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  • 51.
    Hassan, Osama
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An integrated approach to assessing the sustainability of buildings2016In: Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, ISSN 1726-0531, E-ISSN 1758-8901, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 835-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainability of the built environment is increasingly becoming an urgent issue for modern society. In this context, assessing the sustainable development of buildings will be an effective tool in managing and monitoring the progress of the sustainability performance on a local and/or global scale. In this paper, there is an attempt to integrate two methods of assessing the sustainability of buildings. The first method applies the concept of composite indicators. The other method applies the weighted utility function, using the value-focused thinking approach of mathematically modelling and constructing composite indicators. A tentative index to evaluate the sustainability of buildings is proposed, based on this integrated approach. The suggested method can give the assessor the opportunity to analyse the potential improvement that can be carried out in order to improve the sustainable development of buildings in the long and short term. Finally, the role of benchmarking in improving the sustainability performance of buildings is discussed in relation to the suggested method.

  • 52.
    Hassan, Osama
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderstedt, Rasmus
    Gävle, Sweden.
    Estimation of drying time of fresh concrete slabs: acomparative study2017In: Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, ISSN 1726-0531, E-ISSN 1758-8901, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 134-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to attempt to compare experimental results for a number of modelsfor the prediction of the drying time of new concrete floors. The investigated methods are the table method, the Swedish Concrete Association (SCA) method and the free computer programme TorkaS 3.2.

    Design/methodology/approach – The comparison is based on moisture measurements of four differentfloor specimens. The specimens have different ratios (w/c 0.38, 0.6 and 0.7).

    Findings – The results show that there is a good agreement between the table method and the measured values on the specimens with high water-cement ratio (w/c 0.6 and 0.7). However, the deviation becomes greater at lower water-cement ratio (w/c 0.38). TorkaS also resulted in a good agreement with the measurements. However, it is noted that as the drying time increases, the programme exhibits a slowdehydration trend at higher w/c ratios. The SCA method shows various results within the permissible deviation. Moreover, the moisture distribution in concrete with high w/c ratios is found to be mainly influencedby moisture diffusion and little by self-desiccation.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to concrete slabs that are drying from oneside in an enclosed building with an heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system operating normally. Moreover, this study concerns concrete without special additives (e.g. silica fumes), which can beused in some specific cases to accelerate or retard the hydration (cure) process.

    Practical implications – These compared methods are used widely in Sweden; therefore, it will be interesting to understand their applicability range. Another focus in this paper is to investigate how the effect of self-desiccation of concrete is related to the w/c ratios, taking into consideration the result of these predictionmodels.

    Social implications – The paper can suit academic researchers, as well as the commercial industries, in asense that the comparative study will pave a way to the best method to be used for drying time estimation.

    Originality/value – The paper contains new information and could be useful to researchers and commercial industries.

  • 53.
    Hernqvist, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson Hansson, Birger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kvinnans plats i byggbranschen2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggbranschen är i nuläget en av de mest mansdominerade branscherna i Sverige. Det är en av många branscher där det går att utläsa klara skillnader mellan kvinnors och mäns karriärmöjligheter. Är det rimligt att byggindustrin, som är i stort behov av ny arbetskraft, bara ska vara till för halva befolkningen? Vi tycker inte det. Genom att tillämpa teorier i organisationslära och jämställdhet har den här studien utforskat hur en arbetsplats som tilltalar kvinnliga akademiker kan skapas. Vi behandlar karriärmöjligheter, social status och trygghet hos yrkesverksamma inom byggbranschen och även hur studenter ser på sin framtida bransch.

    En enkätundersökning ligger till grund för datainsamlingen. Enkäternas syfte var att samla in information som speglade studiens teoretiska referensram. Enkäterna användes även för att belysa skillnader mellan kvinnor och män. Fyra medelstora till stora företag deltog i studien och enkäter delades ut både på plats och via mail.

    Föga överraskande fann studien att det finns stora skillnader mellan kvinnors och mäns åsikter om deras situation i branschen. Tydliga hinder för kvinnor identifierades, liksom att branschen klart är driven av strukturer som gynnar män. Vidare visar studien att studenter har en negativ syn på byggbranschen vad gäller jämställdhet. Att hitta lösningar och konkreta förbättringsförslag för hur byggbranschen ska bli mer jämställd visade sig dock vara svårt eftersom problemet sträcker sig utanför byggbranschen. Lösningarna handlar om att ändra attityder, att våga prata om kvinnors och mäns möjligheter och att inte blunda för ett verkligt och viktigt problem.

  • 54.
    Hiltunen, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olander, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visualisering på arkitektkontor, En effektivitetsjämförelse mellan fyra visualiseringsprogram2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag har det blivit allt vanligare att visualisering tillämpas inom byggsektorn. Det finns en mängd olika program där det kan vara stora skillnader på användarvänlighet samt kvalitet på de bilder programmen producerar. Några av de program som används på många arkitektkontor är Revit, ArchiCad, 3DS Max Design och Lumion. Ett stort problem idag är att för att få bra säljande bilder kostar det ofta mer än vad det är möjligt att ta betalt.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att ta reda på vilka visualiseringsprogram som är effektivast med avseende på tid, kostnad, användarvänlighet och resultat för ett arkitektkontor då de vill ha säljande bilder. Syftet är även att presentera ett förslag för vilket program ett arkitektkontor får ut mest av att använda och om det är värt att investera i ny programvara. Studien avser arkitektkontor utan visualiseringsenhet. Studien som görs är tänkt som en utvärdering och uppdraget kommer att utföras åt Sonark Arkitektkontor AB.

    För att besvara detta syfte har följande frågeställningar formulerats:

    • Vilket/vilka av programmen 3DS Max Design, Lumion, Revit och ArchiCad lämpar sig bäst till att ta fram fotorealistiska bilder på ett arkitektkontor och varför?
    • Finns det ett samband mellan god användarvänlighet och kvalitet?
    • Vilket program är det mest effektiva med avseende på tid, kostnad, användarvänlighetoch kvalitet?

    Genom att utgå ifrån att samma visualisering ska göras med samtliga program blir det möjligt att jämföra resultatet och därmed kunna lämna en rekommendation. I samtliga program har ett hus med tillhörande komponenter valts ut. Detta hus har sedan visualiserats i de fyra programmen. Tiden för visualisering och rendering har mätts och jämförts, likaså kostnaden. För att jämföra användarvänlighet och kvalitet har bedömningsmallar upprättats.

    Resultatet av användarvänlighet visar att Lumion är det bästa i just den kategorin tätt följt av ArchiCad som bara kom en poäng efter. 3DS max design och Revit kom på delad tredje plats, en poäng bakom tvåan.

    I kvalitetstestet vann 3DS Max Design med några enstaka poäng mer än Revit. På tredje plats en bra bit efter tvåan kom Lumion och på fjärde plats ArchiCad.

    Utifrån de betygsmallar, de största för- respektive nackdelar som finns för varje program samt vår egen upplevelse har bedömning skett om programmen rekommenderas och vilket som är det mest effektiva. De program som fick stämpeln “Bäst effektivitet” samt ”Rekommenderas” blev följande:

    • Bäst effektivitet: Revit
    • Rekommenderas: Lumion och 3DS max design
  • 55.
    Hogeby, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schwab, Gabriella
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparison of noise-reduction methods - case study, Inre hamnen2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bullernivåer inom stadsmiljöer är ett problem som påverkar människors hälsa vilket kan åtgärdas med olika metoder. Rapporten kommer behandla metoderna bullerskärm och dubbeldränerande asfalt som har olika för- och nackdelar. Bullerskärmar har effektiva bullerdämpande egenskaper för bakomliggande omgivning, men en negativ visuell påverkan på stadsmiljön och hur gaturummet upplevs. Vid åtgärden bullerskärm kommer vegetation göras kring skärmarna för att ge behagligare visuell uppfattning vilket även bidrar till den upplevda bullerdämpningen. Dubbeldränerande asfalt har en obefintlig visuell påverkan men dess bullerreducerande effekter är osäkra beroende på förutsättningarna. Problem med bullerdämpande asfaltsbeläggningar i stadsmiljö är då köbildningar uppstår, då beläggningen inte har någon effekt under 30km/h och motorljud blir den övervägande orsaken till buller. Syftet med denna rapport är att jämföra vilken metod som är mest sparsam, dess akustiska och visuella påverkan samt väga in dess för- och nackdelar. Studien kommer göras mot gatan Östra promenaden i den nya tilltänkta stadsdelen Inre Hamnen i Norrköping som är en gata i stadsmiljö med närliggande bostäder. För att möjliggöra rapporten studeras relevant litteratur inom ämnet och använt information från Norrköpings kommuns programplan för den aktuella fallstudien Inre hamnen. För att uppskatta kostnader kring de olika metoderna kontaktades relevanta företag för att skapa ett realistiskt antagande av priser. Vid kostnadsjämförelse ges resultaten att dubbeldränerad asfalt är mer kostnadseffektiv om tidsramen är på mindre än 19 år, en längre tidsperiod ger att bullerskärmar skulle ge ett billigare utfall för det aktuella fallet. Det teorin visar på också är att bullerskärm ger en större minskning av oönskat buller i jämförelse med den dubbeldränerade asfalten, men har en stor visuell påverkan. För fallstudien Inre Hamnen anser vi att den bästa lösningen är dubbeldränerad asfalt. Detta gäller ur ett kostnadsperspektiv, dess bullerdämpande effekt samt dess obefintliga visuella påverkan.

  • 56.
    Holmqvist, Oliver
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Storm, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alternative warranty management2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Byggföretagen lägger ner åtskilliga timmar på icke inkomstbringande arbete årligen tillföljd av garantihantering. Det är tid som med fördel kan användas i pågående produktionen istället. Det kostar entreprenörerna och kunderna tillsammans 1,3 MDR kr per år för garantihanteringen (Boverket 2007), vilket enbart är med hänsyn till tid nedlagd av byggföretagen och kunderna för att åtgärda felen. Med denna bakgrund kommer följande studie undersöka möjligheterna för ett externt förvaltningsbolag att ta över garantihanteringen, för att Företaget skall kunna lägga all sin tid på den producerande verksamheten. En kartläggning över hur hanteringen fungerar idag på ett entreprenörsföretag med avseende att besvara frågeställningen Hur påverkar det Företaget utifrån tidsåtgång, kostnader och kundnöjdhet om ett förvaltningsbolag tar över hanteringen av garantiåtgärder? Slutsatsen från studien visar på att Företaget skulle dra fördelar av att använda sig av ett externt förvaltningsbolag som ansvarar för garantihanteringen. Detta skulle leda till kortare handläggningstider vilket kan leda till ökad kundnöjdhet. Företaget skulle dra fördelar av att pågående produktion inte skulle belastas av garantiåtagande i samband med outsourcing. P.g.a. Företagets bristfälliga tids- och kostnadsredovisning gällande garantihanteringen, går det inte att dra några slutsatser om det skulle vara lönsamt för Företaget ur ett kostnadsperspektiv.

  • 57.
    Honarpardaz, Mohammadali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. ABB, Sweden.
    Tarkian, Mehdi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sirkett, D.
    ABB, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feng, Xiaolong
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. ABB, Sweden.
    Elf, J.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjögren, R.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Generic Automated Multi-function Finger Design2016In: 2016 SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND AUTOMATION SCIENCE (ICMEAS 2016), IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2016, Vol. 157, article id 012015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-function fingers that are able to handle multiple workpieces are crucial in improvement of a robot workcell. Design automation of multi-function fingers is highly demanded by robot industries to overcome the current iterative, time consuming and complex manual design process. However, the existing approaches for the multi-function finger design automation are unable to entirely meet the robot industries need. This paper proposes a generic approach for design automation of multi-function fingers. The proposed approach completely automates the design process and requires no expert skill. In addition, this approach executes the design process much faster than the current manual process. To validate the approach, multi-function fingers are successfully designed for two case studies. Further, the results are discussed and benchmarked with existing approaches.

  • 58.
    Isdalen, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Taufik, Hamsa
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flexible building2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Städer i Sverige växer ständigt. Folk flyttar från ett område till ett annat område och detta leder till att byggnader i vissa distrikt börjar sakna sin betydelse. Till exempel om en räjong i staden bosätt med många barnfamiljer finns det behov för stort antal förskoleplatser och i sin tur byggnader som är anpassad för förskoleverksamhet. När räjongens befolkning mognar och barnen flyttar ut så minskar behovet av förskoleplatser och omvandlas istället till ett behov av stort antal lägenhetshus i området. Detta examensarbete har syftet att utreda möjligheten att konvertera bostadshus till förskolor i samband med den ökande befolkningsmängden och vice versa, d.v.s. att konvertera en förskola till ett lägenhetshus. Arbete berör både sociala aspekter vad gäller förskolan samt arkitektoniska perspektivet och lösningar angående hur ett flexibelt hus kan designas. Enkätundersökningen och litteraturstudier är metoder för att få fram resultatet av detta arbete. Resultatet visas i form av skisser, diagram, ritningar och renderingar.

  • 59.
    Janné, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Construction Logisitcs Centres - Innovation or Complication?2017In: NOFOMA 2017 The 29th NOFOMA Conference: Taking on Grand Challenges / [ed] Daniel Hellström, Joakim Kembro and Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund: Lund University , 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Construction logistics centres (CLC) is one   possible solution to manage logistics flows in urban construction projects.   The aim of CLC’s are to decrease disturbances to the surrounding environment   and to improve logistics flows and the planning of the same to construction   sites. However, as CLC’s is a new phenomenon, there is a lack of research with   regards to how CLC’s are experienced by stakeholders utilising and/or running   them. Therefore, the paper answers two research questions relating to the   experiences of three different stakeholder groups of the use of a CLC in a   large development project and how these experiences provide directions in   developing CLC governance strategies.

    Design/methodology/approach

    An exploratory single   case research design was chosen to explain how the utilisation and governance of a   CLC has been experienced by three main contractors, the CLC operator and the   municipality initiating the CLC. Case study   methodology is a valid choice when the context and experiences are critical   to understanding the phenomenon comprehensively. Data has been collected   through semi-structured interviews, site visits, observations and project   documentation.

    Findings

    There is potential in utilising   CLC’s in development projects, and positive aspects such as consolidation   effects and enhanced planning efforts were found. What is evident however, is   that the design and implementation of CLC’s must be based on comprehensive   stakeholder analysis and clear governance strategies to lay the foundation   for a good construction process for the main contractors. Major aspects to   consider when designing a CLC governance strategy identified were: clarifying   who the customers are, multi-stakeholder logistics analysis, and information   flows.

    Research   implications

    Problems and possibilities in utilising CLC’s are explored and future   research directions are presented. Further research is needed to verify the   findings from SRS. With the novelty of CLC’s, it would be useful to study   other CLC projects and different solutions as well.

    Practical   implications

    Contractors, TPL providers, and municipalities can find inspiration for   how to design and implement CLC governance strategies based on experiences   from the SRS case.

    Originality/value

    As the use of CLC’s is a new phenomenon, this paper contributes by   highlighting contextual aspects affecting the experiences of using and   operating CLC’s from different stakeholder perspectives.

  • 60.
    Jigander, Max
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategic considerations at expansion - Economical and design consequences by snow load regulation2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the new introduced snow loads a higher demand is applied on buildings in Jonkoping area. The reason that the value has increased is partly because new load combinations that is applied on dimension equations but also because of the intensified precipitation. Additional reasons to the updated standards are that several roofs with large spans have in recent years collapsed in Sweden. When using design equations on existing constructions, new standards must be applied, whether if the structure is further back designed with older standards. Due to the case, the new standards result in an increased dimension value; therefore strategic considerations must be done in case of reconstruction. The purpose of the report is to highlight the differences that occur when calculating loads and design. In case of reconstruction of an old construction, basically two options can be done. Either carry through the reconstruction and possibly enhance the strength of the construction at large costs or choose not to perform the extension. If the latter option is made it may result in; annual costs of clearing snow of roofs, the risk of roof collapse or even denied access rights to all, or parts of the building. These options must be analysed with consideration to strength and costs to result in a good solution.

  • 61.
    Johansson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The choice of soil improvement at railroad constructions2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vid byggnation av järnväg måste man som projektör ta hänsyn till om marken behöver förstärkas eller ej. Detta gör att man står inför viktiga avväganden vid valet av jordförstärkningsmetod. Studiens syfte har varit att skapa ett förtydligande underlag för beslutsprocessen med avseende på bankpålning och kalkcementpelare ur en teknisk- och en ekonomisk synvinkel. Den tekniska jämförelsen utfördes genom att studera vår litteraturstudien och ur denna valdes 14 parametrar för att utvärdera de respektive metoderna. Den ekonomiska frågeställningen besvarades genom att utföra en fallstudie. Vid anläggning av järnväg måste funktion gå före kostnad. Detta medför att man sällan står i en avvägning mellan kalkcementpelare och bankpålning. Metoderna går inte att använda på samma sätt och beroende på jordens egenskaper och belastning skall metod väljas. Men för att ta det beslutet krävs det att noggranna geotekniska undersökningar har genomförts.

  • 62.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Increased efficiency of experience feedback between production and budget2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry has during many years been regarded as a problematic industry. As a result of this the government 2002 set up a commission with the aim to discourage negative trends in the industry. The commission acknowledged the problem with work activities being reconstructed between projects. As a result of this the experience being acquired in one project did not come to use in the next. In the construction industry it is a well-known fact that around 10% of the cost of production can be categorized as error and controls. The most of the errors that occur can be eliminated with better planning. A tool to be used is experience feedback which purpose is to use the knowledge gained from earlier projects to predict future projects. The purpose of this study is to examine and highlight problems that can occur when experience shall be fed back between production and budget with the aim to present suggested improvements. The study is divided into three questions where the first question investigates which data is relevant from production in order to make well motivated production budgets. The second question explores, in a collaboration with SM Entreprenad AB, which conditions there are today regarding experience feedback between production and budget. The third and final question reviews improvements to be made. The first question is being answered with literature as reference while the second and third has its focus on interviews. The results of the study shows that a budget is constructed with earlier projects as reference where data mainly regarding time, used amount of material as well as used material/equipment are the central variables that need to be fed back to budget. The situation at SM Entreprenad today is that they more or less are not feeding back any data from production with the aim to make well motived budgets. The study shows regarding improvements to be made that there are a lot of data to be used, but they lack routines in order to use this data.

  • 63.
    Johnsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Arbetsberedningar: för att minska slöseri i byggproduktion2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The meaning of production planning is to effectively coordinate a project's activities and resources in the most effective way possible. Through good planning, potential conflicts can be avoided. Work preparations is a tool that reviews the operations, mapping workflow and can find the most effective way to carry out work on. Work preparations can be used to share experiences and standardize operations within the company.

    The purpose of this report is to study work preparations and what tasks production management and skilled workers have when work preperations are done. The study was conducted as a case study with two methods of data collection, a literature review and interviews. In the study, production managers, supervisors and skilled workers were interviewed to identify how Skanska is working with work preparations in the district of Kristianstad. The study also aims to analyze the situation and compare it with literature and with established knowledge in order to highlight possible improvements.

    In Skanska’s business management system, Vårt sätt att arbeta, work preparations is described as a detailed planning of an operation. The aim is to take advantage of everyone’s skills, safe work environment, quality and environment, and to increase predictability regarding productivity. Risks that are deemed significant to the project's time, finances, quality, environmental or health should be prepared at a detailed level of  production.

    The interviews show how employees at Skanska are working with work preperations. Approaches vary between individuals and workplaces. All respondents believe work preperations is a good tool for planning in production and gladly uses it. But one of the reasons for not using it, is the lack of time. Respondents also recognize the importance of utilizing all coworkers’ skills and knowledge when producing work preperations, and encourages cooperation in the workplace.

    Respondents in the study has a positive attitude to work preperations and think it aids them in production. Thus, do not the opinion of work preperations have to change, however, not all respondents understand the importance of work preperations and what effects they can have. The understanding of how important this kind of planning is must increase. Skanska’s management should convey the purpose and objectives of work preperations to all employees, in that way the understanding of work preperations can improve and reduction of wastage in construction can take place.

    Work preperations takes time and therefor they are not always prioritized. There is however time to be saved when activities begin due to questions and uncertainties are eliminated. Time can also be saved by not having to take measures of produced errors. The lack of time shouldn’t be a reason for not doing work preperations, on the contrary work preperations saves time. To make work preperations a standardization in production, the management are required to work more routinely with work preperations.

  • 64.
    Jonsson, Henric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Production Strategy in Project Based Production within a House-Building Context2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A production strategy enables companies to effectively manage the different challenges that the production function face in a competitive environment. A production strategy helps a company to make operational and strategic decisions that follow a logical pattern and supports the corporate strategy and the competitive priorities of the company. When no strategy exists the decisions may be arbitrary and unpredictable leading to an under-achieving production system. Production strategy involves decisions that shape the long term capabilities of a producing company. For the traditional production industry there are a number of production strategy frameworks that facilitates the process of designing production systems. However, these frameworks typically leave project based production out of the scope or treat project based production as one type of production system, when in fact project based production systems can be multifaceted depending on product design and market requirements.

    This thesis focus on project based manufacturing in a house-building context. Houses can be produced by different types of production systems, and depending on how the production systems are designed they have strengths and weaknesses in different areas of competition. To be able to meet the increasing demand for residential houses, and improve performance in the house-building industry, the way houses are produced have to match different market requirements in a more effective and efficient way. To do this a production strategy has to exist. Typically there is a trade-off between productivity and flexibility, hence a production system designed to meet customer requirements concerning product design is probably not the best process choice if the customer thinks price and delivery time are the most important. A production strategy helps a company to make decisions so that the output of the production system meets customer requirements in the best possible way. Due to the fact that project based production is typically left out of the scope in traditional production strategy literature and that there is a lack of research concerning production strategy in a house-building context, the purpose of this research is:

    … to extend the production strategy body of knowledge concerning project based production in a house-building context.

    To fulfil the purpose the following four research questions are studied and answered:

    RQ1: What aspects can be useful in a classification matrix contrasting different production systems for house-building?

    RQ2: Which competitive priorities are important to measure when evaluating different production systems on a production strategy level in a house-building context, and how can they quantitatively be measured?

    RQ3: How does the characteristics of the production system, i.e. the process choice, affect information exchange in a house-building context?

    RQ4: How can a new production strategy be formulated and implemented in an industrialised house-building context and what challenges are important to consider in that process?

    To answer RQ1 a classification matrix was developed that classify production systems along two dimensions: a product dimension (degree of product standardisation) and a process dimension (degree of off-site assembly). The two dimensions are related, for example a high degree of standardisation should be matched with a high degree of off-site assembly and consequently a low degree of product standardisation should be matched with a low degree of off-suite assembly. A mismatch, e.g. high degree of off-site assembly and low degree of standardisation, typically leads to poor performance and should hence be avoided.

    To be able to see how different types of production systems perform in different areas of competition key performance indicators (KPIs) were developed. The KPIs presented in this research can be used to measure quality, delivery (speed and dependability), cost (level and dependability), and flexibility (volume and mix) at a production strategic level (RQ2).

    Furthermore, to answer RQ3, a production strategy perspective was taken on information exchange by relating information exchange to the design of the production system. The results indicate that employing different types of production systems leads to different approaches to information exchange. Employing a production systems using traditional production methods on-site and a low degree of product standardisation lead to a traditional approach to information exchange, e.g. project meetings, telephone and mail. Production systems employing some degree of off-site assembly have less complex and more stable supply chains and use ICT-solutions to a higher extent, which facilitates information exchange. The findings also indicate that a high degree of product standardisation facilitates the use of ICT-solutions such as ERP and BIM.

    RQ4 concerns the production strategy process, i.e. formulation and implementation. Failure in this processes can jeopardise the whole business. Based on a longitudinal case study of an industrialised house-builder a suggested production strategy process was developed, including both production strategy formulation and implementation. The study also identified context specific challenges that have to be considered in an industrialised house-building context, e.g. the complexity that comes with using two different production processes (off-site and on-site) in the same production system.

    The research is case based and a total number of eight different production systems have been studied. Data has been collected through interviews, observations, and review of company documents.

    List of papers
    1. Classification of production systems for industrialized building: a production strategy perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of production systems for industrialized building: a production strategy perspective
    2013 (English)In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 53-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to develop a matrix for classifying production systems for construction with various degrees of industrialization. Previous attempts to classify industrialized production systems for construction focus on dimensions such as the design process, the product technology, or the supply chain structure, but none of them acknowledge the importance of how orders are actually won in the market and that different market segments have different requirements. Using production strategy theory as a base, a matrix is developed linking market requirements, via the product offering, to the design of the production system. The matrix positions typical production systems based on their respective degrees of product standardization and volumes relative to the degree of offsite production. Similar to production systems in manufacturing, production systems for construction also deliver manufacturing outputs at different levels, indicating that the choice of production system will affect the competitiveness of the company. The applicability of the matrix is exemplified through three case illustrations of concepts for industrialized building, and these show that the matrix can be used to analyse the production systems’ relative strengths and weaknesses. The matrix can also be used as a guide when developing new, or adjusting existing, production systems for industrialized building so that they will match market requirements and offer competitiveness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2013
    Keywords
    Construction industry, Industrialized housing, Off-site production, Operational research, Production process
    National Category
    Business Administration Construction Management Building Technologies Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96756 (URN)10.1080/01446193.2013.812226 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-08-26 Created: 2013-08-26 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. A Production System Classification Matrix: Matching Product Standardization and Production System Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Production System Classification Matrix: Matching Product Standardization and Production System Design
    2015 (English)In: Journal of construction engineering and management, ISSN 0733-9364, E-ISSN 1943-7862, Vol. 141, no 6, article id 05015004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The potential benefits of using off-site production in residential construction have been highlighted in many studies, but the full potential of off-site production approaches is not always realized. This shortfall can be explained by the mismatch between market requirements and the output offered by the production system, in other words, a mismatch between the degree of product standardization and the design of the production system. This mismatch could be resolved through a classification matrix that aids decision makers in matching market requirements and the degree of product standardization with the degree of off-site production and production system design. This paper describes the development of a classification matrix that guides the decision-making process during the designing of new or re-designing of existing production systems in residential construction. An important aspect of the development was balancing the trade-off between productivity and flexibility so that products can be produced competitively. The merits of the classification matrix are exemplified by five case companies with different approaches to industrialization and off-site production.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2015
    Keywords
    Production strategy, Construction industry, Off-site production, Residential building, Process choice, Case study
    National Category
    Business Administration Construction Management Building Technologies Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105990 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000965 (DOI)000354550100004 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. KPIs for measuring performance of production systems for residential building: A production strategy perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>KPIs for measuring performance of production systems for residential building: A production strategy perspective
    2017 (English)In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 381-403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to define key performance indicators (KPIs) for measuring performance of production systems for residential building from a production strategy perspective.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A literature review is done to identify suitable competitive priorities and to provide grounds for developing KPIs to measure them. The KPIs are evaluated and validated through interviews with industry experts from five case companies producing multifamily residences. Furthermore, two of the case companies are used to illustrate how the KPIs can be employed for analysing different production systems from a manufacturing strategy perspective.

    Findings

    Defined, and empirically validated, KPIs for measuring the competitive priorities quality, cost (level and dependability), delivery (speed and dependability) and flexibility (volume and mix) of different production systems.

    Research limitations/implications

    To further validate the KPIs, more empirical tests need to be done and further research also needs to address mix flexibility, which better needs to account for product range to provide a trustworthy KPI.

    Practical implications

    The defined KPIs can be used to evaluate and monitor the performance of different production systems’ ability to meet market demands, hence focusing on the link between the market and the firm’s production function. The KPIs can also be used to track a production systems’ ability to perform over time.

    Originality/value

    Most research that evaluate and compare production systems for residential building is based on qualitative estimations of manufacturing outputs. There is a lack of quantitative KPIs to measure performance at a strategic level. This research does this, identifying what to measure, but also how to measure four competitive priorities through 14 defined KPIs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143673 (URN)10.1108/CI-06-2016-0034 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2018-01-05
  • 65.
    Jonsson, Henric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards a Framework for Production Strategy in Construction2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem with low productivity increase in the construction industry is highlighted in many studies and in Sweden the need to improve productivity and client satisfaction in the construction industry has promoted a number of government investigations. One suggested way of improving productivity and client satisfaction is to move value adding activities offsite, to a more industrial environment. Compared to  traditional on-site production, off-site production has been said to have many advantages such as: higher productivity, lower production cost, higher quality and shorter lead times. The trade-off when increasing the degree of off-site production is the reduced product and process flexibility. The trade-off between productivity and flexibility indicates that different production systems perform well in different areas of competition.

    The purpose of this research is to develop a production strategy framework for the construction industry, and more specifically for the production of multifamily residences. This framework can help construction firms to design the production system and find the right balance between productivity and flexibility. For the manufacturing industry, production strategy frameworks have been developed and shown useful when designing new or redesigning existing production systems. A corresponding framework adapted to the construction industry would be useful for construction firms when designing production systems to meet the targeted market in the most efficient way.

    Production strategy theory is traditionally built around two broad groups, decision categories and competitive priorities. Decision categories are areas in which a company must make decisions that are of long term importance for the production function. In this thesis focus is on the decision category traditionally named product/process technology and more specifically on the so called process choice i.e. choosing a production system that meets the demands from the targeted market in the most efficient way. To do this a classification matrix is developed that classify production systems along two dimensions, the degree of off-site assembly in one dimension and the degree of product standardisation in the other. This way of visualising the process and product characteristic has been used before, in traditional production strategy frameworks, to facilitate the process choice.

    For the classification matrix to be useful, the positions in the suggested classification matrix must be linked to the ability of different production systems to deliver manufacturing outputs. Therefor a performance measurement system is developed. In the process of developing classification matrix and the performance measurement system three research questions are addressed:

    RQ1. What dimensions can be useful, from a production strategy perspective, when classifying different production systems for the production of multifamily residences?

    RQ2. What manufacturing outputs/competitive priorities have to be taken into consideration when evaluating different production systems forproduction of multifamily residences?

    RQ3. How should the ability of a production system to deliver manufacturing outputs be measured?

    To answer the research questions an abductive approach has been used. The results from a literature review have been used to develop theoretical constructs. Case studies have then been used to empirically test the constructs. Thereafter the empirical data and information from additional literature reviews has then been used to further develop and refine the theoretical constructs. The findings of this research are thereby grounded in both theory and practise.

    There are two main contributions in this thesis. The first one is the proposed classification matrix for production systems producing multifamily residences. The classification matrix can be used as a base for production strategy reasoning in the construction industry. The second contribution is the suggested performance measurement system in which KPIs for measuring quality, delivery (speed and dependability), cost (level and dependability) and flexibility (volume, mix and expansion) have been defined.

    By positioning different production systems in the classification matrix and then use the defined performance measurement system, relative differences between the ability of different production systems to deliver manufacturing outputs can be exposed. The classification matrix can help companies to work with production strategy in a structured way, and to visualize the link between the market strategy and the production function of the firm in order to meet the demands from the targeted market in the most efficient way.

    List of papers
    1. Classification of production systems for industrialized building: a production strategy perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of production systems for industrialized building: a production strategy perspective
    2013 (English)In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 53-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to develop a matrix for classifying production systems for construction with various degrees of industrialization. Previous attempts to classify industrialized production systems for construction focus on dimensions such as the design process, the product technology, or the supply chain structure, but none of them acknowledge the importance of how orders are actually won in the market and that different market segments have different requirements. Using production strategy theory as a base, a matrix is developed linking market requirements, via the product offering, to the design of the production system. The matrix positions typical production systems based on their respective degrees of product standardization and volumes relative to the degree of offsite production. Similar to production systems in manufacturing, production systems for construction also deliver manufacturing outputs at different levels, indicating that the choice of production system will affect the competitiveness of the company. The applicability of the matrix is exemplified through three case illustrations of concepts for industrialized building, and these show that the matrix can be used to analyse the production systems’ relative strengths and weaknesses. The matrix can also be used as a guide when developing new, or adjusting existing, production systems for industrialized building so that they will match market requirements and offer competitiveness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2013
    Keywords
    Construction industry, Industrialized housing, Off-site production, Operational research, Production process
    National Category
    Business Administration Construction Management Building Technologies Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96756 (URN)10.1080/01446193.2013.812226 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-08-26 Created: 2013-08-26 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. A Production System Classification Matrix: Matching Product Standardization and Production System Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Production System Classification Matrix: Matching Product Standardization and Production System Design
    2015 (English)In: Journal of construction engineering and management, ISSN 0733-9364, E-ISSN 1943-7862, Vol. 141, no 6, article id 05015004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The potential benefits of using off-site production in residential construction have been highlighted in many studies, but the full potential of off-site production approaches is not always realized. This shortfall can be explained by the mismatch between market requirements and the output offered by the production system, in other words, a mismatch between the degree of product standardization and the design of the production system. This mismatch could be resolved through a classification matrix that aids decision makers in matching market requirements and the degree of product standardization with the degree of off-site production and production system design. This paper describes the development of a classification matrix that guides the decision-making process during the designing of new or re-designing of existing production systems in residential construction. An important aspect of the development was balancing the trade-off between productivity and flexibility so that products can be produced competitively. The merits of the classification matrix are exemplified by five case companies with different approaches to industrialization and off-site production.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2015
    Keywords
    Production strategy, Construction industry, Off-site production, Residential building, Process choice, Case study
    National Category
    Business Administration Construction Management Building Technologies Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105990 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000965 (DOI)000354550100004 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Performance measurement for production systems in construction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance measurement for production systems in construction
    2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research focuses on performance measurement in construction and on defining quantitative metrics for typical manufacturing outputs (e.g. cost, delivery, quality and flexibility performance) within a production strategy framework. The metrics can be used to evaluate how different production systems perform in different areas of competition. A literature review is used to define both what manufacturing outputs that are relevant to measure and also how to measure those manufacturing outputs. The manufacturing outputs quality, cost (level and dependability), delivery (speed and dependability) and flexibility (volume, mix and expansion) are identified as important to measure when evaluating different production systems for production of multifamily residences, and key performance indicators (KPIs) are defined for each manufacturing output. The defined KPIs are derived from the literature review but also validated empirically through case studies. The main result of this research is a performance measurement system that can be used when evaluating different production systems in the construction industry.

    Keywords
    Production strategy, Performance measurement, KPI, Case study, Multifamily residences
    National Category
    Business Administration Construction Management Building Technologies Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105991 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2014-04-16Bibliographically approved
  • 66.
    Jonsson, Henric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Production System Classification Matrix: Matching Product Standardization and Production System Design2015In: Journal of construction engineering and management, ISSN 0733-9364, E-ISSN 1943-7862, Vol. 141, no 6, article id 05015004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential benefits of using off-site production in residential construction have been highlighted in many studies, but the full potential of off-site production approaches is not always realized. This shortfall can be explained by the mismatch between market requirements and the output offered by the production system, in other words, a mismatch between the degree of product standardization and the design of the production system. This mismatch could be resolved through a classification matrix that aids decision makers in matching market requirements and the degree of product standardization with the degree of off-site production and production system design. This paper describes the development of a classification matrix that guides the decision-making process during the designing of new or re-designing of existing production systems in residential construction. An important aspect of the development was balancing the trade-off between productivity and flexibility so that products can be produced competitively. The merits of the classification matrix are exemplified by five case companies with different approaches to industrialization and off-site production.

  • 67.
    Jonsson, Henric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification of production systems for industrialized building: a production strategy perspective2013In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 53-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to develop a matrix for classifying production systems for construction with various degrees of industrialization. Previous attempts to classify industrialized production systems for construction focus on dimensions such as the design process, the product technology, or the supply chain structure, but none of them acknowledge the importance of how orders are actually won in the market and that different market segments have different requirements. Using production strategy theory as a base, a matrix is developed linking market requirements, via the product offering, to the design of the production system. The matrix positions typical production systems based on their respective degrees of product standardization and volumes relative to the degree of offsite production. Similar to production systems in manufacturing, production systems for construction also deliver manufacturing outputs at different levels, indicating that the choice of production system will affect the competitiveness of the company. The applicability of the matrix is exemplified through three case illustrations of concepts for industrialized building, and these show that the matrix can be used to analyse the production systems’ relative strengths and weaknesses. The matrix can also be used as a guide when developing new, or adjusting existing, production systems for industrialized building so that they will match market requirements and offer competitiveness.

  • 68.
    Jonsson, Henric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification of production systems in construction: A multiple case study2013In: Proceedings of the 20th EurOMA Conference: Operations Management at the Heart of the Recovery / [ed] Fynes, B. and Coughlan, P., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to validate a conceptually developed classificationmatrix for production systems in construction through a multiple case study. Bymapping five different cases producing multifamily houses along the dimensions product standardisation and production volumes and degree of off-site assembly, and compare their relativestrengths and weaknesses, it is possible to determine how the position in thematrix affects their competitiveness. The case study indicates that theclassification matrix is a useful tool to characterize construction productionsystems. Differences in competitiveness are exposed, and this can be used whendeveloping an already existing, or designing a new, production system.

  • 69.
    Jonsson, Henric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Performance measurement for production systems in construction2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research focuses on performance measurement in construction and on defining quantitative metrics for typical manufacturing outputs (e.g. cost, delivery, quality and flexibility performance) within a production strategy framework. The metrics can be used to evaluate how different production systems perform in different areas of competition. A literature review is used to define both what manufacturing outputs that are relevant to measure and also how to measure those manufacturing outputs. The manufacturing outputs quality, cost (level and dependability), delivery (speed and dependability) and flexibility (volume, mix and expansion) are identified as important to measure when evaluating different production systems for production of multifamily residences, and key performance indicators (KPIs) are defined for each manufacturing output. The defined KPIs are derived from the literature review but also validated empirically through case studies. The main result of this research is a performance measurement system that can be used when evaluating different production systems in the construction industry.

  • 70.
    Jönsson, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ly, Trinh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Demand of electronics standards in the construction industry – application of BEAst In the project Ebbepark2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggbranschen har idag problem med en bristande effektivitet i produktionsstadiet. Till varje nytt projekt sätts nya projektgrupper ihop och tillsammans skall de skapa ett fungerade samarbete för att uppnå ett gott resultat. För att detta skall fungera krävs det att entreprenörer, underentreprenörer, materialleverantörer samt transportörer samarbetar. På grund av de nya sammansättningarna i varje projekt har branschen tillsammans, genom branschföreningen BEAst, utarbetat en elektronisk standard för att få kontinuitet och rutiner i informationsdelningen som krävs för att samarbetet skall fungera. Standarderna har tidigare körts i pilotprojekt med goda resultat. Stadsutbyggnadsprojektet Ebbepark i Linköping kommer att kravställa användandet av standarden och har som mål att denna skall bidra till ett effektivare bygge tillsammans med en tredjepartslogistiker. I denna rapport har förutsättningar för en integrering av elektroniska standarder i projektet Ebbepark studerats. Med hjälp av en intervjustudie har en kartläggning av fyra olika byggentreprenörers varuförsörjningsystem genomförts. Tre platschefer och en affärsområdeschef från NCC, Skanska, Åhlin and Ekeroth och Peab har deltagit. Efter en sammanställning av intervjusvar har resultatet kopplats med två teoribaser, en som behandlar bygglogistik och en annan med BEAst och elektroniska standarder. Resultatet visar att det främst skiljer sig vid central- och projektinköp. Gällande projektinköpen, som är specifika för varje projekt, finns inget IT-system. Vid dessa inköp används mer traditionella tillvägagångsätt gällande kommunikation med leverantörer och transportörer. Centralinköpen har däremot mer innovativa hjälpmedel gällande inköpsrutiner. Majoriteten av företagen använder sig utav ett IT-stöd vid centralinköp där de kan dela information om emballering, packning och väderskydd till tillverkare. Då det finns fungerade hjälpmedel gällande centralinköpen rekommenderas en tillämpning av BEAst Supply Material till endast till projektinköpen. Alla delar av standarden är inkluderade förutom transportaviseringsdelen. BEAst Label rekommenderas till både projekt- och centralinköp för att lättare uppnå en strukturerad byggarbetsplats men även för att underlätta arbetet för logistikentreprenören.

  • 71.
    Khabiri, Behnam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental certifications Miljöbyggnad & Svanen Ecolabelling of a multi-family house and a comparison of the indoor environment2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I dagens samhälle har det blivit allt vanligare med miljöfrågor och detta har påverkat byggbranschen kraftigt. Eftersom miljöbyggnad ger en bättre levnadskvalité, miljö samt billigare drift så har allt fler byggherrar attraherats till det och ändrat på branschens synvinkel. Syftet med studien var att undersöka miljöcertifiering Miljöbyggnad Silver och Svanen för ett flerbostadshus samt en jämförelse mellan systemen med hänsyn till inomhusmiljön. Metoden för insamling av information har varit litteraturstudie och baseras för det mesta på de olika manualer som har lagts upp av SGBC samt Svanen. En noggrann undersökning av Svanens och Miljöbyggnads kriterier har utförts samt relevant information har valts ut. Prövningen för ett flerbostadshus för miljöcertifieringen Miljöbyggnad görs på tre olika områden energi, innemiljö och material. Undersökningar har gjorts och tabeller har tagits fram som visar hur ett flerbostadshus kan uppnå betyget Silver. Den sammanlagda Betyget på de olika indikatorer, aspekter och områden ger byggnadens slutgiltiga betyg. Prövningen för ett flerbostadshus för miljöcertifieringssystemet Svanen görs genom Svanens 41 obligatoriska krav samt ett poängsystem där 17 av de 44 poängen ska vara uppfyllda. Resultatet av studien visar att det krävs en bra planering för att ett flerbostadshus ska uppnå miljöcertifiering Miljöbyggnad Silver eller Svanen. En jämförelsetabell har tagits fram och det visar sig att de två olika certifieringssystemen har många likheter när det kommer till inomhusmiljökriterier men det finns även markant differentierade kravspecifikationer.

  • 72.
    Kram, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Partnering i byggprojekt - Framtidens samarbetsform?2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bristande kommunikation kostar byggbranschen i Sverige flera miljarder (SEK) varje år. I genomsnitt beräknas varje enskilt projekt bli ca 13 % dyrare än tänkt på grund av fel vid informationsdelning mellan aktörer delaktiga i projektet. För att få bukt med detta problem i byggbranschen behövs ett nytt arbetssätt och en annan inställning till kommunikation mellan ingående parter. Ett nytt sätt att arbeta är samverkansformen partnering. Partnering är en strukturerad samarbetsform där målet är att driva projekt med tydligare samarbete och öppenhet mellan aktörerna. Sammantaget kom det fram en positiv syn på partnering i undersökningen. Framförallt ansåg de intervjuade att partnering bidrog till ett öppnare klimat, mer kommunikation i form av formella och informella mindre möten samt större lyhördhet mellan partnerna. För att kommunikationen i partnering skulle fungera till det bättre fanns dock ett antal kriterier som behövde uppfyllas. Viktigast var beställarens delaktighet i projektet, tillit till varandra och inställningen att partnering är ett arbetssätt som kräver mer av varje inblandad aktör i projektet. Projekt, traditionella så väl som partnering, påverkas dock beroende på vilka företag och vilka individer som är delaktiga. Det gör att kommunikationen kan påverkas både till det bättre, men även sämre oberoende av vilken entreprenad- eller samverkansform projektet är upphandlat. Slutsatsen blev att partnering, under rätt förhållande för arbetssättet fungerar bättre kommunikationsmässigt och upplevs som en positiv utveckling. Min slutsats blir att syftets fråga besvaras med ett ja, partnering är en samarbetsform som bör vidareutvecklas för att bli mer effektiv och mer praktiskt tillämpbar för fler projekt i framtida byggprojekt.

  • 73.
    Krepper, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reutermo, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Calculation program for timber connections2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har skapat ett hjälpmedel som dimensionerar träbalk och infästningarna balksko och spikningsplåt, enligt eurokoderna. Det är programmerat i Visual-Basic och har ett enkelt användargränssnitt.

  • 74.
    Landberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Husdeklaration av Stadiums nya distributionscentral2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The distributioncentral of Stadium has an area of 31,6 acre and is being build in Herstadberg in the region of Norrköping. It is Mattssons Fastighetsutveckling (Mattssons Real-estate development) who also has ordered the building. They will also take care of the operation and support of the distributioncentral. Peab has got the assignment as a total contractor and it is for them I have done my degree project.

    I have been drawing-up a description of the goods in the distributioncenter. In the declaration a description of the goods will be found, there substance for all the materials that has been built in to the building describes. All the descriptions of the goods has been put together in folders. If some of the sustance could be found in Peabs list of liquidate and forbidden materials, that can also been seen in the folders. The project should also result in folders for operation and support for the distributioncenter. In the work I have hade many contacts with contractors, assemblers and suppliers. Everybody has helpt me get hold of all the documents I have needed. When it comes to operation and support, many of the bigger contractors and assamblers will put together there own instructions in folders, and then deliver them to the orderer in connection with the final inspection. The documents from from remaining contractors, assemblers and suppliers will I put together in a folder.

    After this work I have detected that the head of the contract, who has the responsibility for the declaration of goods dont have the time that needs. A person have to be appointed as responsible for the declaration. A full time employed is not needed, at the most a halftime.

  • 75.
    Larsson, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundqvist, Desireé
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Designdialog som arbetssätt - En fallstudie kring Bärstadsskolans utformning2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I byggbranschen är tidiga skeden ett vanligt begrepp. Alltför ofta hinner brukarna inte reflektera över sina behov, krav och önskemål och entreprenörerna ges för lite tid att bidra med sina kompetenser. Denna rapport beskriver vikten av att tidigt involvera viktiga intressenter i en dialog för att samverka och därmed undvika onödiga revideringar senare i processen. Arkitektens betydande roll att tolka och översätta brukarnas bild av verksamheten till byggprocessens språk, framgår också. Rapporten lyfter fram designdialogen som ett designmässigt arbetssätt som stödjer behovsanalys och idéskapande. Dialogen bygger på en serie workshops vilka ger förutsättningar för ett kreativt arbetssätt som skapar engagemang och delaktighet. Efter en teoretisk datainsamling gjordes en empirisk fallstudie på projektet Bärstadsskolan i Karlstad med stöd från Sweco Architects. Studien syftar till att åskådliggöra arkitektens roll i dialogen och visa fördelar och risker med arbetssättet.

  • 76.
    Larsson, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Digitization in ArcGIS, QGIS and MapInfo. A systematic survey and recommendation of program.2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Idag är det mycket vanligt att använda och förlita sig på GIS-programvaror inom byggsektorn. Det finns flera alternativ att välja mellan som QGIS, ArcGIS, MapInfo, GRASS GIS, Surfer och Maptitude men om man inte redan är välbekant med området eller programmen är det svårt att veta hur dom skiljer sig åt och vad man kan förvänta sig. Därmed är syftet med arbetet att utföra en systematisk undersökning av GIS-programvaror utifrån en generell digitaliseringsarbetsgång för att kunna identifiera fördelar och nackdelar samt lämna en slutgiltig rekommendation. För att besvara syftet har följande frågeställningar tagits fram: • Vilket program är lämpligast för georeferering? • Vilket program är lämpligast för att rita kartor digitalt, dvs. att skapa vektorskikt och ”rita av” information från grundkartan? • Vilket program är lämpligast för att skapa en karta och diverse tillhörande detaljer? • Vilket program rekommenderas utav de tre möjliga med tanke på bedömningsmallen, tidsinsats för arbetet och kostnad? För att besvara frågeställningarna har tre programvaror valts ut (QGIS, ArcGIS och MapInfo) som jämförs utifrån en digitaliseringsarbetsgång och utvärderas efter samma utvärderingsmall som tagits fram efter hur ett idealt GIS-program tänks prestera inom arbetsgången. För att hjälpa slutgiltig rekommendationen har även tidsinsatsen för hela arbetsgången mätts och kostnaden för dom olika programmen har tagits fram. Inom georeferering fick QGIS och ArcGIS mest poäng men eftersom QGIS har flera alternativ inom transformation- och omsamplingsmetoder bedöms det vara ett bättre alternativ än ArcGIS. Inom rita kartan digitalt presterade QGIS och ArcGIS bäst enligt utvärderingsmallen men eftersom QGIS har bättre funktioner för att sätta ID-nummer och attributdata anses det vara bättre alternativ. Inom att skapa en karta presterade ArcGIS och MapInfo bäst men eftersom ArcGIS har bättre möjligheter för att anpassa elementen i kartan bedöms det som ett bättre alternativ än MapInfo. Den slutgiltiga rekommendationen gick till QGIS eftersom det prestare bäst genom hela utvärderingsmallen, hade kortast tidsinsats för att genomföra arbetsgången och har lägst kostnad.

  • 77.
    Larsson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mahmoud, Bawan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Work environment and safety on the construction site - a matter of mindset2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 78.
    Liu, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A systematic approach for major renovation of residential buildings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, buildings are responsible for about 40 % of total energy use and about 10 % of total CO2 emissions Today more than 60 % of existing Swedish residential buildings are over 40 years old and are in need of major renovation. In addition, 15 % of all multi-family buildings and 27 % of all single-family houses were built before 1945. The increased energy use and threat from CO2 emissions of the building sector create a need for energy efficiency. The important role that renovation of residential buildings will play in reducing the total energy used by the Swedish building sector as well as in reducing primary energy use and CO2 emissions on both the national and global levels has been the impetus for the studies included in this thesis.

    The aim of the current research is to develop a methodology from a system perspective which can be used to analyze the energy use, optimal life cycle cost (LCC), energy efficiency measure (EEM) package, indoor environment, CO2 emissions, and primary energy use of a building or a community during major renovation. The developed methodology accomplished at three different levels, i.e. building level, cluster level and district level. The methodology considers both energy efficiency and economic viability during building renovation and will also play an important role in overall urban planning. The studied buildings include both non-listed and listed residential buildings and the tools used include building energy simulation (BES), survey, technical measurements, LCC optimization and building categorization.

    The results show that the combination of BES, technical measurements and surveys provides a holistic approach for evaluation of energy use and indoor environment of the studied residential buildings. The results from the current study also show that the 2020 energy target, i.e., reduction of energy use by 20 %, for the building sector can be achieved by all the studied building types and that the total LCC of these buildings are below the cost-optimal point. In comparison, the 2050 energy target, i.e., reduction of energy use by 50 %, for the building sector may be achieved by the non-listed buildings, but when the constraints relevant to listed buildings are added the cost-optimality changes as some EEMs in direct conflict with the building’s heritage value may not be implemented.

    The investigation of primary energy use and CO2 emissions by the residential buildings show that the higher the energy saving, the lower the primary energy use becomes, and vice versa. With the same energy saving, the heating system with higher primary energy factor results in higher primary energy use. From a CO2 emissions point of view, EEM packages proposed to help buildings connected to a CHP based district heating system, to reduce the energy use or LCC are not consistently effective. Since these EEM packages will reduce district heating demand, the electricity produced in the CHP plant will also decrease. When the biomass is considered a limited resource, measures such as investment in a biofuel boiler are not favourable from the CO2 emissions point of view. The current study has also shown that combining building categorization method and LCC optimization method will help the community to reduce its energy use, primary energy use and CO2 emissions in a systematic and strategic way.

    List of papers
    1. Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden
    2014 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 84, p. 704-715Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly growing energy use in the building sector is considered a serious problem by both the European Union (EU) and Sweden. Reducing energy demand in the building sector is important for Sweden in order to reach national energy goals for reduced energy use and CO2 emissions in the future. This project aims to find energy efficiency potential in multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region, which is a cold climate region in Sweden. Measurements and simulations have been made on eleven multifamily buildings from the whole region. The results include different energy efficiency measure packages, profitability analysis of individual measures and packages, and primary energy use analysis. The paper also includes CO2 emissions reduction analysis based on different methods. The project shows that the multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region have good potential to reduce their energy use by more than 50%, which in turn will contribute to 43% primary energy reduction and 48% CO2 emissions reduction.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111051 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.08.044 (DOI)000345182000070 ()
    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Evaluating indoor environment of a retrofitted multi-family building with improved energy performance in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating indoor environment of a retrofitted multi-family building with improved energy performance in Sweden
    2015 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 102, p. 32-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector within both the EU and Sweden accounts for about 40% of total energy use. It is therefore important to introduce energy efficiency measures in this sector in order to meet the national implementation of the Building Performance Directive. Retrofits that result in improved energy performance are important in order to meet national energy targets, but the impact on the indoor environment has to be considered. Properly chosen energy efficiency measures may affect the indoor environment positively. One retrofitted multi-family building, located in the city of Linkoping, Sweden, was chosen as the study object. The building represents a common type of construction in Sweden. This study presents an evaluation of both the indoor environment and energy use of the retrofitted building in comparison with a similar non-retrofitted building from the same area. The results show that the building has potential to reach a 39% reduction of space heating demand. The indoor environment has been improved compared to the non-retrofitted building. Adding external blinds from 15 May to 15 September between 10am-12pm on the east side and 12pm-3pm on the west side seems to be the best option for improving the indoor climate during summer. (c) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Multi-family building; Retrofit; Building energy simulation; Energy use; Indoor environment
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120720 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.05.021 (DOI)000358458100003 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    3. A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 150-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish research project Potential and Policies for Energy Efficiency in Swedish Historic Buildings aims to investigate the interdependency between political energy targets and effects on the built heritage. The first part of this paper presents an iterative and interactive method to assess the potential for and consequences of improving the energy performance in a stock of historic buildings. Key elements in the method are: categorisation of the building stock, identifying targets, assessment of measures, and life-cycle cost optimisation. In the second part of the paper, the method is applied to a typical Swedish building. The selected case study shows how the method allows for an interaction between the quantitative assessment of the techno-economic optimisation and the qualitative assessment of vulnerability and other risks. Through a multidisciplinary dialogue and iteration it is possible to arrive at a solution that best balances energy conservation and building conservation in a given decision context.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Maney Publishing, 2014
    Keywords
    cultural significance; energy efficiency; heritage values; historic buildings; life-cycle cost
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109231 (URN)10.1179/1756750514Z.00000000055 (DOI)000338773000006 ()
    Available from: 2014-08-12 Created: 2014-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. LCC assessments and environmental impacts on the energy renovation of a multi-family building from the 1890s
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>LCC assessments and environmental impacts on the energy renovation of a multi-family building from the 1890s
    2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 133, p. 823-833Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The 2020 and 2050 energy targets increase requirements on energy performance in the building stock, thus affecting both listed and non-listed buildings. It is important to select appropriate and cost-optimal energy efficiency measures, using e.g. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) optimization. The aim of this paper is to find cost-optimal packages of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) as well as to explore the effects of specific predesigned energy target values for a listed Swedish multi-family building from the 1890s. The purpose is also to show the effects on energy use, LCC, primary energy use and CO2 emissions of different energy targets, discount rates, electricity prices and geographic locations. The results show that separate energy targets could be an effective way to simplify the implementation for listed buildings. Furthermore, a cost-optimal package of EEMs is more sensitive to changes in discount rate than in electricity price. The energy renovation has impact on the primary energy use and CO2 emissions. The lower the discount rate is, the more EEMs will be implemented and the easier the national energy targets may be achieved. A higher electricity price also leads to more EEMs being implemented but at the same time higher running costs. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2016
    Keywords
    LCC assessments; Environmental impacts; Energy efficiency measures package; Listed/non-listed building; Renovation; Energy targets
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133507 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.10.040 (DOI)000389087300072 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-12-30 Created: 2016-12-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29
  • 79.
    Ljung, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    The new premises of the Tanzanian orphanage Kichijo2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Boma Ng’ombe in the Kilimanjaro Region in Tanzania lies an orphanage that is run by the organization KCJF. The orphanage is known as Kichijo and it is supported by the Swedish non-profit humanitarian organization I Aid Africa.

    Children’s rights have been given special attention in Tanzania over the last years, and the Social Welfare Department has drawn up guidelines concerning the management of orphanages. Today, the Kichijo does not fulfil these guidelines, and need new premises to do so. The situation would be improved by relocating the orphanage and erecting new buildings in a more fertile area. Such relocation would also be in line with the manageress’ wish of being self-supportive. Two suitable plots have become available in a village further up the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro. One of the plots can hold orphanage buildings and one is intended for farming.

    To proceed with the relocation new premises that are in line with all regulations need to be planned. That planning is the purpose of the project that is described here. Regulations are imposed by the social welfare and by national building regulations. Further demands are given by the KCJF and I Aid Africa, and the plots themselves make up some restrictions. Major directing prerequisites have been the number of children at the orphanage and the demands regarding area, gender and age separation that are imposed by the social welfare department.

    Drawings and site plans can be seen in appendix A-01.1-01 to A-49.0-04.

    In the presented layout common and staff areas are gathered in a main building. Gender separation is accomplished by separate dormitories for boys and girls, with separate rooms for the different age groups. The buildings are adapted to the terrain to avoid increased work and costs.

    A suggested utilization of the farm plot can be seen in Figure 24 and in Appendix A-01.1-03. The farm has been given least attention, and only draft plans are presented. The drafts show facilities and disposition that fulfil the demands for the number of animals that the orphanage owns today.

    Both I Aid Africa and KCJF want the new premises to have a low environmental impact. Environmental considerations are taken by planning for ecological sanitation and investigating the possibilities of rainwater harvesting.

    To aid the client I Aid Africa in the further process, a chapter describing real estate transactions and construction processes is included.

    The main obstacle has been that the land intended for the orphanage buildings proved too small to hold buildings that fulfil all requirements. Therefore, the plans presented are based on the assumption that an adjacent plot can be bought. If that transaction cannot be carried through another alternative is to reduce the number of children. The suggested disposition can then easily be remade.

    The first steps towards relocating Kichijo have been taken.

  • 80.
    Lorentsson, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selldén, Felix
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kunskapshantering i byggsektorn2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sveriges byggbransch får ständigt kritik från olika håll i samhället, byggfel och olika former av slöseri som leder till förseningar och kostnadsökningar förekommer ofta ute på byggarbetsplatserna. Utredningar efterfrågade av svenska staten visar att byggsektorn inte tar vara på de kunskaper och erfarenheter som finns bland dess medarbetare, dokument och databaser. Flertalet personer i branschen vittnar om att samma fel upprepas kontinuerligt och menar att byggsektorn aldrig lär sig av sina misstag. Denna viktiga återföringsprocess av kunskaper benämns konventionellt som erfarenhetsåterföring och innebär generellt ett företags förmåga att samla in, strukturera, förbättra och sprida information bland medarbetare. Syftet med examensarbetet är således att undersöka hur erfarenhetsåterföringen mellan olika byggprojekt fungerar, för att fortsättningsvis bestämma genomförbara förbättringsåtgärder som kan medföra en mer effektfull erfarenhetsåterföring mellan projekt. Metoden bestod av en litteraturstudie och en enkät. Litteraturstudien resulterade i den teoretiska referensram som låg till grund för studiens analys och slutsatser. Den hjälpte även till vid framtagningen av studiens enkät som var källan till det empiriska materialet. Enkäten skickades ut via e-mail till utvalda tjänstemän på flertalet företag runt om i landet för att ta reda på hur de arbetar med erfarenhetsåterföring. Av enkätundersökningens resultat framgick att merparten av byggbranschens tjänstemän har god kännedom kring erfarenhetsåterföring och har möjlighet till att dela med sig av kunskaper. Dock visade undersökningen också på stora problem, det saknas tydliga riktlinjer, tid fattas och arbete med erfarenhetsåterföring prioriteras lågt i branschen. Vidare används tekniska verktyg i låg utsträckning och kunskapsdelningen sker främst genom informella möten. De huvudsakliga, generella slutsatserna som studien mynnade ut i är att erfarenhetsåterföring måste börja prioriteras. Förslagsvis genom att en erfarenhetsåterföringssansvarig tillsätts som ser till att rutiner och kunskapsutbyten mellan projekt utvecklas och förbättras. Ett lätthanterligt ICT-system bör introduceras och en tydligare mötesstruktur etableras.

  • 81.
    Matinaro, Ville
    et al.
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Towards increased innovativeness and sustainability through organizational culture: A case study of a Finnish construction business2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, p. 3184-3193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Finnish construction business, innovation management is considered to be difficult. However, cultural transition towards more innovative and creative thinking in construction industry can have vital impact on sustainability nationally and globally. There is an urgent need to examine at a more detailed level innovativeness in the construction companies and especially the manager's abilities to manage innovative organizational culture. It appears that lacks in managing culture and people with difficulties to understand key elements of innovativeness in organizational context seems to be a barrier towards increased innovativeness. The main finding is that the managers in construction industry cannot manage or create culture towards innovativeness. Therefore, there is major sector level lacks in innovativeness that have negative impact on societal change towards sustainability. This paper focus on managing organizational culture to reveal innovativeness in the case company that is vital for sustainability.

  • 82.
    Mohamed, Sadio
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reinholdsson, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of early and late procurement of installations service2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I byggbranschen idag är det vanligt att upphandling av installationsentreprenader oftast sker vid produktionsskedet. Denna typ av upphandling har av installatörer ansetts vara sen då det oftast medför sämre möjlighet till god planering för installationsentreprenaden där bristerna leder till ändrings- och tilläggsarbeten. Problemet är inte endast vid upphandlingen utan detta påverkar hela byggprocessen då det finns kopplingar mellan de olika komponenterna i byggprocessen. Även tidigare studier har uppmärksammat brister i samarbetet mellan de olika aktörerna i processen. Beställare och entreprenörer har varit i fokus i dessa arbeten och eftersom byggbranschen är stor och komplex är det förståeligt att de som är längre ner i hierarkin får lägre prioritet. Detta gör att det här examensarbetet blir viktig då det idag inte görs många undersökningar ur installatörers synvinkel. Examensarbetet bygger på en förfrågan från VVS Företagens och Isoleringsfirmornas Förening, om att undersöka hur tidig och sen upphandling av installationsentreprenad påverkar faktorerna planering, lönsamhet, kvalitet, arbetsmiljö och arbetsklimat. I denna studie undersöktes två företag; ÖPE Isolering och Imtech VS-teknik, där ett par utvalda projekt från respektive företag studerades med hjälp av ansvarig projektledare/arbetsledare. Syftet med examensarbetet var att ur installationsentreprenörers synvinkel undersöka hur olika byggprojekt påverkas vid sen upphandling jämfört med projekt där de upphandlades i tidigt skede. Effekterna av sen respektive tidig upphandling har avgränsats till just dessa fem nämnda faktorerna för att under tiden som finns tillgänglig få en så bra bild av projekten som möjligt. Det svar som resultatet pekar emot är att generellt sett blir det mesta bättre då installatörerna upphandlas tidigare. Förhoppningsvis kommer beställare i framtiden att inse nyttan i att upphandla underentreprenörer tidigare, vilket troligtvis skulle medföra mycket bättre arbetsförhållanden både för byggare och installatörer.

  • 83.
    Mohammad Husayn, Akram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syed, Rashed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Produktionsplanering i komplexa projekt2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Att ha samordningsansvaret i ett projekt som Framtidens US innebär stor fokus på planering och samordning. Beställaren har från början upphandlat en tredjepartslogistiker som ska ansvara för materialhanteringen istället för att huvudentreprenören skall göra detta. Syftet med fallstudien är att undersöka om produktionen upplevs som mer effektivare genom att tredjepartslogistikern ansvarar för materialförsörjningen. Entreprenörernas sätt att planera på har undersökts för att se hur de arbetar i mer omfattande projekt som Framtidens US som är ett känsligt område. Fallstudien visar att de involverade entreprenörerna ser positivt på hur logistikupplägget fungerar samt att det varit ett bra alternativ för att effektivisera materialförsörjningen.Dessutom har logistikupplägget bidragit till effektivisering av varje enskild arbetare. Resultatet visar även att planeringen har varit komplicerad att utföra i vissa fall då den skiljer sig från ett vanligt byggprojekt. Framtidens US projektet är ett projekt där samarbete mellan olika medverkande parter är viktigt för att uppnå ett bra resultat. De påvisade resultaten från fallstudien pekar på att det skulle kunna behövas ett annat sätt att planera på i framtida liknande projekt.

  • 84.
    Munter, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pålsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Materialhandling, A study on common problems at the construction site2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Kostnaderna för byggnadsprojekt ökar varje år, detta beror på ett flertal faktorer såsom nya standarder, synen på att bygga miljövänligt samt hårdare krav från byggherrar som vill få projekten klara på kortare tid. För att kunna möta kraven måste byggföretagen hitta nya sätt för att bygga mer effektivt och lönsamt. Ett område med potential för utveckling är logistiken runt om och på arbetsplatsen. Arbetet utgår från bygglogistik, mer specifikt materialhantering samt lossning på arbetsplatsen. Studien har utförts på två olika byggarbetsplatser i Linköping för att kunna analysera likheter och skillnader mellan arbetsplatserna då de har olika förutsättningar. Studien undersöker och belyser de mest kritiska momenten på arbetsplatserna, identifierar hur problemen uppstår och möjliga lösningar till dessa. Data som studien bygger på har samlats in genom intervjuer och observationer. Studien visar på att en stor del utav de problemen som observerades hade kopplingar till planeringen i form utav APD-planer, bristfällig kommunikation samt platsbrist på bygget.

  • 85.
    Nyrud, Anders
    et al.
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt.
    Bysheim, Kristian
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt.
    Glasö, Geir
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrielt trebyggeri: erfaringer fra norske projekter2011Report (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Oscarsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industri standards in bathrooms. Past, present and future.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Många badrum har idag ytskikt av keramiska material. Då dessa konstruktioner inte är vattentäta i sig själva har förändrade tvagningsvanor ställt ökade krav på badrummens tätskikt. Genom att jämföra branschregler som styr våtrumsbyggande utfärdade av BKR och GVK, med skaderapporter utfärdade av Vattenskadecentrum, kan konstateranden angående branschreglernas inverkan göras. Vattenskaderapporterna visar att andelen tätskiktsskador på vägg har minskat och andelen tätskiktsskador på golv har ökat. Den tätskiktsskada som vållar störst problem i badrum är då tätskiktets anslutning till golvbrunn läcker. I denna rapport eftersöks mer omfattande testmetoder för tätskiktssystem för att kunna upptäcka brister i dessa i ett tidigare skede. Så även ökad insyn och detaljstyrning av tillverkningsskedet från branschorganisationerna.

  • 87.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Re-viewing industrial energy-efficiency improvement using a widened system boundary2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in industry is important for reaching the targets within the EU strategy for increased sustainability. However, energy efficiency is not always prioritised within companies, and the improvement potential remains large. This paradox called an energyefficiency gap is explained by energy-efficiency barriers. The low interest in energy efficiency is also explained by the fact that it is not within companies’ core competences and not perceived as strategic. The public policies aiming at closing the gap have thus far been concentrated on the faster diffusion of energy-efficient technologies. This is not sufficient, and the gap can be extended by including energy management practices. To bridge the extended gap, there is a need to introduce an extended system perspective. The aim of this thesis is to  investigate the industrial energy-efficiency potential and possibilities for reaching this potential using an extended system boundary.

    In this thesis, the extended gap was quantified by means of classification of the energy data covering the most electricity-intensive Swedish industrial companies. The results show that technology-related measures represent 61% of energy savings, whereas management-related measures account for 38%. Energy efficiency due to management-related measures can be improved with lower costs. The energy-efficiency potentials for different levels of industrial motor systems were quantified, showing that the highest potential is found in the measures that include personal involvement and the optimisation of routines. This proves that the general approaches based on technological diffusion seem to not be sufficient to solve the energy paradox.

    The evaluation of the Swedish energy audit programme for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) proved that there is a lack of energy-related knowledge among SMEs. The implementation rate of measures proposed in the audits is only 54%, while there is also a need to reach the SMEs not covered by the programme. The international study of energy-efficiency potentials did not indicate energy management to be considered by SMEs at all.

    To bridge the extended gap, the external experts’ knowledge on how to work with energy efficiency has to stay within companies. For this, there is a need for methods based on longterm orientation as well as a systematic view of complicated processes. The methods should be universal and applied in a particular context. An example of such a method for large industries is presented in this thesis, whereas applying it to SMEs is problematic due to limited resources. Participating in networks for energy efficiency can be a way to initiate energy-efficiency work within SMEs on a continuous basis. Moreover, this thesis shows that there is a need for the development of a common taxonomy for energy data as well as the development of a central portal where energy data can be reported and stored. This would simplify the monitoring of energy end-use, the control of measures implementation and the comparison between processes, companies and sectors.

    List of papers
    1. Outsourcing Industrial Energy Management: Industrial Energy Efficiency Networks Provided As an Energy Service
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outsourcing Industrial Energy Management: Industrial Energy Efficiency Networks Provided As an Energy Service
    2014 (English)In: Outsourcing: strategies, challenges and effects on organizations / [ed] Andre Deering, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, p. 71-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is of the outmost importance for both individual industrial companies, and governments. Improved IEE leads to reduced energy costs for companies, and improved sustainability through reduced CO2 emissions. Despite a large untapped potential for improved IEE, many energy efficiency measures (EEM) remain unexploited due to the existence of various barriers to IEE. One of the reasons for the large untapped IEE potential is the apparent low level of energy management practices in industry. A promising approach to stress improved IEE, and improved energy management practices, are industrial energy efficiency networks (IEEN), which in essence is a type of energy service where energy management is partly outsourced to a third party. There is a need to study how IEENs could and should be structured. Successful networks have been under operation in many different areas and disciplines. A large part of the organizational issues of previous research on networks, could thus be transformed to IEENs, e.g. in terms of transition theory, transformation etc. The aim of this book chapter is to present a general model for the management of IEEN.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency networks, energy management practices, double-loop learning
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112281 (URN)978-1-63463-288-1 (ISBN)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2014-11-21 Created: 2014-11-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries
    2015 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 51, p. 472-483Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is one of the major means of reducing CO2 emissions resulting from industrial use of energy. Both from a societal as well as business perspective it is of great importance to reduce industrial energy end use (EEU). The implementation of energy-efficient technologies as well as increased focus on energy management practices has been stated by previous research to be the two most important methods of improved industrial energy efficiency. To date, however, there are few (if any) studies that have analyzed the proportion of industrial energy savings that derive from implementation of new technology versus from continuous energy management practices. By analyzing substantial data from the Swedish PFE program this paper aims to quantify what previously has been referred to as the extended energy efficiency gap. Results show that about 61% of the analyzed 1254 energy efficiency measures are derived from the implementation of new technology, and the rest stems from management and operational measures. The results presented in this paper are of outmost importance for industrial energy managers and energy auditors as well as industrial associations and policy-makers in order to cost-effectively address these no-regret measures.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Energy management, Energy efficiency gap, Extended energy efficiency gap, PFE, Energy efficiency measures
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119842 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.012 (DOI)000371000900032 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-06-26 Created: 2015-06-26 Last updated: 2017-05-21Bibliographically approved
    3. International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 282-296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector is important to study in terms of improved energy efficiency, being one of the major energy-using sectors and responsible for a major share of CO2 emissions. The energy end-use (EEU) in the industrial sector is complex in general as processes are intertwined and interrelated. Moreover, bottom-up data of EEU on an aggregated level is scarce. Data for total energy supply like electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas exists but bottom-up data of what processes these energy carriers are used in, and moreover, where the major potential for implementation of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) exists, is less prevalent. This holds in particular for industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This makes policy formulation and design for industry a great challenge. Knowledge on where and how energy is used, as well as where opportunities for improvement exist, may provide good support for developing the most effective policies. Therefore, the aim of this study has been to present and compare available bottom-up energy data for industrial SMEs in four countries, namely Belgium, Italy, Japan and Sweden. Results show that the existence and quality of bottom-up EEU data differs largely between the countries and the development of a general taxonomy of structuring EEU data as well as EEMs is needed. Without the development of such a general taxonomy, the deployment level of EEMs and carbon dioxide emission reductions is unlikely to ever reach its full potential as knowledge is missing on how large the potential is, in which processes the major potential is found, how far industry has reached in terms of deployment levels, and in which areas future energy policies are needed. In conclusion, this paper of EEU and EEM in industrial SMEs addresses the high importance of future research in creating a harmonized data categorization, as this will greatly support the transition towards sustainable industrial energy systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    SME; Industry; Energy efficiency; Energy audit
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120435 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.04.073 (DOI)000357552900028 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [35488-1]

    Available from: 2015-08-12 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    4. Energy-efficiency networks for SMEs: Learning from the Swedish experience
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-efficiency networks for SMEs: Learning from the Swedish experience
    2016 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, p. 295-307Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for energy efficiency improvements in the industry is significant for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but the implementation of energy-efficiency measures is not always possible owing to various barriers to energy efficiency. Working with energy management personnel inside companies can help to overcome these barriers. However, this is not a common practice among SMEs. Participation in industrial energy-efficiency networks (IEENs) can be a means of introducing customized energy management practices into SMEs. In such a network, industrial companies get support for a period of three to four years from an external network coordinator to determine energy efficiency potential, implement energy-efficiency measures, and monitor energy performance. The method has been used widely in Switzerland and Germany, while in other countries the experience has not proven successful thus far. To show the effects of networking among industrial companies, it is important to evaluate networks quantitatively and qualitatively. This aspect is missing from the field of energy efficiency research, not least with regard to evaluation methods. Thus, it is crucial to evaluate Swedish IEENs and suggest methods for evaluating IEENs. The aim of this study is to review IEENs with particular emphasis on Swedish IEENs. The results show that in Sweden, a common notion of IEENs has not yet been established, and projects with different characteristics and designs fall under the category of IEEN. The lack of a standard approach to running and evaluating IEENs makes it difficult to evaluate Swedish networks quantitatively. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2016
    Keywords
    Industrial energy efficiency; Energy management; Industrial energy efficiency networks; Evaluation method; Energy efficiency measures
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132043 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2016.06.088 (DOI)000383293800021 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-17 Last updated: 2017-11-29
    5. Ex-post impact and process evaluation of the Swedish energy audit policy programme for small and medium-sized enterprises
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ex-post impact and process evaluation of the Swedish energy audit policy programme for small and medium-sized enterprises
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 135, p. 932-949Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector accounts for 35%-40% of total energy use in Sweden, where 30% of industrial energy use comes from non-energy-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This sector has not historically received much attention when it comes to improving energy efficiency due to limited resources, lower priority given to energy issues, rather small energy-saving potential for a single company, and great heterogeneity of the SMEs. However, the accumulative energy-saving potential for SMEs can be quite high and achieved at very low costs, partly because most improvements are found in support processes and are relatively easy to implement. Various public policies, such as industrial energy audit programmes, serve as a means for overcoming barriers to energy efficiency in the sector of SMEs. One example is the Swedish Energy Audit Programme (SEAP), a stand-alone audit programme functioning between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this paper is to examine the programme by means of process and impact evaluation. The results show that the programme resulted in annual net energy efficiency savings equivalent to 340 GWh/year or 6% of the 713 participating companies energy end use. The implementation rate in the audit programme was 53%. On average, the public cost of one implemented measure was (sic)700. Derived from the amount of energy saved, the audit programmes annual cost-effectiveness is (sic)7/MWh saved energy. This paper adds a significant scientific contribution due to the method used for evaluation. Multiple company visits and availability of quantitative data from 713 companies gave the possibility to address the additionality effects and estimate net energy savings more precisely. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
    Keywords
    Energy audit policy programme; Small and medium-sized enterprises; Energy policy; Energy efficiency measures; Energy policy evaluation
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131868 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.139 (DOI)000382792900081 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-10-13 Created: 2016-10-11 Last updated: 2017-11-29
  • 88.
    Persson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heljedal, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bengtsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustad, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Economic and Environmental Assessment of Intermodal Transportation Solutions for Prefabricated Building Elements2011In: Proceedings of the APMS 2011 Conference: Value Networks: Innovation, Technologies and Management / [ed] Jan Frick, Stavanger, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Pettersson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Risktagande på byggarbetsplats2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Då byggbranschen är en av de högst olycksdrabbade branscherna väcktes intresse i att undersöka bakgrunden till detta. Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka faktorer som får byggnadsarbetare att ta risker, samt att ta reda på om Arbetsmiljöverket och aktörerna inom ett projekt vidtar rätt åtgärder för byggnadsarbetarnas säkerhet. Rapporten omfattar en litteraturstudie samt intervjuer som lägger grunden för reslutat och analys. Framtidens US valdes som grund för empirin då det är ett mycket stort projekt där arbetsmiljön är omfattande och därav intressant att undersöka. Då NCC är huvudaktör på detta projekt och därmed har mest inflytande över arbetsmiljön intervjuades deras anställda. Eftersom byggnadsarbetarnas tidigare erfarenheter var av intresse gavs även en bild av mindre företag vilket gjorde det möjligt att dra jämförelser mellan arbetsmiljöarbetet på små och stora företag.

  • 90.
    Pärsdotter, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Szymasek, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Measuring logistics performance in construction2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Detta examensarbete är en fallstudie av Servistik AB som idag önskar vidareutveckla sitt mätrelaterade arbete. Detta för att internt kunna påvisa att de aktiviteter man uträttar görs på ett effektivt sätt, men också för att kunna påvisa att dessa aktiviteter skapar värde för kunden. Syftet med studien är att identifiera mått relevanta för Servistik ABs bygglogistikverksamhet. Måtten representerar en kvalitativ beskrivning av de mätområden som önskas följas upp. Varje mått kvantifieras genom ett fåtal nyckeltal. Utifrån dessa mått och nyckeltal har en kravspecifikation framställts som specificerar hur dessa mått beräknas, vilken indata som behövs, var i processen denna återfinns samt hur ofta dessa bör beräknas. Under studien har både en litteraturstudie samt en empirisk studie på Servistik AB genomförts för att identifiera relevanta mått. Av de identifierade måtten har 14 valts ut av en fokusgrupp, genomförd på Servistik AB, som särskilt relevanta för Servistik AB. Dessa mått, med tillhörande information, presenteras i den framtagna kravspecifikationen.

  • 91.
    Reindl, Katharina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Implementing energy measures in renovations for multi-family dwellings: Influence and practice of professionals2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging buildings will sooner or later be in need of renovation, which opens opportunities to reduce energy use. Even if economically feasible energy measures or technologies exist, they are not always implemented, leading to an energy efficiency gap. This dissertation deals with how energy measures are handled and why they are enabled or disabled during the planning and design of renovations. During renovations, different kinds of building professionals are engaged, here referred to as middle professionals. The meeting practice of the professionals is investigated, with a focus on how the middle professionals exert influence from the middle-out and to the top and bottom, and how and why they enable or disable measures aimed at energy efficiency or reduction. Three renovation projects are followed in the municipality-owned housing company Stångåstaden, in Linköping, Sweden. The housing company’s goal is to reduce the amount of purchased energy by 25% by 2025. Methods applied during the research are semi-structured interviews, participant observations and document analysis. The conclusions show that energy measures were implemented, but more can be done in renovations. Predefined meeting agendas make the process efficient but not flexible, thus it can be difficult to introduce innovations and alternative ways of thinking into the process. The professionals usually selected measures they had used before. Energy calculations attracted little interest compared to the aggregated knowledge from previous projects, and experience and tacit knowledge were highly valued. This and more lead to a renovation process where it is difficult for energy to enter the current meeting practice.

  • 92.
    Rudberg, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Henric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification of Production Systems for Construction: An Operations Strategy Perspective2012In: Proceedings of the 4th P&OM World Conference/19th Annual International EurOMA Conference, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to classify different productionsystems for construction, based on operations strategy principles. Fourdifferent production systems have been identified through a literature reviewand mapped in a framework describing the degree of product standardization andvolumes and the degree of off-site production. Similar to production systems inmanufacturing, also production systems for construction deliver manufacturingoutputs at different levels, indicating that the choice of production systemwill affect the competitiveness of the company. Finally three cases aredescribed to exemplify the identified production systems and the framework.

  • 93.
    Sijaric, Edo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparison of the assurance of desired quality level for concrete foundations in Sweden and foreign countries2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur kvalitetssäkring av utförandet kan säkerställas i internationella byggprojekt. Även om det svenska företaget ansvarar för detaljutformningen är det oftast lokala entreprenörer, anställda av kunden i det landet där produkten levereras, som utför arbetet vilket försvårar kvalitetssäkring och kvalitetsstyrning. Studien kretsar runt kvalitetssäkringen och kvalitetsstyrningen på två projekt som Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB i Finspång arbetade på: ett i Rya, Göteborg och ett i Perm, Ryssland. Siemens Finspång ansvarade för att upprätta kombikraftverk för energi produktion men en del av projektet var att gjuta betongfundament för utrustningen. De två projekten var avslutade då detta arbete påbörjades. För att svara på syftet och uppfylla frågeställningen har metoderna för kvalitetssäkring och kvalitetsstyrning undersökts på de båda projekten. De problem som uppstått och deras orsaker har också undersökts och sammanställts. Metoderna har sedan jämförts för att urskilja var skillnaden låg i processen för kvalitetssäkring i Rya och Perm.

  • 94.
    Sjöbratt, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Thorngren, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    BYGGBRANSCHENS EGENKONTROLLER - DERAS BETYDELSE UR ENERGISYNPUNKT2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to accomplish that a construction is correctly built, it is critical to obtain a well functioning control mechanism throughout the project. The way to enable this is not by having an independent inspector constantly at your side. Today it is praxis to use check lists and have people responsible of quality to make sure that these are followed. This is where discretionary inspections play their part. These among others are documents needed to com-plete the check list. Documented discretionary inspections are based on a control mechanism that allows the entrepreneurs to, in their own organizations, self check the performed task, and by that ensure that the quality of each task is executed in a satisfying way. Due to the fact that most projects today are suffering by lack of time during construction, it is most likely to presume that the discretionary inspections can fall out of the priority, be performed in an unsatisfying way or not be performed at all.

    However, experience from construction business tells us that calculated energy consumption often differs from the actual, once the building is completed. This anomaly strikes hardest to apartment blocks and therefore we intend to find a connection between poorly executed dis-cretionary inspections and high energy usage. Discretionary inspections are used by most contractors in the construction business to ensure that the work in progress always serves en-vironmental lines of thoughts.

    During the progress in our writing we have achieved a good insight in routines and how the business works, for good and for bad. The report finishes with a discussion considering the overall concept of discretionary inspections, how to improve them and potential ways of supporting the concept in the future.

  • 95.
    Stenberg, Morgan
    Linköping University. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Logistiska lösningar för en lönsam byggprocess2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study, the purpose of which is to investigate how the construction company Sefab Bygg AB is able to increase its profitability and render a more efficient production process through logistic solutions. The study is made during one of Sefab´s present projects. The project includes sanitary renovation of 650 apartments in the co-operative Opalen in Norrköping.

    To find out whether changes of logistic routines are profitable or not, it’s necessary to evaluate the total cost of the changes. A total cost analysis is a mapping of all the costs for a particular material, on one hand for the present situation and on the other after the change. This report includes a description of the present situation. It also includes case studies, to map the flow of material at Sefab today. Suggestions of interesting alternative solutions, has then been developed. With the help of studies and contacts with suppliers an estimate of costs for the suggested changes can be made.

    Suggestions of changes for Sefab´s logistic routines are "just in time" deliveries and the use of a third parts logistic company even called TPL-company. The TPL-company can offer services such as transports, warehouse and different jobs at the construction site.

    The result in this study tells us that "just in time" deliveries, is not a profitable solution for Sefab. It would result in a higher total cost and will only make the production slightly more efficient. The services from a TPL-company would on the other hand increase Sefabs profitability and result in a more efficient production process.

  • 96.
    Tengdelius, Fredric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Converting an attic into smaller homes2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I detta arbete tar jag upp en del av den lagändring i BBR som började gälla den 1 juli 2014. Den handlar om att lägenheter på max 35 m2 som inreds på en vind inte behöver anpassas för tillgänglighet. Mitt syfte är att bredda kunskapen om denna lagändring och belysa vad man bör tänka på vid vindsinredningar enligt denna. I arbetet studerar jag vilka faktorer som spelar in och i vilken utsträckning lagändringen kan innebära en lättnad för byggbranchen. Vidare tar jag även upp frågan vad personer som är aktiva i byggbranchen tycker om lagändringen och om den kan komma till någon nytta. Till min hjälp har jag Riksbyggen i Linköping där jag gick igenom deras arkiv för att se om det finns några objekt där lagändringen kan appliceras. Min kontaktperson på Riksbyggen, Kristina Cleber, hjälpte mig även att komma i kontakt med aktiva i byggbranchen. Min studie visar att även om de flesta i byggbranchen tycker att lagändringen är bra så är de tveksamma till att den kommer uppfylla sitt syfte, vilket är att avhjälpa bostadsbristen hos unga och studenter. Vidare visar jag att det är en krånglig process att inreda vindsutrymmen då allt material och manskap måste transporteras upp till vinden på något sätt och att installationer kan ställa till problem. De jag intervjuade tycker att man bör utföra en inredning i samband med något annat större projekt för att sprida ut kostnaderna.

  • 97.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Doktor ska motverka usel effektivitet2016In: ByggindustrinArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 98.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Forskning: Så kan byggprocessen snabbas på2016In: Byggaren : nyhetsforum för fackmannen, ISSN 2000-7280Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 99.
    Thunberg, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Ny byggforskning en milstolpe för LiU2013In: Norrköpings tidningarArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 100.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bringing planning back into the picture: How can supply chain planning aid in dealing with supply chain related problems in construction?2018In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 425-442, article id RCME-MS-16-2640R3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several supply chain related problems facing the construction industry, such as poor construction site logistics, lack of communication and trust. These problems can jeopardise construction projects through delays and cost overruns. Supply chain planning, a part of supply chain management (SCM), can be used as a tool to deal with these problems. The purpose of this paper is to study how linkages between common supply chain related problems in construction can be illustrated and to demonstrate how they could be resolved through supply chain planning. Firstly, we identify how the linkages between common problems can be illustrated, and secondly the role of supply chain planning in resolving these problems. A conceptual model is developed that was verified using three cases with Swedish gypsum and kitchen supply chains. The model is shown to be useful in illustrating how supply chain problems occurring at executional level on-site are related to problems originating in lack of planning at company/pre-construction level. The study thus demonstrates how supply chain planning can aid in resolving supply chain problems. The paper contributes by bringing planning back into the picture and by showing how supply chain planning can help to adopt SCM in construction.

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