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  • 51.
    Cederlund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Häggström, Anna-Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Brytningstid i Internkommunikationen?: vilken roll har Intranät och e-post i organisationers kommunikation?2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Having a functioning internal communication is necessary for the survival and existence of every company. Traditional communication channels are for example meetings, noteboards and personnel newspapers. During the last ten years we have witnessed an explosion of new channels, who are based on information technology. IT is a natural part in new IT-companies, like Framfab and Icon Medialab, but what role does IT have in a large, manufacturing company with a long history? The purpose with this thesis is to investigate how IT has influenced the internal communication in a company. With this thesis we want to contribute to a developed understanding of communication within companies and discuss what role IT can play for internal communication in the future. We have chosen to study Akzo Nobel and have interviewed employees in different business units to investigate their view on communication and the influence of IT. We found that IT has had a relatively great impact on the internal communication and that the new technology often work as a complement to the traditional communication channels. We believe that IT will lead to an increased amount of written communication and that the communication will be detached from persons. There is a risk that the amount of information will increase and that this will make it harder for the individual to find relevant information. For IT to be an efficient channel for companies in the future, we believe that companies must educate employees regarding technology, pedagogic and written presentation.

  • 52.
    Cronstedt, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Fyhr, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Implementering av informationssystem: en studie utförd vid Nordic Lubricants AB2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Information har kommit att bli en alltmer kritisk ingrediens i dagens samhälle. Detta har drivit utvecklingen av informationsteknologi (IT) och informationssystem (IS), vilket har gjort det möjligt för organisationer att bearbeta stora mängder information.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att beskriva implementationsprocessen av ett informationssystem utifrån ett organisatoriskt perspektiv snarare än utifrån ett tekniskt sådant. Vi ämnar analysera processen och de eventuella problem som denna medför genom att använda två olika perspektiv; nämligen det hårda och det mjuka perspektivet.

    Avgränsningar: Uppsatsen behandlar inte uppköp som sådant. Vi inriktar oss på implementationsprocessen av ISP i Nordic Lubricants AB. Valet av respondenter grundades på deras inblandning i implementationsprocessen och därmed inte på deras roller som slutanvändare.

    Genomförande: Vi har genomfört en kvalitativ studie baserad på intervjuer med deltagare i implementationsprocessen vid Nordic Lubricants AB.

    Resultat: För att på ett effektivt sätt implementera ett informationssystem och hålla sig inom projektets tidsramar är det viktigt att implementationsprocessen är strukturerad, framhävt av det hårda synsättet. Det mjuka synsättets rekommendationer angående användarnas roll får dock inte förbises.

  • 53.
    Curtsdotter, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Kihlborg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Radikala ändringar av marknadsförhållanden och strategiska förändringar2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is much literature covering strategic change under different circumstances but very little concerning how companies act strategically under sudden and radical changes to market conditions. Based on three different events (the terrorist attack in the USA September 11th 2001, the Tjernobyl accident April 26th 1986 and the Islamic revolution in Iran 1979) with such radical changes as a result we chose three companies that were affected (SAS, Asea Atom and Atlas Copco). The result of the events that were studied in this thesis is extremely unusual to their character. The events themselves were sudden and of a temporary nature but the results were long term changes of market conditions. Through personal interviews the authors have tried to establish how the companies have perceived the events and how the top management has strategically handled the situation. It seems like the interpretation of the importance the event will have on the company's future has been the basis for what measures that where taken. Furthermore, the authors have, after having compared the actions of the companies with some already established theories concerning strategic change, been able to see that the existing theories cannotcompletely explain the actions of the companies and reactions under such extreme conditions. The time aspect and the resistance to change are factors that are affected by the radical changes of market conditions, since the planning of the changes takes place under a very compressed period of time, and the resistance to change that becomes unusually low within the company.

  • 54.
    Dahlson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Svensson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The future of the University of Linköping: networking as a mean for coping with the Bologna Process2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the past years the increasing internationalisation has not only affected companies but also universities. This development is due to the Bologna Declaration which prescribes a harmonisation of the higher education in Europe. The declaration implies a tougher competition, but also a higher degree of co-operation among European universities.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to examine how LiU can make use of thenetwork approach in the process of internationalisation, in order to cope with the changes that the Bologna Declaration implies.

    Realisation: We have carried out a total amount of 17 interviews. To complement these interviews, secondary data about the Bologna Process and LiU have been extracted from the internet and other information material.

    Results: LiU should take advantage of the opportunities provided by the Bologna Process in order to further internationalise. The most favourable way of networking for LiU would be to be a part of relatively small and complementary networks. The promotion and facilitation of the communication between partners, but also within the university, is crucial. Use, and constantly develop, the competitive advantages in order to seek possible network partners and to attract students, teachers and researchers.

  • 55.
    Danell, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Törnqvist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Projektkvaliet: en diskussion kring kvalitet i projekt2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Valet av projekt som arbetsform framställs i litteraturen som eftersträvansvärt då det medför flertalet organisatoriska fördelar vilket borde innebära ett intresse av att studera dess kvalitet. Kvalitetstänkande vad gäller projekt är traditionellt starkt knutet till projektets output men arbetssättet med vilket output realiseras omnämns inte i samma utsträckning när man talar om kvalitet i projekt.

    Syfte: Syftet är att bidra till förståelsen av hur begreppet kvalitet används i projektspecifika sammanhang.

    Genomförande: Undersökningen har genomförts i form av en fallstudie och den empiriska informationen samlades in genom tre intervjuer. Två av intervjuerna utfördes på projektorganiserade företag och den tredje utfördes med en konsult som arbetar inom uppsatsens specifika problemområde. De studerade företagens projekt är komplexa projekt där kunden integreras i projektets utförande.

    Resultat: Vi har konstaterat att en fokusering på antingen outputkvalitet eller processkvalitet ger en obalanserad bild och medför vissa för och nackdelar. Att anamma helhetsperspektivet projektkvalitet skulle leda till att vissa problem, en obalanserad bild skapar, skulle kunna rättas till. Vi har även funnit att företagens strävan efter kundnöjdhet skulle kunna underlättas av helhetssynen på projektkvalitet.

  • 56.
    Danielsson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Göransson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Officerare som lärare eller poliser: gemensamma faktorer för ledarskap2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I takt med nedskärningar inom det svenska försvaret har ett stort antal officerare behövt byta yrke. Många av dessa officerare har valt nya karriärer som lärare och poliser. Vi har valt att undersöka vilka likheter och skillnader som finns mellan officersyrket och lärar- och polisyrket, med avseende på ledaraspekten.

    Syfte: Vårt syfte är att analysera om en omskolad officer passar in i sin nya ledarroll som lärare eller polis. Avgränsning: Då alla poliser arbetar på ordningsenheten till en början är det denna avdelning vi främst behandlar.

    Genomförande: Vår studie bygger dels på litteratur inom ledarskap inom Försvarsmakten, skolan och polisen, dels på besöksintervjuer med två före detta officerare samt två nya kollegor.

    Resultat: Vi har i vår studie kommit fram till att det främst är personliga faktorer som egenskaper och kompetenser som gör att en före detta officer är lämplig som lärare eller polis. De egenskaper och kompetenser som är önskvärda för officerare stämmer väl överens med de egenskaper och kompetenser som är önskvärda för lärare och poliser. Vi menar också att officerare i och med sin utbildning har en bra förutsättning för att utveckla dessa egenskaper och kompetenser.

  • 57.
    Danielsson, Teodor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Edgren, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Partnerval i joint ventures på den svenska 3G-marknaden En studie av de svenska nätoperatörerna2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traditionally defined boundaries and borders between organizations are at present being re-evaluated because of new and tougher demands. Today we can see a trend where these boundaries are being lowered or even eliminated when organizations choose to co-operate instead of compete.

    Purpose: In order to create an understanding for the partner selection process in the newly founded joint ventures between the companies which are building the Swedish 3G Network, the determining factors are being studied.

    Delimitation: The studies companies are co-operating as network operators but are at the same time competing as mobile operators. This relationship is in the literature described as co-opetition, which will not be investigated in this paper.

    Realization: Taking our starting point in Geringer’s task- and partner-related approach, a simple model has been created for the task. Empirical data have been collected through interviews, and have been analyzed with this model.

    Results: Essentially the same factors have been found determining for the companies which have committed themselves for co-operation. These factors do however tend to differ partly between the two joint ventures that have been founded. In the Europolitan Vodafone” Hi3G joint venture, compatibility between top management and culture&structure seem to be the motivating factors. From a Telia - Tele2-perspective, the mutual factors seem to be financing and compatibility between top management. An important criterion has in both joint venture constellations to the access to existing real capital and infrastructure as well as having existing customers.

  • 58.
    Davidsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)Activities of Swedish Multinational Companies (MNCs) Contributing to Economic and Social Development in the Argentinean Society2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stakeholders are expecting companies to take on a broader social responsibility. Swedish MNCs operating in Argentina and working actively with CSR face special challenges when implementing CSR activities in the local context. However, what is important is what the companies are doing in practice, not what they are saying in corporate reports.

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to examine how and why Swedish MNCs operating in Argentina and working actively and consciously with CSR on a corporate level, engage in CSR activities aimed at the society in Argentina.

    Results: Ericsson and Tetra Pak engage in strategic business interest activities contributing with their core competences - communication technology and recycling of packages - to the poor and less educated. Astra Zeneca and ABB engage in corporate philanthropic activities, collaborating with children foundations and supporting a farm school respectively. ABB also engages in strategic CSR activities manufacturing an electrical device aimed at the poor. The most decisive motives for engaging in CSR activities is the social sensitivity of the people in the organization (Ericsson), achieving better community relations (ABB), and the demands of the mother companies (Astra Zeneca and Tetra Pak). Marketing benefits are not admitted as motives, but the MNCs are clearly aware of CSR's positive effects on the company image.

  • 59.
    de la Gardie, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Johansson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Ekonomistyrning av projekt med olika grad av osäkerhet2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En stor del av projekten som genomförs överskrider de ramar som finns vad gäller budget, tid och kvalitetsspecifikationer. De problem som uppstår vid ekonomistyrning av projekt kan troligtvis till viss del härledas till att projekt genomförs i olika miljöer och således utsätts för olika grad av osäkerhet. Detta, i kombination med varje projekts unikhet, leder till antagandet att alla projekt inte kan styras på samma sätt, utan istället måste sannolikt ekonomistyrningen anpassas till det enskilda projektets förutsättningar.

    Syfte: Syftet är att beskriva och analysera hur ekonomistyrningen utformas samt även hur den bör utformas i projekt som kännetecknas av olika grad av osäkerhet.

    Genomförande: Undersökningen genomfördes i form av en fallstudie och den empiriska informationen samlades in genom fyra intervjuer på lika många företag som arbetar med olika sorters projekt. De undersökta projekten är ett implementeringsprojekt, ett byggprojekt och två utvecklingsprojekt.

    Resultat: Vi har konstaterat att implementeringsprojektet uppvisar minst osäkerheter medan utvecklingsprojekten är mest osäkra och även oförutsägbara. Den främsta osäkerheten i samtliga projekt kan härledas till kunden och dennes preferenser. Vidare skiljer sig ekonomistyrningen åt i de olika projekten, bl a genom budgetens och tidsplanens upprättande och användning samt acceptansen av avvikelser från planen, vilket påvisar att alla projekt inte kan styras på samma sätt.

  • 60.
    Domargård, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Kohn, Christofer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    eProcurement: A Study of the Concept from the Point the Point of View of the Users and System Suppliers2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The market for eProcurement is expected to increase from from US$ 3,6 miljarder to US$ 1.375 billions under the period 1999-2003. Nevertheless, there is still a widespread unsecurity among companies surrounding eProcurement, partly due to that procurement for a long time has played a remote role in the companies, and partly since procurement is a far from a homogeneous function.

    Purpose: To examine how eProcurement is defined, what advantages eProcurement implies and how it affects the procurement strategies and the procurement processes of companies.

    Research method: The empiric work comes from interviews with persons in connection with procurement at four companies that today are using an eProcurement-system or are about to introduce one, and at two companies that delivers applications.

    Result: From the persons we have interviewed we conclude that there is a rather strong unanimity as how eProcurement is being defined, and which advantages it can imply. Furthermore, eProcurement should not be seen as a solution of a company's eventuall procurement problems, but as a tool to strengthen and refine its procurement strategies and a possibility for rationalizing the procurement processes of the company. In other words, you shall not just pave old paths.

  • 61.
    Ebbesson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sundvall, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Managing knowledge in uncertain times: a study of three Swedish management consulting firms2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The management consulting industry has been facing difficulty. Since knowledge is described as such an important asset it is in our opinion interesting to study how it is managed in times of uncertainty.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to study how management-consulting companies follow their knowledge management strategies in times of uncertainty.

    Procedure: Personal interviews were conducted with three consulting firms.

    Result: The consulting firms we interviewed have not been focusing on knowledge management questions during the uncertain last two years because of a lack of both time and money. Therefore, according to our findings management-consulting firms interrupted the previously followed knowledge management strategy. Knowledge management issues instead had to remain unchanged, which in the case companies seem to be close to the personalisation strategy

  • 62.
    Eckerhall, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Karlsson, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Kapitalstruktur och Affärsrisk2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the past year it has been made possible to buy back a company’s outstanding stock. This is done in order to change the capital structure towards a situation with less equity. A change in capital structure means a change in the cost of capital for a company and by that a change in the value for the stockholder. This Master Thesis studies the relation between capital structure and business risk. Studying the debt to equity ratio in a company captures capital structure. Studying the volatility in return on assets over a certain time period captures business risk. The Master Thesis also includes a study of what factors have an impact on the business risk when looking at the day-to-day business. By conducting a study of the pulp and paper industry and its nine listed companies a picture is created of what factors have an impact on the relation between capital structure and business risk. The business risk is in a very high degree dependant on factors like economic development for the product, raw material prices, number of product groups and what segments the company penetrates. A positive relation between capital structure and business risk has been identified. The study also indicates that other factors than just the business risk should be hold responsible for a company’s capital structure.

  • 63.
    Edvinson, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Messili, Mustapha
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Interaktiva styrsystem: en studie av Vattenfall2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En omvärldsförändring som under senare tid hamnat i fokus världen över är avregleringar och en av de sista marknaderna i Sverige som har avreglerats är elmarknaden. Många problem som ett företag möter vid en avreglering härrör från att företagsledningen har vuxit fram ur ett tänkande baserat på en monopolmarknad istället för på en konkurrensutsatt marknad. Ett verktyg som en företagsledning använder sig av, för att företaget ska kunna vara flexibelt och anpassa sin strategi för framtida förändringar, är interaktiva styrsystem. Däremot behöver inte ett interaktivt styrsystem som idag är berättigade vara det rätta imorgon. Detta faktum gör det intressant att undersöka om ett företag klarar av att anpassa sig samt förbli en konkurrenskraftig aktör på den nya marknaden.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vilka förändringar en avreglering av den svenska elmarknaden har på Vattenfalls interaktiva styrsystem och vad de eventuella förändringarna beror på.

    Avgränsningar: I denna undersökning ämnar vi inte bedöma Vattenfalls val av strategi eller Vattenfalls marknadsprognos innan respektive efter avregleringen. Vidare har vi valt att avgränsa denna undersökning till att gälla distributionen av el till slutkund, vilket gör att det endast är Vattenfalls försäljningsavdelning som är av intresse i denna undersökning. Slutligen kommer inte att behandla interaktiva styrsystem som anknyter till juridiska strategiska osäkerheter och vi kommer inte heller försöka identifiera brister och svagheter med Vattenfalls interaktiva styrsystem och dess beroendevariabler.

    Genomförande: Den data som denna undersökning består av har samlats in genom en kvalitativ metod, där vi har gjort intervjuer med anställda på Vattenfall AB. Till viss del har vi använt oss av sekundärdata likt statliga rapporter, Internet och årsredovisningar.

    Resultat: Denna undersöknings resultat kan summeras med att Vattenfalls interaktiva styrsystem och dess beroendevariabler inte har genomgått någon markant förändring. Strategin har förändrats från att vara produktorienterad till att vara kundorienterad och liknas vid en differentieringsstrategi. Vattenfalls marknadsprognos är i stort oförändrad. Även de strategiska osäkerheterna har förändrats marginellt. I detta fall är den tydligaste förändringen att kundorientering har blivit en strategisk osäkerhet, vilket beror på att den svenska elmarknaden utsattes för konkurrens i och med avregleringen. Vad gäller interaktiva styrsystem har tre system förblivit oförändrade. Ett interaktivt styrsystem, logistiksystem, har försvunnit i och med avregleringen och istället har ett kundorienterat styrsystem skapats. Det ska dock tilläggas att det före detta logistiksystemet täcks upp av kundorienteringssystemet.

  • 64.
    Eiborn, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Falkeström, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Norrköpingsmodellen: om styrning av ett interorganisatoriskt personalavvecklingsprojekt2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I en tid där samhällsansvar i allt högre grad präglar storföretagens agerande har ambitiösa personalavvecklingsprojekt där flera privata och offentliga organisationer involveras under 1990-talet blivit vanliga i samband med större industrinedläggningar. Ur ett styrningsperspektiv blir projektledningens uppgift att tillvarata den kompetens som ställs till projektets förfogande av medverkande aktörer. Möjligheterna till detta begränsas utav risken för interorganisatorisk suboptimering. Vårt syfte med denna uppsats är att öka förståelsen för hur projektledningen kan skapa förutsättningar för måluppfyllelse i ett interorganisatoriskt projekt. Dessutom avser vi klargöra de specifika förutsättningar som påverkar styrningen av ett personalavvecklingsprojekt i ett interorganisatoriskt sammanhang, samt hur styrningen skall anpassas till dessa förutsättningar. Fallstudien baseras på intervjuer med representanter för organisationer involverade i Norrköpingsmodellen, det personalavvecklingsprojekt som följde nedläggningen av Ericssons fabrik i Norrköping. Det formella systemet ger projektet dess grundstruktur samtidigt som det riskerar att begränsa organisationens flexibilitet. Flexibiliteten skapas istället av det informella systemet, som påför projektorganisationen en dynamisk egenskap som är nödvändig i en osäker miljö. Den dynamiska karaktären förstärks ytterligare genom att projektet tillförs oklarhet och en unik identitet. Människor i kris som möter en arbetsmarknad i ständig förändring kräver en projektorganisation där olika aktörers kompetens tillsammans skapar förutsättningar för individuella lösningar.

  • 65.
    Eick, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Nordvall, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    On the threshold of the network society? A study of the public discourse prior to two merger situations separated in time2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The claims that we have entered a new society, with a new typeof business logic and view on business relationships, are becoming more and more commonplace. In this context it seems appropriate to try and detect signals of change in societal behavior, possibly indicating a transition from one society to another. This essay deals with this very issue. By means of an analysis of the public discourses in 1993 and 1999 respectively, the authors try to establish evidence for or against such a societal shift. The analysis is focused on the discourse, as it was conveyed in the business press, surrounding two separate merger propositions, both including Volvo as one of the parties involved. The results indicate a societal change, albeit a moderate one. Also, no fundamental change in business logic could be detected. This would suggest that the hype around the New Economy might be just that, a hype.

  • 66.
    Ekdahl, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Aram Roya, Emilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Stock Market Efficiency: A Test of the Swedish Stock Market in the Weak Form2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A well-known study, similar to ours, was made in 1985 in America, showing that "loser" portfolios outperformed the market while "winner" portfolios earned less return than the market. This finding is not in accordance with the theory of efficient markets. If a market is efficient, there should be no possibility of making sustainable excess returns and prices should follow a random walk.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to study a "winner" portfolio and a "loser" portfolio in order to establish whether the Swedish stock market is efficient in the weak form. We will study the efficiency of the A-list at Stockholm Stock Exchange.

    Delimitations: We test efficiency of the Swedish stock market in the weak form. Our investigation comprises stocks registered on the A-list of the Stockholm Stock Exchange. We do not take tax- and transactions costs into consideration in this study.

    Methodology: "Winner" and "loser" portfolios are formed for the period 1997- 2002. We keep the portfolios during a test period of one year, i.e. form new portfolios at the end of each year. The first winner and loser portfolios are selected on the last day of trading in 1996 and the last two portfolios are selected on the last day of trading in 2001.

    Results: Our result indicates that the Swedish stock market is efficient in the weak form during the period 1997-2002.

  • 67.
    Eklund, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Förtroendekriser: en studie av svenska livförsäkringsbolag2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish life-insurance business has been extensively criticised lately due to broken promises to customers as well as due to scandals that some companies within the business have been involved in. The companies within the Swedish life-insurance business find themselves in a so- called crisis of confidence, something that is created in and by media. A company that finds itself in a crisis of confidence somehow have to manage the situation and crises of confidence can also result in different kinds of changes.

    Purpose: The aim of this thesis is to explore and analyse how individual life- insurance companies manage crises of confidence. As a consequence, the aim is also to investigate in what way crises of confidence are initiators to change.

    Procedure: The study has been conducted through seven qualitative interviews with individuals holding a managerial position within a Swedish life-insurance company.

    Findings: Essential for managing crises of confidence is communication and information mainly to media, but also to customers and employees. Further, a higher level of clarity and transparency in products and activities, together with increased control of ethical policies, are aspects that have been shown to be of importance in managing the crisis of confidence within the Swedish life- insurance business. The crisis of confidence has generated changes, but it can not be decided with certainty if these changes have been initiated only by the crisis of confidence, or if the changes would have been carried through anyway. What can be established, is that the crisis of confidence has speeded up already planned changes.

  • 68.
    Ekström, Josefina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Ericsson, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Effektiv prestationsmätning: en studie av prestationsmätning i kund-leverantörsrelationer2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Performance measurement as a management control tool has received considerable academic attention. As the number of inter-organisational relationships, such as customer-supplier relationships, increases, there is a new scope for performance measurement as a management control tool. In order for a company to assess the effectiveness of its supplier relationships it has to define, measure and evaluate variables that are critical for the success of the relationship. The role of management control, and thereby of performance measurement, has increasingly been discussed in theory. However, empirical research in this area is still somewhat limited.

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to analyse how performance measurement in inter-organisational relationships should be designed in order to be effective.

    Results: Theory which is applicable on performance measurement as a control tool in general also appears to be applicable on performance measurement as a control tool in inter-organisational relationships. Exactly which requirements performance measurement should meet, in order to be effective, is difficult to establish since they often imply a trade-off between different factors. In order to be effective, performance measurement partly needs to be adjusted to the situation, which adds yet a dimension to, and difficulty of, performance measurement in inter-organisational relationships.

  • 69.
    Ekvall, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Furelid, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Det smarta kapitalet: En studie av nyetablerade IT-företags syn på relationen till sitt riskkapitalbolag2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The growth of the venture capital industry has given birth to new relations between investors and entrepreneurial firms. Venture capital firms are by definition investors serving as an active partner which implies a deeper relation between investors and entrepreneurs than has been the case previously. This new situation leads to a number of questions. Do venture capitalists really act as active partners with a long term interest in the venture? Do they add any value besides capital? How important is their influence in the portfolio company's decision making process?

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to give a deeper understanding of the relation between venture capital firms and IT companies in the start-up phase.

    Limitations: This study is limited to Swedish IT companies. We have further chosen to study the phenomenon from the portfolio company's point of view. A final limitation that has been made is to focus on companies financed by formal venture capital.

    Realisation: Using theories treating interorganisational relations and adjacent theories treating power we have chosen to study the relation between venture capital firms and their portfolio companies. The empirical data was gathered through interviews with five entrepreneurial companies in the IT business. The studyhas been carried out with an approach similar to a qualitative case study.

    Result: We have found that the venture capital firm is seen as a very devoted partner with a long term interest in the company and that their contribution of resources is important. Regarding its influence in the portfolio company's decision making process we have concluded that this is due to an informal power position resulting from their possession of critical resources. In particular we have found that the possession of capital gives rise to a very influential position in the portfolio company.

  • 70.
    El-Hayek, Silva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Segeman, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Kapitalförvaltarnas arbetsmetodik vid förvaltandet av den diskretionära potföljen2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The devolopment in the exchange market has attract a large number of investors. The information flow is extensive and it might be hard to follow the dynamic market. Some investors therefore choose to place their capital in a stock portfolio which is manged by a professional firm with no influence from the capital owner, this management is called discretionary managing.

    Purpose: the purpose of the thesis is to examine the working methods and the rationality regarding the management of the discretionary portfolios. The purpose is also to try to examine whether there is a relation between the selected risk, return and fees.

    Realization: in this thesis our primary data comes from interviews with portfolio managers. By means of snowball sample we found portfolio managers in banks and in stock broker firms. Anonymity has been used to promote the right information from our interviews.

    Result: Discretionary portfolio management differ between banks and stock brokers. The managing in the banks has a passive investment strategy and the stock brokers has an active strategy. The chosen stategy characterize the selected risk, expected return and the required fees.

  • 71.
    Elisson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Johansson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Reala optioner: ett strategiskt verktyg2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Businesses are traditionally valued with the so called Discounted Cash Flow-model. When valuing newly-started businesses, surrounded by high uncertainty, and whose capital mostly consists of unrealized business opportunities, the Discounted Cash Flow-model needs to be complemented if the total value of the business is to be captured. A valuation with the help of real options is capable of valuing these unrealized opportunities, which often exist in newly-started businesses. The unrealized opportunities are to be found in the business plan of the business, why this needs to be valued to capture the total value of a newly-started business.

    Purpose: To demonstrate what the use of real options can result in when valuing businesses.

    Realization: The fulfillment of the purpose was achieved by gathering information from a case company. Thereafter the case company was valued by putting the gathered information and made assumptions into suitable theoretical valuation models. Finally, an evaluation of the result was made.

    Findings: A valuation model, which includes real options can give a higher value on the business, but to beable to use real options one need to undertake some assumptions. These make the real option value uncertain to some extent. Real options can however function as a strategic tool. Firstly, the estimated option values can serve as indicators as to which decision to undertake within the business. Secondly, using real options can change the business management’s way to look at what creates value.

  • 72.
    Endahl, Giedre Vyciute
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Åberg, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Försäljningsomkostnader2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has many times proved to be difficult to compare calculation information between different units, although these units use the same calculation method. This is especially so if the units in question geographically are belonging to regions with different calculation traditions. Therefore it is of great interest to examine how calculation information can diverse.

    Purpose: The purpose is to analyse sales costs with focus on selection and valuation in calculations.

    Research Method: We have carried out a case study combined with interviews with three middle-managers in the Swedish division and with three middle-managers for the corresponding units in the UK division of the same global company.

    Results: We find that the calculation traditions to a large extent influences what the calculation information shows, but we also find big differences between units which historically use the same calculation traditions. According to our study the principal cause of the differences comes from the fact that the units use different selections.

  • 73.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Ferrero, Benny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Hantering av Kärnkompetenser i Decentraliserade Organisationer: ett spänningsförhållande2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultat: Vi framhåller att den teoretiska spänningen mellan reaktionssnabbhet och synergi som uppstår när decentraliserade organisationer fokuserar på kärnkompetensbaserad strategi till viss del kan hanteras av ledningen genom ett adekvat agerande.

    För att skapa synergier krävs centralisering. Då strategisk beslutsrätt är en nyckelfaktor för reaktionssnabbhet kan och bör den inte fråntas SBU:s. Vår slutsats är att om en decentraliserad organisation centraliserar den operativa beslutsrätten istället för den strategiska, bör den kunna öka både reaktionssnabbheten och synergierna i företaget som helhet. Centralisering av företagets operativa delar minimerar den initialt negativa effekten på reaktionssnabbhet som centraliseringen medför. Vi har funnit att den bästa ledningsroll som kan antas i utvecklings- och spridningsprocessen av kärnkompetens är att påtvinga ett bästa utförande. Med detta menas att utvecklingen av kompetenser bör hanteras inom SBU:s, medan spridningen och institutionaliseringen sköts centralt. Detta underlättar synergiskapandet genom att använda de historiskt starka vertikala kommunikationskanalerna, vilket kortar återhämtningstiden av den ovan nämnda initiala minskningen i reaktionssnabbhet.

    Med en väl balanserad kombination av dessa förslag för hantering av spänningen mellan kärnkompetensbaserad strategi och decentraliserade organisationer torde företag kunna öka sin långsiktiga konkurrenskraft samt skapa en förbättrad metod för hantering av spänningen.

  • 74.
    Eriksson, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Hallstan, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Svenskt ledarskap i Spanien: en studie av ledarskapstil i en kulturellt olik situation.2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Arbetet med att integrera medlemsländerna i den Europeiska Unionen pågår inom en mängd områden, men hur ser utvecklingen inom ledarskap ut? Tidigare studier har visat på en stor variation mellan ledarskap i Europeiska länder, samtidigt som andra studier påvisar att nationell kultur tycks ha inverkan på ledarskap. Två länder inom EU som skiljer sig avsevärt åt med avseende på kultur är Sverige och Spanien. Det blir då intressant att studera den ledarskapsstil en svensk ledare, som är präglad av den svenska kulturen i sitt sätt att leda, antar i Spanien. Påverkar den spanska kulturen svenska ledare, och så fall hur mycket och på vilket sätt?

    Syfte: Syftet är att bidra med förståelse för vilken ledarskapstil svenska ledare antar gentemot sina spanska medarbetare i Spanien, samt att diskutera till vilken grad den spanska kulturen kan ha påverkat ledarskapsstilen.

    Metod: Det empiriska materialet har inhämtats genom personliga intervjuer med sex svenska ledare som har haft en ledande position i Spanien.

    Resultat: Vi har kommit fram till att den stilen de intervjuade antog är en mer uppgifts- än relationsinriktad ledarskapsstil. Kulturen tycks vara av betydelse då återkommande fraser i intervjuerna var "var tydlig" samt "chefen bestämmer", vilket kan identifieras med det spanska samhället. Vidare är det viktigt att behärska det spanska språket. Dessa aspekter indikerar att det inom vissa beteendemönster tycks ha skett en anpassning till den kulturella kontexten. Däremot framkommer det att de svenska ledarna strävade efter att inkludera medarbetarna både vid problemlösning och i beslutfattande. Dessa beteenden ser vi som uttryck för att de svenska ledarna har en stil som till viss del är förankrad i den svenska kulturen.

  • 75.
    Falk, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Theding, Ebba
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Brands- invaluable assets?2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In order to make financially logical decisions it is important to know the real value of all assets in a company. Brands are intangible assets that are often said to be of great value in the context of mergers and acquisitions. Despite this fact, they are rarely given an exact financial figure.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the significance and value of brands in M&A. By this we aim to contribute to the understanding of brands in the context of M&A and try to find out if brands are invaluable assets in both respects.

    Realisation: We have studied theoretical findings on the subject and thereafter made our own study of two cases of acquisitions; the acquistition of Candelia by Cloetta and that of NK Cityfastigheter by Hufvudstaden.

    Results: We have found that brands represent a real financial value to companies. Financial evaluations however seem to be of lesser importance in the context of M&A. In these situations it appears as if valuation of brands mainly serves as an arbitrary basis for negotiations. The question of the good fit between companies and other brands is seem to be the most important issue in M&A.

  • 76.
    Frias, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Ruhlander, Jenny-Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Management accounting in horizontal networks2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The management accounting coordination in a horizontal network of small and medium sized companies entails numerous questions and potential complications that may vary according to the extent of cooperation chosen. Categorizing network co-operations along an imaginary market–hierarchy continuum might offer the theoretical foundation needed to further understand networks and as a consequence illuminate the link to the diverse management accounting issues.

    Purpose: To analyze the management accounting systems in different forms of horizontal network co-operations.

    Delimitations: It is not within the purpose of the thesis to discuss the various reasons why cooperative relationships are established in the first place, nor how they develop. Proceed of the study: A multiple case study of three Swedish networks composed of small/medium-sized firms was carried out with the help of thirteen interviews.

    Conclusions: Empirical support is offered for both the business and functional network types. The model of Dahlgren et al. does not take into account that the degree of integration of the network supporting activities does not necessarily have to entail the equivalent degree of integration regarding the management accounting system. Hence, the typology of networks cannot be said to be conveniently applicable to study all horizontal networks, as the model may leave out certain significant dimensions that obstruct the understanding of a network.

  • 77.
    Furn, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Johansson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Förvärv och Företagskultur2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Acquisitions are a well-known method for increasing company size and strength on the market. But to reach the targets set, more than just a positive economic calculation is required. An atmosphere that supports the company's integration is needed, for which it is of great importance for management to understand the underlying sets of values that exist in the organisation, and to take into consideration the way they might become an obstacle or a tool for a successful integration.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explain and understand how cultural change occurs and how it affects the employee, as a smaller company is bought and integrated into a larger organisation.

    Procedure: The analysis is based on theories on organisational culture and organisational change. Data was collected through personal interviews with five employees at Sydkraft Service Partners (SSP), but also the authors'own observations and Sydkraft's internal press material, have contributed to the knowledge of the case company.

    Conclusions: The culture in SPP is structured after a model based on levels of consciousness, where the visual aspects on culture (the artefacts) are considered to reflect the underlying sets of values and fundamental notions that the culture consists of. These are partly influenced by the artefacts, but can also be of a threat to the culture change process. To accomplish a successful integration, good leadership that can communicate the new set of values is required.

  • 78.
    Fälth, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Lundin, Jennie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The Change Process: When resistance is easier to prevent than to cure2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Strategic changes are often carried out with good intentions, but managers and subordinates may assess the change differently. Consequently, subordinates start to resist the change.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore the internal resistance, which often is a consequence of strategic changes. We aim to draw conclusions based on the employees’ perception of how resistance to strategic changes should be prevented and handled.

    Limitations: This thesis investigates one subsidiary within the Sydkraft Group in Norrköping. Furthermore, it deals with the manager’s possibilities to prevent and handle resistance.

    Procedure: Five interviews were carried out at Sydkraft Service Partners.

    Results: The most common form of resistance is subtle resistance, which oftentimes is invisible to managers and therefore, not managed successfully. Managers should manage resistance by adapting the speed of the change process to the employees, communicating with them, and educating them.

  • 79.
    Gabrielsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Värdepapperisering av bolån i Sverige: hur påverkas marknaden om kapitaltäckningskravet tas bort?2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Värdepapperisering av bolån är en vanligt förekommande finansieringsmetod i USA, vilket är det land som leder utvecklingen. Idag omfattar värdepapperisering i USA en utstående summa på 21 000 Mdr kronor. I Sverige har utvecklingen av metoden inte varit lika omfattande. Detta kan ha sin grund i den rådande lagstiftningen i Sverige som skiljer sig ifrån lagstiftningen i de flesta andra länder. För att utveckla marknaden för värdepapperisering har det därför framtagits ett förslag till lagändring, där huvudinnebörden är att metoden slipper kapitaltäckningskrav. Denna uppsats undersöker marknadsaktörernas syn på hur utvecklingen av värdepapperisering av bolån kan komma att påverkas av lagändringen. Det främsta resultatet som har framkommit är att en eventuell lagändring inte kommer att ge några större effekter. Positivt är att metoden att värdepapperisera legitimeras från statligt håll, vilket kan göra att intresset från investerarnas håll ökar. Emellertid beror det mesta på hur kostnadsbilden påverkas.

  • 80.
    Geber, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Granlund, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Bankfusioner: En strategi som är belönande - Eller ett förfarande som kan bli förödande2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: På senare år har det blivit allt vanligare att bankföretag utannonserar sina intentioner att slå sig samman eller köpa upp andra banker. Ett antal empiriska undersökningar, som även får stöd ifrån vissa ämnesforskare, visar dock att bankfusioner ofta inte leder till de positiva effekter som man hoppats på. Trots dessa motargument verkar fusionstrenden inom bankbranschen inte mattas av, tvärtom tenderar antalet bankfusioner på många håll att öka.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna rapport är att utröna vilka andra motiv till bankfusioner som eventuellt kan finnas då de traditionella motiven, vilka ofta fortfarande anges vid officiella sammanhang, i hög grad redan har motbevisats. Vidare förs ett resonemang om vilka följder en sådan strategi kan få, både för bankerna själva och för samhället i stort.

    Avgränsningar: Studien avgränsas till att främst beröra bankmarknader i Nordamerika och Europa. Metod Rapporten är baserad på en ren litteratursstudie.

    Resultat: Genom den litteraturstudie som genomförts har författarna till denna rapport fått fram att det sannolikt finns åtminstone tre motiv till fusioner förutom de som normalt anges. Dessa är; Privata motiv för företagsledarna, så som ökad makt, prestige och inkomst. Nationella motiv i form av rädsla för att bli beroende av utländska banker. Monopolsynsättet, nämligen strävan efter att genom sin storlek kunna utnyttja marknadsimperfektioner. Följden av detta kan bli en bankmarknad som domineras av ett fåtal storbanker som dock bevakas av s.k. nischbanker. Det begränsade antalet aktörer leder till ökat risktagande för konsumenter och för samhället i stort. Det leder också till ett sämre förhandlingsförhållande för den enskilde kunden gentemot banken.

  • 81.
    Gerges, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sonander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Retaining Talent in Knowledge Intensive Organizations2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recruitment and development of employees is a large burden for companies in most industries. Because of this, there is a clear organizational imperative to attract and retain knowledge workers since these constitute an important resource, especially for knowledge intensive organizations. A decisive factor for success is thus to retain and develop this vital resource in order to upgrade and sustain competitive advantage.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate what internal determinants and structures might be needed for knowledge intensive organizations to ensure their long-term provision of key human resources.

    Practical Approach: In total ten interviews, with interviewees at different levels in the organization, have been conducted. Furthermore, other forms of secondary empirical material of both qualitative and quantitative character have been used.

    Results: It is important for an organization to attempt to create a consistent and durable identity in order to influence the image held by its different stakeholders. We have found that researchers seem to value working in interesting projects. This argument coincides with the conviction that researchers are actually more committed to interesting research than to the employing organization.

  • 82.
    Gilabert, Carlos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Thelning, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Leverantörer till bilindustrin: vinna eller försvinna2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Som en följd av dålig lönsamhet och överkapacitet sker en kraftig konsolidering bland biltillverkarna. Detta får i sin tur får stora konsekvenser för deras leverantörer som tvingas anpassa sig till en för dem ny situation.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur fusionerna bland billtillverkarna påverkar leverantörerna samt beskriva vilka konsekvenser det får för dessa Avgränsningar: Undersökningen är avgränsad till att enbart omfatta leverantörer i Göteborgsområdet. Detta då vi haft begränsade resurser, både tidsmässigt och ekonomiskt.

    Genomförande: Undersökningen har utförts med hjälp av artiklar och tidskrifter inom det berörda ämnet samt genom sju intervjuer.

    Resultat: Vi har kommit fram till att man som leverantör måste agera snabbt och tydligt bestämma vilken position man ska inta i leverantörskedjan.

  • 83.
    Gonzalez, Alejandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Karlsson, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Hur nationella kulturella skillnader påverkar ledarstilen: en studie av svensk-engelska team2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: När individer från olika kulturer möts och arbetar tillsammans uppstår det ofta missförstånd och konflikter. Ett sätt att uppnå förståelse för hur nationell kultur påverkar ett företag, är att studera ett team. Ledaren är mycket viktig för teamet och i ett mångkulturellt team kan hans arbete bli komplicerat pga. olika värderingar etc. som finns i olika kulturer.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka om ledaren för ett svensk- engelsk team bör anpassa sin ledarstil efter de nationella kulturella skillnaderna i teamet, och i sådana fall hur. Vår avsikt är även att undersöka vilka styrkor och svagheter som är förknippade med ett svensk-engelskt team. Avgränsningar: Vi avgränsar oss till nationell kultur.

    Tillvägagångssätt: Vi har genomfört en kvalitativ studie, baserad på åtta intervjuer.

    Resultat: De viktigaste skillnaderna mellan svenskar och engelsmän är: beslutsfattande, kollektivism vs. individualism, och auktoritetsacceptans. Ledarstilen påverkas av ledarens och teammedlemmmarnas kulturella bakgrund. I situationer när teammedlemmarnas motivation kan förbättras, tycker vi att ledaren bör anpassa sin stil efter kulturella skillnader i teamet.

  • 84.
    Got, Elisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sanz, Fabrice
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Merger & Acquisition : Avoiding the path of decay2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background : Globalisation has led company to think globally and act locally. Such a change in the business world have made emerge the need to find partner around the world, and even to merge with complementary companies in order to sustain the corporate strategic advantage and to create value.

    Purpose : The objective of this paper is to integrate major Merger & Acquisitions theories in order to establish a warning model pointing out the main pitfalls changing promising motivations into failed implementation in the process of Merger & Acquisition. Such a model will aim at preventing managers engaged in a transnational horizontal merger from the potential hazards leading to value destruction.

    Delimitations : We choose to focus on the transnational merger because it should play with different national management and with the consequent variance in cultural distance ; the human and social context appears more clearly as fundamentally variable when a merger involves different sensibilities.

    Results : After having integrated the main theoretical finding into a holistic framework which enabled us to shape a warning model we tested successfully in case of Pharmacia-Upjohn merger, which aims at analysing the general risks of one strategic merger or/and the following implementation process.

  • 85.
    Gustafson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Nisses Johanson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Vägen till Latinamerika: En studie av svenska små och medelstora IT- och telekomföretags internationalisering2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En rad små och medelstora svenska företag inom IT- och telekombranschen är nu i färd att göra gör nu sitt intåg på den latinamerikanska marknaden. För att förklara företags internationaliseringsprocesser finns det ett antal teorier enligt vilka det görs på olika sätt. Dessa teorier är främst baserade på andra typer av företag än på sådana som nu står inför att etablera sig i Latinamerika.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att med hjälp av valda internaliseringsteorier analysera internationaliseringsprocessen för små och medelstora svenska IT- och telekomföretag i Latinamerika.

    Genomförande: Intervjuer genomfördes med tre svenska små och medelstora IT- och telekomföretag.

    Resultat: Motiven till företagens etablering i Latinamerika har varit att de haft kontakter där eller att det funnits särskilda fördelar för dem på denna marknad. Internationaliseringsprocesserna i Latinamerika kan bland annat ses som stegvisa i den bemärkelsen att de har inletts i ett land, för att senare stegvis sprida sig till fler länder i Latinamerika. Främst har företagen använt sig av representanter i Latinamerika. Nätverksmodellen har varit den mest passande teorin för att beskriva fallföretagens internationaliseringsprocess i Latinamerika.

  • 86.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Muänoz Elvelin, Pedro
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    ABC och ekonomisystem: En studie av Volvo Construction Equipment Components AB2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The accounting information system comprises budgeting, accounting, and costing. The accounting information system has, traditionally, constituted an integrated system where the different elements collaborate. If ABC is introduced this order is disturbed, since ABC is based on another logic which cannot easily be integrated with budget and accounting. ABC, therefore, is usually used parallely to the conventional costing method. There are, however, companies that have taken its ABC one step further by letting it replace the old costing model and integrate it with the accounting information system. Our purpose is to describe how a well-integrated ABC has been designed and analyse its general possibilities to create an integrated ABC and accounting information system. In order to fulfil this purpose we have based our empirics on interviews and internal documents from our case company; a subsidiary to Volvo. In the case we have studied, a high degree of integration has been achieved through a partial adaptation of ABC as well as the remaining components of the accounting information system. The account of overhead revenues has changed from focusing on hours to register based on articles produced. The budget, at a whole, continues unchanged, but some rationalisations in the budget process have been a positive consequence of the adoption of ABC. ABC has been adapted by letting the accounts plan and the cost pool structure remain unchanged and no division based on activities has been realised. The procedure of the studied case can be applicable to other constructing enterprises facing the decision to adopt or integrate ABC to its accounting information system.

  • 87.
    Görhammar, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Kræpelien, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Goodwill: an eternal asset?2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A harmonisation of accounting directions has been taken place, which for most countries has meant an adjustment to the directions of the United States. The Swedish directions of group accounting, RR 1:00, is one such adaptation. At the same time, a new direction of group goodwill, FAS 142, is introduced in the US.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to map out the Swedish actors’, mainly the companies’, opinion about the direction of group goodwill accounting.

    Procedure: Information from three actors in the market of accounting (accountants at the firms, users, in the form of analysts, and authorised accountants and one issuer of the directions) was collected via questionnaire and complementary telephone interviews.

    Summary: From the investigation we found out that the Swedish actors are content with the Swedish directions of group goodwill accounting but they think that an adjustment to the American direction FAS 142 is inevitable. The analysts had a positive attitude towards FAS 142 while the other actors were a little more doubtful.

  • 88.
    Göthe, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Wikholm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Kunskapsspridning inom projektbaserade företag2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Society of today is characterised by greater dynamics and a constant demand for innovation and fresh ideas. This development is often named "the new economy" or "the knowledge society". Independent of how one chooses to name this society, most individuals seem to agree upon the fact that knowledge grows more and more important. New competencies, such as new knowledge and new forms of organising, will be demanded for corporations to be successful in the future. In recent years it has become more common with corporations based on projects. In this context it is interesting to discuss the spread of knowledge.

    Purpose: We aim at create understanding for the spread of knowledge, through focusing on corporate culture, organisational routines, and processes of knowledge transfer in corporation based on projects.

    Realisation: This paper is based on a study of two IT-companies, Cell Network and Framfab. The empirical material, chiefly collected through interviews, has been analysed with starting-point in the frame of references.

    Conclusions: We came to the conclusion that corporate culture, organisational routines, and processes of knowledge transfer, studied separately is not enough to explain the spread of knowledge. Instead the three variables co-operate. Corporate culture cerates common values, organisational routines guide behaviour, and the processes of knowledge transfer results in the actual spread of knowledge.

  • 89.
    Hagert, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Jonsson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Fisk, fågel eller mittemellan?: En studie av tre multiprojektmiljöer2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En stor del av alla projekt inom svensk industri genomförs i en så kallad multiprojektmiljö, d.v.s. i en miljö där flera projekt pågår samtidigt. Trots detta är forskningen inom projektledning i huvudsak inriktad på det enskilda projektet. Projekt är i hög grad beroende av den omgivning den verkar inom, men organiseringen av multiprojektmiljön är endast delvis utredd. Vidare är projektledningsläran starkt fokuserad på standardisering av projektarbetet för att uppnå ökad kontroll och precision. Hur hänger det ihop med de huvudsakliga fördelarna med den projektorienterade organisationen, nämligen flexibilitet och kreativitet?

    Syfte: Att beskriva och erhålla förståelse för multiprojektmiljöer med avseende på organisation och styrning.

    Genomförande: Studien är baserad på fallstudier av utvecklingsenheter inom tre industriföretag. Två intervjuer på respektive företag och ett möte på varje företag vid studiens början ligger till grund för densamma.

    Resultat: Multiprojektmiljön kan till stora delar beskrivas med hjälp av Mintzbergs adhocratibegrepp. Den yttre miljön kännetecknas av att vara dynamisk och komplex, vilket ger en decentraliserad och organisk organisationsstruktur. Stora projekt förekommer oberoende av vilken typ av adhocrati och dessa tenderar att vara mer strukturerade än små. Ömsesidig anpassning är den mest tillämpade koordineringsmekanismen inom multiprojektmiljön. Tyngdpunkten inom matrisorganisationen har stor inverkan på multiprojektmiljön, en tyngdpunkt som ligger mittemellan projekt- och linjeorganisationen utan att vara i balans riskerar att ge en mindre tydlig organisation. Multiprojektmiljön styrs såväl informellt som formellt, formell styrning i alltför hög grad är riskfyllt. Gemensam strategiutveckling och tydlig målsättning är viktigt för multiprojektmiljön.

  • 90.
    Hagos, Helen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sonnert, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Reward Systems: To set up goals, appraise and reward employees in large companies2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Aspects such as the character of the organization and the composition of the work force have an impact on the company’s choice of how to reward and evaluate the employee. In large companies with employees from different professions and at different levels problems connected with the evaluation and the compensation of the employee may arise. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how this type of companies evaluate and reward the employees. Further we will look into the problems that may arise connected to the evaluation and the compensation of the employee.

    Results: In the process of evaluation the greatest difference between the employees from different professions and operations can be found in the goals that are set and the measures that measure the fulfilment of the goals. In regard to the evaluation of employees at different levels the greatest differencecan be found in the character of the measures. When rewarding employees companies tend to have a homogeneous policy for employees from all operations and professions. The difference is greater between employees at different levels. As the number of operations and levels of the company increases it gets harder to set goals that are relevant to each operation and individual as an increasing number of aspects related to these operations must be considered. In addition it is difficult to design rewards which are cost efficient and valued by all employees. These difficulties arise as individuals’ preferences are affected by their working environment and as different preferences are created in different operations and at different levels.

  • 91.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sörensson, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The Imaginary Network: a flexible way of organising work2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The changing demands of the environment is leading to the development of new organisational forms. These organisations are characterised by flexibility, specialisation, delegation of authorities and development of competence. Small organisations that have started to adapt innovative constructions in order to be flexible are becoming of increasing importance in trade and industry but are given little attention in current research.

    Purpose: To make an in-depth study of Agora in order to increase the understanding about small organisations where the majority of the work force consists of self-employed actors.

    Realisation: We have made a case study on one company, namely Agora. Our empirical findings where collected through six in-depth interviews.

    Results: We have come to the conclusion that Agora cannot be seen as neither a network organisation nor an imaginary organisation but something in between: an imaginary network. Furthermore, we have identified three main forces that hold the company together: the shared values, the business concept of Agora and the leadership. There is a distinct and strong leadership that to a large extent is linked to the personality of the CEO and it is crucial for the maintenance of Agora.

  • 92.
    Hansson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Özen, Özge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Framtida konkurrens i svensk dagligvaruhandel2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Dagligvaruhandelns utveckling i Sverige under de senaste åren karaktäriseras främst av konsolidering, internationalisering och branschglidningar. Handeln är aktuellt föremål för en omfattande mediadebatt beträffande bland annat matpriser, antal aktörer på den svenska dagligvarumarknaden och nya aktörers intresse. Vår uppmärksamhet har därigenom riktats mot dagligvaruhandelns utveckling och den rådande konkurrenssituationen för att skönja möjliga utvecklingar i framtidens konkurrens.

    Syfte: Syftet är att bidra med och diskutera framtida möjliga utvecklingar beträffande konkurrenssituationen på den svenska dagligvarumarknaden. Vi ämnar göra detta med bakgrund och analys av utvecklingen inom dagligvarubranschen under 1900-talet, med fokus på de senaste fem till tio åren, samt rådande konkurrenssituation.

    Genomförande: Undersökningen baseras på intervjuer med representanter från ICA, Coop, Axfood, BergendahlsGruppen och Dagligvaruleverantörernas Förbund. Artiklar och Konkurrensverkets rapporter har i form av sekundärdata kompletterat intervjumaterialet.

    Resultat: Fortsatta konkurrensförändringar inom svensk dagligvaruhandel kommer äga rum genom konsolidering, internationalisering, nya aktörer, branschblandningar och samarbeten över branscher. Dessa framtida utvecklingsvägar är inte uteslutande från varandra. Möjliga utvecklingar har även gemensamma drag då vi urskiljer att branschens framtida konkurrenssituation karaktäriseras av allt mer sammanknutna och flerdimensionella förhållanden än för närvarande.

  • 93.
    Hedberg, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Melin, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Vad ligger bakom"knäet"på industrisysselsättningskurvan?2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi utgår från ett diagram över utvecklingen av andelen sysselsatta i de tre sektorerna jordbruk, industri och tjänster under 1900-talet i Sverige. I detta diagram syns någon gång på 1960-talet en kraftig förändring, industrisysselsättningens andel ger sken av att minska kraftigt från ett år till ett annat. Uppsatsens syfte är att ta reda på vad som ligger bakom denna markanta förändring,"knäet". Vi vill ta reda på om det verkligen sker en så kraftig förändring som diagrammet ger sken av eller om andra faktorer som omdefinieringar av statistiken kan förklara"knäet". Vidare vill vi ta reda på hur industrisysselsättningens utveckling vid denna tid kan förklaras. Vi fokuserar på sysselsättningens utveckling inom industrisektorn i Sverige, men även andra faktorer såsom produktion, produktivitet och i viss mån exporten studeras. Vi koncentrerar oss på perioden 1950-70. Vi anser att det markanta"knäet"på industrisysselsättningskurvan i utgångsdiagrammet kan klassas som en statistisk illusion i den bemärkelse att förändringen till följd av omklassificeringar och diagrammets utformning ger sken av en snabbare och kraftigare förändring än vad som skulle ha varit fallet om inga omklassificeringar och liknande åtgärder vidtagits. Dock har vi kommit fram till att en riktningsförändring, om än inte lika kraftig som i utgångsdiagrammet, sker på 1960-talet. Orsakerna är flera, bland annat har produktiviteten ökat till följd av tekniska förändringar och de svenska industriföretagen utsätts under denna period för ökad internationell konkurrens. En annan orsak till att andelen industrisysselsatta minskar är att kvinnorna äntrar arbetsmarknaden och anställs främst inom tjänstesektorn. Detta får som resultat att denna sektors andel ökar medan industrisektorns andel minskar.

  • 94.
    Hedlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Cronstedt-Fell, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Provisionslön eller inte?: En studie om försäkringssäljares provisionslön2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det anses nuförtiden att människan är företagets viktigaste tillgång. Hur motiverar man denna för att jobba mot företagets mål? Försäkringsbranschen använder sig mest av provisionslön, men frågan är då om detta inte leder till att försäljaren säljer försäkringar, kunden ej är i behov av, för egen vinnings skull.

    Syfte: Vårt syfte med studien är att undersöka om provisionslön är ett bra sätt att avlöna försäkringsförsäljare med hänsyn till att det är en komplex produkt de säljer samt att kunden ofta inte vet vad alla försäkringsvillkor egentligen innebär.

    Genomförande: Studien är främst deduktiv och av kvalitativ art, för att samla in primärdata genomfördes öppna, personliga intervjuer på Länsförsäkringar Södermanland. Sekundärdata insamlades från litteratur och forskning inom ämnet och användes för att utforma uppsatsens teoretiska referensram.

    Resultat: Våra slutsatser är att provisionslönen ej påverkar kunden på ett negativt sätt då försäkringsförsäljaren måste tänka långsiktigt och då måste tänka på kundens bästa. Däremot kan fast lön för försäljaren leda till att stressfaktorn minskar och tryggheten ökar.

  • 95.
    Hedlöf, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Janson, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    How to cope with a turbulent environment2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to constant changes and unpredictability in a turbulent environment, the traditional way of planning does not seem to work anymore. Therefore, new approaches to the external and internal conditions need to develop in order to cope with the environmental turbulence.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to define a turbulent environment and identify how an organisation can cope with this environment. Procedure: We have developed a frame of reference mainly consisting of theories regarding a turbulent environment and change. In addition, we have selected eight guiding factors, which we have used when studying, systemising, and comparing how contemporary literature suggests that an organisation can cope with a turbulent environment.

    Results: The conclusions we have come to are that with a definition of the environment as being fast-changing and of chaotic nature, where the changes are continuous, emergent, small, big or somewhere in between, and where paradoxes play an important role, it is necessary to develop an organisational structure, leadership, human resource, and corporate culture, in which the objective always is to create dynamics and to build in an acceptance of change.

  • 96.
    Heimar, Markus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Survival in Chaos: A Study of Strategy Formation in a Turbulent Business Environment2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the late 1960’s, the hydromechanical term turbulence has been a part of the business administration vocabulary, but until the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, a relatively small amount of research was dedicated to this field. These studies and more contemporary ones conclude that where the business environment is paradoxical and of fast- changing and chaotic nature, successful corporate strategies are shaped by strategic flexibility founded in high innovation rates, networks and alliances, and organisational elasticity and adaptiveness. From this perspective, the purpose of this study was to track and examine the strategy formation processes of a company operating in a turbulent context, and to contribute to an understanding of how these turbulent conditions can be managed. The study was conducted with a hermeneutic, systems- oriented, longitudinal case-study method and with a contextcontent- process perspective in which the process was the key factor. To a large extent, our conclusions coincide with those of other researchers. Forming multidimensional networks and alliances coloured by voluntary initiatives and full attention seem to be an extremely important contribution to survival in turbulent contexts. Nevertheless, it is equally important to break up and build new alliances as the initial objectives of the arrangement have expired or been reached. Furthermore, in contrast to other researchers’ observations, we conclude that high innovation rates do not necessarily lead to a greater potential to be successful in a turbulent context. The issue is instead to present a product offering flexible in itself developed and marketed by a flexible organisation. Innovation rates are decided by self-initiated and unofficial activity on part of the r&d teams and other coworkers, and management’s task is to facilitate for this corporate creativity to develop.

  • 97.
    Henningsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Pudas, Tony
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Företagsvärdering: en studie av värderingsproblematiken för företag med lågt substansvärde2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The difference between the market value and the book value of the companies has dramatically increased. One explanation is that the inflow of capital on the market has increased. Another explanation is that companies have a larger share of intellectual capital. The question is how this has influenced the company-valuator's use of valuation-models?

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what relevance the substance valuation model has, the DCF-model has, and also discover new valuation-models, among company-valuators.

    Method: The study was conducted as a qualitative interview-investigation. We interviewed three company-valuators and one company-partner, in four different consulting-firms.

    Results: The study does only pay attention to the company-valuator's point of view. The substancevaluation-model is not frequently used. The DCF-model is the dominant valuation-model. Other used ways to value companies are relative valuation and real option valuation. Relative valuation is frequently used, while real options valuation is rare.

  • 98.
    Hjärpe, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Persson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    CSR with Focus on the Employee Perspective2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the last decades there has been an increased focus on companies shouldering a greater social responsibility. This is due to globalisation, increased concern for environmental issues and consumer activism. These issues in combination with high-profile corporate scandals have highlighted the concept of CSR, which implies a greater social, ethical and environmental responsibility for companies.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to, through a theoretical exposition, investigate and analyse the concept of CSR, with a main focus on CSR from an employee perspective and its relation to employee wellbeing. This focus will also be illuminated with empirical data.

    Conduction of thesis: This thesis has been carried out through a theoretical exposition and by conducting eight interviews at a publishing company.

    Results: Regarding CSR from an employee perspective, we categorised different factors into four groups; physical working environment, formal contracts and agreements, organisational power structure and ethical aspects. The empirical findings showed that all the factors were perceived as important for employee wellbeing but it also pointed to some factors being taken for granted.

  • 99.
    Holck, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Kallavuo, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Co-Opetition: att samarbeta med fienden En studie av samspelet mellan konkurrenter2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Dagens näringsliv präglas av hög förändringstakt och krav på att företagen snabbt kan anpassa sig till kundens och omvärldens behov. Det bildas nya grupperingar som samarbetar och konkurrerar på samma gång och företag inser de fördelar ett samarbete med både horisontella och vertikala aktörer ger.

    Syfte: Det här uppsatsarbetet syftar till att utreda begreppet co-opetition samt att visa på dess tillämpning i praktiken genom att undersöka var i företagens värdekedja man väljer att samarbeta alternativt konkurrera. Avgränsningar: Undersökningen syftar inte till att utreda och behandla de juridiska aspekterna av fenomenet co-opetition.

    Genomförande: För att få en bild över hur co-opetition ter sig i verkligheten har vi genomfört intervjuer på fyra olika företag inom olika två branscher; affärssystemleverantörer samt pappersproducenter. De fallföretag vi studerat är IFS, Intentia, Holmen Paper samt SCA.

    Resultat: Vi har kunnat konstatera att co-opetition som fenomen inte existerar i den unga affärssystembranschen, där istället vertikala samarbeten är mer brukligt. Inom den traditionella pappersindustrin förekommer co-opetitiva förhållanden i stor utsträckning. Här har företagen valt att samarbeta inom aktiviteter som ligger långt ifrån kärnverksamheten i företagets värdekedja.

  • 100.
    Holmgren, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Lindh, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Project Finance: Finding the right sources of funding2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Following the wave of privatisation and deregulation during the last decades, buyers of infrastructure constructions, such as dams, roads and telecommunication, have changed from states or public authorities to private companies. Private buyers do not always have the financial strength to arrange the financing for a project and providing a financial arrangement, for example by helping customers to obtain loans, has become a means to compete on the market.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyse how Swedish companies arrange project finance for large-scale projects.

    Method: In order to gain knowledge of our area of investigation we searched for relevant literature and articles from magazines.

    Result: The result of this study has showed that three factors are of special importance when choosing a certain financial arrangement. These three factors are the region in which the project is located, duration of the project and its size measured in monetary terms.

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