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  • 51.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Communication Analysis of Public Forms: Discovering Multi-functional Purposes in Citizen and Government Communication2007In: International journal of public information systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 3, p. 161-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Information systems mediation in communication between citizens and government agencies: Experiences from communication analysis of forms2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 53.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Wedlund, Tommy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Student Activity in Seminars: Designing Multi-functional Assessment Events2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 54.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kundval – dilemman i gränssnittet mellan privata och offentliga organisationer2010In: Samtal pågår… från forskare till politiker och tjänstemän i kommuner / [ed] Friberg T, Thelander S, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2010, p. 9-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Är det bättre med stora än med små kommuner? Kommer folkrörelsepartierna att bli mer kampanj- och väljarorienterade i framtiden? Hur formas en boendepolitik för det goda åldrandet? Lokala transportstrategier – hur och för vem? Hur påverkas kommunledningars samverkan om gymnasieskolan av att det finns friskolor? Är kulturekonomi framtidens lokala tillväxtmotor?</p><p>Dessa och andra frågor behandlas i denna bok. Den är ett led i Centrum för kommunstrategiska studiers, CKS, arbete med att bygga en dialog – utveckla goda samtal – mellan Linköpings universitet och medlemskommunerna i CKS. Den innehåller fjorton olika artiklar, inlägg, som forskare författat för att förmedla sina resultat, men också för att stärka en dialog med politiker och tjänstemän i kommunerna. Inläggen spänner över många olika ämnen och frågeställningar. De är i vissa fall konkreta och koncisa i andra fall beskrivande och reflekterande. Alla är de av kommunstrategisk karaktär.</p><p>I en kommun fattas en mängd olika politiska beslut kring de mest skiftande ämnen. Det kräver kunskap, reflektion och gedigna beslutsunderlag. Då kan forskares analyser och kunskapsproduktion vara till nytta. För att en fördjupad och samhällsrelevant forskning ska komma till stånd behövs emellertid reaktioner från politiker och tjänstemän. Det finns alltså ett ömsesidigt beroende. Det kan hanteras genom samtal i vilka forskare, politiker och tjänstemän kan utbyta erfarenheter, tankar och kunskaper. Inläggen i denna bok visar att samtal pågår

  • 55.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Ventura, Stefan
    Design Principles for Communication Quality in Public E-forms: A Theoretical Synthesis2007In: 4th Scandinavian Workshop on e-Government,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ventura, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reaching Communication Quality in Public E-Forms: A Communicative Perspective on E-Form Design2007In: Electronic Government: 6th International Conference, EGOV 2007, Regensburg, Germany, September 3-7, 2007. Proceedings / [ed] Wimmer M, Scholl J, Grönlund Å, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, , p. 342-353p. 342-353Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper adopts a communication perspective on public electronic forms (e-forms). By doing so we define forms as instruments for communication and, thus, also instruments through which citizens perform different communicative actions towards government agencies. As such instruments, the forms might be more or less useful. The purpose of this paper is to explore what features of an e-form that increase the communication quality. We conduct a theoretical synthesis of three existing approaches for designing information systems. The result is a combined theory on key features of an e-form that make the establishment of communication quality more likely. The result consists of four key concepts, each of which give rise to one set of design principles for communication from the issuer of the e-form to the user (citizen), and one set of design principles for communication from the user (citizen) to the recipient of the e-form.

  • 57.
    Axelsson, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, University Library.
    Brage, Christina
    Linköping University, University Library.
    Gustafsson Åman, Kajsa
    Linköping University, University Library.
    Öström, Magdalena
    Linköping University, University Library.
    MIND THE GAP! ACADEMIC INFORMATION LITERACY VS WORKFORCE INFORMATION LITERACY2017In: 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND INNOVATION (ICERI2017), IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION & DEVELOPMENT , 2017, p. 1508-1518Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2003 Lloyd [1] noted that there ought to be a shift in thinking by librarians and that this requires librarians to develop partnerships with workplace communities so as to understand the role that information plays in the knowledge economy. Furthermore she stated that it was necessary to develop a new language that is relevant to workplace communities and a language that ties information literacy instruction to authentic situations in the workplace. So how can we as librarians prepare students to engage in the variety of information activities that constitute workplace practice today and how can we better tailor our information literacy instruction to meet those needs in the future? One answer could be to gain an understanding on how information competencies are recognized in workplace settings and what kind of information competencies that employers seek. In this pilot study we address the following questions: Does the concept of information literacy or similar appear in British/American and Swedish job ads? What kind of qualifications are most frequent asked for in job postings? What kind of information skills do employers really look for and how does this match with the skills newly recruits have?

  • 58.
    Backlund, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Overtake assistance2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the development of a function that assists the driver of a heavy vehicle to do an estimation over the possibilities to overtake a preceding heavy vehicle. The function utilizes Look-Ahead and vehicle-to-vehicle communication to do a calculation of the distance between the vehicles in some road distance ahead. Consequently the report also contains an investigation of what data that is needed to be known about a vehicle to be able to do a satisfying estimation about this vehicle. The most vital problem is to estimate what velocity the vehicle will get in an uphill/downhill slope. A Simulink model is developed to simulate the function with two independent vehicles. Real tests are also performed to evaluate the velocity estimation part of the function.

     

  • 59.
    Backåker, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Influence of Customer Agreements and Planning Principles on Rail Freight Performance2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rail freight transportation is recognized worldwide as a suitable transportation mode when it comes to long haul transportation of heavy commodities. The industry is also known to be capital intensive, highly dependent on infrastructural developments and requires thorough planning of operations. Despite intensive planning of operations, great challenges remain in how to make best use of existing resources. Especially uncertainties related to up-coming daily freight volumes stand as central causes behind such planning challenges.

    This thesis focuses on rail freight carload transportation and concerns how customer commitments influence operational performance as well as potentials for improvements of operational planning principles. Problem statements are addressed using three separate studies and all experiments involve quantitative approaches.

    The first study investigates effects of a potential Volume Variation Allowance (VVA) policy through simulation. The policy dictates how much freight volumes are allowed to vary by day of week. Results indicate that effects of the policy are relatively small, but an overall decrease in transportation times is observed. The study also identifies improvement potentials with respect to the current operational planning principles used within Swedish railways.

    The second study proposes a new optimization-based approach for trip plan generation. The approach, including a number of extensions, is evaluated against the current industry practice. Results confirm the potentials for reduced transportation times, shunting activities as well as service frequencies. All experiments satisfy existing customer commitments.

    The third study explores effects of a Fixed Carload Capacity (FCC) concept which partially allows capacity reservation on services. The study adopts an extension of the previously developed optimization approach. Results confirm the hypothetical trade-off between customer groups and the dependency on capacity reservation levels, but indicate that the concept has relatively small effects with respect to regular carload customers. On the other hand, benefits in terms of guarantee of service and reliability in transportation times can be observed for the customer under the agreement.

  • 60.
    Bajramovic, Jasmina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Användbarhet och yngre pensionärer - en kooperativ utvärdering av avdelningen Hälso- och sjukvård på Östergötlands läns landstings webbplats2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Äldre utgör en befolkningsgrupp som ökar till antalet för varje dag som går och de kommer även i en allt större utsträckning i kontakt med olika typer av tekniska lösningar. Teknologin införlivas i allt fler delar av våra liv och förändrar inte bara hur människan utför sina arbetsuppgifter och kommunicerar, utan även hur hälso- och sjukvård levereras. I studien har det även framkommit att de äldre införskaffar datorer och Internet enbart för att de ska kunna söka information om hälso- och sjukvård. Dessvärre är det inte alltid som denna användargrupp kan ta del av informationen, till följd av att många av de webbplatser som tillhandahåller information om hälso- och sjukvårdsfrågor inte är användbara. Därför har det blivit allt viktigare att förstå hur användargränssnittet hos dessa tekniska lösningar ska utformas på bästa sätt, så att även de äldre finner lösningarna användbara.

    Utifrån denna bakgrund har ett syfte för denna uppsats utkristalliserats. Det är att ta reda på hur användargruppen yngre pensionärer uppfattar användbarheten hos Östergötlands läns landstings webbaserade avdelning benämnd ”Hälso- och sjukvård”, samt vad som bör vara kännetecknande för en webbplats för att användargruppen yngre pensionärer ska uppfatta den som användbar.

    För att uppnå syftet med uppsatsen genomfördes en kooperativ utvärdering av avdelningen ”Hälso- och sjukvård”, där respondenterna som deltog i denna utvärdering även intervjuades. Det insamlade materialet har analyserats utifrån de definitioner av användbarhet och riktlinjer för användbar gränssnittsdesign, som återfinns presenterade i den teoretiska referensramen, och utifrån det har ett antal slutsatser dragits. En av slutsatserna är att de egenskaper som respondenterna framfört som kännetecknande för en användbar webbplats är i linje med de tio riktlinjerna för användbar gränssnittsdesign som Nielsen (1993) framför. Resultatet av genomförd kooperativ utvärdering har även visat att en del av respondenterna har upplevt användbarhetsproblem i sin interaktion med avdelningen ”Hälso- och sjukvård”.

  • 61.
    Bartels, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Shenavar, Shahla
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Dataintrång En studie av IT-säkerhet och IT-brott2004Student paper second termStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is an essay within computer security and data law. First the essay contains a literature study. There we take up what kind of threats there are against information that handles with the help of computers. With help from different security tools you increase the protection against the threats. We describe the most common tools that companies use and also private persons use. The subject computer-trespass explains and describes internal and external computer-trespass. As the IT-development fast growth and changes on the society it gives new opportunity to crimes, the increase of crime may due on the fact that there is an increased skill within the perpetrators at the same time the protection is weak. What the law says about IT- crime and witch law who handles computer-trespass brings up.

    In the Empire part we have studying different cases of how computer-trespass has been done in reality, and some different news-articles who tells about different computer-crimes. The essay ends with a discussion, in which we connect theory with empire to get a whole point of view over chosen subject. The problem computer-trespass is complicated and has no simple solution to counteract that those crime happens. To catch those who carry out the crimes the law should be looked over and what concern the weak protection the computer- user must revise the protection.

  • 62.
    Becker, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Centrerad användarhjälp?: en fallstudie vid Kriminalvårdsverket2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this case study is to examine what needs the users of the Swedish Prison and Probation Service have in getting different kinds of help functions put together at one place. The definitions of how applications should be designed to obtain usability for the users are analysed. An opinion poll with a representative selection of users is also done.

    The result from the opinion poll and the conclusion from different theories is that the biggest problem for the administration is not that the help functions can’t be found at one place. The problem is rather lack of training in the different applications, resistance of using computers and varied competence regarding information technologies. These problems must be solved before the work of collecting all the help functions to one place can be launched.

    The study recommends many concrete suggestions to solve these problems, some of these are: educate the users and start a project where participants should be found from all different categories of employees. The study also presents a suggestion on how the place, with the help functions, should be designed.

  • 63.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    A Gentle Introduction to the Comparison Between Null Hypothesis Testing and Bayesian Analysis: Reanalysis of Two Randomized Controlled Trials2018In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 20, no 10, article id e10873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate on the use and misuse of P values has risen and fallen throughout their almost century-long existence in scientific discovery. Over the past few years, the debate has again received front-page attention, particularly through the public reminder by the American Statistical Association on how P values should be used and interpreted. At the core of the issue lies a fault in the way that scientific evidence is dichotomized and research is subsequently reported, and this fault is exacerbated by researchers giving license to statistical models to do scientific inference. This paper highlights a different approach to handling the evidence collected during a randomized controlled trial, one that does not dichotomize, but rather reports the evidence collected. Through the use of a coin flipping experiment and reanalysis of real-world data, the traditional approach of testing null hypothesis significance is contrasted with a Bayesian approach. This paper is meant to be understood by those who rely on statistical models to draw conclusions from data, but are not statisticians and may therefore not be able to grasp the debate that is primarily led by statisticians.

  • 64.
    Bengtsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Estimation of Indicated– and Load– Torque from Engine Speed Variations2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of control systems and diagnostics in vehicles are increasing and has resulted in several new methods to calculate better control signals. The performance can be increased by calculating these signals close to optimum, but that also require more and precise information regarding the system.

    One of the wanted control signals are the crankshaft torque and the thesis presents two different methods to estimate this torque using engine speed variations. These methods are Modeling of the Crankshaft and Frequency Analysis. The methods are evaluated and implemented on for a four cylinder SAAB engine. Measurements are made in an engine test cell as well as a vehicle.

    The results show that the Modeling of the Crankshaft method does not produce a satisfying estimation, with a difference of about 200% between estimated and calculated torque. On the other hand, the Frequency Analysis provides an accurate estimation of both mean and instantaneous indicated torque, with a maximum difference of ±20% between estimated and calculated torque.

  • 65.
    Bengtsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Brinck, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Design and Implementation of an Environment to Support Development of Methods for Security Assessment2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is no debate over the importance of IT security. Equally important is the research on security assessment; methods for evaluating the security of IT systems. The Swedish Defense Research Agency has for the last couple of years been conducting research on the area of security assessment. To verify the correctness of these methods, tools are implemented.

    This thesis presents the design and implementation of an environment to support and aid future implementations and evaluations of security assessment methods. The aim of this environment, known as the New Tool Environment, NTE, is to assist the developer by facilitating the more time consuming parts of the implementation. A large part of this thesis is devoted to the development of a database solution, which results in an object/relational data access layer.

  • 66.
    Bengtsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Mathematical foundation needed for development of IT security metrics2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IT security metrics are used to achieve an IT security assessment of certain parts of the IT security environment. There is neither a consensus of the definition of an IT security metric nor a natural scale type of the IT security. This makes the interpretation of the IT security difficult. To accomplish a comprehensive IT security assessment one must aggregate the IT security values to compounded values.

    When developing IT security metrics it is important that permissible mathematical operations are made so that the information are maintained all the way through the metric. There is a need for a sound mathematical foundation for this matter.

    The main results produced by the efforts in this thesis are:

    • Identification of activities needed for IT security assessment when using IT security metrics.

    • A method for selecting a set of security metrics in respect to goals and criteria, which also is used to

    • Aggregate security values generated from a set of security metrics to compounded higher level security values.

    • A mathematical foundation needed for development of security metrics.

  • 67.
    Berg, Jonatan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Magdesjö, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vems behov styr valet av ett standardiserat informationssystem?: En studie över vems behov som styr när ett standardiserat informationssystem ska passa olika behov i organisationen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Informationssystem används i organisationer för att fylla olika slags behov. Den här uppsatsensyftar till att undersöka hur dessa behov påverkar valet av informationssystem, samt hur dessabehov uppfylls av informationssystemet. För att utforska dessa behov användes enlitteraturstudie tillsammans med en empiriskt grundad kvalitativ undersökning. Dendatainsamlingsmetod som användes för att samla in empirin var en fallstudie hos Motalakommun, som genom kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer beskrev de olikaverksamheternas behov i organisationen samt organisationens övergripande behov.

    Behovet som organisationer har av informationssystem beskrivs i teorin, där det ska användasför att stödja användarnas arbetsuppgifter. Arbetsuppgifterna kan sedan skilja sig åt beroendepå i vilken verksamhet inom organisationen som användaren arbetar inom. Litteraturenbeskriver även att de olika verksamheterna kan ha haft olika mycket inflytande på valet avinformationssystem, vilket gör att olika verksamheter fått sina behov mer uppfyllda avinformationssystemet än vad andra verksamheter inom organisationen kan ha fått.

    I den empiriska studien utforskades ett standardiserat informationssystem vilket ska användasav användare i samtliga verksamheter inom organisationen. De olika verksamheterna bidrogmed sina behov vid valet av informationssystemet, där tillgänglighet för organisationensmedborgare och underlag till statistik var två stora och gemensamma behov mellanverksamheterna. Empirin visade även på ouppfyllda behov samt oanade behov sominformationssystemet uppfyllde. De oanade behoven var i form av funktioner sominformationssystemet bidrog med vilka verksamheterna först identifierade vid användandet avinformationssystemet. Empirin gav även bilden av att en särskild verksamhets behov har varitdominanta över övriga verksamheters behov, vilket ledde till att denna verksamhetsarbetsuppgifter fått större stöd av informationssystemet än vad övriga verksamhetersarbetsuppgifter fått.

    Litteraturstudien gav på så vis ett resultat som liknande den empiriska undersökningen.Mycket av det som går att finna i tidigare forskning går att finna i verkligheten, i alla fallinom den organisation som vi studerade.

  • 68.
    Bergersten, Ronny
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementation av sökfunktion i"Mobile Documents"2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Exjobbet gick ut på att skapa en sökfunktion till Androidapplikationen ”MobileDocuments", för att på så sätt få möjligheten att hitta sina mail och dokument på ettsmidigare sätt, mer om ”Mobile Documents” tas upp i rapporten. Ex-jobbet innehölläven en del som gick ut på att undersöka systemdesignen på serversidan, för enframtida implementation av en sökmotor. Rapporten belyser även de utmaningar somuppkommit under utvecklingen samt hur testningen av den nya funktionen gått till.Rapporten avslutas med en diskussion kring arbetsprocessen.

  • 69.
    Bergkvist, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Testing degradation in a complex vehicle electrical system using Hardware-In-the-Loop2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Functionality in the automotive industry is becoming more complex, withcomplex communication networks between control systems. Information isshared among many control systems and extensive testing ensures high quality.

    Degradations testing, that has the objective to test functionality with some faultpresent, is performed on single control systems, but is not frequently performed on the entire electrical system. There is a wish for testing degradation automatically on the complete electrical system in a so called Hardware-In-the-Loop laboratory.

    A technique is needed to perform these tests on a regular basis.Problems with testing degradation in complex communication systems will bedescribed. Methods and solutions to tackle these problems are suggested, thatfinally end up with two independent test strategies. One strategy is suited to test degradation on new functionality. The other strategy is to investigate effects in the entire electrical system. Both strategies have been implemented in a Hardware-In-the-Loop laboratory and evaluated.

  • 70.
    Bergvall, Jacob
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Business Intelligence: En inblick i relationen mellan tillgänglig data och hur den används inom marknadsföring2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today there are great opportunities to gather data related to a company’s customers, processes, goods and services no matter what line of business they are in. If you have resources and are interested there are endless opportunities to gather data, analyze it and then use it to develop and optimize the company. The purpose of this study is to examine challenges when it comes to the use of stored data in business intelligence and to look into which factors that affects the process of turning stored data into usable information that can be used when making marketing decisions. I have chosen to focus on the organizational aspects and connections between business intelligence and marketing with the help of a case study. The study uses a qualitative research approach and the empirical data consists of qualitative semi-structured interviews and data collection in terms of clustering. All empirical data has been gathered from a large Swedish IT-company. A thematic analysis of gathered empirical data leads to a result showing that there are a number of challenges when it comes to using stored data in business intelligence at a large Swedish IT-company. These challenges consist of; unclear visions and goals, economic priorities, unclear terminology and the approach to organizational structures. Results from the study also points out several factors that lies behind why all available data at a large Swedish IT-company is not used to its fullest potential within marketing. These factors are; old habits and adaptability to new technology, management and communication and finally time constraints and knowledge management.

    I have been able to see with this study that it takes a fundamental purpose to analyze something and that it is not certain that such a purpose always exists. It is hard to transform data into valuable information and also to optimize decision making if this purpose does not exist. There are many studies which demonstrate either the awareness by companies of the problems facing them in dealing with high volumes of data and/or their admission that they have a long way to cope with these volumes. I have with this study been able to see that this research problem may be useful and that it is highly relevant within a large Swedish IT-company.

  • 71.
    Berner, Boel
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Regeln i undantaget.: Om olyckor, kunskap och tekniska system1992Report (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engineering Education Research as Engineering Research2015In: International perspectives on engineering education: Engineering education and practice in context, volume 1 / [ed] Hyldgaard Christensen, Steen; Didier, Christelle; Jamison, Andrew; Meganck, Martin; Mitcham, Carl; Newberry, Byron, Cham: Springer , 2015, 1, p. 393-414Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering Education Research (EER) has recently emerged as a field of research worldwide. In this context one could focus on the conceptual difficulties experienced by engineers learning about educational research. However, in this chapter I explore the contributions that engineering and engineers can make to education research, based on the view, drawn from John Dewey’s essay “Education as engineering”, that EER could be regarded as engineering research. My first point is that engineers have learned to handle both general aspects (in the case of bridge building: engineering mathematics, solid mechanics, materials science, geology etc.) and particular aspects (the local situation of particular bridges) of their profession. Hence, it is not possible in engineering to simply apply knowledge from science to practice and Dewey points out that this also applies to education. My second point is that engineers are trained to acquire proficiency in design and both understanding and improving complex systems. Similarly, in “design-based research” or “design experiments” in education, insights from design and engineering are employed to address the complexity of educational activities and the need, as known from engineering, for theory as well as tinkering. My third point is related to the role of technologies in promoting engineering students’ learning in, for example, laboratories. Diverse technologies (artifacts) are crucial in engineering for collecting and processing data from experiments and/or real environments for numerous applications, for example controlling and monitoring production processes and monitoring the environment. Thus, engineers have high proficiency in the use of technologies and materiality, strong awareness of their impact on human perception, and hence can make valuable contributions to their application in educational contexts.

  • 73.
    Bialek, Lukasz
    et al.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Dunin-Keplicz, Barbara
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Szalas, Andrzej
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    A paraconsistent approach to actions in informationally complex environments2019In: Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 1012-2443, E-ISSN 1573-7470, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 231-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary systems situated in real-world open environments frequently have to cope with incomplete and inconsistent information that typically increases complexity of reasoning and decision processes. Realistic modeling of such informationally complex environments calls for nuanced tools. In particular, incomplete and inconsistent information should neither trivialize nor stop both reasoning or planning. The paper introduces ACTLOG, a rule-based four-valued language designed to specify actions in a paraconsistent and paracomplete manner. ACTLOG is an extension of 4QL(Bel), a language for reasoning with paraconsistent belief bases. Each belief base stores multiple world representations. In this context, ACTLOGs action may be seen as a belief bases transformer. In contrast to other approaches, ACTLOG actions can be executed even when the underlying belief base contents is inconsistent and/or partial. ACTLOG provides a nuanced action specification tools, allowing for subtle interplay among various forms of nonmonotonic, paraconsistent, paracomplete and doxastic reasoning methods applicable in informationally complex environments. Despite its rich modeling possibilities, it remains tractable. ACTLOG permits for composite actions by using sequential and parallel compositions as well as conditional specifications. The framework is illustrated on a decontamination case study known from the literature.

  • 74.
    Björk, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Automated Propulsion Kit Selection for MAV: A Design Process Tool2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project has been carried out at Linköpings universitet at the Department of Mechanical Engineering. The emphasis of the project lies in the exploration of automatic selection of components for a propulsion kit. Specifically for this project, propulsion based on electric power and meeting the requirements for use in a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV). The key features include a systematic selection method based on user criterias and a model for evaluating propeller performance. These are implemented in a program written as a part of the project. The conclusion is that it is possible to make a program capable of a component selection and that the programs usability is mainly reliant on three factors: model for propeller evaluation, method of selection and the quality of the component database.

  • 75.
    Björn, Johansson
    et al.
    Centre for Applied ICT Copenhagen Business School.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Centralising Hosting of Software Applications - Influence from E-government Services on Sourcing Decisions2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     There are a lot of reasons reported for why organisations start a sourcing decision. This paper discusses this theme based on two questions: Does the need and/or wish to increase e-Government services influence the start of a sourcing decision process aiming at reorganising hosting of software applications and if it does, how does it influence the start of such a decision-making process? The point of departure, besides a literature review, is a sourcing decision-making process in a Swedish municipality. When analysing the sourcing decision, five suggested propositions developed from the factors: control, core competence, capability, cost, and strategy, are used. It is concluded that municipalities in Sweden has to prepare for being more of an e-Government organisation, which means that more of the services the mu-nicipalities- employees has done before citizens will do by themselves. This demands that to be able to offer future e-Government services municipalities need to have control over soft-ware applications. From this study it is suggested that centralisation of hosting can be seen as decentralisation of work tasks from an e-Government perspective.   

  • 76.
    Bleser, Gabriele
    et al.
    Department Augmented Vision, German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Kaiserslautern, Germany; Department of Computer Science, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Damen, Dima
    Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Behera, Ardhendu
    School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; Department of Computing, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK.
    Hendeby, Gustaf
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mura, Katharina
    SmartFactory KL e.V., Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Miezal, Markus
    Department of Computer Science, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Gee, Andrew
    Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Petersen, Nils
    Department Augmented Vision, German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Maçães, Gustavo
    Department Computer Vision, Interaction and Graphics, Center for Computer Graphics, Guimarães, Portugal.
    Domingues, Hugo
    Department Computer Vision, Interaction and Graphics, Center for Computer Graphics, Guimarães, Portugal.
    Gorecky, Dominic
    SmartFactory KL e.V., Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Almeida, Luis
    Department Computer Vision, Interaction and Graphics, Center for Computer Graphics, Guimarães, Portugal.
    Mayol-Cuevas, Walterio
    Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Calway, Andrew
    Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Cohn, Anthony G.
    School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Hogg, David C.
    School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Stricker, Didier
    Department Augmented Vision, German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Cognitive Learning, Monitoring and Assistance of Industrial Workflows Using Egocentric Sensor Networks2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0127769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the workflows that are involved in industrial assembly and production activities are becoming increasingly complex. To efficiently and safely perform these workflows is demanding on the workers, in particular when it comes to infrequent or repetitive tasks. This burden on the workers can be eased by introducing smart assistance systems. This article presents a scalable concept and an integrated system demonstrator designed for this purpose. The basic idea is to learn workflows from observing multiple expert operators and then transfer the learnt workflow models to novice users. Being entirely learning-based, the proposed system can be applied to various tasks and domains. The above idea has been realized in a prototype, which combines components pushing the state of the art of hardware and software designed with interoperability in mind. The emphasis of this article is on the algorithms developed for the prototype: 1) fusion of inertial and visual sensor information from an on-body sensor network (BSN) to robustly track the user’s pose in magnetically polluted environments; 2) learning-based computer vision algorithms to map the workspace, localize the sensor with respect to the workspace and capture objects, even as they are carried; 3) domain-independent and robust workflow recovery and monitoring algorithms based on spatiotemporal pairwise relations deduced from object and user movement with respect to the scene; and 4) context-sensitive augmented reality (AR) user feedback using a head-mounted display (HMD). A distinguishing key feature of the developed algorithms is that they all operate solely on data from the on-body sensor network and that no external instrumentation is needed. The feasibility of the chosen approach for the complete action-perception-feedback loop is demonstrated on three increasingly complex datasets representing manual industrial tasks. These limited size datasets indicate and highlight the potential of the chosen technology as a combined entity as well as point out limitations of the system.

  • 77.
    Blom, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Ljung, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Dynamisk webbprogrammering: Varför väljer systemutvecklande organisationer ASP.NET?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In our research we have studied dynamical Web programming with the latest technology from Microsoft, ASP.NET. The purpose of the study is to find out why system developing organizations have introduced ASP.NET, what expectations of the technology they have and which development tools they use. We have worked according to a hermeneutical approach in order to get a qualitative understanding and a comprehensive view. We have chosen semi structured interviews for data acquisition and for analyze we have chosen an adapted variant of Grounded Theory.

    Our result shows that some reasons to why the organizations in the study have introduced ASP.NET are that they will be in the frontline regarding the use of new technologies. They also feel that there is an expectation of them to use and know the latest of development technologies. There weren’t much explicit expectations of ASP.NET during the introduction. All of the organizations in the research used Microsoft Visual Studio.NET as development tool, because it is a powerful tool. The license agreement with Microsoft and its dominance on the market has also influenced them.

    Some of our conclusions are that the organizations could have some competitive advantages if they introduce ASP.NET. System integration will be easier, which can attract new groups of customers. The possibilities to structure in the programming will make projects easier to plan and the maintaining of systems will be simpler.

  • 78.
    Blomqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundsjö, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Upphandling av en e-tjänst i offentlig sektor: En fallstudie av ÖstgötaTrafiken och införandet av en mobil e-tjänst2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Offentliga e-tjänster ska syfta till att förenkla ärenden, för verksamheten, men framförallt för dess användare. Det finns dock offentliga e-tjänster efter vars införande denna effektivisering inte skett. Bolaget ÖstgötaTrafiken ansvarar för kollektivtrafiken i Östergötlands län, och upphandlade under 2012 en ny sms-tjänst, vilken infördes den 1 februari 2013. Denna nya sms-biljettjänst, som ersatte en tidigare sådan, krävde att alla sms-betalningar skedde från ett registrerat mobilnummer. Bakgrunden till detta var ett EU-direktiv som kom att påverka svensk lagstiftning och krävde att alla sms-köp skulle komma från ett svenskregistrerat mobilnummer. Den nya sms-tjänsten har fått utså stor kritik i lokal media och har visat sig medföra en kraftigt minskad försäljning av sms-biljetter. Denna studie utreder ÖstgötaTrafikens bild av upphandlingen, vilka riktlinjer och strategier som påverkat upphandlingen, användarnas medverkan och syn på tjänsten, samt vilka konsekvenser den nya tjänsten har medfört för verksamheten och användarna.

    Vårt resultat visar att ÖstgötaTrafikens nya sms-biljettjänst inte lyckats med att till fullo ersätta den tidigare tjänsten, detta på grund av en kombination av faktorer, där tolkningen av EU-direktivet, påtaglig tidsbrist, att användarnas roll i utvecklingen till viss del förbisetts och att det uppstått förvirring bland kunderna utgör några av dem. Då det kom en lagändring med registreringskravet har ÖstgötaTrafiken fått tänka om vad gäller sin strategi för att sälja biljetter. Bolaget satsar numera på att sälja mer resekort och på så sätt styra sina kunder bort från sms-biljetten för att bättre kunna kartlägga kollektivtrafiken och på så sätt fördela resurser effektivare.

  • 79.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The use of Semantic Web technologies for decision support – a survey2014In: Semantic Web, ISSN 1570-0844, E-ISSN 2210-4968, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 177-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Semantic Web shares many goals with Decision Support Systems (DSS), e.g., being able to precisely interpret information, in order to deliver relevant, reliable and accurate information to a user when and where it is needed. DSS have in addition more specific goals, since the information need is targeted towards making a particular decision, e.g., making a plan or reacting to a certain situation. When surveying DSS literature, we discover applications ranging from Business Intelligence, via general purpose social networking and collaboration support, Information Retrieval and Knowledge Management, to situation awareness, emergency management, and simulation systems. The unifying element is primarily the purpose of the systems, and their focus on information management and provision, rather than the specific technologies they employ to reach these goals. Semantic Web technologies have been used in DSS during the past decade to solve a number of different tasks, such as information integration and sharing, web service annotation and discovery, and knowledge representation and reasoning. In this survey article, we present the results of a structured literature survey of Semantic Web technologies in DSS, together with the results of interviews with DSS researchers and developers both in industry and research organizations outside the university. The literature survey has been conducted using a structured method, where papers are selected from the publisher databases of some of the most prominent conferences and journals in both fields (Semantic Web and DSS), based on sets of relevant keywords representing the intersection of the two fields. Our main contribution is to analyze the landscape of semantic technologies in DSS, and provide an overview of current research as well as open research areas, trends and new directions. An added value is the conclusions drawn from interviews with DSS practitioners, which give an additional perspective on the potential of Semantic Web technologies in this field; including scenarios for DSS, and requirements for Semantic Web technologies that may attempt to support those scenarios.

  • 80.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Seil Sepour, Azam
    Jönköping University, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Presutti, Valentina
    ISTC-CNR.
    Ontology Testing - Methodology and Tool2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ontology engineering is lacking methods for verifying that ontological requirements are actually fulfilled by an ontology. There is a need for practical and detailed methodologies and tools for carrying out testing procedures and storing data about a test case and its execution. In this paper we first describe a methodology for conducting ontology testing, as well as three examples of this methodology for testing specic types of requirements. Next, we describe a tool that practically supports the methodology.We conclude that there is a need to support users in this crucial part of ontology engineering, and that our proposed methodology is a step in this direction.

  • 81.
    Borst, Rikard
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Utvärdering och implementering av automatiska farthållare i fordonssimulator2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle simulators are becoming more common in vehicle industries. Company earns lot of money on simulations instead of real tests. Real tests are necessary but not made so extensively as before.

    In this thesis the building of an vehice simulator will be described and a comparison between three different cruise controls. The three cruise controls are PI-regulator, a regulator who regulates after positions in the terrain and a MPC-regulator. The reason for choosing this three is to see the difference between simple regulation and more complex regulation with respect to fuel consumption, travel time and complexity.

    The vehicle simulator is made in Matlab/Simulink, Visual Studio and Open Scene Graph. The facilities needed for runnning the simulator is a relative good computer with a grapics card on at least 128 MB RAM plus a steering wheel and pedals for brake and gas to achieve best feeling. A keyboard can be used but it reduces almost all feeling.

    After several simulations a conclusion was made. The MPC-regulator was the regulator who consumed least fuel and travel time. The regulator who regulates after positions in the terrain was not too far away. It would be interesting to do more research about it. In fact it is only a PI-regulator who makes ``clever'' decisions when a hill with enough slope appears. With enough slope means a downhill where the vehicle can accelerate without the use of fuel and an uphill where the vehicle can not keep its speed with maximum use of fuel.

    A conclusion was stated that the friction and height profile influenced on settings for the PI-regulator and with some adjustments on this settings, fuel could be saved.

  • 82.
    Brage, Christina
    Linköping University, University Library.
    BECOMING VISIBLE? ACADEMIC WRITING FOR LIBRARIANS!2017In: 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND INNOVATION (ICERI2017), IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION & DEVELOPMENT , 2017, p. 1503-1507Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a "new" trend for us librarians to "articulate our value" such as suggested in Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Value of Academic Libraries initiative [1]. Librarians need to believe that their own distinct contributions have value. As librarians we gather a lot of data but that is not enough anymore. We need to communicate our findings! Although writing for publication is an expected part of the role of faculty staff in most universities but almost no such recognition of the librarian as an academic writer exists.

  • 83.
    Breid, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Mehari, Lemlem
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Feral Information Systems i Vårdverksamheter: En fallstudie om risker som kan uppstå när de inte uppfyller vårdverksamheters krav på IT-system2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although healthcare information systems improve healthcare and efficiency they are often complex and provide a limited service. For these and other similar reasons, users often take it upon themselves to create their own solutions. These user created solutions are called feral information systems. It is not always that these feral information systems meet the standard requirements of healthcare information systems and as a result of this they have the potential to create risk that might put the patient, management and the organization at risk.

    This is an undergraduate thesis that aims to research the risks that can rise when feral information systems fail to meet the standard requirements of healthcare information systems. The report is an interpretive case study that focuses on three different feral information system within a regional healthcare organization. Ten standard requirements of healthcare information systems are described and written from three distinctive divisions – Technique oriented, information oriented and user oriented requirements.

    Information is gathered using a semi-structured interview with the developer of the three systems, a user of one of the systems and two managers from the maintenance department of the organization. The data gathered about the feral information system is then interpreted and analyzed using the ten requirements of IT system in healthcare from the perspective of the three different divisions.

    As a result of the research we have come to the conclusion that the failure to meet the user and information and technical oriented requirements have the potential to create certain risk in some aspects but not all. Feral information systems in health care services can pose a risk to patient safety and that there are probably several of these systems that violate the patient data act or personal data law. Failure to handle data integrity and follow the patient data law in feral information systems often results in lacking user traceability. In addition, there is an extra cost to maintain systems that are usually not analyzed by the operations. We see that feral information systems often uses self- defined healthcare terminology which obstructs the ability to integrate with other systems. The lack of documentation obstructs the use of the system without a special training. These trainings take time, resources and are often not free. Making the organization more and more dependent on the experienced users. Furthermore, the lack of documentation also obstructs the possibility of further developing the system. 

    However, the potential of feral information system to cause risk is often neglected and underestimated. This is because feral information systems often fulfill only a small and particular need within a certain division of the organization.

  • 84.
    Brinkman, D. J.
    et al.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    Tichelaar, J.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    Schutte, T.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    Benemei, S.
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Böttiger, Ylva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Chamontin, B.
    University of Toulouse, France.
    Christiaens, T.
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Likic, R.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Maciulaitis, R.
    Lithuanian University of Health Science, Lithuania.
    Marandi, T.
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Monteiro, E. C.
    NOVA Medical Sch, Portugal.
    Papaioannidou, P.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Pers, Y. M.
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Pontes, C.
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Raskovic, A.
    University of Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Regenthal, R.
    University of Leipzig, Germany.
    Sanz, E. J.
    University of La Laguna, Spain.
    Tamba, B. I.
    Gr T Popa University of Medical and Pharm, Romania.
    Wilson, K.
    University of Manchester, England.
    de Vries, T. P.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    Richir, M. C.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    van Agtmael, M. A.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    Essential Competencies in Prescribing: A First European Cross-Sectional Study Among 895 Final-Year Medical Students2017In: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 281-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European medical students should have acquired adequate prescribing competencies before graduation, but it is not known whether this is the case. In this international multicenter study, we evaluated the essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) of final-year medical students across Europe. In a cross-sectional design, 26 medical schools from 17 European countries were asked to administer a standardized assessment and questionnaire to 50 final-year students. Although there were differences between schools, our results show an overall lack of essential prescribing competencies among final-year students in Europe. Students had a poor knowledge of drug interactions and contraindications, and chose inappropriate therapies for common diseases or made prescribing errors. Our results suggest that undergraduate teaching in CPT is inadequate in many European schools, leading to incompetent prescribers and potentially unsafe patient care. A European core curriculum with clear learning outcomes and assessments should be urgently developed.

  • 85.
    Broberg, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Verksamhetsanpassade IT-stöd: Designteori och metod2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns IT-stöd i verksamheter som inte fungerar som bra stöd för personalen att utföra arbetet. Att IT-stöd inte fungerar kan bero på olika brister i utvecklingen. En brist som förs fram i denna avhandling är att IT-stödet inte har utvecklats så att det är verksamhetsanpassat. Ett förslag är att IT-stöd kan bli mer verksamhetsanpassade genom att ha ett lämpligt synsätt på IT och verksamhet samt använda en designteori baserad på synsättet och en metod baserad på designteorin. Begreppen verksamhet och IT-stöd har undersökts och ett förslag på ett synsätt för att utveckla verksamhetsanpassade IT-stöd består av ett pragmatiskt perspektiv på verksamhet, ett kontextuellt perspektiv på IT och ett systemiskt perspektiv på relationen mellan verksamhet och IT. Handlingsbarhet och aktivitetsteori antogs tillsammans utgöra en designteori som täckte in det föreslagna synsättet. En undersökning har gjorts av hur handlingsbarhet skulle kunna vidareutvecklas med aktivitetsteori och användas som designteori för att utveckla verksamhetsanpassade IT-stöd. Detta har gjorts genom en konceptuell teoretisk jämförelse mellan teorierna. Undersökningen kan också ses som teoretisk grundning av handlingsbarhet. Kravhanteringsmetoden VIBA (Verksamhets- och Informationsbehovsanalys) är baserad på handlingsbarhet och har undersökts som metod för att utveckla verksamhetsanpassade IT-stöd. För att pröva aktivitetsteori som kompletterande designteori till handlingsbarhet har det undersökts hur aktivitetsteori skulle kunna användas för att vidareutveckla VIBA till en metod för att utveckla verksamhetsanpassade IT-stöd. Metodutvecklingen har gjorts genom att jämföra VIBA med en metod för arbetsutveckling som är baserad på aktivitetsteori. Detta har genererat ett metodförslag som sedan har prövats praktiskt genom tillämpning i två IT-utvecklingsprojekt. Båda projekten har handlat om utveckling av mobilt IT-stöd för vård och omsorgsverksamhet. Jämförelsen mellan handlingsbarhet och aktivitetsteori visade på att teorierna delvis hade gemensamma begrepp och delvis hade begrepp som enbart fanns inom respektive teori. Detta visar att aktivitetsteori skulle kunna vidareutveckla handlingsbarhet inom dessa begrepp, både som designteori för att utveckla verksamhetsanpassade IT-stöd och som sådan. Metodförslaget gick att tillämpa praktiskt. För att styrka dess användbarhet måste dock ytterligare prövning och validering göras.

  • 86.
    Bruce, Johanna
    et al.
    På AB, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Florinus, Anna
    På AB, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Åkesson, Cecilia
    På AB, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Nordström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. På AB, Stockholm.
    Bibehållna SOX-kontroller med hjälp av pm32007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Iden till denna rapport väcktes i samband med att TeliaSonera använt tsm3 i arbetet med att SOX-säkra verksamheten. tsm3 ar en förvaltningsmodell inom TeliaSoneras som används for styrning av systemförvaltningsverksamhet och baseras på referensmodellen pm3 (Nordström och Welander, 2006). Underlag for rapporten presenterades även på Dataföreningskonferensen "Diskutera systemförvaltning" i mars 2007. Denna rapport grundar sig på presentationen, men är utvecklad till att omfatta grundmodellen pm3. I samband med konferensen uttryckte andra organisationer, i samma situation som TeliaSonera, intresse for denna frågeställning.

    Syftet med rapporten är att beskriva på vilket sätt förvaltningsmodellen pm3 kan användas for att upprätthålla etablerade kontroller i en organisation som lyder under SOX. Rapporten innehåller även ett praktikfall som beskriver hur pm3 använts for att etablera SOX-kontroller inom TeliaSonera.

  • 87.
    Brunnerby, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Android Machine Interface: Integrating anAndroid Mobile Device into an Industrial Control System2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between humans and industrial machinery have long been dominated by purpose-built hardware made to withstand the tough environment of the factory floor. Advances in hardware and software in the recent decade has made mobile and powerful devices common place, which has prompted this study to evaluate an Android tablet as an interface to control and monitor industrial machinery. This has been done through the implementation of an application used to control a braiding machine. Using this application as a proof of concept and a practical assessment, the study has concluded that an Android device is feasible to use to control and monitor industrial machinery. The study has also evaluated the network performance and security through testing, where it has compared the transport layer protocols TCP and UDP as well as the use of encryption for this implementation.

  • 88.
    Brännström, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    IT-tillämpning och utmaningar i autonoma fordon: En fallstudie om självkörande bussar och utmaningar kopplade till dess IT-tillämpning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional vehicle manufacturers are no longer sole players on the market — IT companies like Apple and Alphabet have increased their R&D-funding and are working on their own commercialized self driving technologies. Due to more involved IT companies and an increase of IT in the vehicles, our onset is to view the autonomous vehicle as an IT product, which could result in different forms of risks and challenges.

    Autonomous vehicle testing is taking place around the world. In Sweden, a new legislation introduced in 2017 has made it possible to test autonomous vehicles on public roads. As a result, a number of projects involving autonomous vehicles have been initiated around the country. In Linköping, for example, there's a planned project that focuses on testing four autonomous buses of a model called Olli in a specific district. To examine risks and challenges related to autonomous vehicles we decided to do a case study of Olli.

    The result shows a number of risks and challenges, some of them are unique to the project but still applicable on other types of autonomous vehicles. The challenges involves both technical and non-technical aspects, and judging from these we have noticed that the balance between both parts are important to have in mind during the design process of the vehicles.

  • 89.
    Burdakov, Oleg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kvarnström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Doherty, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optimal scheduling for replacing perimeter guarding unmanned aerial vehicles2017In: Annals of Operations Research, ISSN 0254-5330, E-ISSN 1572-9338, Vol. 249, no 1, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guarding the perimeter of an area in order to detect potential intruders is an important task in a variety of security-related applications. This task can in many circumstances be performed by a set of camera-equipped unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Such UAVs will occasionally require refueling or recharging, in which case they must temporarily be replaced by other UAVs in order to maintain complete surveillance of the perimeter. In this paper we consider the problem of scheduling such replacements. We present optimal replacement strategies and justify their optimality.

  • 90.
    Bäck, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Modelling for diagnosis in Modelica: implementation and analysis2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technical systems of today are often complex and integrated. To maintain operational functionality and security it is sometimes necessary to have a surveillance system which can detect a fault in an early stage. The device that detects and locates the faulty component is called a diagnosis system. There are several different approaches to fault diagnosis, this study focus on a part of technical diagnosis that uses a model of the system for assistance to make the diagnosis. In the creation of the model of the system computer tools can be used, in this thesis it is investigated if one such software tool is practical to use in the building of the model of the system.

    One aspect of technical diagnosis based on models is the creation of a model of the process in question with support for faults, a fault model. In this thesis, Modelica is used to create fault models. The models produced from Modelica are then analyzed by some existing diagnosis algorithms.

    The approach of designing fault models in Modelica and then exporting the corresponding system and perform diagnosis analysis on it in Matlab is considered feasible. But the process falls a bit short of the aim of a automatic model building and and diagnosis analysis procedure.

    If the results from this thesis are to be used in the future will depend on if the freedom that Modelica gives in designing fault models are deemed worthwhile to accommodate so that the results from the modeling suits the diagnosis analysis. One way to do ease this transformation of data is to restrict the freedom of model designs in Modelica but then some of the benefit that Modelica brings is negated. It is shown here however that it it possible to design fault models in Modelica and then use the results to analyze the models regarding sensor placement and test design.

  • 91.
    Böckert, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kjell, Stenåke
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kunskapsöverföring mellan förstudie och analys i systemutvecklingsprocessen2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge transfer is necessary condition to guarantee the existence and progress of organisations. The starting-point for this paper is the role of the feasibility study in a software project and it’s significance for the subsequent system development process. The focus is on knowledge, which is generated under the feasibility study, and how and in which dimension knowledge is bringing on to the analysis in the system development process.

    The result shows that the feasibility study is an important base of decision and a necessary condition of the future system development process. Knowledge transfer by documentation and by oral presentation of reports is insufficient, because there is a"filter"which means that knowledge of experience not will be transferred between feasibility study and analysis by documentation and by oral presentation. Furthermore must persons who are involved in the feasibility study occur even later in the development process, to articulate the "silence" knowledge of experience into explicit forms.

    We draw the conclusions that knowledge transfer by documents is good, but not enough in our opinion. Because most of the knowledge is implicit, which means silent and/or without words, it will not been in the report. If the report will be completed with oral presentations, you will came further one step near an optimal knowledge transfer, but it’s still not enough, because the silent knowledge still is an obstruction. Knowledge transfer must be done by persons, who’s in both the feasibility study and analysis, but there must be an arena for knowledge transformation and communication. Through an arena for knowledge transformation the silent knowledge can be communicative. An arena for communication is then the last stone of building an effective knowledge transfer. Knowledge transfer must be "organised". We therefore present a proposal to a model of knowledge transfer.

  • 92.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Five years experience of an annual course on implementation science: an evaluation among course participants2017In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 12, article id 101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasing interest in implementation science has generated a demand for education and training opportunities for researchers and practitioners in the field. However, few implementation science courses have been described or evaluated in the scientific literature. The aim of the present study was to provide a short-and long-term evaluation of the implementation training at Linkoping University, Sweden. Methods: Two data collections were carried out. In connection with the final seminar, a course evaluation form, including six items on satisfaction and suggestions for improvement, was distributed to the course participants, a total of 101 students from 2011 to 2015 (data collection 1), response rate 72%. A questionnaire including six items was distributed by e-mail to the same students in autumn 2016 (data collection 2), response rate 63%. Data from the two data collections were presented descriptively and analysed using the Kirkpatrick model consisting of four levels: reaction, learning, behaviour and results. Results: The students were very positive immediately after course participation, rating high on overall perception of the course and the contents (reaction). The students also rated high on achievement of the course objectives and considered their knowledge in implementation science to be very good and to a high degree due to course participation (learning). Knowledge gained from the course was viewed to be useful (behaviour) and was applied to a considerable extent in research projects and work apart from research activities (results). Conclusions: The evaluation of the doctoral-level implementation science course provided by Linkoping University showed favourable results, both in the short and long term. The adapted version of the Kirkpatrick model was useful because it provided a structure for evaluation of the short-and long-term learning outcomes.

  • 93.
    Carlson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Användargränssnitt för tekniska system i distribuerad vård: behov och krav ur vårdgivarens perspektiv2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The department of Biomedical Engineering at Linköping University needed an usability evaluation of their prototype developed for measuring physiological parameters in distributed healthcare. The purpose of the thesis was to find needs and demands that future users feel that user interfaces for distributed healthcare should fulfill. This was done by using methods such as heuristics and summative evaluations, a number of actions such as visits, user analysis, focus groups, contextual inquire, and functions analyses were carried out to be able to implement these methods. The result of the two evaluations shows that users have high demands on these types of user interfaces, the most important aspects were that the systems ability to be able to identify users and caretakers and the adaptation to the user’s reality.

  • 94.
    Carlson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vallé, Troy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Användarmedverkan vid utveckling av offentliga e-tjänster: En studie av tre svenska offentliga organisationer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Informationsteknik har blivit en betydande del av samhället, vilket bland annat tar sig i uttryck politiskt via bland annat statsförvaltningen. För att underlätta medborgarnas vardag satsar regeringen på att utveckla den så kallade e-förvaltningen och i denna ingår utvecklingen av offentliga elektroniska tjänster. Målet med e-förvaltningen är att både kunna bidra till att effektivisera offentlig verksamhet, men också förenkla medborgares kontakt med den offentliga sektorn. Det finns exempel som visar hur bristen på hänsyn till medborgares behov och önskemål leder till tjänster som inte utnyttjas, något som visar att det är viktigt att offentliga organisationer tillskansar sig kunskap om användare och deras önskemål.

    Användarmedverkan ses av forskare som ett användbart verktyg i syfte att skapa relevanta och tillgängliga e-tjänster, men i praktiken förefaller användares behov vara något som bortprioriteras vid e-tjänsteutvecklingen inom offentlig sektor. Syftet med denna uppsats var att närmre undersöka tre offentliga organisationer för att få större kunskap om deras inställning till användarmedverkan, deras praktiska tillvägagångssätt vid tillämpandet av användarmedverkan och bidraget det medför på utvecklingen av offentliga e-tjänster, samt undersöka möjligheter för förbättring av denna tillämpning. Detta gjordes genom att vi utförde en kvalitativ studie hos Skatteverket, Centrala studiestödsnämnden och Norrköpings kommun.

    Resultatet visade att inställningen till användarmedverkan var positiv och att de tre organisationerna hade uppfattningen att det kunde leda till bättre e-tjänster. Däremot skiljde sig syftet med e-tjänsteutvecklingen sig åt och det sträckte sig mellan en syn på e-tjänsteutveckling med fokus på nytta för medborgare, och e-tjänsteutveckling med fokus på verksamhetsnytta. Även arbetssätten tenderade att skilja sig åt och den organisation som hade starkast medborgarperspektiv arbetade även mest konsekvent och mest etablerat med användarmedverkan, medan organisationen som hade starkast verksamhetsperspektiv inte alls involverade slutanvändare under utvecklingen.

    Vi kunde dra slutsatsen att användarmedverkan hade positiva effekter på utvecklingsprojektens resultat eftersom det fångade problem tidigt i utvecklingen och e-tjänsterna blev bättre anpassade för medborgarnas behov. Av intervjuerna framgick de att organisationerna i vissa fall saknade kunskap om användarmedverkan och skulle behöva tydligare styrning, och att det är viktigt att arbeta för att inkludera en bredare användargrupp istället för att tvinga personer med låg datorvana att välja andra kanaler. Kunskapen om användarmedverkan skulle öka genom att skapa större samverkan inom offentlig sektor för att kunna dela med sig och dra nytta av andra verksamheters metoder och erfarenheter vid tillämpning av användarmedverkan. Vi anser att en plattform för en sådan samverkan skulle kunna bidra mycket till de organisationer som aktivt vill arbeta med initiativ till förbättrad e-tjänsteutveckling.

  • 95.
    Ceschi, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Dorofeeva, Ksenia
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Sartori, Riccardo
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Scalco, Andrea
    University of Verona, Italy.
    A Simulation of Householders Recycling Attitudes Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior2015In: TRENDS IN PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF AGENTS, MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABILITY: THE PAAMS COLLECTION, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 372, p. 177-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What would induce householders to recycle their waste in a practicable way? This paper investigates the determinants of recycling behavior through the development of an Agent-Based Model (ABM) simulation. Specifically, this contribution examines the effectiveness of a simulation based on different recycling behaviors to better understand the phenomenon. The perspective used takes into consideration the recycling attitude and the sensitivity to social norms based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict recycling outcomes. As a whole, this paper highlights the dominance of dynamics and interacting aspects of waste management for the formulation of effective recycling public policies based on behavioral aspects. In addition, it illustrates how it is possible to use such empirical models as the Structural Equation Models (SEM) as a starting point for developing ABM simulations that are closer to both theory and reality.

  • 96.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Christiansson, Benneth
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mötet mellan process och komponent: mot ett ramverk för en verksamhetsnära kravspecifikation vid anskaffning av komponentbaserade informationssystem2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling är en kvalitativ studie av hur organisationer kan förenkla och förbättra arbetet med kravspecificering vid anskaffning av komponentbaserade informationssystem. Avhandlingens utgångspunkt är att mer verksamhetsnära och användbara informationssystem kan anskaffas genom att använda en integrerad verksamhetsmodell där verksamhetsanalys och kravspecificering slås samman. Fyra kunskapsområden har studerats och analyserats för att generera ett ramverk som riktar uppmärksamhet mot relevant innehåll och utformning av en integrerad verksamhetsmodell, 1) verksamhetsprocesser 2) verksamhetsmodellering 3) mjukvarukomponenter och 4) specificering. Avhandlingens empiri representeras av en rekonstruktion av den komponent- och processorienterade anskaffning av ett komplett vårdinformationssystem som genomförts i Landstinget i Värmland. Analyser och respektive kunskapsområde har skett utifrån ansatsen Multi-Grounded Theory vilket innebär en reorigenerering utifrån en växelverkan mellan existerande teorier och empirisk grundning. Några exempel på kunskapsbidrag är ett vidareutvecklat processbegrepp samt en ny livscykelmodell för komponentbaserade informationssystem. Utifrån kunskapsbidragen inom respektive kunskapsområde har integrationssynpunkter identifierats som legat till grund för utveckling av ramverket för en verksamhetsnära kravspecifikation. I avhandlingen dras slutsatsen att genom att integrera arbetet med verksamhetsanalys och kravspecificering skapas bättre förutsättningar för att kravspecifikationer speglar de behov systemen är avsedda att uppfylla och att gapet mellan krav och lösning minskar genom ett bättre underlag för kommunikation mellan kund och systemleverantör. Ramverket pekar på att en verksamhetsnära kravspecifikation utformas i en integrerad processmodell som beskriver verksamhetsprocesser utifrån identifierade generiska processbegrepp samt ett scenario för användning och klassificering av funktionalitet. Kravspecifikationen bör, enligt ramverket, även innehålla en systemöversikt, kommersiella och leverantörsrelaterade krav, design- och arkitektoniska krav samt utförandekrav. Ramverket har prövats och vidareutvecklats utifrån en extern validering i form av en utvärderingsworkshop där ramverkets relevans och användbarhet diskuterats utifrån de erfarenheter och den dokumentation som genererats i Landstinget i Värmland.

  • 97.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Usability of Usability Guidelines: a Proposal for Meta-Guidelines2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is challenging the usability of traditional usability guidelines. The claim is that guideline descriptions and explanations are not satisfactory. Analysis results demonstrate vagueness and are ambiguous in explanation. The aim of the paper is to propose a set of principles (meta-guidelines) to be used for improving the usability of guidelines.

  • 98.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Bruno, Vince
    RMIT, Melbourne, Australien.
    Usability of IT-Systems is More than Interaction Quality: The Need for Communication and Business Process Criteria2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and evaluation of IT-systems are usually supported by different usability criteria. Our hypothesis is that criteria are predominantly formulated as supporting interaction between a user and an IT-system. We are claiming that there is a need for criteria formulated at higher levels such as communication and business processes. One example of a criterion formulated at the interaction level is "Visibility of system status" and one example of a criterion formulated at the business process level is "Quality of work". If criteria is formulated and used on the interaction level only, the impact on design and evaluation can only take place at this level. This choice will also mean that you are only able to speculate whether the IT-system is supporting higher levels. We are not saying that criteria belonging to the interaction level are unimportant; rather we are saying that there is a need for formulating complementing criteria that resides on the communication and business process level.

  • 99.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Competence Development among IT-Consultants2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 100.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reflected Action Learning: a Method for Collective Competence Development.2010In: 11th European Conference on Knowledge Management ECKM 2010 – Famalicão, Portugal / [ed] Eduardo Tomé, Reading, UK: Academic Publishing International, 2010, p. 305-314Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to suggest a method for collective competence development among IT-consultants. IT-consultants are involved in many challenging situations. They need to manage different organisational,semantic and technical issues. Managing this complexity requires a variety of competences. Examples of competences needed are business development,project management and information system development. The competence developed is often individually based. Due to the competition between consultancy firms it is not sufficient with an individually based consult competence; rather the IT-consultants have to carry joint work procedures of the organisation. A consultancy firm possessing a high organisational competence is selling more than working hours; they are selling a reflected development approach. The competence of the IT-consultants is decisive concerning the outcome in the clients’ organisations. The reasons for suggesting a reflective and structured approach for collective competence development are: 1) many IT-consultants are exchange experiences only hastily and at random. This means an ad hoc development of joint competencies. 2) IT-consultants often collaborate with clients rather than withother IT-consultants. If the IT-consultant is the only representative from the IT-organisation the interaction with other consultants is limited. The character of the IT-consultants’ work situation means that there is a risk that the competencies resides only on an individual level and that they will not be properly transferred to the collective and organisational level. We have been inspired by theories such as: experiential learning, organisational learning,knowledge-in-action and storytelling. The method development has been based on empirical data from two IT-consultancy firms. The main message of the paper is to argue for the need of a structured collective competence development process and that it is not sufficient to rely on sporadic and occasional knowledge exchange.

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