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  • 51.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Poksinski, Michal
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Total Internal Reflection Ellipsometry: a tool for analysis of ultrathin films on metal surfaces2006In: 4th Workshop Ellipsometry,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Poksinski, Michal
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Total Internal Reflection Ellipsometry: monitoring of proteins on thin metal films2006In: Proteins on surfaces / [ed] Arwin H, Poksinski M, Johansen K., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag , 2006, p. 105-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A measurement technique based on ellipsometry performed under conditions of total internal reflection is presented here. This technique is called total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). When extended with the surface plasmon resonance effect, TIRE becomes a powerful tool for monitoring protein adsorption on thin metal films. A brief description of TIRE is presented here together with some examples of measurement system setups. Two examples of applications are included, followed by a short presentation of possible future applications of TIRE.

  • 53.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poksinski, Michal
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Knut
    Scientific Engineering QED, Linköping, Sweden.
    Enhancement in ellipsometric thin film sensitivity near surface plasmon resonance conditions2008In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 205, no 4, p. 817-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ellipsometry used in internal reflection mode exhibits enhanced thin film sensitivity if operated close to surface plasmon resonance conditions. Compared to conventional ellipsometry, the changes in the ellipsometric parameter Δ are several orders of magnitude larger. Here, the origin of this large sensitivity is discussed by analysing thin film approximations of the complex reflectance ratio. It is found that the thickness sensitivity in Δ is proportional to the inverse of the difference between the intrinsic and the radiation-induced damping of the surface plasmons.

  • 54.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poksinski, Michal
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Knut
    Scientific Engineering QED, Linköping, Sweden.
    Total internal reflection ellipsometry: principles and applications2004In: Applied Optics, ISSN 0003-6935, E-ISSN 1539-4522, Vol. 43, no 15, p. 3028-3036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A concept for a measurement technique based on ellipsometry in conditions of total internal reflection is presented. When combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects, this technique becomes powerful for monitoring and analyzing adsorption and desorption on thin semitransparent metal films as well as for analyzing the semitransparent films themselves. We call this technique total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). The theory of ellipsometry under total internal reflection combined with SPR is discussed for some simple cases. For more advanced cases and to prove the concept, simulations are performed with the Fresnel formalism. The use of TIRE is exemplified by applications in protein adsorption, corrosion monitoring, and adsorption from opaque liquids on metal surfaces. Simulations and experiments show greatly enhanced thin-film sensitivity compared with ordinary ellipsometry.

  • 55.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Sarkar, Sabyasachi
    IFM .
    Woollam, J.
    Investigation of the use of IR ellipsometry for the detection of biological molecules2006In: American Vacuum Society 53 Int Symposium,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Tazawa, M
    Kakiuchida, H
    Xu, G
    Jin, P
    Optical constants of vacuum evaporated SiO film and an application2005In: MRS-ICAM2005,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Thompson, D.W.
    Woollam, J.A.
    Infrared Ellipsometry Studies on Protein Layers: Model Dielectric Functions and Temperature Effects2006In: 4th Workshop Ellipsometry,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Thompson, D.W.
    Woollam, J.A.
    Temperature Stability of Protein Monolayers Studied by Ellipsometry in the Infrared, Visible and Ultraviolet Spectral Regions2006In: American Vacuum Society 53 Int Symposium,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Wang, Guoliang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Jansson, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Gas sensing based on ellipsometric measurement on porous silicon2003In: Physica status solidi. A, Applied research, ISSN 0031-8965, E-ISSN 1521-396X, Vol. 197, no 2, p. 518-522Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ellipsometry has sufficient sensitivity for sensor applications and is here used as an optical readout method in a gas sensing system. Porous silicon is used as sensing layers in which vapors of solvents can adsorb and condensate due to capillary effects. A miniaturized multi-beam ellipsometer system is proposed and the concept is demonstrated by measurements on alcohol vapors. Optimization of the sensor system is discussed and improvement of sensitivity and alteration of selectivity by metal deposition in porous silicon layers are presented.

  • 60.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Wiklund, Henrik
    IFM .
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    TFK .
    Calculation of optical properties of complex surface structures using FEM2006In: Optikdagen 2006,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Wiklund, Henrik
    IFM .
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    TFK .
    Calculation of optical properties of complex surface structures using FEM2006In: European Optical Society Annual Meeting,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Woollam, John A.
    Department of electrical engineering University of Nebraska.
    Thompson, Dan W.
    Department of electrical engineering University of Nebraska.
    Model dielectric functions for adsorbed protein layers2005In: American Vacumm Society 52 Int Symposium and Exhibition,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Wronkowska, A A
    Firszt, F
    Wronkowski, A
    Wakula, M
    Strzalkowski, K
    Paszkowicz, W
    Characterisation of Cd1-x-yZnxBeySe crystals by spectroscopic ellipsometry and luminescence2006In: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, p. 1193-1196Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Ashkenov, N.
    et al.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Mbenkum, B.N.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Bundesmann, C.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Riede, V.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Lorenz, M.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Spemann, D.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Kaidashev, E.M.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, Rostov State University, Mech./Appl. Math. Research Institute, 200/1 Stachky Avenue, Rostov-on-Don 344090, Russian Federation.
    Kasic, A.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Schubert, M.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Grundmann, M.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Wagner, G.
    Inst. F. Nichtklassische Chem. e.V., Universität Leipzig, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.
    Neumann, H.
    Inst. F. O. e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, 04303 Leipzig, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films2003In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was performed on the phonon modes and infrared dielectric functions of high-quality ZnO thin films. The pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit the ZnO films on c-plane sapphire substrates and were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering experiments. The accurate long-wavelength dielectric constant limits of the films were also obtained and were compared with near-band-gap index-of-refraction data upon the Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation for both film and bulk samples. It was found that the phonon modes of the film were highly consistent with those of the bulk sample.

  • 65.
    Bakker, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Biosensor for home use: using the computer as ellipsometer2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Konferensbidrag (muntligt-1:a pris) vid "EUROPT(R)ODE VIII, Tübingen, Germany, 2-5 april

  • 66.
    Bakker, Jimmy W. P.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Guoliang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, K.
    Improvement of porous silicon based gas sensors by polymer modification2003In: Physica Status Solidi (A), ISSN 0031-8965, Vol. 197, no 2, p. 378-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas sensing was performed using spectroscopic ellipsometry and porous silicon films. Modification of the porous layer by polymer deposition showed an increase in sensitivity to organic solvent vapor of up to 135%. The increase in sensitivity is strongly dependent on polymer concentration. At high concentrations, too much polymer is deposited, presumably blocking the pores, causing a decrease in sensitivity. At sufficiently low concentrations, the polymer causes a strong increase in sensitivity. This is assumed to be caused by the polymer being deposited inside the pores, where its interaction with the vapor influences the sensitivity. At very low concentration, the sensitivity approaches values obtained without polymer modification. The sensitivity increase is different for different vapors, pointing to possible selectivity enhancement.

  • 67.
    Bakker, Jimmy. W. P.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bryntse, G.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Determination of refractive index of printed and unprinted paper using spectroscopic ellipsometry.2004In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 455-456, p. 361-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An attempt is made to address the basic physical properties of printed and unprinted paper surfaces by using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the range 300–900 nm to determine the effective complex-valued refractive index N. Some simulations to address the effect of structural properties have also been done and a qualitative comparison with some other methods, in particular Brewster angle measurements, has been made. Unprinted paper and paper printed in different colors have been studied. The measured absorption properties matched the colors of the used inks well. The effects of roughness on the determined spectra of N are discussed. Simulations show that compared to other methods, like Brewster-angle reflectometry, spectroscopic ellipsometry provides a more accurate value of N, especially in wavelength regions were the color pigments show absorption.

  • 68.
    Bakker, Jimmy W.P.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Computer screen photo-assisted off-null ellipsometry2006In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 45, no 30, p. 7795-7799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ellipsometric measurement of thickness is demonstrated using a computer screen as a light source and a webcam as a detector, adding imaging off-null ellipsometry to the range of available computer screen photoassisted techniques. The results show good qualitative agreement with a simplified theoretical model and a thickness resolution in the nanometer range is achieved. The presented model can be used to optimize the setup for sensitivity. Since the computer screen serves as a homogeneous large area illumination source, which can be tuned to different intensities for different parts of the sample, a large sensitivity range can be obtained without sacrificing thickness resolution.

  • 69.
    Bakker, Jimmy W.P.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Immunodetection using computer screen photo-assisted ellipsometry2008In: Physica Status Solidi. C: Current Topics in Solid State Physics, ISSN 1862-6351, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1431-1433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of antibody-antigen reactions is demonstrated by measuring changes in reflectance of light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence, using a computer screen as light source and a web camera as detector, giving results similar to traditional off-null ellipsometry and in accordance with a simplified theoretical model.

  • 70.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Determination of optical constants and phase transition temperatures in polymer fullerene thin films for polymer solar cells2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic photovoltaics combining semiconducting polymers with fullerene derivatives have the potentialto become the first cost efficient solar cells able to compete with fossil fuels. The maximum powerconversion efficiency is already 8.3%[1] , and new polymers arrive frequently in the search for efficienciesof 10%. As a first step in the screening of candidate materials, the optical constants of the purepolymer as well as the polymer blend with fullerenes are determined from Variable Angle SpectroscopicEllipsometry (VASE), using Tauc-Lorentz oscillator models, throughout the solar spectrum. Thesemodels are then used to predict the upper limits to photocurrent generation in devices, in transfermatrix simulations of the multilayer thin film photovoltaic devices. This forms an essential step in thechoice of materials for optimization in devices.Materials optics measurements are also used to deduce the phase diagram of polymer and polymerblend films. The glass transition temperature is very important for plastic solar cells and mustbe higher than the 80C a device can reach to avoid degradation during operation. Temperaturedependent ellipsometric measurements has proven to be a feasible way to determine phase transitionsin polymer thin films[2] . These transitions are displayed as a sudden change of the volumetricexpansion coefficient, and are manifested by an abrupt increase of thickness at the phase transitiontemperature. For thickness determination a Cauchy model is applied to the transparent infrared partof the spectra.References1. Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, Y Cao, Advanced Materials 23, 4636(2011)2. M. Campoy-Quiles, P.G. Etchegoin, D.D.C. Bradley, Synthetic Metals 155, 279(2005)

  • 71.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In situ reflectance imaging of organic thin film formation from solution2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uniaxial anisotropy in PEDOT:PSS electrodes enhances the photo current at oblique incidence in organic solar cells2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work an uniaxial anisotropic treatment of the transparent conductor PEDOT:PSS is included in the transfer matrix method (TMM), used to calculate the optical power dissipation in organic solar cells. PEDOT:PSS is known to be anisotropic and exhibit a weaker absorption and lower refractive index in the out of plane direction. For p-polarized light at large oblique incidence the inclusion of anisotropy show a gain of over 10% for the maximum photocurrent as compared to an isotropic treatment. Due to the interference in devices with reflecting bottom electrodes, the active layer absorption gain is not always occurring for the wavelengths with highest dichroism. This work show that using PEDOT:PSS as top electrode further strengthens the argument that thin film solar cells perform better than their silicon counterparts under oblique incidence. We also confirm previous studies showing that the optical interference maxima is shifted to slightly thicker films for oblique incidence for solar cells with reflective bottom electrodes.

  • 73.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mauger, Scott
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In situ reflectance imaging of organic thin film formation from solution deposition2013In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 114, p. 89-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present reflectance imaging as a suitable method for in situ monitoring of the drying process of film formation for organic photovoltaics (OPV) over large areas, as well as for lab-scale spin-coating. The drying wet film is illuminated with a narrow bandwidth LED with the specularly reflected light recorded by a video camera as the film dries and forms the active layer of the OPV cell. The interference fringes generated by the thinning wet film can be used to measure the rate of solvent evaporation and the drying time. Subsequent mapping elucidates variations in drying conditions over the substrate, which lead to variations in morphology formation. The technique is suitable for tracking thickness variations of the dry film, with a sensitivity of 10 nm, by comparing the intensity of the reflected light from the dry film to simulated interference conditions calculated for each thickness. The drying process is furthermore accurately simulated by an optical model considering the changes in refractive index as the amount of solvent decreases with respect to the solid content. This non-invasive in situ method represents an important monitoring tool for future large scale OPV manufacturing where high performing morphologies with uniform thickness have to be formed over very large areas.

  • 74.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In situ reflectance imaging of organic thin film formation from solution2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid progress of organic photovoltaic devices during the last decade, with power conversion efficiencies now exceeding 8%, has brought the technology close to an industrial breakthrough. For polymer solar cells, roll to roll printing is desired to gain the production advantage. The formation of the photoactive material from solutions needs to be controlled and optimized. Therefore a suitable method to monitor the deposition process is needed as deviations of drying times1 and drying rates2 during the coating process have proven to generate morphology variations causing variations in photocurrent generation.

    Here we demonstrate how reflectance imaging can be used to monitor the drying process, both for spin coating and blade coating deposition. A blue LED is used as light source to generate specular reflections imaged by a CMOS camera. The thinning of the wet film can then be observed by thin film interference, and can be recorded for each pixel. This enables an estimation of the evaporation rate for each pixel mapped over the substrate. For spin coating the evaporation rate is shown to increase with the distance from the rotation center, whereas the air flow is the determining parameter during blade coating. By mapping the times when interference ceases, lateral variations in drying time are visualized. Furthermore the quenching of polymer photoluminescence during the drying process can be visualized, thus creating a possibility to estimate morphological variations. Moreover lateral thickness variations of the dry film can be visualized by scanning ellipsometry. After depositing a top electrode photocurrent images can be generated by a laser scanning method. This allows for a direct comparison of drying conditions and photocurrent generation.  The possibility to monitor the thin film formation as well as lateral variations in thickness in-situ by a non-invasive method, is an important step for future large scale applications where stable high performing generating morphologies have to be formed over large areas.

    1Schmidt-Hansberg, B.; Sanyal, M.; Klein, M.F.G.; Pfaff, M.; Schnabel, N.; Jaiser, S.; Vorobiev, A.; Müller, E.; Colsmann, A.; Scharfer, P.; Gerthsen, D.; Lemmer, U.; Barrena, E.; and Schabel, W., ACS Nano 5 , 2011, 8579-8590

    2 Hou, L.; Wang, E.; Bergqvist, J.; Andersson, V.B.; Wang, Z.; Müller, C.; Campoy-Quiles, M.; Andersson, M.R.; Zhang, F.; Inganäs, O.,Adv. Func. Mat. 21 , 2011, 3169–3175

  • 75.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Furland, Andrej
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Czigany, Zs.
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous carbon and amorphous,graphitic and fullerene-like carbon nitride thin films2009In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 24, p. 6652-6658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nitride (CNx) and amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto silicon (001) wafers under controlled conditions to achieve amorphous, graphitic and fullerene-like microstructures. As-deposited films are analyzed by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the UV–VIS–NIR and IR spectral ranges in order to get further insight into the bonding structure of the material. Additional characterization is performed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Between eight and eleven resonances are observed and modeled in the ellipsometrically determined optical spectra of the films. The largest or the second largest resonance for all films is a feature associated with C–N or C–C modes. This feature is generally associated with sp3 C–N or sp3 C–C bonds, which for the nitrogen-containing films instead should be identified as a three-fold or two-fold sp2 hybridization of N, either substituted in a graphite site or in a pyridine-like configuration, respectively. The π→πlow asterisk electronic transition associated with sp2 C bonds in carbon films and with sp2 N bonds (as N bonded in pyridine-like manner) in CNx films is also present, but not as strong. Another feature present in all CNx films is a resonance associated with nitrile often observed in carbon nitrides. Additional resonances are identified and discussed and moreover, several new, unidentified resonances are observed in the ellipsometric spectra.

  • 76.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Poksinski, Michal
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Adsorption of human serum albumin on carbon nitride films studied with in-situ ellipsometry2005In: American Vacuum Society 52 Int Symposium and Exhibition,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Poksinski, Michal
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Bioadsorption studies on carbon nitride films using in-situ ellipsometry2005In: E-MRS spring meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Poksinski, Michal
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Protein Adsorption on Carbon Nitride Films Studied with in situ Ellipsometry2007In: 4th International Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,2007, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2007, p. 246-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poksinski, Michal
    Roxen IS AB, S-581 05 Linköping, Sweden.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Formation and cross-linking of fibrinogen layers monitored with in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry2010In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 410-417Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thick matrices of fibrinogen with incorporation of a matrix metalloproteinaseinhibitor were covalently bonded on functionalized silicon surfaces using an ethyl-3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-carbodiimide and N-hydroxy-succinimide affinity ligand couplingchemistry. The growth of the structure was followed in situ using dynamic ellipsometryand characterized at steady-state with spectroscopic ellipsometry. The growth wascompared with earlier work on ex situ growth of fibrinogen layers studied by singlewavelength ellipsometry. It is found that in situ growth and ex situ growth yield differentstructural properties of the formed protein matrix. Fibrinogen matrices with thicknessesup to 58 nm and surface mass densities of 1.6 μg/cm2 have been produced.

  • 80.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pribi, G. K.
    J. A. Woollam Co Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA.
    Thompson, D.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE, USA.
    Woollam, J. O.
    J. A. Woollam Co Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of ion concentration on refractive indices offluids measured by the minimum deviation technique2008In: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1249-1252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prism minimum deviation technique has been used to measure the fluid dependence of refractive indices. Fluids with varying ion concentration (0 to 1.0 M) and varying protein concentration (0.01-10 mg/ml) have been examined and the measurements show that these parameters influence the refractive index values. Also it is shown by simulations that it is important to take the change of refractive index of the fluid into account when evaluating insitu protein adsorption measurements.

  • 81.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Pribil, G.
    Thompson, D.
    Woollam, J.A.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Effects of Ion Concentration on Refractive Indices of Fluids Measured by the Minimum Deviation Technique2006In: Optikdagen 2006,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 82.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Pribil, G.K.
    J.A. Woollam Co, USA.
    Thompson, Daniel W.
    Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Center for Materials Research and Analysis University of Nebraska - Lincoln.
    Woollam, John A.
    J.A. Woollam Co, USA.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Effects of Ion Concentration on Refractive Indices of Fluids Measured by the Minimum Deviation Technique2007In: 4th International Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,2007, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2007, p. 141-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Surgical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Protein adsorption on thin films of carbon and carbon nitride monitored with in situ ellipsometry2011In: ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, ISSN 1742-7061, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1369-1378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous carbon and amorphous, graphitic and fullerene-like carbon nitride thin filmswere deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and optically characterized withspectroscopic ellipsometry. The films were exposed to human serum albumin and theadsorption was monitored in situ using dynamic ellipsometry. From the ellipsometric data theadsorbed amount of proteins was quantified in terms of surface mass density using de Feijter'smodel. The results indicated larger adsorption of proteins onto the amorphous films comparedto the films with a more ordered microstructure. Complementary studies with labeled HSAusing radioimmunoassay showed up to 6 times higher protein adsorption compared to theellipsometry measurement which partly might be explained by differences in surfaceroughness (from 0.3 to 13 nm) among the films. The elutability of adsorbed labeled HSAusing unlabeled HSA and sodium dodecyl sulphate was low compared to a silicon reference.In addition, the four types of films were incubated in blood plasma followed by antifibrinogen,anti-HMWK or anti-C3c revealing the materials response to complement andcontact activation. Three of the films indicated immunoactivity, whereas the amorphouscarbon showed less immunoactivity compared to a titanium reference. All films showedindications of a stronger ability to initiate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, compared tothe reference. Finally, the surfaces bone bonding ability was investigated by examination oftheir ability to form calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals in a simulated body fluid, with a-CNxdepositing most CaP after 21 days of incubation.

  • 84.
    Boulenguez, Julie
    et al.
    INSP - CNRS Paris 6 and 7 Universities.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berthier, Serge
    INSP - CNRS Paris 6 and 7 Universities.
    Ellipsometric study of photonic structures in wing scales of butterflies2007In: 4th International Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, 2007, 2007, p. 309-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report the possibility to explore the polarization properties of the wing scales of Morpho butterflies using spectroscopic ellipsometry is presented. Measurements were performed on the dorsal sides of three species of the Morpho family, rhetenor, menelaus and sulkowskyi, to compare the polarization properties of nanostructures in the wings. In these species colouration changes under polarized light were observed and all the wing scales are flat. Their photonic structures have the same general shape; they dier, mainly in terms of size and number of layers. The instrument used is a double rotating compensator ellip- someter working in the spectral range 245 nm-1700 nm. This type of instrument can measure the Mueller matrix of a sample. The Morpho rhetenor geometrical structure is known from scanning electron micrographs. Based on this structure, a Bruggeman eective

  • 85.
    Bukaluk, A.
    et al.
    Instytut Matematyki I Fizyki, Akademia Techniczno-Rolnicza, Ul. K., Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Wronkowska, A.A.
    Instytut Matematyki I Fizyki, Akademia Techniczno-Rolnicza, Ul. K., Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Wronkowski, A.
    Instytut Matematyki I Fizyki, Akademia Techniczno-Rolnicza, Ul. K., Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Firszt, F.
    Instytut Fizyki, Uniw. Mikolaja Kopernika, Ul. G., Torun, Poland.
    Legowski, S.
    Instytut Fizyki, Uniw. Mikolaja Kopernika, Ul. G., Torun, Poland.
    Meczynska, H.
    Meczynska, H., Instytut Fizyki, Uniw. Mikolaja Kopernika, Ul. G., Torun, Poland.
    Szatkowski, J.
    Instytut Fizyki, Uniw. Mikolaja Kopernika, Ul. G., Torun, Poland.
    Auger electron spectroscopy, ellipsometry and photoluminescence investigations of Zn1-XBeXSe alloys2001In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 175-176, p. 531-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, properties of the Zn1-XBeXSe crystals grown from the melt by the high-pressure Bridgman method are reported. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used for determination of the complex dielectric function of Zn1-XBeXSe. On the basis of the photon energy dependence of the dielectric function, the energy gaps of alloys containing different beryllium concentrations have been evaluated. Measurements of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra allowed to find the excitonic gap in the investigated alloys. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) with simultaneous argon ion sputtering has been used for determination of surface composition. AES investigations allowed to make predictions concerning distribution of particular elements in the samples. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 86.
    Buyanova, Irina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Izadifard, Morteza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Kasic, A.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Xin, H. P.
    Hong, Y. G.
    Tu, C. W.
    Analysis of band anticrossing in GaNxP1-x alloys2004In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 70, p. 085209-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Temperature-dependent absorption, photoluminescence excitation, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements are employed to accurately determine compositional and temperature dependences of the conduction band (CB) states in GaNP alloys. The CB edge and the higher lying Γc CB minimum (CBM) are shown to exhibit an apparently anticrossing behavior, i.e., the N-induced redshift of the bandgap energy is accompanied by a matching blueshift of the Γc CBM. The obtained data can be phenomenologically described by the band anticrossing model. By considering strong temperature dependence of the energy of the interacting N level, which has largely been overlooked in earlier studies of GaNP, the interacting N level can be attributed to the isolated substitutional NP and the coupling parameter is accurately determined.

  • 87.
    Buyanova, Irina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Izadifard, Morteza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Kasic, A.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Xin, H.P.
    Hong, Y.G.
    Tu, C.W.
    Compositional Dependence of conduction band states in GaNP alloys2004In: 5th International Conference on Low Dimensional Structures and Devices,2004, 2004, p. 64-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Campoy-Quiles, M.
    et al.
    Experimental Solid State Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, UK.
    Nelson, J.
    Experimental Solid State Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, UK.
    Etchegoin, P.G.
    Experimental Solid State Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, UK.
    Bradley, D.D.C.
    Experimental Solid State Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, UK.
    Zhokhavets, V
    Inst of Physics, Ilmenau Technical University, Germany.
    Gobsch, G.
    Inst of Physics, Ilmenau Technical University, Germany.
    Vaughan, H.
    Dept of Physics University of Durham, UK.
    Monkman, A,
    Dept of Physics, University of Durham, UK.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Garriga, M.
    Inst de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona - CSIS, Campus de la UAB, Spain.
    Alonso, M.I.
    Inst de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona - CSIS, Campus de la UAB, Spain.
    Herrmann, G.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany.
    Becker, M.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany.
    Scholdei, W.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany.
    Jahja, M.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany.
    Bubeck, C.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany.
    On the determination of anistropy in polymer thin films: A comparative study of optical techniques2008In: Physica Status Solidi. C: Current Topics in Solid State Physics, ISSN 1862-6351, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1270-1273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used seven different techniques to measure the anisotropic refractive index of poly(vinylcarbazole) films. These techniques are: two types of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) with multiple sample analysis, Interference enhanced VASE, Transmittance combined with VASE, Polarised Reflectance, beta-scan VASE, and prism coupling. We have found the average ordinary and extraordinary indices at 633 nm to be no = nTE = 1.675 ± 0.008, and ne = nTM = 1.722 ± 0.018, respectively, consistent amongst methods and conclusive on the magnitude of Δn in polymer films.

  • 89. Chen, Jiaxin
    et al.
    Obitz, C
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forssgren, B
    CORROSION KINETICS OF NICKEL-BASE ALLOYS WITH HIGH CHROMIUM CONTENTS UNDER SIMULATED BWR NORMAL WATER CHEMISTRY CONDITIONS AND HIGH FLOW VELOCITY2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In light water reactors corrosion-induced material degradation is a critical issue not only for material integrity but also for plant radiation field build-up. In BWRs nickel-base alloys, such as Alloy 600, Alloy 82 and Alloy 182, are applied in various parts of reactor components including welds. However, their corrosion mechanisms are not very well understood. Although the complex compositions of different nickel-base alloys generally prohibit us to single out some specific alloy constituent having a major impact on alloy corrosion rate, a higher chromium content is often thought to be beneficial to forming a more protective oxide film against corrosion attack. In this paper we report a corrosion kinetics study on high chromium nickel-base alloy welding consumables, Alloy 52M and Alloy 152, under simulated BWR normal water chemistry conditions and high flow velocity for up to nine weeks exposure. The corrosion rates are derived from measurements of weight losses of test coupons, oxide thicknesses with infrared ellipsometry, and microstructures of oxide films with electron microscopy. The obtained corrosion rates are then compared to that for Alloy 182, Alloy 82 and Alloy 600. The results show that the corrosion rate for Alloy 52M is similar to those for Alloy 182, whereas the rate for Alloy 152 is reduced to less than half. These observations indicate that the corrosion kinetics for nickel-base alloys is complex and alloy chromium content alone is not a dominant factor in influencing alloy corrosion rate.

  • 90.
    Cranston, Emily D
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Eita, Mohamed
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Erik
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Netrval, Julia
    Bruker AXS Nord AB.
    Salajkova, Michaela
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wagberg, Lars
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Determination of Youngs Modulus for Nanofibrillated Cellulose Multilayer Thin Films Using Buckling Mechanics2011In: BIOMACROMOLECULES, ISSN 1525-7797, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 961-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Youngs modulus of multilayer films containing nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) was determined Using the strain-induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SLEBIMM) technique.(1) Multilayer films were built up on polydimethylsiloxane substrates using electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly. At 50% relative humidity, SIEBIMM gave a constant Youngs modulus of 1.5 +/- 0.2 GPa for 35-75 run thick films. Conversely, in vacuum, the Youngs modulus was 10 times larger, at 17.2 +/- 1.2 GPa. A slight decrease in buckling wavelength with increasing strain was observed by scanning electron microscopy with in situ compression, and above 10% strain, extensive cracking parallel to the compressive direction occurred. We conclude that whereas PEI acts as a "glue" to hold multiple layers of NFC together, it prevents full development of hydrogen bonding and specific fibril-fibril interactions, and at high humidity, its hygroscopic nature decreases the elastic modulus when compared with pure NFC films.

  • 91.
    Darakchieva, V.
    et al.
    IFM Linköpings universitet.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Schubert, Mattias
    Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenshaften Universität Leipzig.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Amano, H.
    Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Meijo University, Japan.
    Akasaki, I.
    Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Meijo University, Japan.
    Strain evolution and phonons in AlN/GaN superlattices2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) with different periods grown on GaN buffer layers were studied by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE), Raman scattering (RS) and high-resolution reciprocal space mapping (RSM). The lattice parameters and the degree of strain in the GaN buffer and the SL constituents were determined. Phonon modes originating from the buffer layer and the SL sublayers were identified and their frequency shifts were correlated with the strain state of the films.

  • 92.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskova, T.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Schubert, M.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, United States.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Hommel, D.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Heuken, M.
    Aixtron AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Off, J.
    Institute of Physics 4, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Haskell, B.A.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States.
    Fini, P.T.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States.
    Speck, J.S.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States.
    Nakamura, S.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States.
    Effect of anisotropic strain on phonons in a-plane and c-plane GaN layers2007In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 300, no 1, p. 233-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied phonons in two types of anisotropically strained GaN films: c-plane GaN films grown on a-plane sapphire and a-plane GaN films grown on r-plane sapphire. The anisotropic strain in the films is determined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) in different measuring geometries and the phonon parameters have been assessed by generalized infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (GIRSE). The effect of strain anisotropy on GaN phonon frequencies is presented and the phonon deformation potentials aA1 (TO), bA1 (TO), cE1 (TO) and cE1 (LO) are determined. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 93.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Schubert, M
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Figge, S
    Hommel, D
    Haskell, BA
    Fini, PT
    Nakamura, S
    Assessment of phonon mode characteristics via infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry on a-plane GaN2006In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 243, no 7, p. 1594-1598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalized infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to study the vibrational properties of anisotropically strained a-plane GaN films with different thicknesses. We have established a correlation between the phonon mode parameters and the strain, which allows the determination of the deformation potentials and strain-free frequency of the GaN A,(TO) mode. These results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental findings and discussed.

  • 94.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Schubert, M.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hommel, D.
    Off, J.
    Scholz, F.
    Heuken, M.
    Haskell, B.A.
    Fini, P.T.
    Speck, S.J.
    Nakamura, S.
    Anisotropic strain and phonon deformation potentials in GaN2007In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 75, no 19, p. 195217-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report optical phonon frequency studies in anisotropically strained c -plane- and a -plane-oriented GaN films by generalized infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The anisotropic strain in the films is obtained from high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements. Experimental evidence for splitting of the GaN E1 (TO), E1 (LO), and E2 phonons under anisotropic strain in the basal plane is presented, and their phonon deformation potentials c E1 (TO), c E1 (LO), and c E2 are determined. A distinct correlation between anisotropic strain and the A1 (TO) and E1 (LO) frequencies of a -plane GaN films reveals the a A1 (TO), b A1 (TO), a E1 (LO), and b E1 (LO) phonon deformation potentials. The a A1 (TO) and b A1 (TO) are found to be in very good agreement with previous results from Raman experiments. Our a A1 (TO) and a E1 (LO) phonon deformation potentials agree well with recently reported theoretical estimations, while b A1 (TO) and b E1 (LO) are found to be significantly larger than the theoretical values. A discussion of the observed differences is presented. © 2007 The American Physical Society.

  • 95.
    Eita, Mohamed
    et al.
    Royal Institute Technology KTH.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB.
    Wagberg, Lars
    Royal Institute Technology KTH.
    Addition of silica nanoparticles to tailor the mechanical properties of nanofibrillated cellulose thin films2011In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 363, no 2, p. 566-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, the use of nanocellulose in advanced technological applications has been promoted both due the excellent properties of this material in combination with its renewability. In this study, multilayered thin films composed of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), polyvinyl amine (PVAm) and silica nanoparticles were fabricated on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a layer-by-layer adsorption technique. The multilayer build-up was followed in situ by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, which indicated that the PVAm-SiO(2)-PVAm-NFC system adsorbs twice as much wet mass material compared to the PVAm-NFC system for the same number of bilayers. This is accompanied with a higher viscoelasticity for the PVAm-SiO(2)-PVAm-NFC system. Ellipsometry indicated a dry-state thickness of 2.2 and 3.4 nm per bilayer for the PVAm-NFC system and the PVAm-SiO(2)-PVAm-NFC system, respectively. Atomic force microscopy height images indicate that in both systems, a porous network structure is achieved. Youngs modulus of these thin films was determined by the Strain-Induced Elastic Buckling Instability for Mechanical Measurements (SIEBIMM) technique. The Youngs modulus of the PVAm/NFC films was doubled, from 1 to 2 GPa, upon incorporation of silica nanoparticles in the films. The introduction of the silica nanoparticles lowered the refractive index of the films, most probably due to an increased porosity of the films.

  • 96.
    Fernandez Del Rio, Lia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarization of light reflected from Chrysina gloriosa under various illuminations2014In: Materials Today: Proceedings, Elsevier Ltd , 2014, Vol. 1, p. 172-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When illuminated with unpolarized light, the scarab beetle Chrysina gloriosa, reflects left-handed near-circularly polarized light for a broad range of angles of incidence and wavelengths in the visible. It is, however, known that light scattered from the sky, reflected on water or transmitted through leaves often is linearly polarized. In this study we have analysed the polarization of light reflected on this beetle when illuminated with different polarization states of light. We have also analysed how the response would be with a polarization-sensitive detector. The reflected irradiance is shown to be highest when the incident light is s-polarized or left-handed polarized and the detector is unpolarized (or vice versa). In the case in which both, the source and the detector, are polarized, the irradiance is highest when both are s-polarized. On the contrary the visibility is low when the source is s-polarized and the detector is p-polarized.

  • 97.
    Fernandez Del Rio, Lia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polarizing properties and structure of the cuticle of scarab beetles from the Chrysina genus2016In: PHYSICAL REVIEW E, ISSN 2470-0045, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 012409-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical properties of several scarab beetles have been previously studied but few attempts have been made to compare beetles in the same genus. To determine whether there is any relation between specimens of the same genus, we have studied and classified seven species from the Chrysina genus. The polarization properties were analyzed with Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry and the structural characteristics with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the Chrysina beetles are green colored or have a metallic look (gold or silver). The results show that the green-colored beetles polarize reflected light mainly at off-specular angles. The gold-colored beetles polarize light left-handed near circular at specular reflection. The structure of the exoskeleton is a stack of layers that form a cusplike structure in the green beetles whereas the layers are parallel to the surface in the case of the gold-colored beetles. The beetle C. gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along the elytras and exhibits both types of effects. The results indicate that Chrysina beetles can be classified according to these two major polarization properties.

  • 98.
    Fernandez Del Rio, Lía
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarizing properties and structural characteristics of the cuticle of the scarab Beetle Chrysina gloriosa2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, no 3, p. 410-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scarab beetle Chrysina gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along its elytras. The properties of light reflected on these areas are investigated using Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Both areas reflect light with high degree of left-handed polarization but this effect occurs for specular reflection for the gold-colored areas and for off-specular angles for the green areas. The colors and polarization phenomena originate from reflection of light in the cuticle and a structural analysis is presented to facilitate understanding of the different behaviors of these two areas. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the cross section of beetle cuticles show a multilayered structure. On the gold-colored areas the layers are parallel to the surface whereas on the green-colored areas they form cusp-like structures. Optical microscopy images show a rather flat surface in the gold-colored areas compared to the green-colored areas which display a net of polygonal cells with star-shaped cavities in the center. Each of the polygons corresponds to one of the cusps observed in the SEM images. Atomic force microscopy images of the star-shaped cavities are also provided. The roughness of the surface and the cusp-like structure of the green-colored areas are considered to cause scattering on this area.

  • 99.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Mueller Matrix Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Scarab Beetles of the Chrysina Genus2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The attractive shiny metallic colour of jewel scarabs is originating from the structure of the exoskeleton.For some directions and wavelengths of the incident light this structure will also cause the reflectedlight to have a large ellipticity (near-circular polarization). This is due to that the exoskeleton is ahelicoidal structure, formed by layers of chitin molecules. The reflected light is most commonly lefthandedpolarized but right-handed polarization is also observed. In this work six species of Scarabbeetles from the Chrysina genus are investigated. The complete Mueller-matrix is measured with adual rotating compensator ellipsometer (RC2, J.A.Woollam Co., Inc.). The results are presented ascontour plots where we represent different parameters as a function of incidence angle 2[25; 75]and wavelength 2[240; 1000]nm of the incident beam. Parameters of particular interest are the m41element of the Mueller-matrix, which is related to the circular polarization behaviour, the degree ofpolarization, the ellipticity and the absolute value of the azimuth angle. From ocular observationsthrough left- and right-circularly polarizing filters all specimens showed clear polarization effects interms of colour changes. However, the Mueller matrix ellipsometry measurements showed two generaltypes of polarization behaviour depending on the studied species. Chrysina macropus and Chrysinaperuviana had a smaller range of m41 values around zero. Much larger m41 variations were observedfor Chrysina argenteola, Chrysina chrysargyrea and Chrysina resplendens. Chrysina gloriosa hadboth types of polarization behaviour depending on if the measurements where made on the green orgolden parts of this striped beetle. Comparisons among samples of beetles from the same species wereconducted. For instance, different specimens of Chrysina resplendens show rather large differences inthe polarization response whereas specimens of Chrysina chrysargyrea showed very similar polarizationbehaviour. All studied specimens did in some sense reflect both right- and left-handed polarizedlight. In many cases very high ellipticities (near-circular polarization states) were observed. Modelsof structures generating the observed polarization effects as well as biological aspects will also bediscussed.Figure 257: Three pictures of C. chrysargyrea from left to right taken with aleft-circular polarizer, no filters and with a right-circular polarizer in front of thecamera. Two contour plots of m41 for C. chrysargyrea showing a large region withleft-handed near-circular polarization and C. resplendens showing a large regionwith right-handed near-circular polarization.

  • 100.
    Gallas, B
    et al.
    University of Paris 06.
    Guth, N
    University of Paris 06.
    Rivory, J
    University of Paris 06.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Guida, G
    University of Paris Ouest.
    Yang, J
    Queens University.
    Robbie, K
    Queens University.
    Nanostructured chiral silver thin films: A route to metamaterials at optical frequencies2011In: THIN SOLID FILMS, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 519, no 9, p. 2650-2654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study of the optical properties of three-armed square nanospirals made of silver and realized as nanostructured thin films with Glancing Angle Deposition. Optical property variations with polarization were investigated using numerical simulations. For each polarisation case, two principal resonances were determined corresponding to excitation of plasmonic modes of nanospirals which resonances frequency depended on the dimensions of the nanospirals. Calculation of current flows in the nanospirals showed patterns resembling those observed in U-shaped resonators. In particular, a mode with anti-parallel current flow in opposite arms indicates the existence of a magnetic-like resonance in the square nanospirals. We present also generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements obtained on one sample at an incidence angle of 25, and evidence conversion between polarization states even for light polarized in the plane containing one of the arms. The measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations for an ideal structure. The differences in the conversion of polarization between measurements and calculations were mainly attributed to the existence of structural non-idealities in the actual sample.

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