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  • 51.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Internal development and borrowing of pragmatic particles: the Estonian vaata/vat 'look', näed 'you see' and vot.2008In: Finnisch-Ugrische Mitteilungen, ISSN 0341-7816, Vol. 30/31, p. 23-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper compares the pragmatic usage patterns of the Estonian particles vaata/vat ‘look’, näed ‘you see’ and vot in interaction. The two first of these have most probably developed language-internally — the frequent usage of a particular verb form in a specific function has resulted in its grammaticalization as a particle. Näed is predominantly an evidential particle and vaata/vat an explanatory and focusing particle. The particularized forms may be phonologically assimilated or shortened and they do not behave as predicates. No arguments can be attached to them and they have acquired new functions that instead concern text structure and interaction. The Russian loanword vot, on the other hand, has been stigmatized in Estonian linguistics and instead, the literary form vaat has been officially promoted. The present article shows why this is a mistake. The particle vot may occasionally fulfill the same functions as näed and vaata/vat but it also displays completely idiosyncratic interactional functions, such as topic closure and handing over the turn to the interlocutor who can then introduce a new topic or alternatively a closure of the conversation. The nature of these efficacious particles can only be revealed in conversational sequences and for their adequate analysis one has to account for the dynamics of interaction.

  • 52.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Sina-teie tähenduse määrab olukord [The meaning of singular and plural  address depends on the situation]2008In: Postimees, no April 16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [et]

    Olles huviga jälginud käimasolevat tulist diskussiooni teietamise kaotamisest, soovin järgnevaga detaile täpsustada ja keeleteadust abiks võttes mõningaid üldistusi pakkuda.

    Pöördumisvorme on juba aastakümneid kirjeldatud justkui kahel teljel, horisontaalselt ja vertikaalselt. Horisontaal- ehk solidaarsusteljel kujutatakse kõnetusvormide valikut selle alusel, kas kaaskõneleja on tuttav ja lähedane või võõras ja kauge. Sel puhul on tavaline sümmeetriline kõnetamine, mis puhul suhtlejad kasutavad vastastikku samu vorme. Vertikaal- ehk võimuteljele paigutuvad kasutusjuhud, mille aluseks on ühiskondlikud hierarhiad. Sellel teljel on tüüpiliseks ka asümmeetriline kõnetustava, kus alt üles kõnetatakse ühtmoodi ja ülalt alla teisiti.

    Juba 1960. aastal väitsid uurijad, et Euroopas on selline asümmeetriline kõnetus taandumas ning seostasid seda demokraatia levikuga....

  • 53.
    Lundqvist, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska språk.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska språk.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska språk.
    Språkkompendium för sommarkursen Finsk-ugriska språk och kulturer för nyfikna2007Other (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Estnisk invandraridentitet bland flyktingar, 60 år senare.2006In: Vandring och Förvandling. Förflyttning, förändring, framtid.: Humanistdagarna 2004, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska språk.
    From discourse pattern to epistemic marker: Estonian (ei) tea 'don't know'.2006In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 173-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    In contemporary informal Estonian, the negative verb form ei tea ‘don’t know’ has become a routinized part of generic questions, in which the agent is left unexpressed. This pattern is in accordance with the general impersonal and reference-avoiding style of conversing in Estonia. The study outlines a continuum of synchronic usages from the original expressions sa ei tea ‘you don’t know’ and ma ei tea ‘I don’t know’ to the epistemic usages of (ei) tea, which are specifically tied to the speech act of questioning. The data is interactional and the analysis relies on the interpretation of (ei) tea-questions by the participants themselves, following the methodology of conversation analysis. It is demonstrated that the development of (ei) tea displays phonological and semantic erosion, pragmatic strengthening, subjectification, and decategorialization. Thus, grammaticalization theory is here combined with interactional linguistics in order to display the emergence of a grammatical structure from a discourse pattern.

  • 56. Habicht, Külli
    et al.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Tragel, Ilona
    Keele muutumine kasutuskontekstis.2006In: Keel ja Kirjandus, ISSN 1502-1521, no 8, p. 609-625Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Keelekontakt ja pragmaatika. [Language contact and pragmatics.]2006In: Teoreetiline keeleteadus Eestis II., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Pragmaatiliste partiklite laenutüübid rootsieesti keeles. [Types of borrowed pragmatic particles in Swedish Estonian.]2006In: Mitmekeelsus ja keelevahetus läänemeresoome piirkonnas., 2006, p. 116-133Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Finsk-ugriska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Politeness in Estonia: A matter of fact style2005In: Politeness in Europe / [ed] Leio Hickey and Miranda Stewart, Clevendon: Multilingual Matters, 2005, p. 203-217Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linguistic politeness is intimately connected with social norms. Estoniansociety has gone through considerable change over the last ten years. It hasregained independence and, at the same time, switched from a planned toa market economy as well as from dictatorship to democracy. A decade ismost probably not long enough for linguistic norms to change drastically:as we know, the structure of a language often takes much longer to change.Politeness, however, may to some extent be subject to deliberate influence,as witnessed, for example, by the reform of Swedish du (you, sg.) where therecommendations of some left-wing organisations on the usage of mutualdu (T) have won general social acceptance. It is, thus, not unlikely that change is taking place in Estonian politeness at present....

  • 60.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Suhtluskeele uurimine partiklistunud verbivormide näitel2005In: Keel ja Kirjandus, ISSN 0131-1441, Vol. 48, no 7-8, p. 535-548Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska språk.
    The deictic nii 'so, in this way' in interaction.2005In: From Utterance to Uttering and vice versa: Multidisciplinary views on deixis, Tartu: Tartu university press , 2005, p. 109–126-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Institutionen för moderna språk, Uppsala universitet.
    Colloquial Estonian2004In: Estonian Language / [ed] Mati Erelt, Estonian Academy Publishers, Tallinn , 2004, p. 342-378Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The term Colloquial Estonian denotes a non-standard spoken variety of Estonian that is understood more or less in the entire speech community, and that is characteristically used in informal everyday settings. The term colloquial, although not commonly used in Estonian linguistics, is introduced here as a practical solution for this book, in which we already have included chapters on dialects and the standard (written) language....

  • 63.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    From Interaction to Grammar: Estonian Finite Verb Forms in Conversation2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the research tradition of interactional linguistics. It demonstrates how interactional patterns and sequences of actions are, or emerge as, part of the syntagmatic structure of a language, and why the transitions from interaction to grammar as well as from content to function items, are to be regarded as gradual and continuous. Grammar may arise from discourse through frequent implementation of linguistic items in specific social actions that are carried out in certain sequential positions in conversation. The developments proposed for the items in this study, bear numerous similarities to the processes of grammaticalization.

    The data consists of 319 authentic phone calls, recorded in Estonia in 1997/98. All in all, more than 10 hours of talk has been examined, about two thirds of which consist of everyday calls between family members and friends. The rest are telemarketing calls from a newspaper publishing office.

    This is a predominantly qualitative study of 11 finite verb forms in Estonian that display features of development into pragmatic particles or adverbs. It is argued that in order to adequately account for how finite verb forms such as kuule ‘hear!’, ma ei tea ‘I don’t know’, tähendab ‘(it) means’, or oota ‘wait!’ come to be used as particles, it is necessary to look closely at what kinds of actions they frequently implement in the everyday life of the speakers. It is shown, for example, that the jussive form olgu ‘be’ implements conversational closings, and that tead ‘you know’ projects news deliveries and enhances interpersonal involvement. It is also shown that some of the items, such as ütleme ‘let’s say’ rather belong to the formal registers. Methodologically, the study applies conversation analysis with its detailed examination of pieces of recordings and respect to details contingent on each individual action sequence. The idea of gradual semantic change has been borrowed from grammaticalization theory. In addition, the arguments are supported by counts from the current corpus.

  • 64.
    Hakulinen, Auli
    et al.
    Finska, finskugriska och nordiska institutionen, Helsingfors universitet, Finland.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Institutionen för moderna språk, Uppsala universitet.
    Lindström, Jan
    Finskugriska och nordiska avdelningen, Helsingfors universitet, Finland.
    kuule, kule, hördu — projicerande praktiker i finska, estniska och svenska samtal2003In: Grammatik och Samtal: Studier till minne av Mats Eriksson / [ed] Bengt Nordberg, Leelo Keevallik Eriksson, Kerstin Thelander och Mats Thelander, Uppsala: Institutionen för nordiska språk, Uppsala universitet , 2003, p. 199-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är inte ovanligt att vissa grupper av verb, som beskriver mänskliga aktiviteter, har syntaktiska egenskaper - eller funktionspotential - som avviker frän andra typer av verb. Som exempel kan nämnas verb som betyder 'låta', 'vänta', 'tänka' och 'säga', vilka i vissa sammanhang förlorar några av sina verbtypiska drag, bl.a. transitivitet. I finskan är det sålunda möjligt att säga Anna mä yritän, bokstavligt 'låt jag försöker' i stället för 'lät mig försöka', i estniskan Oota ma tulen 'vänta jag kommer' i stället för 'vänta på mig tills jag kommer' och i svenskan Tänk jag har också alldeles glömt det där i stället för' {tänk/jag tänker} på att jag också alldeles har glömt det där'. I dessa syntaktiskt speciella användningar förefaller verbets funktion vara på glid från ett »fullt» verb till något slags samtalsreglerande signal (jfr Hellberg 1985:27 för tänk, Keevallik 2001 för oota 'vänta')....

  • 65.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Terminally rising pitch contours of response tokens in Estonian2003In: Crossroads, ISSN 1825-7208, E-ISSN 1825-7208, Crossroads of Language, Interaction, and Culture, Vol. 5, p. 49–65-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Grammatika suhtluses [Grammar in Interaction]2002In: Teoreetiline keeleteadus Eestis, p. 89-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Estonian reduplication in action sequences2001In: Nordic and Baltic Morphology: Papers from a NorFA Course, Tartu, June 2000., p. 23-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    New Yorgi kaubamajad ja Mulgi murre ehk millega tegelevad sotsiolingvistid2001In: Oma Keel, ISSN 1406-6599, Vol. 2, p. 5-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Tracing grammaticalization of oota 'wait' in Estonian conversation2001In: Papers in Estonian Cognitive Linguistics, p. 119-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Keelendid et ja nii et vestluses [The linguistic units et and nii et in conversation]2000In: Keel ja Kirjandus, ISSN 0131-1441, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 344-358Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Informatsioonikäsitluse partikkel ahah telefonivestluses [The particle of information management ahah in Estonian phone conversations]1999In: Emakeele seltsi aastaraamat, ISSN 0206-3735, Vol. 43, p. 34-56Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Hennoste, Tiit
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Pajusalu, Karl
    Introduction (Estonian Sociolinguistics)1999In: International Journal of the Sociology of Language, ISSN 0165-2516, E-ISSN 1613-3668, Vol. 139, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    The use and abuse of singular and plural address forms in Estonian1999In: International Journal of the Sociology of Language, ISSN 0165-2516, E-ISSN 1613-3668, Vol. 139, p. 125-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Sinatamisest ja teietamisest koolilaste arvamuste pôhjal. [Schoolchildren's opinions on saying sina (2PsSg) and teie (2PsPl).]1998In: Keel ja Kirjandus, ISSN 0131-1441, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 541-553Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Grigorjev, Piret
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Niit, Ellen
    Estonia.
    Paldre, Leho
    Estonia.
    Sak, Kristi
    Estnoia.
    Veismann, Ann
    Estonia.
    Kihnu murde assimileerumise mustreid Manilaiul [The patterns of assimilation of Kihnu dialect on Manilaid]1997In: Pühendusteos Huno Rätsepale, 28.12.1997 / [ed] Mati Erelt, Meeli Sedrik, Ellen Uuspõld, Tartu: Tartu Ülikool , 1997, p. 26-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Two essays on language change1997Report (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Maintenance of Structured Variability1996In: Estonian in the changing world., p. 123-132Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    "Mother thinks that an Estonian doesn't say läind or ôppind": Schoolchildren's attitudes towards a morphological variable in Estonian1996In: Samspel & variation: Språkliga studier tillägnade Bengt Nordberg på 60-årsdagen / [ed] Mats Thelander, Lennart Elmevik, Britt-Louise Gunnarsson och Björn Melander, Uppsala: Institutionen för nordiska språk, Uppsala universitet , 1996, p. 209-222Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Age differences is an area of interest for sociolinguists not only because of ils usefulness in !racing linguistic change but also because there is yet much to be said about the interplay betweeu language and age. Furthermore, studies in child lauguage aim at answering the basic questions about the uature of language since the acquisitiou oflanguage is assumed to reveal ils actual structure. Besides observing the appearance of certaiu phonemes, morphemes or syntactic structures iu children's speech, one should pay atteution to the acquisition of conununicative competence: how childreu come to uuderstand what can be done and achieved with a language if used iu a particular way and how and when children acquire the liuguistic repertoire that adults have. Logically, new registers appear iu connection with the new situations in which the child happens to participate. Thus, if the acquisition of standard norms is studied, the transition fromhome or nursery to school is of great importance. With certain reservations ( earlier readiug, watching TV) the transition can be seen as a change of focus from everyday speech to the standard language and consequently to the existence of different registers.

  • 79.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Väikeste keelte eluvôimalusest. [About the survival possibility of small languages.]1996In: Kaika suvôülikuul LüllemäelArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Pajusalu, Karl
    Linguistic Diversity and Standardization in Estonian. The History of the Active Past Participle.1995In: Dialectologia et Geolinguistica, ISSN 0942-4040, Vol. 3, p. 13-41Article in journal (Refereed)
12 51 - 80 of 80
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