeared to affect the outcome of the intervention in different ways.

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  • 88.
    Hartelius, Ebba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Mattsson, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy (CIAT): effekt på en grupp individer med kronisk afasi2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Constraint-Induced Therapy (CI) is based on the theory that constraining operationalfunctions will increase the usage and at the same time the recovery of impaired functions. Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy (CIAT) is a variant of CI, aimed at people with chronicaphasia. The purpose of this study was to examine whether CIAT would affect the linguisticabilities of eleven individuals with chronic aphasia. The linguistic abilities of each participant were tested before and after the therapy which consisted of thirty hours intensive trainingduring two weeks in accordance with CIAT. Abilities that were examined included namingability, informative speech, listening comprehension and everyday use of language. Measurements of the participants’ length of utterances and speech-rate were also implemented. The test results were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests and dependent t-tests. Significant improvements were ascertained in the areas of length ofutterances, naming ability and informative speech. The conclusion of the study was that CIAT has a positive effect on individuals suffering from chronic aphasia, in regards tospeech production. It is unclear whether the method has any effect on language comprehension.

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  • 89.
    Hedberg, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Kindervall, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Nilsson, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Stamning i interaktion: uppbackning, samkonstruktion och blickkontakt i samtal2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study recordings of three people who stutter in interaction with different interlocutors were analysed. The participant frameworks were the person who stutters with another person who stutters, with a close friend and with an unknown person in an institutional context. The aim of the present study was to analyse similarities and differences among the interactions with different participant frameworks, regarding acknowledgement tokens, joint productions and eye contact in joint productions. In all, there were twelve participants taking part in nine dyads. The nine interactions were between 35 and 55 minutes long, and analysed according to the principles of Conversation Analysis (CA). Calculations were performed on the phenomena verbal acknowledgement tokens, joint productions and eye contact in joint productions. The result shows that there are fewer cases of joint productions in the institutional conversations and that there is a tendency that joint productions are most frequent in the conversations with a close friend. The people who stutter perform fewer joint productions in the institutional conversations and the most joint productions in the conversations between two people who stutter. The conversation with a close friend is the type of conversation with the lowest prevalence of joint productions related to stuttering. The participants mainly have eye contact when participating in joint productions. A consistent feature in all conversations is that the conversational partner produces more verbal acknowledgement tokens than the people who stutter. There are more verbal acknowledgement tokens in the conversations where the interlocutors are not acquainted. It is rather uncommon that verbal acknowledgement tokens appear in instances of stuttering.

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  • 90.
    Hedlund, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Morén, Emilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Normering av SVenskt Artikulations- och NasalitetsTEst, SVANTE - Talet hos sjuåriga barn2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SVenskt Artikulations- och NasalitetsTEst (SVANTE) är ett taltest som är särskilt anpassat för bedömning av talavvikelser till följd av strukturella och/eller funktionella avvikelser i munhåla och svalg. Behov fanns av att utöka befintliga normdata för testet SVANTE vilket motiverade föreliggande studie där normdata från ytterligare 30 barn i åldersgruppen sju år (6;6–7;3) med typisk utveckling samlades in. Vid sju års ålder förväntas talet vara fullt utvecklat (Bjar, 2003) men en viss variation i artikulation förekommer dock i jämförelse med vuxet uttal (Murdoch et al., 2012), och om avvikelse föreligger är detta snarare av fonetisk än fonologisk karaktär. /s/- och /r/- ljud har en tendens att utvecklas senare och avvikelser av dessa kan förekomma i denna åldersgrupp (Linell & Jennische, 1980).

    Studiegruppen bestod av förskolebarn och barn i första klass från tre kommunala skolor. Deltagarna testades med taltestet SVANTE och testtillfällena spelades in för efterföljande perceptuell analys och bedömning.

    Talavvikelser förekom hos 13 barn (25 %) varav /s/- och /r/ avvikelser observerades hos sex av barnen, vilket i enlighet med litteraturen kan förekomma i åldersgruppen. Tryckreducerad artikulation förekom hos sju barn i några enstaka ord. Hos tre av barnen med tryckreducerad artikulation förekom även nasalitetsavvikelse i form av hyponasalitet. Förekommande /s/-avvikelser tros bero på tandömsning då detta observerats i förekommande fall men även kvarstående ofördelaktiga uttalsavvikelser kan antas utgöra orsak till både /r/- och /s/ avvikelserna (Linell & Jennische, 1980). Övre luftvägsinfektion (ÖLI) kan antas vara orsaken till de tre fall med förekommande hyponasalitet, då tydliga förkylningssymtom noterades. Tryckreducerad artikulation skulle kunna förklaras av större variabilitet i artikulation i ung ålder jämfört med vuxet tal (Murdoch et al., 2012).

    Resultatet i föreliggande studie speglar resultatet av tidigare normeringsstudier av SVANTE (Björkman & Samuelsson, 2004). En tydligare definition av vuxet uttal bör undersökas för att normeringsresultat skall bli än mer trovärdiga. Hur vuxennormen ser ut förefaller inte vara undersökt i Sverige varför författarna föreslår vidare forskning på detta område.

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    Normering av SVenskt Artikulations- och NasalitetsTEst, SVANTE - Talet hos sjuåriga barn
  • 91.
    Hejdedal, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Westerlind, Vanessa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Effekten av intra- och extraoralsensorisk intensivbehandling med eltandborste: Hos nio barn med Down syndrom2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have problems with hypotonia and hyposensitivity restricting movement of the face and mouth muscles, thus impeding speaking and swallowing. The goal of intra- and extraoral sensory processing is to increase awareness and control of the oral muscles, its movements, tension and oral sensation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of an intra- and extraoral sensory intensive treatment with electric toothbrush in a group of children with DS and hypotonia. The effects were studied from the perspectives of orofacial function, lip closure, speech production and oral sensitivity. Nine children aged 6 to 12 years underwent treatment with four sessions per week for four weeks. Before starting treatment, a baseline was performed and afterwards the effects of the treatment were evaluated on three occasions over a period of three weeks. Assessment materials included NOT-S and additional interview questions for the parents, part of STORM and SVANTE, as well as repetition. The results show that there is improvement for all participants in at least one of the studied areas. The outcome of the treatment varied between the participants. Therefore it can be important with individualized intervention, as the same method does not always work or may not be appropriate and not received the same by all patients.

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  • 92.
    Hejdström, Annie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Lindahl, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Omhändertagande av barn med ätsvårigheter: En intervjustudie bland personal2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Till följd av att allt fler barn sondmatas har även svårigheterna vid övergång till oralt ätande ökat. Omhändertagandet av dessa barn görs lämpligast i team med exempelvis logoped, dietist, sjuksköterska och läkare. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka hur omhändertagande av barn med ätsvårigheter ser ut med fokus på sondmatning. Datainsamling skedde genom en fokusgruppintervju med vårdpersonal som arbetar med barn med ätsvårigheter. Transkriptionen analyserades, baserad på Grounded Theory, genom meningskodning. Analysen resulterade i åtta kategorier som beskriver omhändertagandet av barn med ätsvårigheter: Faktorer på organisationsnivå, Samarbete mellan yrken, Utredning, Arbete i samband med sondning, Arbete vid ätövergång, Resultat och uppföljning, Föräldrarnas roll i omhändertagandet och Näringens roll i omhändertagandet. Studien visar att det finns en medvetenhet om ätproblematik och ett intresse att lära sig mer om detta hos den intervjuade personalen. I omhändertagandet förekommer handledning av föräldrar och oralsensorisk stimulering. Dock saknas struktur och djupare kunskaper, vilket ett team med personal med specialistkompetens skulle kunna tillföra.

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  • 93.
    Helldén, Josefin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Sjölund, Ellinor
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Screening av dysfagi på äldreboenden i Linköpings kommun2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in swallowing function are common in elderly and chronically ill individuals. Therefore it is important to be aware of these changes and their prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dysphagia in nursing homes in the municipality of Linköping, and to correlate dysphagia with variables that can be a cause or a consequence of dysphagia. These variables were gender, age, MMT-result, dentition, weight loss, medical diagnose or number of medications. The intention was also to examine the additional information regarding dysphagia supplied by pulse oximetry.

    Sixty nursing home residents aged 74-101 years were chosen to participate in the study. The individual's ability to participate was based on their result on Mini-mental state and subjective judgements made by staff members and the authors. The material to assess oral motor and sensory function was the Nordic Orofacial Test - Screening. During the clinical swallowing examination the Standardised Swallowing Assessment (SSA) and pulse oximetry were used. In addition, data regarding the participants' medical diagnoses, number of medications and possible weight loss was collected.

    The result showed that the prevalence of dysphagia and suspected dysphagia was 40 %. Oral dysphagia was present in 20 participants and pharyngeal dysphagia in seven participants. With pulse oximetry one participant with dysphagia and two with suspected dysphagia were identified in addition to those identified by SSA. Analysis of the assessed variables showed no correlations or any significant results.

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  • 94.
    Hengen, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Petersson, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Utvärdering av röstbehandling med Rösthandikappindex (RHI)2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In accordance to the Swedish law of Health- and medical treatments, every intervention should systematically evolve and be improved in terms of safety (HSL, SFS 1982:763). Voice therapy is no exception. Six voice clinics participated in a collaborative project between Linköping University and the south-east hospital region by letting every patient receiving voice therapy complete the Swedish version of the Voice Handicap Index, RHI, at the beginning and end of their treatment. This study has a two-parted aim. The first aim of this study was to examine whether the sum of the participants’ scores on RHI changed after completed therapy and if gender, age, vocal strain within the occupation or the number of therapy sessions had an effect on their score. The second aim of the study was to construct a survey to analyze working speech-language pathologist’s views on RHI as a tool for evaluating voice problems and voice therapy.

    The material from the survey consisted of the answers from 23 respondents.  The patient data includes the results from 350 patients’ scores. Analysis of the data reveals that the typical voice patient is a woman in her fifties with the diagnosis dysphonia. The prevalence of certain diagnoses varies greatly between the participating voice clinics. Wilcoxon sign rank test points to a significant difference in RHI-scores before (MD = 42) and after (MD = 23) therapy with an average decrease of 19 median points in the RHI-index with a substantial observed effect size (.55). The observed difference surpasses the previously suggested threshold limit for clear intervention effect during the development of VHI and RHI. Age had a significant effect on the median score of RHI at the start and end of therapy, but the observed difference between the two measurements were not affected. Differences could be observed between the voice clinics regarding the average number of therapeutic appointments, the average length of the therapy and the average difference in RHI-scores after completed therapy.

    From the responses in the survey, the participating SLPs were generally predominately positive to the idea of RHI as a tool for evaluating voice problems and voice therapy. The majority of the respondents did however mention weaknesses in RHI when used as a tool for evaluation.

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    Utvärdering av röstbehandling
  • 95.
    Henningsson, Ylva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Wennström, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Normering av nasaleringsvärden uppmätta med nasometer hos barn i fyra- till femårsåldern i Linköping2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Nasometer is a non-invasive acoustic measuring instrument that quantifies the ratio ofnasal resonance in speech. It can be used as a complement to perceptual judgment of speech impediments, for example, in patients with cleft palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency. Inorder to determine if a nasalance score is abnormal, it must be compared to norm data. The main purpose of the study was to collect reference nasalance scores in children between fourand five years of age in Linköping. An additional objective was to compare the results tonorm data collected in Umeå. The participants were 52 children aged between 4:2 and 5:11.Scores were recorded with a Nasometer at the children’s preschools. The speech materialincluded oral words, oral sentences, oronasal sentences, nasal sentences and the syllablesequence “ma-ma-ma”. The mean nasalance score was 18.1 % for the oral words, 14.2 % forthe oral sentences, 28.9 % for the oronasal sentences, 53.1 % for the nasal sentences and 65.1% for the syllable sequence “ma-ma-ma”. Significantly higher nasalance scores were recordedin boys during oral word production (p < .05). The nasalance scores in children fromLinköping were significantly higher than those recorded in children from Umeå during oralword production (p < .05).

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  • 96.
    Henriksson, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Troedsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jag vet vad du tänker: Mentaliseringsförmågan hos typiskt utvecklade barn i 6-7års åldern2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Theory of mind, or mentalization ability, is the ability to understand how another individual thinks, acts and feels. It is important to develop a mentalization ability in order to interact with other people and the surrounding social environment in a pragmatic way. There are several abilities that might play an important role in the developmental process of Theory of mind. It is still uncertain to which degree these abilities effect the mentalization ability. The purpose with this study was to investigate the mentalization ability and its relationship with other cognitive abilities in children aged 6-7 years. In this study, ten different tests were used to analyze which abilities correlated with Theory of mind. The abilities that were tested were visual- and auditory working memory, short-term memory, non-verbal intelligence and language understanding. The participating test group consisted of 25 typically developed children aged 6:0-8:0 with Swedish as mother tongue.

    The results from the tests showed that the mentalization ability correlated with nonverbal intelligence, short-term memory and language understanding. It appears that a certain level of working memory is important, but that an exceptionally good working memory will not improve the mentalization ability further. The result showed that no single ability were more important than the others for the mentalization ability.

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    Jag vet vad du tänker
  • 97.
    Henriksson, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Troedsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Samspel mellan föräldrar och deras 16-månaders barn: Kommunikativ utveckling i relation till mind-mindedness och föräldrasensitivitet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The way a parent interacts with his or her child can have a great effect on communication and language development of the child. Maternal sensitivity and mind-mindedness are two measures used for parent-child interplay. Maternal sensitivity measures the parent’s ability to accurately perceive and interpret the child’s cues while mind-mindedness involves the parent’s use of words and comments regarding the child’s internal state. These comments can be classified as appropriate or non-attuned regarding the situation and the child’s state of mind. To what extent mind-mindedness and maternal sensitivity affect different parts of the child’s communicative development is still mainly unknown.

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if maternal sensitivity and mind-mindedness co-vary with communicative abilities, if mind-mindedness and maternal sensitivity co-vary with each other, and finally, if any gender differences was present. The material of the study consisted of 35 videotaped parent-child interactions, which were observed when the children were 16 months of age. To measure maternal sensitivity, the sensitivity scale were used, “Sensitivity vs. Insensitivity to the Baby's Signals”. To measure mind-mindedness, parent-child interplay and parental interviews were coded. The child’s communicative abilities were assessed with the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventories and with the Early Social Communication Scales.

    The result showed a correlation between maternal sensitivity and language comprehension, communicative gestures and joint attention. A relationship was found between mind-mindedness and parents’ using more non-attuned mental comments and children’s decreasing ability to respond to joint attention. The results also demonstrated that a sensitive parent uses more appropriate mental comments than a parent who was insensitive. A reversed relationship was found between non-attuned mental comments and a low level of maternal sensitivity, where the insensitive parent used more non-attuned mental comments. Finally, a difference in gender was found, where parents use more non-attuned comments to boys than to girls. 

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    Henriksson och Troedsson, 2013
  • 98.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Hemlin, Claes
    Aleris specialistvård Sabbatsberg, Stockholm.
    Eggertsen, Robert
    Avd. för Samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa/allmänmedicin, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lundeborg-Hammarström, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Marcusson, Agneta
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie
    Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri, Psykiatriska kliniken, Höglandet Eksjö/Nässjö.
    Stjernquist-Desatnik, Anna
    Öron-näsa-hals-kliniken, Universitetssjukhuset Lund.
    Zettergren-Wijk, Lena
    Avdelningen för tandreglering, Folktandvården Gävleborg AB, Gävle.
    Moa, Gunnar
    Projektledare Nationella medicinska indikationer.
    Törnqvist, Helene
    Projektledare Nationella medicinska indikationer.
    Indikation för tonsillotomi på barn och ungdomar2011Report (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Hultegård, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Samspel mellan barn med nedsatt kommunikationsförmåga och olika samspelspartners2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion Alla samtal karaktäriseras av en önskan att förstå varandra och av ett samarbete för att nå dit. Det är välkänt att samtal mellan personer med nedsatt kommunikationsförmåga och normaltalare ofta är ojämlika och att deltagaren utan funktionsnedsättning dominerar samspelet.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande arbete är att kartlägga vardagliga kommunikationssituationer där en deltagare med kommunikativt funktionshinder interagerar med olika samtalspartners.

     

    Metod: I studien deltog två förskolebarn som använder tecken som alternativ och/ eller kompletterande kommunikation, TAKK. Barnen filmades i vardagliga miljöer hemma och på förskolan med olika samspelspartners. Materialet analyserades utifrån principer från Conversation Analysis.

     

    Resultat: Flera fenomen framkom som stöder tidigare forskningsresultat. Samtalens innehåll utgick till stor del från ett här- och nuperspektiv. Många exempel fanns på hur samtalet övergick till en tydligare inlärningssituation där fokus riktades mot kommunikationens form, snarare än dess innehåll. Det noterades även att den vuxne återanvände barnets uttryck för att repetera det korrekt och på så sätt ge en modell för det talade ordet och tecknet samt att utvidga barnets sats. När det gällde barnens samtal med varandra, visade det sig att den vuxne som fanns närvarande i rummet ofta lämnade egna bidrag i samtalet.

     

     

    Konklusion: En viktig iakttagelse för den kliniska verksamheten är att en kommunikationssituation ofta övergår från informell till formell genom att fokusera på kommunikationens form istället för på dess innehåll. Det är av stor vikt att poängtera detta för de vuxna i barnens omgivning vid introduktion av AKK då barnen behöver uppleva att man samarbetar för att uppnå gemensam förståelse .

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  • 100.
    Johansson, Ellinor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Wallmann, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Läsförmågans faktorer och deras bidrag till läsning: En jämförelse mellan barn med olika nivå av läsförmåga, utifrån The Simple View of Reading2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The simple view of reading is a theory in which reading is divided into decoding and linguistic comprehension. The theory has been used to explain and to subgroup reading disabilities. Research has also investigated if additional factors are of relevance to reading. In the present study, decoding was divided into the factors orthographic decoding and phonological decoding, while comprehension was divided into word comprehension and grammatical comprehension. The purpose was to analyze these factors and their contribution to reading ability in children in fourth grade: one group with reading difficulties (n=36) and one group with typical reading ability (n=36). Results were analyzed using multiple regression and the two groups were compared. The contribution of non-verbal ability and general processing speed was also studied. The results showed differences between the groups. Decoding made the largest contribution to reading ability for the children with reading difficulties, while linguistic comprehension contributed the most for the children with typical reading ability. Differences were also found in how much the underlying factors contributed to decoding and linguistic comprehension, respectively. Non-verbal ability and general processing speed made small contributions, for both groups, to reading ability, decoding and linguistic comprehension, respectively. However, the two factors increased the explained variance in reading ability for the children with reading difficulties. In this group the two factors in The simple view of reading explained somewhat less of the variance in reading ability than for the children with typical reading ability. The study shows that decoding and comprehension are useful predictors of reading ability, and also indicates that The simple view of reading is less appropriate for children with reading difficulties.

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