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  • 51.
    Parenti, I.
    et al.
    University of Lubeck, Germany; University of Milan, Italy.
    Gervasini, C.
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Pozojevic, J.
    University of Lubeck, Germany.
    Wendt, K. S.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Watrin, E.
    UMR6290 CNRS, France.
    Azzollini, J.
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Braunholz, D.
    University of Lubeck, Germany.
    Buiting, K.
    University of Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Cereda, A.
    AOS Gerardo, Italy.
    Engels, H.
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Garavelli, L.
    IRCCS S Maria Nuova Hospital, Italy.
    Glazar, R.
    Centre Medical Genet GENESIS Poznan, Poland.
    Graffmann, B.
    Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Larizza, L.
    IRCCS Ist Auxol Italiano, Italy.
    Luedecke, H. J.
    University of Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Mariani, M.
    AOS Gerardo, Italy.
    Masciadri, M.
    IRCCS Ist Auxol Italiano, Italy.
    Pie, J.
    University of Zaragoza, Spain; University of Zaragoza, Spain; ISS Aragon, Spain.
    Ramos, F. J.
    University of Zaragoza, Spain; University of Zaragoza, Spain; ISS Aragon, Spain; Hospital Clin University of Lozano Blesa, Spain.
    Russo, S.
    IRCCS Ist Auxol Italiano, Italy.
    Selicorni, A.
    AOS Gerardo, Italy.
    Stefanova, Margarita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Strom, T. M.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany; German Research Centre Environm Heatlh, Germany.
    Werner, R.
    University of Lubeck, Germany.
    Wierzba, J.
    Medical University of Gdansk, Poland; Medical University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Zampino, G.
    University of Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Italy.
    Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.
    University of Lubeck, Germany.
    Wieczorek, D.
    University of Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Kaiser, F. J.
    University of Lubeck, Germany.
    Expanding the clinical spectrum of the "HDAC8-phenotype - implications for molecular diagnostics, counseling and risk prediction2016In: Clinical Genetics, ISSN 0009-9163, E-ISSN 1399-0004, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 564-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by typical facial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment and multiple congenital anomalies. Approximately 75% of patients carry a variant in one of the five cohesin-related genes NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21 and HDAC8. Herein we report on the clinical and molecular characterization of 11 patients carrying 10 distinct variants in HDAC8. Given the high number of variants identified so far, we advise sequencing of HDAC8 as an indispensable part of the routine molecular diagnostic for patients with CdLS or CdLS-overlapping features. The phenotype of our patients is very broad, whereas males tend to be more severely affected than females, who instead often present with less canonical CdLS features. The extensive clinical variability observed in the heterozygous females might be at least partially associated with a completely skewed X-inactivation, observed in seven out of eight female patients. Our cohort also includes two affected siblings whose unaffected mother was found to be mosaic for the causative mutation inherited to both affected children. This further supports the urgent need for an integration of highly sensitive sequencing technology to allow an appropriate molecular diagnostic, genetic counseling and risk prediction.

  • 52.
    Paulsson, Johan O.
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Svahn, F.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Welander, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Brunaud, L.
    University of Lorraine, France.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Stenman, A.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Juhlin, C. C.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Editorial Material: Absence of the BRAF V600E mutation in pheochromocytoma in JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION, vol 39, issue 6, pp 715-7162016In: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, ISSN 0391-4097, E-ISSN 1720-8386, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 715-716Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are rare endocrine tumors originating from the adrenal medulla. These tumors display a highly heterogeneous mutation profile, and a substantial part of the causative genetic events remains to be explained. Recent studies have reported presence of the activating BRAF V600E mutation in PCC, suggesting a role for BRAF activation in tumor development. This study sought to further investigate the occurrence of the BRAF V600E mutation in these tumors. Methods A cohort of 110 PCCs was screened for the BRAF V600E mutation using direct Sanger sequencing. Results All cases investigated displayed wild-type sequences at nucleotide 1799 in the BRAF gene. Conclusions Taken together with all previously screened tumors up to date, only 1 BRAF V600E mutation has been found among 361 PCCs. These findings imply that the BRAF V600E mutation is a rare event in pheochromocytoma.

  • 53.
    Pestoff, Rebecka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Ingvoldstad, Charlotta
    CLINTECH, Obstretrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Skirton, Heather
    Department of Applied Health Genetics, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK.
    Genetic counsellors in Sweden: their role and added value in the clinical setting.2016In: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 350-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic testing is becoming more commonplace in general and specialist health care and should always be accompanied by genetic counselling, according to Swedish law. Genetic counsellors are members of the multi-disciplinary team providing genetic counselling. This study examined the role and added value of genetic counsellors in Sweden, using a cross-sectional on-line survey. The findings showed that the genetic counsellors added value in the clinical setting by acting as the 'spider-in-the-web' regarding case management, having a more holistic, ethical and psychological perspective, being able to offer continuous support and build a relationship with the patient, and being more accessible than medical geneticists. The main difference between a genetic counsellor and medical geneticist was that the doctor had the main medical responsibility. Thus genetic counsellors in Sweden contribute substantially to the care of patients in the clinical genetic setting.

  • 54.
    Ran, Caroline
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Brodin, Lovisa
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Marie
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ramezani, Mehrafarin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gellhaar, Sandra
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Xiang, Fengqing
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Fardell, Camilla
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nissbrandt, Hans
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Puschmann, Andreas
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Ygland, Emil
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olson, Lars
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Willows, Thomas
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Sydow, Olof
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wirdefeldt, Karin
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Galter, Dagmar
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Svenningsson, Per
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Carmine Belin, Andrea
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Strong association between glucocerebrosidase mutations and Parkinsons disease in Sweden2016In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 45, no 212.e5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several genetic studies have demonstrated an association between mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA), originally implicated in Gauchers disease, and an increased risk of Parkinsons disease (PD). We have investigated the possible involvement of genetic GBA variations in PD in the Swedish population. Three GBA variants, E326K, N370S, and L444P were screened in the largest Swedish Parkinson cohort reported to date; 1625 cases and 2025 control individuals. We found a significant association with high effect size of the rare variant L444P with PD (odds ratio 8.17; 95% confidence interval: 2.51-26.23; p-value = 0.0020) and a significant association of the common variant E326K (odds ratio 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-2.22; p-value = 0.026). The rare variant N370S showed a trend for association. Most L444P carriers (68%) were found to reside in northern Sweden, which is consistent with a higher prevalence of Gauchers disease in this part of the country. Our findings support the role of GBA mutations as risk factors for PD and point to lysosomal dysfunction as a mechanism contributing to PD etiology. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • 55.
    Roodakker, Kenney R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Elsir, Tamador
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Edqvist, Per-Henrik D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hagerstrand, Daniel
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Carison, Joseph
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lysiak, Malgorzata
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Roger
    Umeå University, Sweden; Regional Cancer Centre, Sweden.
    Ponten, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Regional Cancer Center South East Sweden.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Stupp, Roger
    University of Zurich Hospital, Switzerland.
    Tchougounova, Elena
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nister, Monica
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Malmström, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Advanced Home Care in Linköping.
    Smits, Anja
    Uppsala University, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    PROX1 is a novel pathway-specific prognostic biomarker for high-grade astrocytomas; results from independent glioblastoma cohorts stratified by age and IDH mutation status2016In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 7, no 45, p. 72431-72442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PROX1 is a transcription factor with an essential role in embryonic development and determination of cell fate. In addition, PROX1 has been ascribed suppressive as well as oncogenic roles in several human cancers, including brain tumors. In this study we explored the correlation between PROX1 expression and patient survival in high-grade astrocytomas. For this purpose, we analyzed protein expression in tissue microarrays of tumor samples stratified by patient age and IDH mutation status. We initially screened 86 unselected high-grade astrocytomas, followed by 174 IDH1-R132H1 immunonegative glioblastomas derived from patients aged 60 years and older enrolled in the Nordic phase III trial of elderly patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Representing the younger population of glioblastomas, we studied 80 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas from patients aged 18-60 years. There was no correlation between PROX1 protein and survival for patients with primary glioblastomas included in these cohorts. In contrast, high expression of PROX1 protein predicted shorter survival in the group of patients with IDH-mutant anaplastic astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas. The prognostic impact of PROX1 in IDH-mutant 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas, as well as the negative findings in primary glioblastomas, was corroborated by gene expression data extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas. We conclude that PROX1 is a new prognostic biomarker for 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas that have progressed from pre-existing lowgrade tumors and harbor IDH mutations.

  • 56.
    Sahlin, Ellika
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Gréen, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Lieden, Agne
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Nordenskjold, Magnus
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Papadogiannakis, Nikos
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Jon
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Iwarsson, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Identification of putative pathogenic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in genes associated with heart disease in 290 cases of stillbirth2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e0210017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of stillbirth in Sweden has essentially remained constant since the 1980s, and despite thorough investigation, many cases remain unexplained. It has been suggested that a proportion of stillbirth cases is caused by heart disease, mainly channelopathies. The aim of this study was to analyze DNA from 290 stillbirth cases without chromosomal abnormalities for pathogenic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in 70 genes associated with cardiac channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. The HaloPlex Target Enrichment System (Agilent Technologies) was utilized to prepare sequencing libraries which were sequenced on the Illumina NextSeq platform. We found that 12.1% of the 290 investigated stillbirth cases had one (n = 31) or two (n = 4) variants with evidence supporting pathogenicity, i.e. loss-of-function variants (nonsense, frameshift, splice site substitutions), evidence from functional studies, or previous identification of the variants in affected individuals. Regarding identified putative pathogenic variants in genes associated with channelopathies, the prevalence was significantly higher in the stillbirth cohort (n = 23, 7.93%) than the corresponding prevalence of the same variants in the non-Finnish European population of the Exome Aggregation Consortium (2.70%, pamp;lt;0.001) and SweGen, (2.30%, pamp;lt;0.001). Our results give further support to the hypothesis that cardiac channelopathies might contribute to stillbirth. Screening for pathogenic SNVs in genes associated with heart disease might be a valuable complement for stillbirth cases where todays conventional investigation does not reveal the underlying cause of fetal demise.

  • 57.
    Shabo, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Midtbö, Kristine Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Åkerlund, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Olsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Wegman, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Macrophage traits in cancer cells are induced by macrophage-cancer cell fusion and cannot be explained by cellular interaction2015In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 922-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cell fusion is a natural process in normal development and tissue regeneration. Fusion between cancer cells and macrophages generates metastatic hybrids with genetic and phenotypic characteristics from both maternal cells. However, there are no clinical markers for detecting cell fusion in clinical context. Macrophage-specific antigen CD163 expression in tumor cells is reported in breast and colorectal cancers and proposed being caused by macrophages-cancer cell fusion in tumor stroma. The purpose of this study is to examine the cell fusion process as a biological explanation for macrophage phenotype in breast. Methods: Monocytes, harvested from male blood donor, were activated to M2 macrophages and co-cultured in ThinCert transwell system with GFP-labeled MCF-7 cancer cells. MCF7/macrophage hybrids were generated by spontaneous cell fusion, isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, short tandem repeats analysis and flow cytometry. CD163 expression was evaluated in breast tumor samples material from 127 women by immunohistochemistry. Results: MCF-7/macrophage hybrids were generated spontaneously at average rate of 2 % and showed phenotypic and genetic traits from both maternal cells. CD163 expression in MCF-7 cells could not be induced by paracrine interaction with M2-activated macrophages. CD163 positive cancer cells in tumor sections grew in clonal collection and a cutoff point greater than25 % of positive cancer cells was significantly correlated to disease free and overall survival. Conclusions: In conclusion, macrophage traits in breast cancer might be caused by cell fusion rather than explained by paracrine cellular interaction. These data provide new insights into the role of cell fusion in breast cancer and contributes to the development of clinical markers to identify cell fusion.

  • 58.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Letter: Clinically suspected recurrence of gastric carcinoid proved to be hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome with pulmonary involvement2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 337-339Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 59.
    Stenman, Adam
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Svahn, Fredrika
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Bushehr Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Zedenius, Jan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Larsson, Catharina
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Juhlin, C. Christofer
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Molecular Profiling of Pheochromocytoma and Abdominal Paraganglioma Stratified by the PASS Algorithm Reveals Chromogranin B as Associated With Histologic Prediction of Malignant Behavior2019In: American Journal of Surgical Pathology, ISSN 0147-5185, E-ISSN 1532-0979, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 409-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and abdominal paragangliomas (PGLs), collectively abbreviated PPGL, are believed to exhibit malignant potential-but only subsets of cases will display full-blown malignant properties. The Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) algorithm is a proposed histologic system to detect potential for aggressive behavior, but little is known regarding the coupling to underlying molecular genetics. In this study, a total of 92 PPGLs, previously characterized for susceptibility gene status and mRNA expressional profiles, were histologically assessed using the PASS criteria. A total of 32/92 PPGLs (35%) exhibited a PASS score amp;gt;= 4, including all 8 cases with malignant behavior (7 with known metastases and 1 with extensively infiltrative local recurrence). Statistical analyzes between expressional data and clinical parameters as well as individual PASS criteria yielded significant associations to Chromogranin B (CHGB), BRCA2, HIST1H3B, BUB1B, and RET to name a few, and CHGB had the strongest correlation to both PASS and metastasis/local recurrence of all analyzed genes. Evident CHGB downregulation was observed in PPGLs with high PASS and overtly malignant behavior, and was also associated with shorter disease-related survival. This finding was validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, in which CHGB expression correlated with both PASS and metastasis/local recurrence with consistent findings obtained in the TCGA cohort. Moreover, immunohistochemical analyses of subsets of tumors showed a correlation between high PASS scores and negative or weak CHGB protein expression. Patients with PPGLs obtaining high PASS scores postoperatively, also exhibited low preoperative plasma levels of CHGB. These data collectively point out CHGB as a possible preoperative and postoperative marker for PPGLs with potential for aggressive behavior.

  • 60.
    Stenman, Adam
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University, Sweden.
    Welander, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Brunaud, Laurent
    University of Lorraine, France.
    Backdahl, Martin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Christofer Juhlin, C.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Catharina
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University, Sweden.
    HRAS mutation prevalence and associated expression patterns in pheochromocytoma2016In: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, ISSN 1045-2257, E-ISSN 1098-2264, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 452-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and abdominal paragangliomas (PGL) display a highly diverse genetic background and recent gene expression profiling studies have shown that PCC and PGL (together PPGL) alter either kinase signaling pathways or the pseudo-hypoxia response pathway dependent of the genetic composition. Recurrent mutations in the Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) have recently been verified in sporadic PPGLs. In order to further establish the HRAS mutation frequency and to characterize the associated expression profiles of HRAS mutated tumors, 156 PPGLs for exon 2 and 3 hotspot mutations in the HRAS gene was screened, and compared with microarray-based gene expression profiles for 93 of the cases. The activating HRAS mutations G13R, Q61R, and Q61K were found in 10/142 PCC (7.0%) and a Q61L mutation was revealed in 1/14 PGL (7.1%). All HRAS mutated cases included in the mRNA expression profiling grouped in Cluster 2, and 21 transcripts were identified as altered when comparing the mutated tumors with 91 HRAS wild-type PPGL. Somatic HRAS mutations were not revealed in cases with known PPGL susceptibility gene mutations and all HRAS mutated cases were benign. The HRAS mutation prevalence of all PPGL published up to date is 5.2% (49/950), and 8.8% (48/548) among cases without a known PPGL susceptibility gene mutation. The findings support a role of HRAS mutations as a somatic driver event in benign PPGL without other known susceptibility gene mutations. HRAS mutated PPGL cluster together with NF1- and RET-mutated tumors associated with activation of kinase-signaling pathways.

  • 61.
    Svensson, Anneli
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Åström Aneq, Meriam
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Widlund, Kjerstin Ferm
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Fluur, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Green, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Rehnberg, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Gunnarsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy - 4 Swedish families with an associated PKP2 c.2146-1G>C variant.2016In: American journal of cardiovascular disease, ISSN 2160-200X, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 55-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the genotype-phenotype correlations in four unrelated families with a PKP2 c.2146-1G>C gene variant were studied. Our primary aim was to determine the carriers that fulfilled the arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) diagnostic criteria of 2010. Our secondary aim was to investigate whether any specific clinical characteristics can be attributed to this particular gene variant. Index patients were assessed using next generation ARVC panel sequencing technique and their family members were assessed by Sanger sequencing targeted at the PKP2 c.2146-1G>C variant. The gene variant carriers were offered a clinical follow-up, with evaluation based on the patient's history and a standard set of non-invasive testing. The PKP2 c.2146-1G>C gene variant was found in 23 of 41 patients who underwent the examination. Twelve of the 19 family members showed "possible ARVC". One with "borderline ARVC" and the rest with "definite ARVC" demonstrated re-polarization disturbances, but arrhythmia was uncommon. A lethal event occurred in a 14-year-old boy. In the present study, no definitive genotype-phenotype correlations were found, where the majority of the family members carrying the PKP2 c.2146-1G>C gene variant were diagnosed with "possible ARVC". These individuals should be offered a long-term follow-up since they are frequently symptomless but still at risk for insidious sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmia.

  • 62.
    Södergren, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svensson Holm, Ann-Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ramström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Grenegård, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Öllinger, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Thrombin-induced lysosomal exocytosis in human platelets is dependent on secondary activation by ADP and regulated by endothelial-derived substances2016In: Platelets, ISSN 0953-7104, E-ISSN 1369-1635, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exocytosis of lysosomal contents from platelets has been speculated to participate in clearance of thrombi and vessel wall remodelling. The mechanisms that regulate lysosomal exocytosis in platelets are, however, still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the pathways underlying platelet lysosomal secretion and elucidate how this process is controlled by platelet inhibitors. We found that high concentrations of thrombin induced partial lysosomal exocytosis as assessed by analysis of the activity of released N-acetyl--glucosaminidase (NAG) and by identifying the fraction of platelets exposing the lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-1 on the cell surface by flow cytometry. Stimulation of thrombin receptors PAR1 or PAR4 with specific peptides was equally effective in inducing LAMP-1 surface expression. Notably, lysosomal exocytosis in response to thrombin was significantly reduced if the secondary activation by ADP was inhibited by the P2Y(12) antagonist cangrelor, while inhibition of thromboxane A(2) formation by treatment with acetylsalicylic acid was of minor importance in this regard. Moreover, the NO-releasing drug S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) or the cyclic AMP-elevating eicosanoid prostaglandin I-2 (PGI(2)) significantly suppressed lysosomal exocytosis. We conclude that platelet inhibitors that mimic functional endothelium such as PGI(2) or NO efficiently counteract lysosomal exocytosis. Furthermore, we suggest that secondary release of ADP and concomitant signaling via PAR1/4- and P2Y(12) receptors is important for efficient platelet lysosomal exocytosis by thrombin.

  • 63.
    Söderlund Leifler, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Asklid, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fornander, Tommy
    Department of Oncology, karolinska Unvíversity Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Askmalm Stenmark, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    The RAD51 135G/C polymorphism is related to the effect of adjuvant therapy in early breast cancer2015In: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, ISSN 0171-5216, E-ISSN 1432-1335, Vol. 141, no 5, p. 797-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A single-nucleotide polymorphism, RAD51 135G/C, in the untranslated region of the RAD51 gene has been found to elevate breast cancer risk among BRCA2 carriers. The purpose of this study was to investigate if this polymorphism is related to RAD51 protein expression, prognosis of early breast cancer and if it contributes to resistance to radiotherapy or cyclophosphamide/5-fluorouracil/methotrexate (CMF) chemotherapy.

    Methods: We genotyped 306 patients with early breast cancer, who were randomised to receive post-operative radiotherapy or CMF chemotherapy, for the RAD51 135G/C polymorphism. Expression of RAD51 protein was evaluated with immunohistochemistry.

    Results: The frequency of C-allele was 15.4% (including three C/C homozygotes). There was no correlation between genotype and protein expression pattern in tumours. Patients who were homozygous for the wildtype G/G genotype had a significant benefit of radiotherapy (RR=0.32, 95% C.I. 0.16-0.64, p=0.001). CMF chemotherapy significantly reduced the risk of distant recurrence during the first 20 years in patients who had the C-allele (RR=0.29, 95% C.I. 0.10-0.88, p=0.03), whereas patients who were G/G homozygotes had no benefit from chemotherapy over radiotherapy (RR=1.09, 95% C.I. 0.77-1.6, p=0.61). There was a significant interaction between chemotherapy and genotype (p=0.02). Genotype was not related to the rate of distant recurrence among patients treated with radiotherapy.

    Conclusion: Breast cancer patients who were homozygous for the wildtype G allele had a significant benefit of radiotherapy. The results suggest that the RAD51 135G/C polymorphism predicts the effect of CMF chemotherapy in early breast cancer.

  • 64.
    Thunstrom, Sofia
    et al.
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Sodermark, Liv
    Queen Silvia Childrens, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Liz
    Queen Silvia Childrens Hospital, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Lena
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stefanova, Margarita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics. Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    UBE2A Deficiency Syndrome: A Report of Two Unrelated Cases with Large Xq24 Deletions Encompassing UBE2A Gene2015In: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, ISSN 1552-4825, E-ISSN 1552-4833, Vol. 167A, no 1, p. 204-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intragenic mutations of the UBE2A gene, as well as larger deletions of Xq24 encompassing UBE2A have in recent years been associated with a syndromic form of X-linked intellectual disability called UBE2A deficiency syndrome or X-linked intellectual disability type Nascimento (OMIM#300860). Common clinical features in these patients include moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), heart defects, dysmorphic features such as high forehead, synophrys, prominent supraorbital ridges, almond-shaped and deep-set eyes, wide mouth, myxedematous appearance, hirsutism, onychodystrophy, and genital anomalies. This study investigates clinical and molecular data of two unrelated, affected males with chromosome Xq24 deletions encompassing UBE2A. Both have been followed from birth until two years of age. A review of the previously published patients with deletions encompassing UBE2A is provided. Besides the common features, the two boys show anomalies not previously described, such as retinal coloboma, esophageal atresia with esophageal fistula, long fingers, camptodactyly, clinodactyly, and long broad toes. Analyses of the phenotype-genotype correlations suggest considerable prevalence of heart defects in the group of patients with larger deletions of Xq24 in comparison to the patients having intragenic UBE2A mutations. However, further studies are needed in order to establish statistically reliable phenotype-genotype correlations of this syndrome.

  • 65.
    Tzortzatos, Gerasimos
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Emil
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Soller, Maria
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stenmark Askmalm, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Zagoras, Theofanis
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Georgii-Hemming, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Annika
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Tham, Emma
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Mints, Miriam
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    The gynecological surveillance of women with Lynch Syndrome in Sweden2015In: Gynecologic Oncology, ISSN 0090-8258, E-ISSN 1095-6859, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 717-722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Women with Lynch syndrome (LS) have up to a 60% lifetime risk of endometrial cancer (EC) and up to a 24% risk of ovarian cancer (OC). Gynecological surveillance is recommended, but the benefit and how it should be performed remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess diagnostic modalities for gynecological screening of LS patients in Sweden and clinical outcome. Methods. A retrospective nationwide study of 170 women with molecularly confirmed LS. Data including gynecological LS screening history, biopsy results (if any), genetic records, number of screening visits, results from screening including transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS), endometrial biopsy (EB), blood test for tumor marker cancer antigen (CA) 125, prophylactic surgery including age at procedure, and setting from which screening data were obtained from medical records. Results. A total of 117 women were eligible for gynecological screening and of these, 86 patients attended screening visits. Of these, 41 underwent prophylactic hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Two patients (4.9%) were diagnosed with EC and two (4.9%) with precancerous lesions in conjunction with prophylactic surgery. Total incidence of gynecological cancer in the surveillance group (45 women) was 20% EC, 4% OC. Five patients had endometrial cancer or complex hyperplasia with atypia (n = 2) detected by endometrial biopsy. Four additional cases were detected due to interval bleeding. Both cases of ovarian cancer were detected by transvaginal ultrasound in patients with ovarian cysts under surveillance. The youngest woman with endometrial cancer was diagnosed at 35 years of age, before she was aware of her diagnosis of Lynch syndrome. Conclusions. Gynecological surveillance of women with Lynch syndrome may lead to earlier detection of precancerous lesions, which might have some impact on the morbidity from endometrial cancer although further studies are needed to prove this. Prophylactic hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy reduces the cancer incidence. A practical approach to surveillance in Lynch syndrome women would be to offer annual surveillance beginning at age 30 years including probably both TVUS and EB in order to increase diagnostic yield with prospective data registry for follow-up studies. Prophylactic surgery could be performed at a suitable age after childbearing to obtain a balance between reducing the risk of cancer and minimizing long-term complications from premature menopause. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 66.
    van Thuijl, Hinke F.
    et al.
    University of Calif San Francisco, CA 94143 USA; Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands; Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands.
    Mazor, Tali
    University of Calif San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Johnson, Brett E.
    University of Calif San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Fouse, Shaun D.
    University of Calif San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Aihara, Koki
    University of Tokyo, Japan; University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Hong, Chibo
    University of Calif San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Malmström, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Advanced Home Care in Linköping.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Heimans, Jan J.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands.
    Kloezeman, Jenneke J.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Stenmark Askmalm, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Lamfers, Martine L. M.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Saito, Nobuhito
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Aburatani, Hiroyuki
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Mukasa, Akitake
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Berger, Mitchell S.
    University of Calif San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Taylor, Barry S.
    Mem Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre, NY 10021 USA; Mem Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre, NY 10021 USA.
    Molinaro, Annette M.
    University of Calif San Francisco, CA 94143 USA; University of Calif San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Wesseling, Pieter
    Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands; Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Reijneveld, Jaap C.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands; University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Chang, Susan M.
    University of Calif San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Ylstra, Bauke
    Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands.
    Costello, Joseph F.
    University of Calif San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Evolution of DNA repair defects during malignant progression of low-grade gliomas after temozolomide treatment2015In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 129, no 4, p. 597-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temozolomide (TMZ) increases the overall survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM), but its role in the clinical management of diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGG) is still being defined. DNA hypermethylation of the O (6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is associated with an improved response to TMZ treatment, while inactivation of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is associated with therapeutic resistance and TMZ-induced mutagenesis. We previously demonstrated that TMZ treatment of LGG induces driver mutations in the RB and AKT-mTOR pathways, which may drive malignant progression to secondary GBM. To better understand the mechanisms underlying TMZ-induced mutagenesis and malignant progression, we explored the evolution of MGMT methylation and genetic alterations affecting MMR genes in a cohort of 34 treatment-na less than ve LGGs and their recurrences. Recurrences with TMZ-associated hypermutation had increased MGMT methylation compared to their untreated initial tumors and higher overall MGMT methylation compared to TMZ-treated non-hypermutated recurrences. A TMZ-associated mutation in one or more MMR genes was observed in five out of six TMZ-treated hypermutated recurrences. In two cases, pre-existing heterozygous deletions encompassing MGMT, or an MMR gene, were followed by TMZ-associated mutations in one of the genes of interest. These results suggest that tumor cells with methylated MGMT may undergo positive selection during TMZ treatment in the context of MMR deficiency.

  • 67.
    Villamil Giraldo, Ana Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fyrner, Timmy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry.
    Wennmalm, Stefan
    Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Parikh, Atul N.
    University of Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA; University of Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Öllinger, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spontaneous Vesiculation and pH-Induced Disassembly of a Lysosomotropic Detergent: Impacts on Lysosomotropism and Lysosomal Delivery2016In: LANGMUIR, ISSN 0743-7463, Vol. 32, no 50, p. 13566-13575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lysosomotropic detergents (LDs) selectively rupture lysosomal membranes through mechanisms that have yet to be characterized. A consensus view, currently, holds that LDs, which are weakly basic, diffuse across cellular membranes as monomers in an uncharged state, and via protonation in the acidic lysosomal compartment, they become trapped, accumulate, and subsequently solubilize the membrane and induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Here we demonstrate that the lysosomotropic detergent O-methyl-serine dodecylamide hydrochloride (MSDH) spontaneously assembles into vesicles at, and above, cytosolic pH, and that the vesicles disassemble as the pH reaches 6.4 or lower. The aggregation commences at concentrations below the range of those used in cell studies. Assembly and disassembly of the vesicles was studied via dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements, cryo-TEM, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and was found to be reversible via control of the pH. Aggregation of MSDH into closed vesicles under cytosolic conditions is at variance with the commonly held view of LD behavior, and we propose that endocytotic pathways should be considered as possible routes of LD entry into lysosomes. We further demonstrate that MSDH vesicles can be loaded with fluorophores via a solution transition from low to high pH, for subsequent release when the pH is lowered again. The ability to encapsulate molecular cargo into MSDH vesicles together with its ability to disaggregate at low pH and to permeabilize the lysosomal membrane presents an intriguing possibility to use MSDH as a delivery system.

  • 68.
    Villamil Giraldo, Ana Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Öllinger, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Loitto, Vesa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Microscopic Analysis of Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization2017In: Lysosomes: Methods and Protocols / [ed] Karin Öllinger; Hanna Appelqvist, Humana Press, 2017, Vol. 1594, p. 73-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lysosomes and lysosomal proteases have been found to participate during several forms of cell death pathways including apoptosis. A critical step in the mediation of apoptotic signaling is the release of cathepsins to the cytosol, a process known as lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). In this chapter, we describe immunofluorescence detection of LMP in cell cultures stained for cathepsin B and LAMP-2 using three confocal techniques namely laser scanning, spinning disk, and aperture correlation spinning disk confocal to obtain images. Image analysis is performed using Huygens software for deconvolution. LMP results in a decrease in the fraction of cathepsin B colocalizing with LAMP-2, which is quantified through Manders colocalization coefficient. Analysis of the images obtained by the three techniques show the same trend but the magnitude of the decrease differs due to the axial resolution. The observations emphasize the use of highest possible resolution when determining colocalization.

  • 69.
    Wäster, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Vainikka, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Öllinger, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Extracellular vesicles are transferred from melanocytes to keratinocytes after UVA irradiation2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, no 27890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces skin pigmentation, which relies on the intercellular crosstalk of melanin between melanocytes to keratinocytes. However, studying the separate effects of UVA and UVB irradiation reveals differences in cellular response. Herein, we show an immediate shedding of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the plasma membrane when exposing human melanocytes to UVA, but not UVB. The EV-shedding is preceded by UVA-induced plasma membrane damage, which is rapidly repaired by Ca2+-dependent lysosomal exocytosis. Using co-cultures of melanocytes and keratinocytes, we show that EVs are preferably endocytosed by keratinocytes. Importantly, EV-formation is prevented by the inhibition of exocytosis and increased lysosomal pH but is not affected by actin and microtubule inhibitors. Melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes is equally stimulated by UVA and UVB and depends on a functional cytoskeleton. In conclusion, we show a novel cell response after UVA irradiation, resulting in transfer of lysosome-derived EVs from melanocytes to keratinocytes.

  • 70.
    Wäster, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Orfanidis, Kyriakos
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Eriksson, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Seifert, Oliver
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov Hospital, Sweden.
    Öllinger, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    UV radiation promotes melanoma dissemination mediated by the sequential reaction axis of cathepsins-TGF-beta 1-FAP-alpha2017In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 535-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major risk factor for development of malignant melanoma. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-alpha is a serine protease expressed on the surface of activated fibroblasts, promoting tumour invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. The signalling mechanism behind the upregulation of FAP-alpha is not yet completely revealed. Methods: Expression of FAP-alpha was analysed after UVR exposure in in vitro co-culture systems, gene expression arrays and artificial skin constructs. Cell migration and invasion was studied in relation to cathepsin activity and secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1. Results: Fibroblast activation protein-a expression was induced by UVR in melanocytes of human skin. The FAP-alpha expression was regulated by UVR-induced release of TGF-beta 1 and cathepsin inhibitors prevented such secretion. In melanoma cell culture models and in a xenograft tumour model of zebrafish embryos, FAP-alpha mediated ECM degradation and facilitated tumour cell dissemination. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for a sequential reaction axis from UVR via cathepsins, TGF-beta 1 and FAP-alpha expression, promoting cancer cell dissemination and melanoma metastatic spread.

  • 71.
    Zimdahl Kahlin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Helander, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Skoglund, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Mårtensson, Lars-Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindqvist Appell, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Comprehensive study of thiopurine methyltransferase genotype, phenotype, and genotype-phenotype discrepancies in Sweden2019In: Biochemical Pharmacology, ISSN 0006-2952, E-ISSN 1356-1839, Vol. 164, p. 263-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiopurines are widely used in the treatment of leukemia and inflammatory bowel diseases. Thiopurine metabolism varies among individuals because of differences in the polymorphic enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT, EC 2.1.1.67), and to avoid severe adverse reactions caused by incorrect dosing it is recommended that the patients TPMT status be determined before the start of thiopurine treatment. This study describes the concordance between genotyping for common TPMT alleles and phenotyping in a Swedish cohort of 12,663 patients sampled before or during thiopurine treatment. The concordance between TPMT genotype and enzyme activity was 94.5%. Compared to the genotype, the first measurement of TPMT enzyme activity was lower than expected for 4.6% of the patients. Sequencing of all coding regions of the TPMT gene in genotype/phenotype discrepant individuals led to the identification of rare and novel TPMT alleles. Fifteen individuals (0.1%) with rare or novel genotypes were identified, and three TPMT alleles (TPMT*42, *43, and *44) are characterized here for the first time. These 15 patients would not have been detected as carrying a deviating TPMT genotype if only genotyping of the most common TPMT variants had been performed. This study highlights the benefit of combining TPMT genotype and phenotype determination in routine testing. More accurate dose recommendations can be made, which might decrease the number of adverse reactions and treatment failures during thiopurine treatment.

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