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  • 51.
    Jarvis, Benjamin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Estimating Multinomial Logit Models with Samples of Alternatives2019In: Sociological methodology, ISSN 0081-1750, E-ISSN 1467-9531, Vol. 49, p. 341-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comment reconsiders advice offered by Bruch and Mare regarding sampling choice sets in conditional logistic regression models of residential mobility. Contradicting Bruch and Mare?s advice, past econometric research shows that no statistical correction is needed when using simple random sampling of unchosen alternatives to pare down respondents? choice sets. Using data on stated residential preferences contained in the Los Angeles portion of the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality, it is shown that following Bruch and Mare?s advice?to implement a statistical correction for simple random choice set sampling?leads to biased coefficient estimates. This bias is all but eliminated if the sampling correction is omitted.

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  • 52.
    Jarvis, Benjamin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kawalerowicz, Juta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valdez, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impact of ancestry categorisations on residential segregation measures using Swedish register data2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, p. 62-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Country-of-birth data contained in registers are often aggregated to create broad ancestry group categories. We examine how measures of residential segregation vary according to levels of aggregation. Method: We use Swedish register data to calculate pairwise dissimilarity indices from 1990 to 2012 for ancestry groups defined at four nested levels of aggregation: (1) micro-groups containing 50 categories, (2) meso-groups containing 16 categories, (3) macro-groups containing six categories and (4) a broad Western/non-Western binary. Results: We find variation in segregation levels between ancestry groups that is obscured by data aggregation. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the practice of aggregating country-of-birth statistics in register data can hinder the ability to identify highly segregated groups and therefore design effective policy to remedy both intergroup and intergenerational inequalities.

  • 53.
    Jarvis, Benjamin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Song, Xi
    Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Rising Intragenerational Occupational Mobility in the United States, 1969 to 20112017In: American Sociological Review, ISSN 0003-1224, E-ISSN 1939-8271, Vol. 82, no 3Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the theoretical importance of intragenerational mobility and its connection to intergenerational mobility, no study since the 1970s has documented trends in intragenerational occupational mobility. The present article fills this intellectual gap by presenting evidence of an increasing trend in intragenerational mobility in the United States from 1969 to 2011. We decompose the trend using a nested occupational classification scheme that distinguishes between disaggregated micro-classes and progressively more aggregated meso-classes, macro-classes, and manual and nonmanual sectors. Log-linear analysis reveals that mobility increased across the occupational structure at nearly all levels of aggregation, especially after the early 1990s. Controlling for structural changes in occupational distributions modifies, but does not substantially alter, these findings. Trends are qualitatively similar for men and women. We connect increasing mobility to other macro-economic trends dating back to the 1970s, including changing labor force composition, technologies, employment relations, and industrial structures. We reassert the sociological significance of intragenerational mobility and discuss how increasing variability in occupational transitions within careers may counteract or mask trends in intergenerational mobility, across occupations and across more broadly construed social classes.

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  • 54.
    Kacperczyk, Aleksandra
    et al.
    London Business Sch, England.
    Balachandran, Chanchal
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vertical and Horizontal Wage Dispersion and Mobility Outcomes: Evidence from the Swedish Microdata2018In: Organization science (Providence, R.I.), ISSN 1047-7039, E-ISSN 1526-5455, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 17-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using employer-employee matched data from Sweden between 2001 and 2008, we test hypotheses designed to assess the contingent nature of the relationship between wage dispersion and cross-firm mobility. Whereas past research has mostly established that dispersed wages increase interfirm mobility, we investigate the conditions under which pay variance might have the opposite effect, serving to retain workers. We propose that the effect of wage dispersion is contingent on organizational rank and that it depends on whether wages are dispersed vertically (between job levels) or horizontally (within the same job level). We find that vertical wage dispersion suppresses cross-firm mobility because it is associated with outcomes beneficial for employees, such as attractive advancement opportunities. By contrast, horizontal wage dispersion increases cross-firm mobility because it is associated with outcomes harmful for employees, such as inequity concerns. We further find that the vertical-dispersion effect is amplified (mitigated) for bottom (top) different-levelwage earners because bottom (top) wage earners have the most (least) to gain from climbing the job ladder. Similarly, the horizontal-dispersion effect is amplified (mitigated) for bottom (top) same-levelwage earners because bottom (top) wage earners are most (least) subject to negative consequences of this dispersion. More broadly, this study contributes to our understanding of the relationship between wage dispersion and cross-firm mobility.

  • 55.
    Kacperczyk, Aleksandra (Olenka)
    et al.
    Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Balachandran, Chanchal
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vertical and horizontal wage inequality and mobility outcomes: evidence from the swedish microdata2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using employer–employee matched data from Sweden between 2001 and 2008, we test hypotheses designed to assess the contingent nature of the relationship between wage inequality and cross-firm mobility. Whereas past research has mostly established that wage inequality increases inter-firm mobility, we investigate the conditions under which pay variance might have an opposite effect, serving to retain workers. We propose that the effect of wage inequality is contingent on organizational rank and that it depends on whether wages are dispersed vertically (between job levels) or horizontally (within the same job level). We find that vertical wage inequality suppresses cross-firm mobility because it is associated with outcomes beneficial for employees, such as attractive advancement opportunities. In contrast, horizontal wage dispersion increases cross-firm mobility because it is associated with outcomes harmful for employees, such as inequity concerns or job dissatisfaction. We further find that the vertical-inequality effect is amplified (mitigated) for bottom (top) different-level wage earners, consistent with the notion that bottom wage earners have the most to gain from climbing job ladders. Similarly, the horizontalinequality effect is amplified (mitigated) for bottom (top) same-level wage earners, consistent with the notion that bottom wage earners are most subject to negative consequences of this inequality. More broadly, the study contributes to our understanding of the relationship  between wage inequality and cross-firm mobility.

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    Vertical and Horizontal Wage Inequality and Mobility Outcomes: Evidence from the Swedish Microdata
  • 56.
    Kawalerowicz, Juta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Radicals, Revolutionaries, and Terrorists2017In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 89-90Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 57.
    Kawalerowicz, Juta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Too many immigrants: what shapes perceptions and attitudes towards immigrants in England and Wales?2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the link between natives’ residential context, perception of immigration levels and attitudes towards immigrants. We use British Election Study to extract individual level measures for 17,000 respondents in England and Wales and match them with contextual characteristics at the level of Westminster constituency. The paper focuses on three questions: (1) is perception of demographic changes affected by actual growth of the immigrant population? (2) if local context is associated with natives’ attitudes towards immigrants, which immigrant groups are most salient? (3) are base levels and changes in immigrant population affecting anti-immigration attitudes in the same way? We find that local context predicts both perception and attitudes, although individual characteristics seem to play a bigger role. Natives seem to be more sensitive to immigrant groups defined by ethnic criteria, rather than skills or religion. Natives are sensitive to changes of immigrant population but base levels of immigrant population are associated with less frequent reporting of high immigration levels. Similarly, natives are more hostile towards immigrants if they reside in areas where the immigrant population grew rapidly, but higher base levels of immigrant population mitigate this response.

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    Too many immigrants: What shapes perceptions and attitudes towards immigrants in England and Wales?
  • 58.
    Keller, Tamás
    Computational Social Science - Research Center for Educational and Network Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary; TÁRKI Social Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Peers that count: The influence of deskmates on test scores2019In: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, ISSN 0276-5624, E-ISSN 1878-5654, Vol. 62, article id 100408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer effects have been shown to be important for educational development during adolescence. Peer effect from classmates and friends, nevertheless, could be the target of interventions only to a limited extent. We hypothesize that deskmates may affect educational achievement. In contrast to friendship, deskmate relations could realistically be a target of policy intervention by teachers, who can decide on the seating arrangements in class. This study examines whether deskmates have a positive impact on individual test scores that goes beyond the general influence of classmates and friends. The deskmate effect is investigated in ethnically mixed classrooms. Information on friendship and deskmates from a social network panel was merged with test score register data from secondary schools in Northern and Eastern Hungary. The study finds that, after controlling for students’ own baseline eighth-grade reading test scores and classroom-fixed effects, deskmates’ eighth-grade reading test score influences positively students’ tenth-grade reading test scores. No similar effect was found for mathematics test scores. We found no evidence that deskmates’ test scores mediate or moderate the ethnic test-score gap between Hungarian and Roma students.

  • 59.
    Keller, Tomas
    et al.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Hungary; TARKI Social Res Inst, Hungary.
    Takacs, Karoly
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Hungarian Acad Sci, Hungary.
    Peers that count: The influence of deskmates on test scores2019In: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, ISSN 0276-5624, E-ISSN 1878-5654, Vol. 62, article id 100408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer effects have been shown to be important for educational development during adolescence. Peer effect from classmates and friends, nevertheless, could be the target of interventions only to a limited extent. We hypothesize that deskmates may affect educational achievement. In contrast to friendship, deskmate relations could realistically be a target of policy intervention by teachers, who can decide on the seating arrangements in class. This study examines whether deskmates have a positive impact on individual test scores that goes beyond the general influence of classmates and friends. The deskmate effect is investigated in ethnically mixed classrooms. Information on friendship and deskmates from a social network panel was merged with test score register data from secondary schools in Northern and Eastern Hungary. The study finds that, after controlling for students own baseline eighth-grade reading test scores and classroom-fixed effects, deskmates eighth-grade reading test score influences positively students tenth-grade reading test scores. No similar effect was found for mathematics test scores. We found no evidence that deskmates test scores mediate or moderate the ethnic test-score gap between Hungarian and Roma students.

  • 60.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Scaling trajectories of cities2019In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, no 28, p. 13759-13761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban scaling research finds that agglomeration effects-the higher-than-expected outputs of larger cities-follow robust "superlinear" scaling relations in cross-sectional data. But the paradigm has predictive ambitions involving the dynamic scaling of individual cities over many time points and expects parallel superlinear growth trajectories as cities populations grow. This prediction has not yet been rigorously tested. I use geocoded microdata to approximate the city-size effect on per capita wage in 73 Swedish labor market areas for 1990-2012. The data support a superlinear scaling regime for all Swedish agglomerations. Echoing the rich-get-richer process on the system level, however, trajectories of superlinear growth are highly robust only for cities assuming dominant positions in the urban hierarchy.

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  • 61.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kratz, Fabian
    Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.
    Thou Shalt Recycle: How Social Norms of Environmental Protection Narrow the Scope of the Low-Cost Hypothesis2018In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 50, no 10, p. 1059-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the “low-cost hypothesis” (LCH), attitudes explain behavior only if complying with personal convictions requires little effort. Environmental research has seized this argument to explain moderate participation in proenvironmental action against a backdrop of rising environmental awareness. However, evidence for the LCH remains ambiguous, and recent studies have reported contradictory results. Here, we reconcile prior findings on household waste recycling and argue that many environmental behaviors evolved into every day, “normal” practices increasingly encouraged by social norms, and thus slip out of the LCH’s scope. We combine a natural experiment exploiting households’ variation in geocoded walking distances to drop-off recycling sites in Munich, Germany (N=754) with an independent online survey (N=640) measuring local intensities of recycling norms for two distinct waste categories, plastics and glass. Our results suggest that normative change narrows the LCH’s scope to include only environmental action for which normative expectations are weak.

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  • 62.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lovsjö, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analytical sociology and computational social science2018In: Journal of Computational Social Science, ISSN 2432-2717, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical sociology focuses on social interactions among individuals and the hard-to-predict aggregate outcomes they bring about. It seeks to identify generalizable mechanisms giving rise to emergent properties of social systems which, in turn, feed back on individual decision-making. This research program benefits from computational tools such as agent-based simulations, machine learning, and large-scale web experiments, and has considerable overlap with the nascent field of computational social science. By providing relevant analytical tools to rigorously address sociology’s core questions, computational social science has the potential to advance sociology in a similar way that the introduction of econometrics advanced economics during the last half century. Computational social scientists from computer science and physics often see as their main task to establish empirical regularities which they view as “social laws.” From the perspective of the social sciences, references to social laws appear unfounded and misplaced, however, and in this article we outline how analytical sociology, with its theory-grounded approach to computational social science, can help to move the field forward from mere descriptions and predictions to the explanation of social phenomena.

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  • 63.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mutgan, Selcan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Urban scaling and the regional divide2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 1, article id eaav0042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superlinear growth in cities has been explained as an emergent consequence of increased social interactions in dense urban environments. Using geocoded microdata from Swedish population registers, we remove population composition effects from the scaling relation of wage income to test how much of the previously reported superlinear scaling is truly attributable to increased social interconnectivity in cities. The Swedish data confirm the previously reported scaling relations on the aggregate level, but they provide better information on the micromechanisms responsible for them. We find that the standard interpretation of urban scaling is incomplete as social interactions only explain about half of the scaling parameter of wage income and that scaling relations substantively reflect differences in cities sociodemographic composition. Those differences are generated by selective migration of highly productive individuals into larger cities. Big cities grow through their attraction of talent from their hinterlands and the already-privileged benefit disproportionally from urban agglomeration.

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  • 64.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wimmer, Thomas
    Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany.
    Is Category Spanning Truly Disadvantageous? New Evidence from Primary and Secondary Movie Markets2017In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 449-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genre assignments help audiences make sense of new releases. Studies from a wide range of market contexts have shown that generalists defying clear mapping to established categories suffer penalties in market legitimacy, perceived quality, or audience attention. We introduce an empirical strategy to disentangle two mechanisms, reduced niche fitness and audience confusion, causing devaluation or ignorance of boundary-crossing offers. Our data on 2,971 feature films released to US theaters and subsequently made available on DVD further reveal that consequences of category spanning are subject to strong moderating influences. Negative effects are far from universal, manifesting only if (a) combined genres are culturally distant, (b) products are released to a stable and highly institutionalized market context, and (c) offers lack familiarity as an alternative source of market recognition. Our study provides ramifications as to the scope conditions of categorization effects and modifies some widely acknowledged truisms regarding boundary crossing in cultural markets.

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  • 65.
    Kim, Phillip H
    et al.
    Babson College, USA.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Croidieu, Grégoire
    Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Grenoble Ecole de Management, France.
    Hidden in plain sight: untapped riches of meso-level entrepreneurship mechanisms2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial action is embedded within a variety of complex social structures, not all of which can be as easily defined or measured as macro-institutional or micro-individual characteristics, but collectively hold rich insights into the actual causal mechanisms influencing action. To address this problem, we call upon researchers to broaden their levels of analysis and direct their focus to mesolevel structures. Although meso-level social structures are widely studied independently, these intermediate levels are seldom integrated into existing multi-level models. We argue that meso-level structures offer untapped riches for enhancing multi-level entrepreneurial mechanisms and discuss how social groups, associations, and other collectives operating at a meso-level can play a more distinct integrative role in between the two ends of the institutional spectrum. To provide practical guidance for pursuing such investigations, we adapt Coleman’s Bathtub model to form a robust framework that integrates micro, meso, and macro levels of analysis. Our framework helps alleviate the shortcomings produced by an overdependence on either solely macro- or micro-level entrepreneurial mechanisms and brings the hidden intermediate level into plain sight.

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    Hidden in Plain Sight: Untapped Riches of Meso-Level Entrepreneurship Mechanisms
  • 66.
    Kisfalusi, Dorottya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Neumann, Eszter
    Centre for Social Sciences, Institute for Minority Studies, Budapest, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ethnic Integration and Interethnic Relations in Schools2019In: Intersections. East European Journal for Sociaty and Politics, E-ISSN 2416-089X, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 4-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Lundmark, Erik
    Macquarie Business School, Macquarie University, NSW, 2109, Sydney, Australia.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bank, Nata
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Incubator specialization and size: Divergent paths towards operational scale2020In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 151, p. 1-13, article id 119821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on incubators show that size is important in achieving efficiency and networking benefits for clients. However, little research has focused on what factors influence incubator size. We theorize and show partial support for size benefits to incubator specialization. Analyses of the relationship between size and four distinct specialization strategies in a sample of 96 European incubators show that incubator size is positively related to a strategic focus on universities and research institutes as recruitment channels and to a focus on sustainability, but unrelated to industry focus. Incubator size was found to be negatively related to a regional focus. While sustainability focused incubators tended to not find recruitment challenging, paradoxically, among those who did, the most frequently reported challenges were related to finding tenants that focus on sustainability. Post-hoc analyses revealed that tenants with a focus other than sustainability often dominate sustainability-oriented incubators, suggesting that sustainability may be more of a legitimating strategy than an explicit selection criterion.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-12-13 08:00
  • 68.
    Koskinen, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Manchester, England; Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Wang, Peng
    Swinburne Univ Technol, Australia.
    Robins, Garry
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Pattison, Philippa
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Outliers and Influential Observations in Exponential Random Graph Models2018In: Psychometrika, ISSN 0033-3123, E-ISSN 1860-0980, Vol. 83, no 4, p. 809-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss measuring and detecting influential observations and outliers in the context of exponential family random graph (ERG) models for social networks. We focus on the level of the nodes of the network and consider those nodes whose removal would result in changes to the model as extreme or central with respect to the structural features that matter. We construe removal in terms of two case-deletion strategies: the tie-variables of an actor are assumed to be unobserved, or the node is removed resulting in the induced subgraph. We define the difference in inferred model resulting from case deletion from the perspective of information theory and difference in estimates, in both the natural and mean-value parameterisation, representing varying degrees of approximation. We arrive at several measures of influence and propose the use of two that do not require refitting of the model and lend themselves to routine application in the ERGM fitting procedure. MCMC p values are obtained for testing how extreme each node is with respect to the network structure. The influence measures are applied to two well-known data sets to illustrate the information they provide. From a network perspective, the proposed statistics offer an indication of which actors are most distinctive in the network structure, in terms of not abiding by the structural norms present across other actors.

  • 69.
    Krause, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Huisman, Mark
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Steglich, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Snijders, Tom
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Oxford, England.
    Missing data in cross-sectional networks - An extensive comparison of missing data treatment methods2020In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 62, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares several missing data treatment methods for missing network data on a diverse set of simulated networks under several missing data mechanisms. We focus the comparison on three different outcomes: descriptive statistics, link reconstruction, and model parameters. The results indicate that the often used methods (analysis of available cases and null-tie imputation) lead to considerable bias on descriptive statistics with moderate or large proportions of missing data. Multiple imputation using sophisticated imputation models based on exponential random graph models (ERGMs) lead to acceptable biases in descriptive statistics and model parameters even under large amounts of missing data. For link reconstruction multiple imputation by simple ERGM performed well on small data sets, while missing data was more accurately imputed in larger data sets with multiple imputation by complex Bayesian ERGMs (BERGMs).

  • 70.
    Laninga, Lydia
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Harakeh, Zeena
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Steglich, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis
    University of Groningen.
    Veenstra, René
    University of Groningen.
    Vollebergh, Wilma
    Utrecht University.
    Populaire jongeren zetten een norm voor vriendschappen en agressie inde klas2017In: Kind en Adolescent, ISSN 0167-2436, Vol. 38, p. 212-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [nl]

    In deze studie onderzoeken wij of agressieve peer-normen, meer specifiek populariteitsnormen en descriptieve normen, een versterkende rol spelen in de mate waarin jongeren hun vrienden uitkiezen op basis van agressief gedrag en in de mate waarin jongeren door hun vrienden worden beïnvloed in agressie (N=1.134 eerstejaars leerlingen van middelbare school; leeftijd M=12,66 jaar). Zoals verwacht kwam uit longitudinale sociale-netwerkanalyses met peer-nominatie data naar voren dat vooral populaire jongeren in de klas een norm kunnen zetten voor de ontwikkeling van vriendschappen en agressie. In klassen met agressieve populaire jongeren blijken jongeren hun vrienden te selecteren op basis van gelijkheid in agressie, terwijl dit niet gebeurt in klassen met niet agressieve populaire jongeren. Daarnaast is de vriendschapsinvloed op agressie significant groter in klassen met agressieve populaire jongeren. Descriptieve normen spelen geen rol in vriendschapsprocessen omtrent agressie. Blijkbaar wordt agressie enkel en alleen als een belangrijk, waardevol kenmerk voor vriendschapsprocessen gezien als zij geassocieerd is met populariteit in de klas.

  • 71.
    Laninga, Lydia
    et al.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Steglich, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Harakeh, Zeena
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Vollebergh, Wilma
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Veenstra, René
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    The Role of Prosocial and Aggressive Popularity Norm Combinations in Prosocial and Aggressive Friendship Processes’2020In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 645-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior work has shown that popular peers can set a powerful norm for the valence and salience of aggression in adolescent classrooms, which enhances aggressive friendship processes (selection, maintenance, influence). It is unknown, however, whether popular peers also set a norm for prosocial behavior that can buffer against aggressive friendship processes and stimulate prosocial friendship processes. This study examined the role of prosocial and aggressive popularity norm combinations in prosocial and aggressive friendship processes. Three waves of peer-nominated data were collected in the first- and second year of secondary school (N = 1816 students; 81 classrooms; Mage = 13.06; 50.5% girl). Longitudinal social network analyses indicate that prosocial popularity norms have most power to affect both prosocial and aggressive friendship processes when aggressive popularity norms are non-present. In prosocial classrooms (low aggressive and high prosocial popularity norms), friendship maintenance based on prosocial behavior is enhanced, whereas aggressive friendship processes are largely mitigated. Instead, when aggressive popularity norms are equally strong as prosocial norms (mixed classrooms) or even stronger than prosocial norms (aggressive classrooms), aggression is more important for friendship processes than prosocial behavior. These findings show that the prosocial behavior of popular peers may only buffer against aggressive friendship processes and stimulate prosocial friendship processes if these popular peers (or other popular peers in the classroom) abstain from aggression.

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  • 72.
    Letina, Srebrenka
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Book Review: How Behavior Spreads: The Science of Complex Contagions2020In: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, ISSN 1460-7425, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 23, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 73.
    Liss, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Utvärdering av LuMiNk Akademin2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport undersöker LuMiNk Akademin (hädanefter “LuMiNk”) som är ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Linköpings universitet (LiU), Mirum galleria och Norrköpings kommun. Projektet startades hösten 2015 med niondeklassare från Söderportens skola i Norrköping där elever regelbundet träffar rekryterade studenter från olika programutbildningar på Linköpings universitet med syftet att ge stöd i studierna och inspirera till fortsatta studier. Då Söderportens högstadieverksamhet hösten 2017 flyttade till Klingsborgsskolan följde LuMiNk med och är alltså numera verksamt på Klingsborgsskolan.

    Rapporten har som syfte att kvantitativt utvärdera effekten av projektet samt ge rekommendationer till LuMiNks styrelsegrupp. Data på avgångna elever från Klingsborgsskolan har använts för att skatta huruvida deras betyg, val efter högstadiet samt närvaro påverkats av att gå programmet. Detta görs genom att de elever på Klingsborgsskolan som gått programmet jämförs med de som inte deltagit i programmet. Den mån som eleverna som deltog i LuMiNk (LuMiNk-gruppen) höjt sina betyg relativt de som inte deltagit programmet (kontrollgruppen) tar vi som indikation på vilken effekt som programmet har.

    Resultaten visar att de som gått LuMiNk haft signifikant höjda betyg i ämnena engelska, so, no, svenska som andraspråk samt höjda meritvärden relativt kontrollgruppen. Vi finner dock inte att de som gått LuMiNk höjt sina betyg relativt kontrollgruppen i varken matematik eller i praktiska ämnen.

    LuMiNk-gruppen har under hela terminen högre skolnärvaro än kontrollgruppen men eftersom det inte sker någon noterbar divergering mellan grupperna under terminens gång kan vi inte visa på att LuMiNk lett till högre närvaro i skolan.

    Eftersom ett syfte med LuMiNk är att inspirera till eftergymnasiala studier har vi följt upp hur det gått för elever som tidigare gick ut högstadiet från Söderporten för att på så sätt undersöka huruvida LuMiNk-gruppen i högre grad väljer att gå högskoleförberedande program jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Vi finner att LuMiNk-elever i dubbelt så hög grad väljer högskoleförberedande program jämfört med kontrollgruppen.

    Eftersom LuMiNk är ett program som eleverna själva väljer att söka till kan det förekomma så kallad ’självselektering’. Detta kan exempelvis innebära att redan mer ambitiösa elever väljer att söka LuMiNk, och att den uppmätta relativa ökningen i betyg och frekvens att gå högskoleförberedande program på gymnasiet hade skett även utan LuMiNk. Detta försöker vi att kontrollera för genom att kontrollera för skillnader i elevkompositionen mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen, använda oss av kompletterande statistiska modeller samt genom att jämföra de skattade effekterna med en skapad variabel för förväntad effekt per ämne. Vi bedömer efter ha genomfört dessa tillvägagångssätt att LuMiNk med hög sannolikhet faktiskt bidragit till den relativa skillnaden i betygstrenden mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen.

    Skillnaden i sannolikhet mellan LuMiNk- och kontrollgruppen att välja ett högskoleförberedande gymnasieprogram är behäftat med högre osäkerhet då tillgängliga data inte möjliggör lika omfattande statistiska modeller som för betygsvariabeln. Om vi dock kontrollerar för skillnader i elevkompositionen gällande betyg innan LuMiNk, kön, samt huruvida en elev kom till Sverige under grundskoletiden eller ej kvarstår dock en tämligen stor skillnad i sannolikheten att välja ett högskoleförberedande program (9 procent) mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen.

    Vidare har enkätsvar, närvaro vid LuMiNks läxhjälpstillfällen samt tidigare forskning studerats för att komplettera resultaten från effektstudien. Svaren från enkäterna visar inte på att LuMiNk-eleverna verkar välja att gå till LuMiNk på grund av brister i hemmamiljön, utan snarare att de finner LuMiNk stimulerande. Eleverna rapporterar vidare att de får mycket hjälp med studierna på LuMiNk jämfört med hemma. LuMiNks studiemiljö har eleverna olika åsikter om. Vissa uttrycker att miljön är något för stökig medan andra elever just uppskattar miljöombytet från skolan till en mer avslappnad miljö.

    Statistik på generell skolnärvaro och tidigare forskning som gjorts på läxhjälpsprojekt visar att äldre elever ofta har lägre närvaro och är svårare att locka till deltagande i läxhjälpsprojekt. Det är därför positivt att närvaron på LuMiNk-tillfällena generellt sett är hög samtidigt som ungefär hälften av eleverna på skolan valt att gå LuMiNk. Den höga närvaron bekräftar enkätsvaren att LuMiNk är populärt bland eleverna.

    Tidigare forskning visar på att det inte är självklart att läxläsningsprojekt ger effekt på studieresultat. Vi bedömer att LuMiNks tydliga struktur där eleverna förpliktigar sig att ha hög närvaro och den tydliga kopplingen till skolan bidrar till att LuMiNk tillhör de läxläsningsprojekt som faktiskt visar ha effekt på studieresultaten.

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    Utvärdering av LuMiNk Akademin
  • 74.
    Minniti, Maria
    et al.
    Syracuse Univ, NY USA.
    Andersson, Martin
    Blekinge Inst Technol BTH, Sweden; Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Sweden; Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Sweden.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Sweden; Royal Inst Technol KTH, Sweden.
    Delmar, Frederic
    EMLYON Business Sch, France; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rickne, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thorburn, Karin
    Univ Penn, PA 19104 USA; Norwegian Sch Econ NHH, Norway.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Sweden.
    Boyan Jovanovic: recipient of the 2019 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 547-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2019 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research has been awarded to Professor Boyan Jovanovic at New York University in the USA. Boyan Jovanovic has developed pioneering research that advances our understanding of the competitive dynamics between incumbent firms and new entrants, entrepreneurial learning and selection processes, and the importance of entrepreneurship for the economy. Key perspectives in his research are that the entrepreneur makes employment choices based on the comparative advantage of his or her skills and that entrepreneurial firms are vehicles of technological change and knowledge diffusion that influence industry dynamics and, in turn, economic growth.

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  • 75.
    Mähring, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Demir, Robert
    Lancaster University Management School, UK.
    Reaping value from digitalization in swedish manufacturing firms: untapped opportunities?2018In: Managing digital transformation / [ed] Per Andersson, Staffan Movin, Magnus Mähring, Robin Teigland, Karl Wennberg, Stockholm: SSE Institute for Research, Stockholm School of Economics , 2018, p. 41-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Müller, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Grund, Thomas U.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Ireland.
    Koskinen, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Manchester, England.
    Residential Segregation and Ethnic Flight vs. Ethnic Avoidance in Sweden2018In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 268-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential segregation along ethnic categories has been associated with social disadvantages of minority group members. It is considered a driving factor in the reproduction of social inequalities and a pressing issue in many societies. While most research focuses on neighbourhood segregation in the United States, less is known about the origins of ethnic enclaves in European cities. We use complete data of residential moves within Stockholm municipality between 1990 and 2003 to test whether `ethnic flight or ` ethnic avoidance drives segregation dynamics. On the macro level, we analyse the binary infrastructure of natives and immigrants movement flows between 128 neighbourhoods with exponential random graph models, which account for systemic dependencies in the structure of the housing market. On the micro level, we analyse individual-level panel data to account for differences between native and immigrant in-and out-movers. Our results show strong support for ` ethnic avoidance on both levels-native Swedes avoid moving into neighbourhoods where ethnic minorities live. This is even more pronounced when controlling for socio-economic factors. At the same time, there is only little support for ` ethnic flight on the micro level-native Swedes are only marginally more likely to move out of neighbourhoods where many immigrants live.

  • 77.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Direct blockmodeling of valued and binary networks: a dichotomization-free approach2020In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 61, p. 128-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long-standing open problem with direct blockmodeling is that it is explicitly intended for binary, not valued, networks. The underlying dilemma is how empirical valued blocks can be compared with ideal binary blocks, an intrinsic problem in the direct approach where partitions are solely determined through such comparisons. Addressing this dilemma, valued networks have either been dichotomized into binary versions, or novel types of ideal valued blocks have been introduced. Both these workarounds are problematic in terms of interpretability, unwanted data reduction, and the often arbitrary setting of model parameters. This paper proposes a direct blockmodeling approach that effectively bypasses the dilemma with blockmodeling of valued networks. By introducing an adaptive weighted correlation-based criteria function, the proposed approach is directly applicable to both binary and valued networks, without any form of dichotomization or transformation of the valued (or binary) data at any point in the analysis, while still using the conventional set of ideal binary blocks from structural, regular and generalized blockmodeling. The proposed approach seemingly solves two other open problems with direct blockmodeling. First, its standardized goodness-of-fit measure allows for direct comparisons across solutions, within and between networks of different sizes, value types, and notions of equivalence. Secondly, through an inherent bias of point-biserial correlations, the approach puts a premium on solutions that are closer to the mid-point density of blockmodels. This, it is argued, translates into solutions that are more intuitive and easier to interpret. The approach is demonstrated by structural, regular and generalized blockmodeling applications of six classical binary and valued networks. Finding feasible and intuitive optimal solutions in both the binary and valued examples, the approach is proposed not only as a practical, dichotomization-free heuristic for blockmodeling of valued networks but also, through its additional benefits, as an alternative to the conventional direct approach to blockmodeling.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-12-25 06:00
  • 78.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    International Networks2013In: Encyclopedia of Social Networks / [ed] Barnett, G., Sage Publications, 2013, p. 425-431Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Center for Network Science, Central European University, Hungary, Department of Economic History, Lund university, Sweden.
    Power-relational core–periphery structures: Peripheral dependency and core dominance in binary and valued networks2018In: Network Science, ISSN 2050-1242, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 348-369-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With origins in post-war development thinking, the core-periphery concept has spread across the social and, increasingly, the natural sciences. Initially reflecting divergent socioeconomic properties of geographical regions, its relational connotations rapidly led to more topological interpretations. In today’s network science, the standard core-periphery model consists of a cohesive set of core actors and a peripheral set of internally disconnected actors.

    Exploring the classical core-periphery literature, this paper finds conceptual support for the characteristic intra-categorical density differential. However, this literature also lends support to the notions of peripheral dependency and core dominance, power-relational aspects that existing approaches do not capture.

    To capture such power-relations, this paper suggests extensions to the correlation-based core-periphery metric of Borgatti-Everett (2000). Capturing peripheral dependency and, optionally, core dominance, these extensions allow for either measuring the degree of such power-relational features in given core-periphery partitions, or as part of a criteria function to search for power-relational core-periphery structures.

    Applied to the binary and valued citation data in Borgatti and Everett (2000), the proposed extensions seemingly capture dependency and dominance features of core-periphery structures. This is particularly evident when, circling back to to the original domains of the concept, examining the network of European commodity trade in 2010.

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  • 80.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Preceding and governing measurements: an Emmanuelian conceptualization of ecological unequal exchange2014In: Structures of the World Political Economy / [ed] Suter, S., Chase-Dunn, C., Zurich: Lit-Verlag , 2014, p. 315-346Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Nordlund, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fierascu, Silvia I.
    Cent European Univ, Hungary.
    Introduction to the special issue on social and political networks2018In: Romanian Journal of Political Science, ISSN 1582-456X, Vol. 18, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 82.
    Nordlund, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Center for Network Science, Central European University, Hungary.
    Žiberna, Aleš
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Blockmodeling of valued networks2019In: Advances in Network Clustering and Blockmodeling / [ed] Patrick Doreian, Vladimir Batagelj and Anuska Ferligoj, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2019, p. 147-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Rado, Marta
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands; CSS RECENS Computat Social Sci Lendiilet Res Ctr, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. CSS RECENS Computat Social Sci Lendiilet Res Ctr, Hungary.
    Relational Integration in Schools Through Seating Assignments2019In: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, ISSN 1460-7425, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 22, no 4, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional desegregation policies have improved but not fully solved the problems associated with the reproduction of inequalities and interracial prejudice in schools. This is partly because social networks are inherently segregated within integrated schools and the benefits of contact have not fully materialized. Therefore, new kinds of policies are needed to further improve the situation. This paper investigates the consequences and efficiency of seating arrangements on academic outcomes and prejudice using an agent-based model that reflects real-life asymmetries. We model interpersonal dynamics and study behavior in the classroom in the hypothetical case of a single teacher who defines students seating arrangements. The model incorporates the mechanisms of peer influence on study behavior, on attitude formation, and homophilous selection in order to depict the interrelated dynamics of networks, behavior, and attitudes. We compare various seating arrangement scenarios and observe how GPA distribution and level of prejudice changes over time. Results highlight the advantages and disadvantages of seating strategies. In general, more heterogeneous deskmate pairs lead to a lower level of inequality and prejudice in the classroom, but this strategy does not favor talent management. Further, we evaluate outcomes compared to the absence of external intervention whereby students choose their own deskmates based on homophilous selection. Our model takes into account the fact that homophilous selection may be distorted due to the Acting White phenomenon and pre-existing prejudice. Accounting for these factors implies slower convergence between advantaged and disadvantaged students.

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  • 84.
    Ruppanner, Leah
    et al.
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Brandén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Sweden.
    Turunen, Jani
    Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Sweden; Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Does Unequal Housework Lead to Divorce?: Evidence from Sweden2018In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, E-ISSN 1469-8684, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 75-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of couple-level data hinders direct exploration of how inconsistencies in couples? housework reports structure their relationship quality. We address this limitation by applying Swedish data from the 2009 Young Adult Panel Study (N = 1057 couples) matched with Swedish register data (2009?2014) to extend equity theory by estimating mismatch in couples? housework reports on relationship satisfaction and stability. We find women who report performing more housework are less likely to be satisfied with their relationships, and are more likely to consider breaking up. These unions are also more likely to dissolve. Using both partners? housework reports, we document discrediting women?s housework contribution, or reporting she does less than she reports, is associated with lower relationship satisfaction. Women in these partnerships also consider breaking up, and the unions are more likely to dissolve. Our results identify the gendered impact of housework inequality on relationship stability.

  • 85.
    Sebhatu, Abiel
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics & Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Institutional Pressure and Failure Dynamics in the Swedish Voucher School Sector2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 7, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conduct a comparative case study following the growth and decline of the two largest private school organizations in Sweden from the voucher school deregulation in 1992 until the bankruptcy of one of the organization in 2013. Using archival data, hand-coded data on media exposure, interviews with managers and company press releases we explore institutional pressure and school organizations’ responses to institutional conformity and resistance. Both case organizations constitute private equity managed business groups but rely on distinct growth strategies and differential types of political and market-based ties to powerful stakeholders. Our results explain how organizational responses to institutional pressure are intimately tied to organizational structure, and furthermore how conformity may not translate into survival-enhancing conditions as earlier theorized

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  • 86.
    Signoret, Carine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    da Silva, Stéphanie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Tack, Ayco
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voss, Ulrikke
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lidö, Helga H.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Patthey, Cédric
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; .
    Ericsson, Madelene
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hadrévi, Jenny
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Balachandran, Chanchal
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Well-Being of Early-Career Researchers: Insights from a Swedish Survey2019In: Higher Education Policy, ISSN 0952-8733, E-ISSN 1740-3863, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 273-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have documented the importance of optimal work situation and the general well-being of early-career researchers (ECRs) for enhancing the academic performance of universities. Yet, most studies focused on specific categories of ECRs, or on specific academic disciplines as well as on specific outcomes. With this study, we recognize the need for a broader sample encompassing different categories of ECRs across academic disciplines. In a national survey of Swedish universities, the National Junior Faculty of Sweden (NJF) collected data from ECRs in order to study the influence of work situation and well-being on perceived scientific environment. We observed that work situation and well-being are interdependent and jointly influence each other in shaping the conditions for ideal scientific environment. Importantly, we employ structural equation model (SEM) analysis to account for the endogenous relationship between work situation and personal well-being in predicting perceived scientific environment. Results from SEM indicate that support from the university, work time management, job clarity, contract length and quality of life satisfaction were related to the perceived possibility of conducting the best science. Our research also highlighted individual differences across demographic factors and contract length in the perceived work situation and the possibility of conducting the best science. © 2018 International Association of Universities

  • 87.
    Stadtfeld, Christoph
    et al.
    ETH Zurich.
    Snijders, Tom
    University of Groningen.
    Steglich, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    van Duijn, Marijtje
    University of Groningen.
    Statistical Power in Longitudinal Network Studies2018In: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Longitudinal social network studies can easily suffer from insufficient statistical power. Studies that simultaneously investigate change of network ties and change of nodal attributes (selection and influence studies) are particularly at risk because the number of nodal observations is typically much lower than the number of observed tie variables. This article presents a simulation-based procedure to evaluate statistical power of longitudinal social network studies in which stochastic actor-oriented models are to be applied. Two detailed case studies illustrate how statistical power is strongly affected by network size, number of data collection waves, effect sizes, missing data, and participant turnover. These issues should thus be explored in the design phase of longitudinal social network studies.

  • 88.
    Stadtfeld, Christoph
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Computat Social Sci Res Ctr Educ and Network Studie, Hungary.
    Voros, Andras
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland; Univ Manchester, England; Univ Manchester, England.
    The Emergence and Stability of Groups in Social Networks2020In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 60, p. 129-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important puzzle in social network research is to explain how macro-level structures emerge from micro-level network processes. Explaining the emergence and stability of structural groups in social networks is particularly difficult for two reasons. First, because groups are characterized both by high connectedness within (group cohesion) and lack of connectedness between them (group boundaries). Second, because a large number of theoretical micro-level network processes contribute to their emergence. We argue that traditional social network theories that are concerned with the evolution of positive relations (forces of attraction) are not sufficient to explain the emergence of groups because they lack mechanisms explaining the emergence of group boundaries. Models that additionally account for the evolution of negative ties (forces of repulsion) may be better suited to explain the emergence and stability of groups. We build a theoretical model and illustrate its usefulness by fitting stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) to empirical data of co-evolving networks of friendship and dislike among 479 secondary-school students. The SAOMs include a number of newly developed effects expressing the co-evolution between positive and negative ties. We then simulate networks from the estimated models to explore the micro-macro link. We find that a model that considers forces of attraction and repulsion simultaneously is better at explaining groups in social networks. In the long run, however, the empirically informed simulations generate networks that are too stylized to be realistic, raising further questions about model degeneracy and time heterogeneity of group processes.

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  • 89.
    van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
    Steglich, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Veenstra, René
    Department of Sociology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
    The way bullying works: How new ties facilitate the mutual reinforcement of status and bullying in elementary schools2020In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 60, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the puzzle how high-status bullies in elementary school are able to maintain high status among their classmates despite bullying (some of) them. The dynamic interplay between bullying and status was studied, focusing on how relational bullying affects the creation, dissolution, and maintenance of status attributions, and vice versa. Longitudinal round-robin peer nomination data were obtained from 82 school classes in15 Dutch elementary schools (2055 students; 50% boys) followed over three yearly measurements, starting out in grades 2–5 when students were aged 8-11. An age-dependent effect of bullying on the creation of new status attributions was found. Whereas the youngest group punished bullying by a refusal to attribute status to the bully, this turned into a reward of bullying in the oldest groups. Unexpectedly, high-status bullies seemed to avoid continual bullying of the same victims, pointing to explanations of why their status can persist.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-11 17:54
  • 90.
    Vedres, Balazs
    et al.
    Cent European Univ, Hungary.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Cent European Univ, Hungary; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Disembedded Openness: Inequalities in European Economic Integration at the Sectoral Level2018In: Studies in comparative international development, ISSN 0039-3606, E-ISSN 1936-6167, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 169-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of European integration resulted in a marked increase in transnational economic flows, yet regional inequalities along many developmental indicators remain. We analyze the unevenness of European economies with respect to the embedding of export sectors in upstream domestic flows and their dependency on dominant export partners. We use the WIOD dataset of sectoral flows for the period of 1995-2011 for 24 European countries. We found that East European economies were significantly more likely to experience increasing unevenness and dependency with increasing openness, while core countries of Europe managed to decrease their unevenness but increased their openness. Nevertheless, by analyzing the trajectories of changes for each country, we see that East European countries are also experiencing a turning point, either switching to a path similar to the core or to a retrograde path with decreasing openness. We analyze our data using pooled time series models and case studies of country trajectories.

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  • 91.
    VendlerToft-Kehler, Rasmus
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark; Accelerace, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kim, Phillip H.
    Babson College, Arthur M. Blank Center for Entrepreneurship, Babson Park, MA, USA.
    A little bit of knowledge is a dangerous thing: Entrepreneurial experience and new venture disengagement2017In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 6, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research has offered conflicting narratives of how entrepreneurial experience influences whether founders will continue working on or disengage from their ventures. We theorize and test how entrepreneurs with varying levels of experience disengage from early-stage companies. Findings reveal a U-shaped relationship, such that novices and highly experienced entrepreneurs are more likely to quit their ventures, while moderately experienced entrepreneurs are more likely to persist in their pursuits. We offer both theoretical and empirical explanations for how the propensity to disengage from new ventures evolves with entrepreneurial experience.

  • 92.
    Vidal, Sergi
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Perales, Francisco
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Lersch, Philipp M.
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Brandén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholms University, Sweden.
    Family migration in a cross-national perspective: The importance of within-couple employment arrangements in Australia, Britain, Germany, and Sweden2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 36, p. 307-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE Migration rates of dual-earner couples are lower than those of male-breadwinner couples. We revisit this issue using a cross-national comparative perspective and examine heterogeneity in the role of female employment in couple relocations. We propose a theoretical framework in which national levels of support for female employment and normative expectations about gender roles act as moderators of the relationship between couple type (i.e., dual-earner and male-breadwinner) and family migration. METHODS We deploy discrete-time event history analyses of harmonised longitudinal data from four large-scale datasets from Australia, Britain, Germany, and Sweden, covering the 1992-2011 period. RESULTS Consistent with prior research, we find that male-breadwinner couples migrate more often than dual-earner couples in all countries, suggesting that traditional gender structures affecting family migration operate across very different contexts. We also find cross-country differences in the estimated effects of different sorts of absolute and relative partner resources on family migration. CONCLUSIONS We take our results as preliminary evidence that national contexts can serve as moderators of the relationship between within-couple employment arrangements and family migration decisions. CONTRIBUTION Our study contributes to family migration literature by illustrating how cross-national comparisons are a valuable methodological approach to put prevailing micro-level explanations of the relationship between female employment and family migration in context.

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  • 93.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Chihaya Da Silva, Guilherme
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Migrants long-term residential trajectories in Sweden: persistent neighbourhood deprivation or spatial assimilation?2019In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite time being a key element in the theories on international migrants socio-spatial mobility, it has not been sufficiently addressed in empirical research. Most studies focus on discrete transitions between different types of neighbourhoods, potentially missing theoretically important temporal aspects. This article uses sequence analysis to study the residential trajectories of international migrants in Sweden emphasising the timing, order, and duration of residence in neighbourhoods with different poverty levels. It follows individuals of the 2003 arrival cohort during their first 9 years in the country. Results show that 81% of migrants consistently reside in the same type of neighbourhood; 60% consistently live in a deprived area and mere 12% follow a trajectories starting at deprived and ending at middle-income or affluent neighbourhoods. Thus, spatial assimilation is neither the only nor the most frequent trajectory followed by migrants in Sweden. Lastly, there are persistent differences in neighbourhood attainment between immigrant groups, suggesting either place stratification or ethnic preference.

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  • 94.
    Wadström, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wittberg, Emanuel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jayasekera, Ranadeva
    Trinity Business School, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Role of renewable energy on industrial output in Canada2019In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 81, p. 626-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several scholars have highlighted the idea that energy consumption in general and consumption of renewable energy (RE) in particular may be a potential driver of economic growth. In this paper, we examine the relationship between RE production and economic activity in Canada between May 1966 and December 2015. By applying quantile causality (Troster, 2018), we adopt a nonlinear approach considering all quantiles of the distribution and analysing monthly data consisting of RE production and the Canadian Industrial Production Index (IPI). We find evidence of a nonlinear relationship in Canada, an important result that widely-used linear models fail to capture. Our main findings imply a unidirectional relationship going from the IPI to RE production, which supports the Conservation hypothesis. The directionality between RE and economic growth is sensitive to the market conditions in Canada.

  • 95.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Entreprenörskap för en levande landsbygd: 15 texter om landsbygdsutveckling och entreprenörskap i Norrland2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med boken är främst att ge stiftelsens styrelse ett underlag för att arbeta vidare med projekt som har sin utgångspunkt i företagens behov för ett framgångsrikt entreprenörskap. Men texterna ger också en gedigen kunskap för den som är intresserad av landsbygdsutveckling i allmänhet och utvecklingen av entreprenörskap i Norrland i synnerhet.

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    Entreprenörskap för en levande landsbygd: 15 texter om landsbygdsutveckling och entreprenörskap i Norrland
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  • 96.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Entreprenörskap für alle2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 4, p. 88-92Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Widespace: Managing growth and culture within amaturing technology venture2017In: Exploring Strategy Text & Cases / [ed] Johnson, G., R. Whittington, K. Scholes, D. Angwin, P. Regner, Pearson Education Academic Publisher, 2017, p. 616-621Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Wennberg, Karl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergström, AndreasFORES (Forum for Reforms, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability).
    Machines, jobs and equality: Technological change and labour markets in Europe2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid technological change in the form of digitalisation, robotisation, electronic payment systems and artificial intelligence, is transforming the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in Europe. Labour markets are, in turn, radically affected. But how? And how much? Addressing the many economic and societal implications of rapid technological change requires an understanding of the conditions in which it takes place. This, in turn, is essential to the formulation of cogent future policy. In this volume, a range of experts develop their views on labour markets, productivity, unemployment, redistribution, means of payment and artificial intelligence. They discuss the implications for legislation and regulation. The subjects are of relevance for academics, experts, and political decision-makers alike. The book intends to instigate discussion around these specific issues and probe ideas on how to organise our societies in the face of such rapid technological change.

  • 99.
    Ylikoski, Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Causal and constitutive explanation compared2013In: Erkenntnis, ISSN 0165-0106, E-ISSN 1572-8420, Vol. 78, p. 277-297-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares causal and constitutive explanation. While scientific inquiry usually addresses both causal and constitutive questions, making the distinction is crucial for a detailed understanding of scientific questions and their interrelations. These explanations have different kinds of explananda and they track different sorts of dependencies. Constitutive explanations do not address events or behaviors, but causal capacities. While there are some interesting relations between building and causal manipulation, causation and constitution are not to be confused. Constitution is a synchronous and asymmetric relation between relata that cannot be conceived as independent existences. However, despite their metaphysical differences, the same key ideas about explanation largely apply to both. Causal and constitutive explanations face similar challenges (such as the problems of relevance and explanatory regress) and both are in the business of mapping networks of counterfactual dependence—i.e. mechanisms—although the relevant counterfactuals are of a different sort. In the final section the issue of developmental explanation is discussed. It is argued that developmental explanations deserve their own place in taxonomy of explanations, although ultimately developmental dependencies can be analyzed as combinations of causal and constitutive dependencies. Hence, causal and constitutive explanation are distinct, but not always completely separate forms of explanation.

  • 100.
    Ylikoski, Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mechanism-based theorizing and generalization from case studies2019In: Studies in history and philosophy of science, ISSN 0039-3681, E-ISSN 1879-2510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalization from a case study is a perennial issue in the methodology of the social sciences. The case study is one of the most important research designs in many social scientific fields, but no shared understanding exists of the epistemic import of case studies. This article suggests that the idea of mechanism-based theorizing provides a fruitful basis for understanding how case studies contribute to a general understanding of social phenomena. This approach is illustrated with a reconstruction of Espeland and Sauder's case study of the effects of rankings on US legal education. On the basis of the reconstruction, it is argued that, at least with respect to sociology, the idea of mechanism-based theorizing captures many of the generalizable elements of case studies.

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